Civil War - conflict between opposing groups or citizens of the same country.

Civil War Booklet

 North Nicknames

  • Yankees
  • Blue Bellies
  • Union
  • Yanks
  • National Army

Leaders of the North- George B. McClellan- Union general, headed army of the East

-Ulysses S. Grant- Union commander at Cairo

-David Farragut-Commander of Union Naval Forces, captured New Orleans

-Abraham Lincoln-President during Civil War, launched Emancipation Proclomation

 

 States of the North-Maine, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin,Minnesota, Iowa, California, Nevada, and Oregon

The North

War Aims and Strategies

  • War aim of the North in beginning of war was to bring the South back into the Union. Later they realized they could also end slavery.
  • Plans for winning the war included blockading or closing the Southern Ports to prevent supplies from reaching the South, gain control of the Mississippi River to divide the Confederacy, and to gain control of Richmond Virginia, the Confederate capital

 Strengths and Weaknesses - Advantages were larger population, moe industry, and more abundant resources than the South. Controlled a better banking system, more ships and a vast railroad network.

Weaknesses of the North included invading the South ot hostile territory, subdue a population of millions, and go against the South's spirit of war.

 

 

 

 

Leaders-   Jefferson Davis-Confederate president

-Robert E Lee- Confederate general

-"Stonewall" Jackson- general that faught the enemy like a "stonewall"

War aims and strategies

The primary war aim of the South was to win recognition as an independent country. 

Their strategies included holding as much territory as possible, to wait out the North until they get tired, and hope Britain and France would support them.

Nicknames

  • rebels
  • graybacks
  • Jonnhys

South

Strengths and Weaknesses

Strengths of the south included fighting in familiar territory, and the fact that they're defending their land, their homes. and their lifestyle.

Weaknesses included a smaller population of free men, few factories to manufacture weapons ans supplies, produced much less food, and had fewer trains.

 States of the South-Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas,Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia

The Secession of multiple Southern states led to Civil War, the Battle of Fort Sumter jumpstarted the ffighting of the War

Dred Scott Decision- stated that Scott would remain a slave, and that slaves had no rights, was considered property and the constitution backed up slavery

Kansas Nebraska Act- Kansas and Nebraska would not be deemed as free states, but instead would use popular sovereignty to decide

Secession Events and Causes of Civil War

The primary reason for the Civil War was the different view-points in slavert coming from the North and the South

"Bleeding Kansas"-refers to all the violence in Kansas between the antislavery-slavery groups and the pro-slavery groups.

 

 

Election of 1860- democrats didn't trust the Republicans and their President, Abraham Lincoln, and South Carolina seceded in 1860

  •  Who was involvded- Confederate army and the Union garrison of Fort Sumter
  • When did battle occur-Confederates opened fire April 12th, 1861
  • Where did it occur- at Fort Sumter, South Carolina
  • What happened-Fort Sumter was low on supplies and Confederated demanded a surrender, Lincoln sent an unarmed party to deliver supplies. Jefferson Davis ordered an attack on Fort Sumter before supplies could reach.
  • Outcome-Union garrison surrendered April 14th, no lived were lost

Battle of Fort Sumter

  • Who was involvded-  30,000 thousand inexperienced soldiers of the Union army and a smaller but also unexperienced Confederate force.
  • When did battle occur-  Sunday July 21, 1861
  • Where did it occur- Battle of Bull Run was foughtin northern Virginia 5 miles from a town called Manassas Junction near a small river called Bull Run
  • What happened- At first the Union drove the confederates back, but the Confederates rallied under the command of "Stonewall" Jackson and surged forward with an unearthlt scream. The Union then retreated
  • Outcome- Union troops terrified  dropped their guns and began an orderly retreat, so the Confederates claimed victory.

