8/29/2012 Hello. Today I’d like to talk to you about how Windows Server 2012 helps IT professionals get more out of their server infrastructure through Server Virtualization. Page 2
8 29 2012  Hello. Today I   d like to talk to you about how Windows Server 2012 helps IT professionals get more out of the...
8/29/2012 Traditional datacenters were built with physical servers running a dedicated workload. Each server in the datacenter was designed, purchased, deployed, and maintained for the sole purpose of running a single workload. If the workload was later retired or upgraded, the physical server was either repurposed or retired. With Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V, it is now easier than ever for organizations to take advantage of the cost savings of virtualization and make the optimum use of server hardware investments by consolidating multiple server roles as separate virtual machines. You can use Hyper-V to efficiently run multiple operating systems — Microsoft Windows, Linux, and others — in parallel, on a single server. Windows Server 2012 extends this with more features, greater scalability and built-in reliability mechanisms. Today, we are going to focus on how Windows Server and Hyper-V help you better manage your existing datacenter’s infrastructure through: • Support for important business workloads through scale and performance improvements • Increased business flexibility with virtual machine mobility • Continuous services to help meet availability and service-level agreements Page 4
8 29 2012  Traditional datacenters were built with physical servers running a dedicated workload. Each server in the datac...
• Open and extensible platform for performance management and automation • Delivery of shared and multitenant environments with isolation 4
     Open and extensible platform for performance management and automation       Delivery of shared and multitenant envir...
8/29/2012 Note: This slide has 4 clicks Cloud and mobility are two major trends that have started to affect the IT landscape, in general, and the datacenter, in particular. There are four key IT questions that customers claim are keeping them up at night: [Click] How do I embrace the cloud? With a private cloud, you get many of the benefits of public cloud computing—including selfservice, scalability, and elasticity—with the additional control and customization available from dedicated resources. Microsoft customers can build a private cloud today with Windows Server, Hyper-V, and Microsoft System Center, but there are many questions about how to best scale and secure workloads on private clouds and how to cost effectively build private clouds, offer cloud services, and connect more securely to cloud services. [Click] How do I increase the efficiency in my datacenter? Whether you are building your own private cloud, are in the business of offering cloud services, or simply want to improve the operations of your traditional datacenter, lowering infrastructure costs and operating expenses while increasing overall availability of your production systems is critical. Microsoft understands that efficiency built into your server platform and good management of your cloud and datacenter infrastructure are important to achieving operational excellence. [Click] How do I deliver next-generation applications? As the interest in cloud computing and providing web-based IT services grows, our customers Page 5
8 29 2012  Note  This slide has 4 clicks Cloud and mobility are two major trends that have started to affect the IT landsc...
tell us that they need a scalable web platform and the ability to build, deploy, and support cloud applications that can run on-premises or in the cloud. They also want to be able to use a broad range of tools and frameworks for their next-generation applications, including open source tools. [Click] How do I enable modern work styles? As the lines between people’s lives and their work blur, their personalities and individual work styles have an increasing impact on how they get their work done—and which technologies they prefer to use. As a result, people increasingly want a say in what technologies they use to complete work. This trend is called “Consumerization of IT.” As an example of consumerization, more and more people are bringing and using their own PCs, slates, and phones to work. Consumerization is great as it unleashes people’s productivity, passion, innovation, and competitive advantage. We at Microsoft believe that there is power in saying “yes” to people and their technology requests in a responsible way. Our goal at Microsoft is to partner with you in IT, to help you embrace these trends while ensuring that the environment is more secure and better managed. 5
tell us that they need a scalable web platform and the ability to build, deploy, and support cloud applications that can r...
8/29/2012 Note: This slide has 4 clicks Optimize your IT for the cloud with Windows Server 2012 When you optimize your IT for the cloud with Windows Server 2012, you take advantage of the skills and investment you’ve already made in building a familiar and consistent platform. Windows Server 2012 builds on that familiarity. With Windows Server 2012, you gain all the Microsoft experience behind building and operating private and public clouds, delivered as a dynamic, available, and cost-effective server platform. Windows Server 2012 delivers value in four key ways: 1. It takes you beyond virtualization. Windows Server 2012 offers a dynamic, multitenant infrastructure that goes beyond virtualization technology to a complete platform for building a private cloud. 2. It delivers the power of many servers, with the simplicity of one. Windows Server 2012 offers you excellent economics by integrating a highly available and easy-to-manage multiple-server platform. 3. It opens the door to every app on any cloud. Windows Server 2012 is a broad, scalable, and elastic web and application platform that gives you the flexibility to build and deploy applications on-premises, in the cloud, and in a hybrid environment through a consistent set of tools and frameworks. 4. It enables the modern workstyle. Windows Server 2012 empowers IT to provide users with flexible access to data and applications anywhere, on any device, and while simplifying management and maintaining security, control, and compliance. With Windows Server 2012, Microsoft has made significant investments in each of these four areas that allow customers to take their datacenter operations to the next level. Now, let’s take a look how Windows Server Page 6
8 29 2012  Note  This slide has 4 clicks Optimize your IT for the cloud with Windows Server 2012 When you optimize your IT...
2012 helps customers to: • • • Build and deploy a modern datacenter infrastructure Build and run modern applications Enable modern work styles for their end users 6
2012 helps customers to               Build and deploy a modern datacenter infrastructure Build and run modern application...
8/29/2012 We have listened to you about what you need to deliver to you customers. Some of the needs an organization has are: • They need bigger, better, faster and more available virtual machines • They need more flexibility to deliver these solutions so that they aren’t locked in any particular solution and they can easily handle the needs of the types of the virtual machines that are requested • They want to be able to handle the different storage and networking requirements both for resources in place or resources that may be purchased in the future • They want the flexibility to move virtual machines wherever it would be best to run them whether on premises or at a Service Provider • They want to ensure that the virtualization solution they provide is the one that will allow them to handle the new hardware technologies that are coming from different manufacturers With these needs, come challenges: • They want to meet their customers’ SLA, they must keep the servers and VM’s up and running • They want to decrease the capital cost and lower the operational cost of managing their infrastructure • They want to use these new servers as they come out and be able to fully leverage the raw power that the servers provide • They must be able to keep using the servers that they have in place today. Page 7
8 29 2012  We have listened to you about what you need to deliver to you customers. Some of the needs an organization has ...
• They must be able to securely run a common infrastructure serving multiple groups or customers With Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V, we are able to support these customers’ needs and challenges. 7
    They must be able to securely run a common infrastructure serving multiple groups or customers With Windows Server 201...
