The Civil War

 

The North

Strategies

The North had three main strategies. The North would block off Southern Ports to prevent the South from earning money for their cotton and from gaining supplies. Second, the Union would divide the Confederacy in half and cutting off supplies by gaining control of the Mississippi River. Third, the North would take over the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia.

Strengths

The North had the strengths of having more available recourses, ships, efficient railways, industry, and population. Most importantly, they had the President Abraham Lincoln.

Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses Grant, George B. McClellan, William T. Sherman, David Farragut, Harriet Tubman, Mary Chesnut, Dorathea Dix, Clara Barton, and George Meade.

Leaders

Weaknesses

Nicknames

The main goal for the North was to bring the Southern States back to the Union.  Abolishing slavery was not a large issue to the Union, but this soon changed as the war continued.

War Aims

Yank, Yankee, Northerner, and Union.

To return the states in the Confederacy back into the Union would be difficult to achieve. The North would also have to invade the South, which means that the North had to fight on on unknown ground and overcome the large area and population. The South also had unwavering support from its people.

Maine, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota,  Iowa, California, Nevada, and Oregon.

States

Nicknames

The South's main goal was to to be recognition as its own independent country. The Southerners wanted to keep their traditions without having to alter them- in this case the abolishing of being able to keep slaves.

Bushwhacker, Confederate, Greyback, Johnny, Johnny Reb, Rebel

War Aims

Jefferson Davis, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, Mary Chesnut, Rose O'Neal Greenhow, Belle Boyd, Loretta Janeta Velazquez, and Sally Tompkins.

The South's plan was to defend their land and hold as much as they could until the Union got tired of fighting. They relied on Britian and France to trade with their large amounts of cotton to pressure the North into ending the war to restore their cotton supplies. The South soon turned offensive, and moved toward Washington, D.C, to make the Union realize they cannot win the war.

Strategies

Leaders

The South

South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee

Strengths

States

The weaknesses of the South was that they did not have a large population to take soldiers as the population was made of mostly slaves. Slaveholders did not dare to arm their slaves for fear of a revolt. The South also had a small amount of factories and could not produce as much weapons and food as the North. The lack of railways also resulted in difficulty to distribute supplies to troops.

The advantages of the South was that the soldiers were fighting in familiar territory and defending their land. At the beginning, the South had better military leadership as many Southern families were familiar with fighting and had even participated in military training and service. The South also had their president, Jefferson Davis, to lead them.

Weaknesses

The Cause of the Civil War

Secession

South Carolina led the way of secession with Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Lousiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tenessee trailing behind. Together, the former states created the Confederate States of America, otherwise known as the Confederacy. The Constitution and way of life in the states of the Confederacy were almost identical to that of the Union. They elected their president as Jefferson Davis, who would soon lead his new "nation" through the upcoming Civil war.

Abraham Lincoln was known for his debates against Stephen Douglas inthe congressional election in 1858. He was elected by the Republican Party which believed that slavery will not spread any further but will go untouched in where it already exists. Lincoln was chosen as president in the election of 1860, but his victory would not last long. Shortly after his inaugural address, South Carolina seceded from the Union.

Abraham Lincoln

The North and the South had always been uneasy with each other since their differences on the topic of slavery. The South supported it while the North wanted to abolish it. The border states remained neutral in this dispute. When Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act, citizens of the North refused to follow. The Act required all citizens to capture runaway slaves, but this made the North more rebelious and some courts in the North made no move against it.

Violence between the North and the Souuth arises when an abolitionist, John Brown of Kansas, leads six other men to kill five supporters of slavery. Soon after, more violence occurred giving Kansas the name of "Bleeding Kansas" and its violence as the "Civil War in Kansas" in newspapers. The violence crept into Congress. Abolitionist senator Charles Sumner repeatedly critisized proslavery senator Andrew P. Butler. Two days later, Representative Preston Brooks attacked Sumner and left him unconcious and with injuries that were so severe that he could not return to the Senate for several years.

Bleeding Kansas

conflict between north and South

The Battle of Fort Sumter

WHen ?

April 12-13, 1861

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

This battle ended as a surrender from the Union and a victory for the South. Luckily, there were no casualties, but it became the first of the many battles of the Civil War.

Leader- Robert Anderson

Soldiers- 80

 

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Why?

Leader- P.G.T. Beauregard

Soldiers- 500

Charleston Harbor, South Carolina

South

Where?

Battle of First Bull Run

The winner of this match was the Confederacy. The total amount of casualties estimated would be about 4,878. There was a loss of 2,896 Union soldiers that were wounded, killed, or missing and captured. For the Confederacy, there was a total of 1,982 lost.

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

July 21, 1861

WHen ?

Leader- Irvin McDowell

Soldiers- 28,450

 

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Why?