 

Battle of First Bull Run

  • Who was involvded-  Union commander Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston  of the Confederates
  • When did battle occur-  February 11, 1862 – February 16, 1862
  • Where did it occur- Battle of Fort Donelson occured at Tennessee on the River Cumberland
  • What happened- Confederate commander sent troops to Fort Donelson, Ulysses S. Grant and his troops surrounded the fort. The confederates with no escape issued a unconditional surrender. 
  • Outcome-  Union gained control of Fort Donelson with 16, 537 casulaties

 

Battle of Fort Donelson

 

  • Who was involvded-  General Grant of the Union and 40,00 troops and Albert Sidney Johnston of the Confederates
  • When did battle occur- Battle of Shiloh occured April 6th, 1862-April 8th 1862
  • Where did it occur- Battle occurred at Tennessee near a church named Shiloh
  • What happened-   General Grant on his troops camped on a Pittsburg landing, 20 miles from Cornith. Early next morning Albert Sidney led his army and launched a surprise attack on the Union troops. The Confederates were driven back the first day, but reinforcements from Nashville help Grant and his troops recover and defeat the Confederates who retreated to Cornith.
  • Outcome-  Union claimed victory, combined more than 20,000 casulaties.

 

Battle of Shiloh

  • Who was involvded-  John Marston  of the North and Franklin Buchanan Catesb of the Confederates. The North's ironclad was named the Monitor and the South's was named the Merrimack
  • When did battle occur- Battle occured March 8th 1862- March 9th 1862
  • Where did it occur-  Battle occured on the Coast of Virginia
  • What happened-   Confederates salvaged a Union warship from a shipyard in Virgina. They rebuilt the ship and added thick iron plates. They then attacked a group of Union ships but the Union's ships were unable to affect the Ironclad. On May 9th the Union sent their own Ironclad to engage the Merrimack.Neither was able to sink the other, but the North was able to keep the Merrimack in the harbor.
  • Outcome- Neither ship could sink, resulted in a draw though it did start a new era in naval warfare

 

 

Battle of Hampton Roads

  • Who was involvded-  Major General John Pope of the Union and "Stonewall" Jackson and Lee's army for the Confederates
  • When did battle occur-  Battle occured August 29th 1862- August 30th 1862
  • Where did it occur-  The 2nd Battle of Bull Run was at Northern Virginia near the river called Bull Run.
  • What happened-   "Stonewall" Jackson's forces moved North to attack Genera Pope's supply base at Manassas.They were joined by Lee's army and started the second Battle of Bull Run.
  • Outcome- Confederate victory, and know the Confederates were only 20 miles from Washington D.C

 

Battle of Second Bull Run

  • Who was involvded-  McClellan and the Union and Lee's armt for the Confederates
  • When did battle occur- Battle occured September 17th 1862 - September 18th 1862
  • Where did it occur-  Sharbsburg, Maryland; near Antietam Creek
  • What happened-   2 Union spies found the battle plans of Lee's army. This would allow them to know the Confederacy's next move and counter it. McClellan however hesistated and waited four days before attacking. This allowed Lee to gather his forces together. The 2 armies clashed on Sep. 17th and had the most bloodiest days of the war.
  • Outcome- 6,000 Union and Confederate soldiers lay dead, and 17,00 were seriously injured. Lee's army retreated to Virginai so the Union claimed victory, but McClellan's orders were to "destroy the rebel army" which he did not do.

Battle of Antietam

  • Who was involvded-  Union general Ambrose Burnside of the Union and Robert E. Lee for the Confederates.
  • When did battle occur- Battle occured December 13th 1862
  • Where did it occur-  Battle of Fredericksburg occured near a town in Virginia.
  • What happened-  General Burnside had a largeer army then Lee though Lee's army were strategically set up on hills. Again and again Burnside and his troops attacked but failed each time. 
  • Outcome- Thousands of Union soldiers were killed. Confederate Victory; Burnside resigned command and was replaced

 

Battle of Fredericksburg

  • Who was involvded-  Joseph Hooker replaced Ambrose Burnside as Union general and Lee and his army for the Confederates
  • When did battle occur- Battle of Chancellorsville occured Early May 1862
  • Where did it occur- Battle occured at Chancellorsville Virginia, a few miles from Fredericksburg.
  • What happened-  General Hooker rebuilt the army and set out on a campaign against Lee. Before he had the time to make a major attack Lee struck the Union army. he divided his army in half leaving the second part in control of "Stonewall" Jackson to assault the Union
  • Outcome- .Lee's daring move led to another Confederate victory, but with heavy casulaties, including "Stonewall"