8/29/2012 Let’s look at a few scenarios regarding Windows Server 2012 and Server Virtualization Page 8
8 29 2012  Let   s look at a few scenarios regarding Windows Server 2012 and Server Virtualization  Page 8
8/29/2012 Now, we are going to talk about different scenarios that are Windows Server 2012 and Server Virtualization help you solve. • In the first scenario we are going to focus on the increased scale and capacity that an organization can support by running the virtual machines on Windows Server 2012. Through these massive scale capabilities within Windows Server 2012 nearly all workloads are virtualization candidates. • Next, you can increase your business flexibility by leveraging the new virtual machine mobility enhancements from within Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V. We’ll discuss all the different types of virtual machine mobility. • Many organizations rely on or try to achieve continuous services. With the enhancements we have made to virtual machine availability in Windows Server 2012, we can help an organization to achieve greater uptime for these virtual machines. • Also, we will focus on the ecosystem and the extensibility that we have provided within Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V. • Whether you are a hosting provider, or an enterprise, you want to be able to handle multitenant situations where your tenants have different organizational needs but need to run on a shared environment such as conflicting IP schemes or multiple different domains. Page 9
8 29 2012  Now, we are going to talk about different scenarios that are Windows Server 2012 and Server Virtualization help...
8/29/2012 There are many new features within Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V to support those needs and challenges of an organization or a customer. These are just a few of the more important ones. • Virtual machines running on Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V are much larger than what they were with Windows Server 2008 R2 or even SP1. So we have given them the larger virtual machines and we’ve been able to increase performance through hardware offloading to allow better performance and more scale within that physical host. • Things like multiple simultaneous live migrations which allows you to quickly move virtual machines around between hosts whether they are on the same cluster or using technologies like shared nothing live migration to move virtual machines across multiple different clusters. • The many different VM availability options that give you lots of flexibility and the ability to meet the availability demands that your organizations require. You need these machines to be more available and thus, under VM availability, we have added many clustering enhancements to increase that availability of keeping the virtual machine up and running as well as being able to do things to the virtual machine without taking it down, thereby, increasing the availability Things like dynamic memory enhancements where we can increase the memory capacity to a virtual machine without any downtime to the VM. • We don’t do this all by ourselves; we have support from our customers and our Page 10
8 29 2012  There are many new features within Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V to support those needs and challenges of an orga...
partners to create extensions to their Hyper-V infrastructure. With an open and extensible virtual switch we allow different third-party vendors to create plugins that will handle specific tasks within this switch to help support security and management needs. This will also help organizations who want to customize aspects of running their infrastructure by giving them the ability to automate tasks through our enhanced support of Windows PowerShell. • You need to be able to handle multitenant environments and in those multitenant environments, we use capabilities like network virtualization and resource metering to better support these multitenant environments and report back on the quantity of resources your virtual machines are using. 10
partners to create extensions to their Hyper-V infrastructure. With an open and extensible virtual switch we allow differe...
8/29/2012 NOTE: This slide is animated and has 3 clicks [Click] The first scenario we are going to talk about is how you can achieve greater densities and run more demanding workloads through the Scale and Performance improvements of Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V. Within your organization, as you virtualize more of your infrastructure you need to have a platform, a hypervisor, that can support your most demanding workloads. [Click] Also, as you adopt newer hardware, you will need to be able to utilize the advancements within the hardware to the fullest, without losing the capability of the existing investments in infrastructure you already have. [Click] We do this through new features and updates delivered with Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V like: • Bigger, faster virtual machines • Hardware offloading • Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) support Page 11
8 29 2012  NOTE  This slide is animated and has 3 clicks  Click  The first scenario we are going to talk about is how you ...
8/29/2012 Before Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2 supported configuring virtual machines with a maximum of four virtual processors and up to 64 GB of memory. However, IT organizations increasingly want to use virtualization when they deploy mission-critical, tier-1 business applications. Large, demanding workloads such as online transaction processing (OLTP) databases and online transaction analysis (OLTA) solutions typically run on systems with 16 or more processors and demand large amounts of memory. For this class of workloads, more virtual processors and larger amounts of virtual machine memory are a core requirement. Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 greatly expands support for host processors and memory. New features include support for up to 64 processors and 1 TB of memory for Hyper-V guests, a new VHDX virtual hard disk format with larger disk capacity of up to 64 TB (see the section, “New virtual hard disk format“), and additional resiliency. These features help ensure that your virtualization infrastructure can support the configuration of large, high-performance virtual machines to support workloads that might need to scale up significantly. Page 12
8 29 2012  Before Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2 supported configuring virtual machines with a maxi...
8/29/2012 With the evolution of storage systems, and the ever-increasing reliance on virtualized enterprise workloads, the VHD format of Windows Server needed to also evolve. The new format is better suited to address the current and future requirements for running enterprise-class workloads, specifically: • Where the size of the VHD is larger then 2,040 GB. • To reliably protect against issues for dynamic and differencing disks during power failures. • To prevent performance degradation issues on the new, large-sector physical disks. Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 contains an update to the VHD format, called VHDX, that has much larger capacity and additional resiliency. VHDX supports up to 64 terabytes of storage. It also provides additional protection from corruption from power failures by logging updates to the VHDX metadata structures and prevents performance degradation on large-sector physical disks by optimizing structure alignment. Technical description The VHDX format’s principal new features are: Page 13
8 29 2012  With the evolution of storage systems, and the ever-increasing reliance on virtualized enterprise workloads, th...
• Support for virtual hard disk storage capacity of up to 64 terabytes. • Protection against corruption during power failures by logging updates to the VHDX metadata structures. The format contains an internal log that is used to capture updates to the metadata of the virtual hard disk file before being written to its final location. In case of a power failure, if the write to the final destination is corrupted, then it is played back from the log to promote consistency of the virtual hard disk file. • Optimal structure alignment of the virtual hard disk format to suit large sector disks. If unaligned I/Os are issued to these disks, an associated performance penalty is caused by the Read-Modify-Write cycles that are required to satisfy these I/Os. The structures in the format are aligned to help ensure that are no unaligned I/Os exist. The VHDX format also provides the following features: • Larger block sizes for dynamic and differential disks, which lets these disks attune to the needs of the workload. • A 4-KB logical sector virtual disk that results in increased performance when applications and workloads that are designed for 4-KB sectors use it. • The ability to store custom metadata about the file that you might want to record, such as operating system version or patches applied. • Efficiency (called trim) in representing data, which results in smaller files and lets the underlying physical storage device reclaim unused space. (Trim requires pass-through or SCSI disks and trim-compatible hardware.) The figure illustrates the VHDX hard disk format. As you can see in the preceding figure, most of the structures are large allocations and are MB aligned. This alleviates the alignment issue that is associated with virtual hard disks. The different regions of the VHDX format are as follows: • Header region. The header region is the first region of the file and identifies the location of the other structures, including the log, block allocation table (BAT), and metadata region. The header region contains two headers, only one of which is active at a time, to increase resiliency to corruptions. 13
     Support for virtual hard disk storage capacity of up to 64 terabytes.       Protection against corruption during powe...