Leader- Joseph E. Johnson and P.G.T. Beauregard

Soldiers- 32,230

Fairfax Country and Prince William Country, Virginia

Where?

South

The Battle of Fort Donelson

February 11-16, 1862

The battle of Fort Donelson became a great victory to the Union. There was a total of 40,702 soldiers deployed at this battle and 16,537 of them did not survive. The Union lost a total of 2,691 and the Confederacy lost a total of 13,846 soldiers. Ulysses Grant earned his nickname “Unconditional Surrender” Grant. Grant stated that no terms “except unconditional and immediate surrender” would be acceptable when the rebels asked for terms of surrender. The victory ensured that Kentucky would not join the Confederacy and open Tennessee for future Union advances.

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

Leader- Andrew Hull Foote and Ulysses Grant

Soldiers- 24,531

 

WHen ?

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Why?

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Leader- Gideon Pillow, John Floyd, and Simon Buckner

Soldiers- 16,171

Fort Donelson, Tennessee

Where?

South

Battle of Hampton Roads

March 9, 1862

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

The outcome of this battle was inconclusive, but it marked a new era in naval warfare. It became the first battle between warships. There was a total of 393 casualties, 369 from the Union and 17 from the Confederacy.

Leader- John L. Warden

Soldiers- 1,400

Ship-USS Monitor

 

WHen ?

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Why?

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Leader- Franklin Buchanan

Soldiers- 188

Ship- CSS Virginia

Hampton Roads, Sewell's Point

Where?

South

The Battle of Shiloh

April 6-7, 1862

This battle was concluded as a Union victory. The total amount of casualties was about 23,746 soldiers. The Union suffered the loss of 13,047 troops, while the the Confederacy lost 10,669 soldiers.

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

Leaders- Don Carlos Buell, Ulysses Grant

Soldiers- 65,085

 

WHen ?

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Why?

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Leaders- Albert Johnson, P.G.T. Beauregard

Soldiers- 44,968

Pittsburg Landing. Hardin County, Tennessee

Where?

South

Battle of Second Bull Run

August 28-30, 1862

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

Leader- John Pope

Soldiers- 70,000

 

The result of the battle was surprisingly a Confederate victory. 13,824 Yankees and 8,353 Rebels were lost in that battle to become a total of 22,177 casualties.

WHen ?

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Why?

Leader- Robert E. Lee

Soldiers- 55,000

Where?

South

The Battle of Antietam

September 16-18,1862

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

This battle was a Union victory. The Union suffered 12,400, while tthe Confederacy suffered 10,300 casualties

Leader- George McClellan

Soldiers- 87,000

 

WHen ?

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Why?

Leader- Robert Lee

Soldiers- 45,000

Sharpsburg, Washington County, Maryland

Where?

South

Battle of Fredericksburg

December 11- 15, 1862

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

The battle's outcome was a Confederate victory. There were 106,000 Union casualties and 72,500 Confederate casualties.

Leaders- Ambrose Burnside

Soldiers- 106,000

 

WHen ?

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Why?

Leader- Robert Lee

Soldiers- 72,500

Where?

South

Battle of Chancellorsville

April 30 – May 6, 1863

The battle of Chancellorsville became known as the Confederates’ greatest victory, but also their greatest loss. On the Union side, they suffered 17,304 casualties. The Confederates lost 13,460 men along with a great general Thomas Jackson.

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

Leader- Joseph Hooker

Soldiers- 97,000

 

WHen ?

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Leader- Robert Lee

Soldiers- 57,000

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Why?

Where?

South

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

The Assault on Vicksburg

May 18-July 4, 1863

This battle was concluded as a Union victory. There were 4,800 casualties on the Yankee side and 3,300 Rebel casualties with 30,000 captured. One goal to shut down the Confederacy was completed. The Union gained full control over the Mississippi River and cut the Confederacy in half.

Leader- Ulysses S. Grant

Soldiers- 75,000

 

WHen ?

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Leader- John C. Pemberton

Soldiers- 34,000

Why?

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Where?

South

The Battle of Gettysburg

July 1-3, 1863

On August 29, 1862, Union General John Pope made his way to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee split his force into two and left Thomas Jackson in charge of the other half to maneuver around the right flank of Pope’s army. One of Pope believed that Jackson was going to retreat in order to join the Rebel army, so he did not raise a large group and sent smaller divisions to attack the Confederates. The Rebels managed to fend off the Yankees with damage on both sides. Confederate James Longstreet and his men arrived at Jackson’s side, creating a larger number of Confederate troops. The Rebels placed their positions and Pope took this move as a retreat. Pope attacked Jackson’s troops and shifted his division right. Longstreet took the chance to counterattack on Pope’s left and faced the Yankees with his entire army. With this, Pope’s army was shattered and limped in retreat.