 

Battle of Chancellorsville

  • Who was involvded-  General George Meade for the Union and General Lee and George Pickett of the Confederacy.
  • When did battle occur- Battle occured July 1, 1863- July 3rd 1863
  • Where did it occur- Battle took place at Gettysburg Pennsylvania.
  • What happened-  Union cavalry suprised the Rebels , who were looking for shoes. The North outnumbered fought desperately until retreat to Cemetery Ridge. On day 2 the Rebels launched another assualt, but the Union held their position. The next day Lee sent Pickett and his army tearing across open land. They were easily picked off and only abuot half of them returned from the charge.
  • Outcome- Union victory, estimated 7-8 thousand dead

Battle of Gettysburg

 Vicksburg stood on a bluff above the Mississippi River. One of the primary goals of the North was to gain total control over the river and they needed Vicksburg to accomplish that goal. General Ulysses S. Grant had laid siege to to the town for weeks and on July 4th, 1863 Vicksburg surrendered. This enabled the Union to control the Mississippi Rivre and iscolated Arkansas, texas, and Louisiana from the Confederacy.

Assault on Vicksburg

 

Surrender at Appomattox 

Throughout the fall and winter of 1864, General Grant continued the siege on Petersburg. A variety of factors weakened the Confederates and on April 2, 1865 the Confederate line broke and Lee retreated with his troops. Richmond fell the same day. Lee moved his troops west of Richmond hoping to link up with another small Confederate force . Union troops cut him off and on April 9th 1865, Lee and his troops surrendered in Virginia village called Appomattox Court House.  

Terms of Surrender

Grant's terms of surrender were generous. They included the Confedrates laying down their arms and them allowing to go home. They were allowed to keep their horses and were given 3 days worth of food to Lee's troops.

 

Surrender at Appomattox and Terms of Surrender

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12th, 1809. He was the 16th president of the United States and was also the president during the Civil War. He gave his first presidential inagural address he states, "We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Through passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection." He made the Confedercay make the first move to start the War. Abraham Lincoln did things such as issuing calls for volunteers for the army, appointing and removing generals from the war. Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclomation January 1st, 1863. All slaves held in Confederate territory were free accorind to the Proclomation. Lincoln also allowed African Americans to volunteer for the war. As much as he did for the Civil War, Lincoln did not get to see the end. He was assassinated April 15th 1865 by John Wilkes Booth at a theatre.

 

Important Person - Abraham Lincoln

Ulysses S. Grant was the most aclaimed Union generals during the American Civil War. His victories at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson were vital to winning the war. These victories also won him the nickname, "unconditional surrender". Another of his victories were at the Battle of Shiloh, and he headed the siege of Vicksburg. Grant's popularity as a famous Union general would later help him become the 18th president of the United States.

Important Person-Ulysses S. Grant

Children- Children of ages 19 and under made up almost half of the soldiers in the war. Children also took up jobs that their fathers had left behind or that their mothers couldn't handle.

Women- Woman were impacted huge due to the war. Thousands of them lost their husbands making them widows. They had to take up new jobs such as teaching . Some women would even disguise themselves as men and join the war. Others became spies or nurses. Woman worked behind the lines too, they cooked meals for the soldiers, made clothes, and raised money.

African Americans- African Americans were ni longer considered property after President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclomation. This freed all slaves in Confederate territory and allowed African Americans to enlist in the war. African soldiers made up about 10% of the Union army, with close to 200,00 soldiers enlisted.

Soldiers- Soldiers did not have the best of  time during the war. Many of the soldiers saw little or no action. Surviving in their camp was a hardship. They would have little food, and many died due to diseases.

Life During Civil War 

The Civil War was a necessary and important war in U.S history. It told the other countries that they weren't just a bunch of independant states thrown together. They were one, stron, and independant nation. Another huge thing the war did was abolish slavery in within the nation. Combined, the casulaties were about 700,00 soldiers.

Results of the War