• Intent log. The intent log is a circular ring buffer. Changes to the VHDX metastructures are written to the log before they are written to the final location. If corruption occurs during a power failure while an update is being written to the actual location, on the subsequent open, the change is applied again from the log, and the VHDX file is brought back to a consistent state. The log does not track changes to the payload blocks, so it does not protect data contained within them. • Data region. The BAT contains entries that point to both the user data blocks and sector bitmap block locations within the VHDX file. This is an important difference from the VHD format because sector bitmaps are aggregated into their own blocks instead of being appended in front of each payload block. • Metadata region. The metadata region contains a table that points to both user-defined metadata and virtual hard disk file metadata such as block size, physical sector size, and logical sector size. Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 also introduces support that lets VHDX files be more efficient when they represent that data within it. Because the VHDX files can be large, based on the workload they are supporting, the space they consume can grow quickly. Currently, when applications delete content within a virtual hard disk, the Windows storage stack in both the guest operating system and the Hyper-V host have limitations that prevent this information from being communicated to the virtual hard disk and the physical storage device. This contains the Hyper-V storage stack from optimizing the space used and prevents the underlying storage device from reclaiming the space previously occupied by the deleted data. In Windows Server 2012, Hyper-V now supports unmap notifications, which lets VHDX files be more efficient in representing that data within it. This results in smaller files size, which lets the underlying physical storage device reclaim unused space. Benefits VHDX, which is designed to handle current and future workloads, has a much larger storage capacity than the earlier formats and addresses the technological demands of evolving enterprises. The VDHX performance-enhancing features make it easier to handle large workloads, protect data better during power outages, and optimize structure alignments of dynamic and 13
     Intent log. The intent log is a circular ring buffer. Changes to the VHDX metastructures are written to the log befor...
differential disks to prevent performance degradation on new, large-sector physical disks. Requirements To take advantage of the new version of the new VHDX format, you need the following: • Windows Server 2012 or Windows 8 • The Hyper-V server role To take advantage of the trim feature, you need the following: • VHDX-based virtual disks connected as virtual SCSI devices or as directly attached physical disks (sometimes referred to as pass-through disks). This optimization also is supported for natively attached VHDX-based virtual disks. • Trim-capable hardware. 13
differential disks to prevent performance degradation on new, large-sector physical disks. Requirements To take advantage ...
8/29/2012 Current situation Increases in storage density and reliability (among other factors) are driving the data storage industry to transition the physical format of hard disk drives from 512-byte sectors to 4,096-byte sectors (also known as 4-KB sectors). However, most of the software industry depends on 512byte disk sectors of. A change in sector size introduces major compatibility issues in many applications. To minimize the impact on the ecosystem, hard-drive vendors are introducing transitional “512-byte emulation drives,” also known as “512e.” These drives offer some of the advantages of 4-KB native drives, such as improved format efficiency and an improved scheme for error correction codes, but with fewer compatibility issues than by exposing a 4-KB sector size at the disk interface. With Windows Server 2012 In Windows Server 2012, Hyper-V supports 4-KB disk sectors. Support for improved performance of virtual hard disks on 512e disks A 512e disk can perform a write only in terms of a physical sector—that is, it can’t directly write a 512-byte sector write issued to it. The internal process in the disk that makes this write possible follows these steps: 1. The disk reads the 4-KB physical sector into its internal cache, which contains the 512-byte logical sector referred to in the write. Page 14
8 29 2012  Current situation Increases in storage density and reliability  among other factors  are driving the data stora...
2. Data in the 4-KB buffer is modified to include the updated 512-byte sector. 3. The disk performs a write of the updated 4-KB buffer back to its physical sector on the disk. This process, called an RMW, causes performance degradation in virtual hard disks for the following reasons: • Dynamic and differencing virtual hard disks have a 512-byte sector bitmap in front of their data payload. In addition, footer/header/parent locators all align to a 512-byte sector. It’s common for the virtual hard disk driver to issue 512-byte writes to update these structures, resulting in the RMW behavior just described. • Applications commonly issue reads and writes in multiples of 4-KB sizes (the default cluster size of NTFS). Because there’s a 512-byte sector bitmap in front of the data payload block of dynamic and differencing virtual hard disks, the 4-KB blocks aren’t aligned to the physical 4KB boundary, as shown in the figure. Support for hosting virtual hard disks on native 4-KB disks Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 makes it possible to store virtual hard disks on 4-KB disks by implementing a software RMW algorithm in the virtual hard disk layer. This algorithm converts 512-byte access-and-update requests to corresponding 4-KB accesses and updates. Benefits The storage industry is introducing 4-KB physical format drives to provide increased capacity and reliability. Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 lets you take advantage of this emerging innovation in storage hardware with support for improved performance of virtual hard disks on 512e disks and support for hosting virtual hard disks on native 4-KB disks. Hyper-V 4-KB disk sector support in Windows Server 2012 reduces the performance impact of 512e disks on the virtual hard disk stack, which lets workloads complete more quickly. Requirements for 4-KB disk sector support: • Windows Server 2012 • Physical disk drives that use: o 512e format o Native 4-KB format 14
2. Data in the 4-KB buffer is modified to include the updated 512-byte sector. 3. The disk performs a write of the updated...
8/29/2012 Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V supports NUMA in a virtual machine. What is NUMA? NUMA, or Non-Uniform Memory Access, refers to a computer architecture in multiprocessor systems in which the time required for a processor to access memory depends on the memory’s location relative to the processor. With NUMA, a processor can access local memory (memory attached directly to the processor) faster than it can access remote memory (memory that is local to another processor in the system). Modern operating systems and high-performance applications such as SQL Server have developed optimizations to recognize the system’s NUMA topology and consider NUMA when they schedule threads or allocate memory to increase performance. Guest NUMA Projecting a virtual NUMA topology onto a virtual machine provides optimal performance and workload scalability in large virtual machine configurations. It does this by allowing the guest operating system and applications such as SQL Server to take advantage of their inherent NUMA performance optimizations (for example, making intelligent NUMA decisions about thread and memory allocation). The default virtual NUMA topology projected into a virtual machine running Hyper-V is optimized to match the host’s NUMA topology, as shown in the figure. Page 15
8 29 2012  Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V supports NUMA in a virtual machine. What is NUMA  NUMA, or Non-Uniform Memory Acces...