Leader- George G. Meade

Soldiers-82,289

 

WHen ?

North

Winner/Outcome

What?

Who?

Union General Ulysses Grant aimed to join forces with General Don Carlos Buell and gain control of the city of Corinth. If the Union gained control of Corinth, they would gain an important rail center and control of Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Johnston did not want to wait for the two Union generals to join armies, and waited at Corinth to surprise the Yankee troops. He was delayed by rains and muddy roads, but that also slowed Buell from reaching Grant.

Why?

Leader- Robert E. Lee

Soldiers- 75,000

Where?

South

Surrender at Appomattox and Terms of Surrender

"General; In accordance with the substance of my letter to you of the 8th inst., I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia on the following terms, to wit: Rolls of all officers and men to be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to an officer to be designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the Government of the United States until properly [exchanged], and each company or regimental commander to sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, artillery, and public property to be parked, and stacked, and turned over to the officers appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, not to be disturbed by the United States authorities so long as they observe their paroles, and the laws in force where they may reside. "

Ulysses Grant and Robert Lee soon met at the Appomattox Court House to determine the terms of the surrender. The two men exchanged greetings and chatted about their experiences together at the War with Mexico. General Grant wrote the terms of surrender and presented them. The war was finally over.

Terms of Surrender

Confederate General Robert E. Lee's troops were in charge of protecting the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia. They found themselves chased and surrounded by Union General Ulysses Grant's army. General Lee soon surrendered and Richmond fell to Union hands.

The Surrender

Prelude

Important Person of the Civil War

Ulysses S. Grant was a high ranking general for the Union. He participated and led many major battles in the Civil War. Grant won many of those battles. He led the Union army and ended the Civil War with a Northern victory. He gained his nickname "Unconditional Surrender" Grant when he stated that nothing but an unconditional surrender can be accepted when asked the terms of surrender from a Confederate General. Over time, Grant proved himself as a capable and solid leader in battle. His leadership led him to a presidential election and found himself as the eighteenth president of the United States of America, one without a division between North and South.

Union General

Surrender at Appomattox

Ulysses Grant played a key role in ending the war. He forced Confederate General Robert Lee to surrender and give Richmond, Virginia to the Union. With that, the Confederate president was captured, finally ending the bloody war. He created the terms of surrender. His terms were merciful, sending each soldier home with their side-arms, private horses, and bagages.

Ulysses S. Grant

Important Person of the Civil War:

Thomas Jackson was a Confederate General. He was well trusted by General Robert E. Lee and was often collaborating with him in battles. He became the best known Confederate commander after General Lee. He commanded forces in Manassas, Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville. Most of them alongside General Robert Lee.

Sadly, the Battle of Chancellorsville was the last battle that Jackson would participate in. While riding around the battlefield and leading his troops, some of the men thought he was Union cavalry and opened fire. One shot landed on his shoulder and had to have it amputated. He died shortly after. General Robert Lee would miss his partner dearly.

"Stonewall" jackson

The Death of jackson

Thomas Jackson

Life during the Civil War

During the war, African Americans helped in battling the South for their freedom. Many fled to the North for their freedom and became spies for the Union. Although they were in the Union Army, they still did not gain equal treatment. In the South, they were used to build and labor.

During the Civil War, women wanted to help their men win the war. They created supplies such as ammunition, blankets, clothing, and collected food. Some became spies and traveled to the opposing side of the country. They would pick up any information and relay it to their side. Women also dressed as men and fought in the battles. Though many male doctors believed women were too delicate for medical work, women became military nurses and tended to those who were wounded in the battlefield.

Children

African Americans

Historians estimate that twenty percent of the soldiers that participated in the Civil War were children. Many boys would join their elders in battle. The children would lie that they were over eighteen and join the fray. Some became drummer boys and messengers to deliver commands through the beat of the drum and bravely run in the battlefield to  deliver messages between commanders. Other children would served in army camps, washing dishes, fix meals, and set up camp. Children at home would have to work to support their families and often took the jobs of adults. It was hard for a child because they did not know if and when their loved ones would come home.

Women

During the war, more than 600,000 soldiers died. After the war was concluded, it was named as one of the most devastating events in American history. There were billions of dollars of damage from the battles. Since most of the fighting was done in the South, most of the damage was in the South and left it in a state of collapse. Roads, bridges, railways, and other ways of transportation were destroyed and useless. Feelings of defeat stayed in some Southerners for many generations.

The federal government grew stronger and gained control and power over the states The victory of the North did free the African Americans, but did not erase all the new problems they had to face. Questions arose of how to bring back all the Southern states back into the Union and the position in society African Americans would take. These questions would be answered by the North and the South together in an era called the Reconstruction.

Results of the War