8/29/2012 Note: This slide has 2 Clicks for animation to describe how live migration works when you use Virtual Fibre Channel in the VM. Current situation You need your virtualized workloads to connect to your existing storage arrays with as little trouble as possible. Many enterprises have already invested in Fibre Channel SANs, deploying them in their data centers to address their growing storage requirements. These customers often want the ability to use this storage from within their virtual machines instead of having it only accessible from and used by the Hyper-V host. Virtual Fibre Channel for Hyper-V, a new feature of Windows Server 2012, provides Fibre Channel ports within the guest operating system, which lets you connect to Fibre Channel directly from within virtual machines. With Windows Server 2012 Virtual Fibre Channel support includes the following: • Unmediated access to a SAN. Virtual Fibre Channel for Hyper-V provides the guest operating system with unmediated access to a SAN by using a standard World Wide Name (WWN) associated with a virtual machine. Hyper-V lets you use Fibre Channel SANs to Page 16
8 29 2012  Note  This slide has 2 Clicks for animation to describe how live migration works when you use Virtual Fibre Cha...
virtualize workloads that require direct access to SAN logical unit numbers (LUNs). Fibre Channel SANs also allow you to operate in new scenarios, such as running the Windows Failover Cluster Management feature inside the guest operating system of a virtual machine connected to shared Fibre Channel storage. • A hardware-based I/O path to the Windows software virtual hard disk stack. Mid-range and high-end storage arrays include advanced storage functionality that helps offload certain management tasks from the hosts to the SANs. Virtual Fibre Channel presents an alternative, hardware-based I/O path to the Windows software virtual hard disk stack. This path lets you use the advanced functionality of your SANs directly from Hyper-V virtual machines. For example, Hyper-V users can offload storage functionality (such as taking a snapshot of a LUN) to the SAN hardware simply by using a hardware Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) provider from within a Hyper-V virtual machine. • N_Port ID Virtualization (NPIV). NPIV is a Fibre Channel facility that allows multiple N_Port IDs to share a single physical N_Port. This allows multiple Fibre Channel initiators to occupy a single physical port, easing hardware requirements in SAN design, especially where virtual SANs are called for. Virtual Fibre Channel for Hyper-V guests uses NPIV (T11 standard) to create multiple NPIV ports on top of the host’s physical Fibre Channel ports. A new NPIV port is created on the host each time a virtual host bus adapter (HBA) is created inside a virtual machine. When the virtual machine stops running on the host, the NPIV port is removed. • A single Hyper-V host connected to different SANs with multiple Fibre Channel ports. Hyper-V allows you to define virtual SANs on the host to accommodate scenarios where a single Hyper-V host is connected to different SANs via multiple Fibre Channel ports. A virtual SAN defines a named group of physical Fibre Channel ports that are connected to the same physical SAN. For example, assume a Hyper-V host is connected to two SANs—a production SAN and a test SAN. The host is connected to each SAN through two physical Fibre Channel ports. In this example, you might configure two virtual SANs—one named “Production SAN” that has two physical Fibre Channel ports connected to the production SAN and one named “Test SAN” that has two physical Fibre Channel ports connected to the test SAN. You can use the same technique to name two separate paths to a single storage target. • Up to four virtual Fibre Channel adapters on a virtual machine. You can configure as many as four virtual Fibre Channel adapters on a virtual machine and associate each one with a virtual SAN. Each virtual Fibre Channel adapter is associated with one WWN address, or two WWN addresses to support live migration. Each WWN address can be set automatically or manually. • MPIO functionality. Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 can use the multipath I/O (MPIO) functionality to help ensure optimal connectivity to Fibre Channel storage from within a virtual machine. You can use MPIO functionality with Fibre Channel in the following ways: 16
virtualize workloads that require direct access to SAN logical unit numbers  LUNs . Fibre Channel SANs also allow you to o...
• o Virtualize workloads that use MPIO. Install multiple Fibre Channel ports in a virtual machine, and use MPIO to provide highly available connectivity to the LUNs accessible by the host. o Configure multiple virtual Fibre Channel adapters inside a virtual machine, and use a separate copy of MPIO within the guest operating system of the virtual machine to connect to the LUNs the virtual machine can access. This configuration can coexist with a host MPIO setup. o Use different device-specific modules (DSMs) for the host or each virtual machine. This approach allows live migration of the virtual machine configuration, including the configuration of DSM and connectivity between hosts and compatibility with existing server configurations and DSMs. Live migration support with virtual Fibre Channel in Hyper-V: To support live migration of virtual machines across hosts running Hyper-V while maintaining Fibre Channel connectivity, two WWNs are configured for each virtual Fibre Channel adapter: Set A and Set B. Hyper-V automatically alternates between the Set A and Set B WWN addresses during a live migration. This helps to ensure that all LUNs are available on the destination host before the migration and minimal downtime occurs during the migration. Requirements for Virtual Fibre Channel in Hyper-V: • One or more installations of Windows Server 2012 with the Hyper-V role installed. Hyper-V requires a computer with processor support for hardware virtualization. • A computer with one or more Fibre Channel HBAs, each with an updated HBA driver that supports Virtual Fibre Channel. Updated HBA drivers are included with the in-box HBA drivers for some models. • Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012 as the guest operating system. • Connection only to data LUNs. Storage accessed through a Virtual Fibre Channel connected to a LUN can’t be used as boot media. 16
     o  Virtualize workloads that use MPIO. Install multiple Fibre Channel ports in a virtual machine, and use MPIO to pro...
8/29/2012 We only have a Video capture of this Demo at this time, but it is placed in “\\scdemostore01\demostore\Windows Server 2012\WS 2012 Demo Series\Click Thru Demos\Server Virtualization Page 17
8 29 2012  We only have a Video capture of this Demo at this time, but it is placed in      scdemostore01 demostore Window...
8/29/2012 NOTE: This slide is animated and has 3 clicks In this scenario we will discuss how you can achieve Increased business flexibility with virtual machine mobility. [Click] What we are going to talk about here are the different ways of moving a virtual machine around between different servers, the things that we have done with Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V that allow us to gain a benefit for our customers of being able to manage the virtual machines independently of thier underlying and physical infrastructure. [Click] Also, you need to be able to handle the changes in demand as they occur. You have a need to rebalance where the virtual machines are located either via through the servers the VMs reside on, or the storage resources used by the virtual machine. [Click] Within Windows Server 2012 we provide these values through: • Live Migration within a cluster • Live Migration of storage • Shared nothing live migration Page 18
8 29 2012  NOTE  This slide is animated and has 3 clicks In this scenario we will discuss how you can achieve Increased bu...
• Hyper-V Replica 18
    Hyper-V Replica  18
NOTE: This slide is animated and has 5 clicks To maintain optimal use of physical resources and to add new virtual machines easily, you must be able to move virtual machines whenever necessary – without disrupting your business. Windows Server 2008 R2 introduced live migration, which made it possible to move a running virtual machine from one physical computer to another with no downtime and no service interruption. However, this assumed that the virtual hard disk for the virtual machine remained consistent on a shared storage device such as a Fibre Channel or iSCSI SAN. In Windows Server 2012, live migrations are no longer limited to a cluster and virtual machines can be migrated across cluster boundaries, including to any Hyper-V host server in your environment. Hyper-V builds on this feature, adding support for simultaneous live migrations, enabling you to move several virtual machines at the same time. When combined with features such as Network Virtualization, this feature even allows virtual machines to be moved between local and cloud hosts with ease. In this example, we are going to show how live migration works when connected to an SMB File Share. With Windows Server 2012 and SMB3, you can store your virtual machine hard disk files and configuration files on an SMB share and live migrate the VM to another host whether that host is part of a cluster or not. [Click] 19
NOTE  This slide is animated and has 5 clicks To maintain optimal use of physical resources and to add new virtual machine...
Live migration setup: During the live migration setup stage, the source host creates a TCP connection with the destination host. This connection transfers the virtual machine configuration data to the destination host. A skeleton virtual machine is set up on the destination host, and memory is allocated to the destination virtual machine. [Click] Memory page transfer: In the second stage of a SMB-based live migration, the memory that is assigned to the migrating virtual machine is copied over the network from the source host to the destination host. This memory is referred to as the “working set” of the migrating virtual machine. A page of memory is 4 KB. During this phase of the migration, the migrating virtual machine continues to run. Hyper-V iterates the memory copy process several times, with each iteration requiring a smaller number of modified pages to be copied. After the working set is copied to the destination host, the next stage of the live migration begins. [Click] Memory page copy process: This stage is a memory copy process that duplicates the remaining modified memory pages for “Test VM” to the destination host. The source host transfers the CPU and device state of the virtual machine to the destination host. During this stage, the available network bandwidth between the source and destination hosts is critical to the speed of the live migration. Use of a 1-gigabit Ethernet (GbE) or faster connection is important. The faster the source host transfers the modified pages from the migrating virtual machine’s working set, the more quickly live migration is completed. The number of pages transferred in this stage is determined by how actively the virtual machine accesses and modifies the memory pages. The more modified pages, the longer it takes to transfer all pages to the destination host. [Click] Moving the storage handle from source to destination: During this stage of a live migration, control of the storage that is associated with “Test VM”, such as any virtual hard disk files or physical storage attached through a virtual Fibre Channel adapter, is transferred to the destination host. (Virtual Fibre Channel is also a new feature of HyperV. For more information, see “Virtual Fibre Channel in Hyper-V”). The following figure shows this stage. [Click] Bringing the virtual machine online on the destination server: In this stage of a live 19
Live migration setup  During the live migration setup stage, the source host creates a TCP connection with the destination...
migration, the destination server has the up-to-date working set for the virtual machine and access to any storage that the VM uses. At this time, the VM resumes operation. Network cleanup: In the final stage of a live migration, the migrated virtual machine runs on the destination server. At this time, a message is sent to the network switch, which causes the switch to obtain the new MAC addresses of the migrated virtual machine so that network traffic to and from the VM can use the correct switch port. The live migration process completes in less time than the TCP time-out interval for the virtual machine that is being migrated. TCP time-out intervals vary based on network topology and other factors. 19
migration, the destination server has the up-to-date working set for the virtual machine and access to any storage that th...
8/29/2012 NOTE: This slide is animated and has 3 clicks Not only can we live migrate a virtual machine between two physical hosts, Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 introduces live storage migration, which lets you move virtual hard disks that are attached to a running virtual machine without downtime. Through this feature, you can transfer virtual hard disks, with no downtime, to a new location for upgrading or migrating storage, performing backend storage maintenance, or redistributing your storage load. You can perform this operation by using a new wizard in Hyper-V Manager or the new Hyper-V cmdlets for Windows PowerShell. Live storage migration is available for both storage area network (SAN)based and file-based storage. When you move a running virtual machine’s virtual hard disks, Hyper-V performs the following steps to move storage: Throughout most of the move operation, disk reads and writes go to the source virtual hard disk. [Click] After live storage migration is initiated, a new virtual hard disk is created on the target storage device. While reads and writes occur on the source virtual hard disk, the disk contents are copied Page 20
8 29 2012  NOTE  This slide is animated and has 3 clicks Not only can we live migrate a virtual machine between two physic...
to the new destination virtual hard disk. [Click] After the initial disk copy is complete, disk writes are mirrored to both the source and destination virtual hard disks while outstanding disk changes are replicated. [Click] After the source and destination virtual hard disks are synchronized, the virtual machine switches over to using the destination virtual hard disk. The source virtual hard disk is deleted. Just as virtual machines might need to be dynamically moved in a cloud data center, allocated storage for running virtual hard disks might sometimes need to be moved for storage load distribution, storage device servicing, or other reasons. [Additional information] Updating the physical storage that is available to Hyper-V is the most common reason for moving a virtual machine’s storage. You also may want to move virtual machine storage between physical storage devices, at runtime, to take advantage of new, lower-cost storage that is supported in this version of Hyper-V, such as SMB-based storage, or to respond to reduced performance that can result from bottlenecks in the storage throughput. Windows Server 2012 provides the flexibility to move virtual hard disks both on shared storage subsystems and on nonshared storage as long as a Windows Server 2012 SMB3 network shared folder is visible to both Hyper-V hosts. You can add physical storage to either a stand-alone system or to a Hyper-V cluster and then move the virtual machine’s virtual hard disks to the new physical storage while the virtual machines continue to run. Storage migration, combined with live migration, also lets you move a virtual machine between hosts on different servers that are not using the same storage. For example, if two Hyper-V servers are each configured to use different storage devices and a virtual machine must be migrated between these two servers, you can use storage migration to a shared folder on a file server that is accessible to both servers and then migrate the virtual machine between the servers (because they both have access to that share). Following the live migration, you can use 20
to the new destination virtual hard disk.   Click  After the initial disk copy is complete, disk writes are mirrored to bo...
another storage migration to move the virtual hard disk to the storage that is allocated for the target server. You can easily perform the live storage migration using a wizard in Hyper-V Manager or Hyper-V cmdlets for Windows PowerShell. Benefits Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 lets you manage the storage of your cloud environment with greater flexibility and control while you avoid disruption of user productivity. Storage migration with Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 gives you the flexibility to perform maintenance on storage subsystems, upgrade storage appliance firmware and software, and balance loads as capacity is used without shutting down virtual machines. Requirements for live storage migration • • • Windows Server 2012. The Hyper-V role. Virtual machines configured to use virtual hard disks for storage. 20
another storage migration to move the virtual hard disk to the storage that is allocated for the target server.  You can e...
8/29/2012 NOTE: This slide is animated and has 4 clicks With Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V, you can also perform a “Shared Nothing” Live Migration where you can move a virtual machine, live, from one physical system to another even if they don’t have connectivity to the same shared storage. This is useful, for example, in a branch office where you may be storing the virtual machines on local disk, and you want to move a VM from one node to another. This is also especially useful when you have two independent clusters and you want to move a virtual machine, live, between them, without having to expose their shared storage to one another. You can also use “Shared Nothing” Live Migration to migrate a virtual machine from one datacenter to another provided your bandwidth is large enough to transfer all of the data between the datacenters. As you can see in the animation, when you perform a live migration of a virtual machine between two computers that do not share an infrastructure, Hyper-V first performs a partial migration of the virtual machine’s storage by creating a virtual machine on the remote system and creating the virtual hard disk on the target storage device. [Click] While reads and writes occur on the source virtual hard disk, the disk contents are copied over the network to the new destination virtual hard disk. Page 21
8 29 2012  NOTE  This slide is animated and has 4 clicks  With Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V, you can also perform a    Shar...
This copy is performed by transferring the contents of the VHD between the two servers over the IP connection between the Hyper-V hosts. [Click] After the initial disk copy is complete, disk writes are mirrored to both the source and destination virtual hard disks while outstanding disk changes are replicated. This copy is performed by transferring the contents of the VHD between the two servers over the IP connection between the Hyper-V hosts. [Click] After the source and destination virtual hard disks are synchronized, the virtual machine live migration process is initiated, following the same process that was used for live migration with shared storage. After the virtual machine’s storage is migrated, the virtual machine migrates while it continues to run and provide network services. [Click] After the live migration is complete and the virtual machine is successfully running on the destination server, the files on the source server are deleted. 21
This copy is performed by transferring the contents of the VHD between the two servers over the IP connection between the ...
8/29/2012 Current situation Business continuity is the ability to quickly recover business functions from a downtime event with minimal or no data loss. There are number of reasons why businesses experience outage including power failure, IT hardware failure, network outage, human errors, IT software failures, and natural disasters. Depending on the type of outage, customers need a high availability solution that simply restores the service. However, some outages that impact the entire data center such as natural disaster or an extended power outage require a disaster recovery solution that restores data at a remote site in addition to bringing up the services and connectivity. Organizations need an affordable and reliable business continuity solution that helps them recover from a failure. Before Windows Server 2012 Beginning with Windows Server 2008 R2, Hyper-V and Failover Clustering can be used together to make a virtual machine highly available and minimize disruptions. Administrators can seamlessly migrate their virtual machines to a different host in the cluster in the event of outage or to load balance their virtual machines without impacting virtualized applications. While this can protect virtualized workloads from a local host failure or scheduled maintenance of a host in a cluster, this does not protect businesses from outage of an entire data center. While Failover Clustering can be used with hardware-based SAN replication across data centers, these are typically expensive. Hyper-V Replica fills an important gap in the Windows Server Hyper-V offering by providing an affordable in-box disaster recovery solution. Page 22
8 29 2012  Current situation Business continuity is the ability to quickly recover business functions from a downtime even...
Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V Replica Windows Server 2012 introduces Hyper-V Replica, a built-in feature that provides asynchronous replication of virtual machines for the purposes of business continuity and disaster recovery. In the event of failures (such as power failure, fire, or natural disaster) at the primary site, the administrator can manually fail over the production virtual machines to the Hyper-V server at the recovery site. During failover, the virtual machines are brought back to a consistent point in time, and within minutes they can be accessed by the rest of the network with minimal impact to the business. Once the primary site comes back, the administrators can manually revert the virtual machines to the Hyper-V server at the primary site. Hyper-V Replica is a new feature in Windows Server 2012. It lets you replicate your Hyper-V virtual machines over a network link from one Hyper-V host at a primary site to another Hyper-V host at a Replica site without reliance on storage arrays or other software replication technologies. The figure shows secure replication of virtual machines from different systems and clusters to a remote site over a WAN. Benefits of Hyper-V Replica • Hyper-V Replica fills an important gap in the Windows Server Hyper-V offering by providing an affordable in-box business continuity and disaster recovery solution. • Failure recovery in minutes. In the event of an unplanned shutdown, Hyper-V Replica can restore your system in just minutes. • More secure replication across the network. Hyper-V Replica tracks the write operations on the primary virtual machine and replicates these changes to the Replica server efficiently over a WAN. The network connection between the two servers uses the HTTP or HTTPS protocol and supports both integrated and certificate-based authentication. Connections configured to use integrated authentication are not encrypted; for an encrypted connection, you should choose certificate-based authentication. Hyper-V Replica is closely integrated with Windows failover clustering and provides easier replication across different migration scenarios in the primary and Replica servers. • Hyper-V Replica doesn’t rely on storage arrays. 22
Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V Replica Windows Server 2012 introduces Hyper-V Replica, a built-in feature that provides async...
• Hyper-V Replica doesn’t rely on other software replication technologies. • Hyper-V Replica automatically handles live migration. • Configuration and management are simpler with Hyper-V Replica: o Integrated user interface (UI) with Hyper-V Manager. o Failover Cluster Manager snap-in for Microsoft Management Console (MMC). o Extensible WMI interface. o Windows PowerShell command-line interface scripting capability. Requirements To use Hyper-V Replica, you need two physical computers configured with: • Windows Server 2012. • Hyper-V server role. • Hardware that supports the Hyper-V role. • Sufficient storage to host the files that virtualized workloads use. Additional storage on the Replica server based on the replication configuration settings may be necessary. • Sufficient network bandwidth among the locations that host the primary and Replica servers and sites. • Firewall rules to permit replication between the primary and Replica servers and sites. • Failover Clustering feature, if you want to use Hyper-V Replica on a clustered virtual machine. 22
     Hyper-V Replica doesn   t rely on other software replication technologies.       Hyper-V Replica automatically handle...
8/29/2012 Click through for this demo is located at “\\scdemostore01\demostore\Windows Server 2012\WS 2012 Demo Series\Click Thru Demos\Server Virtualization\Hyper-V Shared Nothing Live Migration Demo environment build instructions are located here: \\scdemostore01\demostore\Windows Server 2012\WS 2012 Demo Series\Demo Builds Page 23
8 29 2012  Click through for this demo is located at      scdemostore01 demostore Windows Server 2012 WS 2012 Demo Series ...
8/29/2012 NOTE: This slide is animated and has 5 clicks [Click] In this scenario, we are going to talk about how you can achieve greater uptimes for your virtual environment by leveraging the availability improvements from within Windows Server 2012. Here, the benefits are straight forward. You want to keep the virtual machines up and running and performing as well as possible. [Click] This means minimizing downtime due to infrastructure changes. [Click] If you have a multi-tenant environment, or need to guarantee minimum bandwidth, Windows Server 2012 has some improvements within it’s Quality of Service (QoS) settings. [Click] Also, you may want to modify the virtual machine’s configuration without having to shut down the VM. [Click] We do this through new features delivered with Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V like: Page 24
8 29 2012  NOTE  This slide is animated and has 5 clicks  Click  In this scenario, we are going to talk about how you can ...
• • • • Clustering enhancements Quality of Service (QoS) minimum bandwidth Dynamic Memory improvements NIC Teaming 24
                 Clustering enhancements Quality of Service  QoS  minimum bandwidth Dynamic Memory improvements NIC Teamin...
8/29/2012 Clustering has provided organizations with protection against: • Application and service failure. • System and hardware failure (such as CPUs, drives, memory, network adapters, and power supplies.) • Site failure (which could be caused by natural disaster, power outages, or connectivity outages). Clustering enables high-availability solutions for many workloads, and has included Hyper-V support since its initial release. By clustering your virtualized platform, you can increase availability and enable access to server based application in time of planned or unplanned downtime. Other Benefits Hyper-V and Windows Server 2012: • Extend clustered environment features to a new level Page 25
8 29 2012  Clustering has provided organizations with protection against        Application and service failure.       Sys...
• Support greater access to storage • Provide faster failover and migration of nodes 25
     Support greater access to storage       Provide faster failover and migration of nodes  25
8/29/2012 • Support for guest clustering via Fiber Channel. Windows Server 2012 provides Fibre Channel ports within the guest operating system, allowing you connect to Fibre Channel directly from within virtual machines. This feature lets you virtualize workloads that use direct access to Fibre Channel storage and cluster guest operating systems over Fibre Channel. Virtual Fibre Channel also allows guest multipathing for high link availability using standard MPIO and DSMs. • Clustered live migration enhancements. Live migrations in a clustered environment can now use higher network bandwidths (up to 10 GB) to complete migrations faster. • Encrypted cluster volumes. BitLocker-encrypted cluster disks enhance physical security for deployments outside secure data centers, providing a critical safeguard for the cloud. • Cluster Shared Volume (CSV) 2.0. The CSV feature, which simplifies the configuration and operation of virtual machines, has also been improved for greater security and performance. It also now integrates with storage arrays for replication and hardware snapshots out of the box. Page 26
8 29 2012       Support for guest clustering via Fiber Channel. Windows Server 2012 provides Fibre Channel ports within th...
8/29/2012 • Transparent failover. You can now more easily perform hardware or software maintenance of nodes in a File Server cluster (for example, storage virtual machine files such as configuration files, virtual hard disk files, and snapshots in file shares over the SMB3 protocol) by moving file shares between nodes with minimal interruption of server applications that are storing data on these file shares. Also, if a hardware or software failure occurs on a cluster node, SMB3 transparent failover lets file shares fail over to another cluster node with minimal interruption of server applications that are storing data on these file shares. • Hyper-V application monitoring. Hyper-V and failover clustering work together to bring higher availability to workloads that do not officially support clustering. By monitoring services and event logs inside the virtual machine, Hyper-V and failover clustering can detect whether the key services being provided by a virtual machine are healthy. If they are not healthy, automatic corrective action (restarting the virtual machine or moving it to a different Hyper-V server) can be taken. Page 27
8 29 2012       Transparent failover. You can now more easily perform hardware or software maintenance of nodes in a File ...
8/29/2012 • Virtual machine failover prioritization. Administrators can now configure virtual machine priorities to control the order in which virtual machines fail over or are started to help ensure that lower-priority virtual machines automatically release resources if they are needed for higher-priority virtual machines. • In-box live migration queuing. Administrators can now perform large multiselect actions to queue live migrations of multiple virtual machines. • Affinity (and anti-affinity) virtual machine rules. Administrators can now configure partnered virtual machines so that at failover the partnered machines are migrated together. For example, administrators can configure their SharePoint virtual machine and the partnered SQL Server virtual machine to fail over together to the same node. Administrators can also specify that two virtual machines cannot coexist on the same node in a failover scenario. Requirements: Windows Server 2012 with the Hyper-V role installed. Page 28
8 29 2012       Virtual machine failover prioritization. Administrators can now configure virtual machine priorities to co...
8/29/2012 Current situation Public cloud hosting providers and large enterprises must often run multiple application servers on servers running Hyper-V. Hosting providers that host customers on a server running Hyper-V must deliver performance that’s based on service level agreements (SLAs). Enterprises want to run multiple application servers on a server running Hyper-V with the confidence that each one will perform predictably. Most hosting providers and enterprises use a dedicated network adapter and a dedicated network for a specific type of workload, such as storage or live migration, to help achieve network performance isolation on a server running Hyper-V. This strategy works for 1-gigabit Ethernet (GbE) network adapters, but becomes impractical for those using or planning to use 10 GigE network adapters. For most deployments, one or two 10 GigE network adapters provide enough bandwidth for all the workloads on a server running Hyper-V. However, 10-GbE network adapters and switches are considerably more expensive than their 1-GbE counterparts. To optimize the 10 GigE hardware, a server running Hyper-V requires new capabilities to manage bandwidth. Windows Server 2008 R2 In Windows Server 2008 R2, QoS supports the enforcement of maximum bandwidth. This is Page 29
8 29 2012  Current situation Public cloud hosting providers and large enterprises must often run multiple application serv...
known as rate limiting. Consider a typical server running Hyper-V in which the following four types of network traffic share a single 10 GigE network adapter: • Traffic between virtual machines and resources on other servers. • Traffic to and from storage. • Traffic for live migration of virtual machines between servers running Hyper-V. • Traffic to and from a CSV (intercommunication between nodes in a cluster). If virtual machine data is rate limited to 3 gigabits per second (Gbps), the sum of the virtual machine data throughputs can’t exceed 3 Gbps at any time, even if the other network traffic types don’t use the remaining 7 Gbps of bandwidth. However, this also means the other types of traffic can reduce the actual amount of bandwidth available for virtual machine data to unacceptable levels, depending on how their maximum bandwidths are defined. Windows Server 2012 solution Windows Server 2012 introduces new a QoS bandwidth management feature, minimum bandwidth, that enables hosting providers and enterprises to provide services with predictable network performance to virtual machines on a server running Hyper-V. Features of minimum bandwidth Unlike maximum bandwidth, which is a bandwidth cap, minimum bandwidth is a bandwidth floor. It assigns a certain amount of bandwidth to a given type of traffic. In the event of congestion, when the desired network bandwidth exceeds the available bandwidth, minimum bandwidth is designed to help ensure that each type of network traffic receives at least its assigned bandwidth. For this reason, minimum bandwidth is also known as fair sharing. This characteristic is essential to converge multiple types of network traffic on a single network adapter. If there’s no congestion—that is, when there’s sufficient bandwidth to accommodate all network traffic—each type of network traffic can exceed its quota and consume as much bandwidth as is available. This characteristic makes minimum bandwidth superior to maximum bandwidth in using available bandwidth. 29
known as rate limiting. Consider a typical server running Hyper-V in which the following four types of network traffic sha...
If the importance of workloads in virtual machines is relative, you can use relative minimum bandwidth, where you assign a weight to each virtual machine, giving the more important ones a higher weight. You determine the bandwidth fraction that you assign to a virtual machine by dividing the virtual machine’s weight by the sum of all the weights of virtual machines that are attached to the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. The following figure illustrates relative minimum bandwidth If you want to provide an exact bandwidth, you should use strict minimum bandwidth where you assign an exact bandwidth quota to each virtual machine that is attached to the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. Bandwidth oversubscription: The maximum amount of bandwidth that can be assigned to virtual machines is the bandwidth of a member network adapter in the network adapter team. The figure shows an invalid, oversubscribed configuration. Two mechanisms Windows Server 2012 offers two different mechanisms to enforce minimum bandwidth: The software solution: The newly enhanced packet scheduler. The hardware solution: Network adapters that support Data Center Bridging. In both cases, network traffic needs to first be classified: • • The server either classifies a packet itself or gives instructions to a network adapter to classify it. The result of classification is a number of traffic flows in Windows, and a given packet can only belong to one of them. For example, a traffic flow could be a live migration connection, a file transfer between a server and a client, or a remote desktop connection. Based on how the bandwidth policies are configured, either the packet scheduler in Windows Server 2012 or the network adapter will dispatch the packets at a rate equal to or higher than the minimum bandwidth configured for the traffic flow. Each of the two mechanisms has its own advantages and disadvantages: • Packet scheduler. The software solution, which is built on the new packet scheduler in Windows Server 2012, provides a fine granularity of classification. It’s the only viable choice if there are many traffic flows that require minimum bandwidth enforcement. A typical example is a server running Hyper-V hosting many virtual machines, where each virtual machine is classified as a traffic flow. • Network adapter with DCB support. The hardware solution, which depends on DCB support on the network adapter, supports far fewer traffic flows but is able to classify network traffic that doesn’t originate from the networking stack. A typical scenario involves a Converged Network Adapter that supports iSCSI offload, in which iSCSI traffic bypasses the networking stack and is framed and transmitted directly by the Converged Network Adapter. Because the packet scheduler in the networking stack doesn’t process this offloaded traffic, DCB is the only viable choice to enforce minimum bandwidth. 29
If the importance of workloads in virtual machines is relative, you can use relative minimum bandwidth, where you assign a...
Both mechanisms can be employed on the same server: For example, a server running Hyper-V has two physical network adapters: one binds to a virtual switch and serves virtual machine data, and the other serves the rest of the traffic of the host server. You can enable the software-based minimum bandwidth in Hyper-V to help ensure bandwidth fair sharing among virtual machines and enable the hardware-based minimum bandwidth on the second network adapter to help ensure bandwidth fair sharing among various types of network traffic from the host server. Microsoft doesn’t recommend that you enable both mechanisms at the same time for a given type of network traffic: • Using the previous example, live migration and storage traffic are configured to use the second network adapter on the server running Hyper-V. • If you’ve already configured the network adapter to allocate bandwidth for live migration and storage traffic, you shouldn’t also configure the packet scheduler in Windows Server 2012 to do the same, and vice versa. • Enabling both mechanisms at the same time for the same types of network traffic compromises the intended results. 29
Both mechanisms can be employed on the same server  For example, a server running Hyper-V has two physical network adapter...
8/29/2012 The figure shows how relative minimum bandwidth works for each of the four types of network traffic flows in three different time periods: T1, T2, and T3. In this figure, the table on the left shows the configuration of the minimum amount of required bandwidth a given type of network traffic flow needs. For example, storage is configured to have at least 40 percent of the bandwidth (4 Gbps of a 10-GbE network adapter) at any time. The table on the right shows the actual amount of bandwidth each type of network traffic has in T1, T2, and T3. In this example, storage is actually sent at 5 Gbps, 4 Gbps, and 6 Gbps, respectively, in the three periods. QoS management In Windows Server 2012, you manage QoS policies and settings dynamically with Windows PowerShell. The new QoS cmdlets support both the QoS functionalities available in Windows Server 2008 R2—such as maximum bandwidth and priority tagging—and the new features available in Windows Server 2012, such as minimum bandwidth. Benefits of QoS minimum bandwidth QoS minimum bandwidth benefits vary from public cloud hosting providers to enterprises. Most hosting providers and enterprises today use a dedicated network adapter and a dedicated network for a specific type of workload such as storage or live migration to help achieve network performance isolation on a server running Hyper-V. • Although this works for those using 1-GbE network adapters, it becomes impractical for those using or planning to use 10-GbE network adapters. • Not only does one 10-GbE network adapter (or two for high availability) already provide Page 30
8 29 2012  The figure shows how relative minimum bandwidth works for each of the four types of network traffic flows in th...
sufficient bandwidth for all the workloads on a server running Hyper-V in most deployments, but 10-GbE network adapters and switches are considerably more expensive than their 1-GbE counterparts. • To make the best use of 10-GbE hardware, a server running Hyper-V requires new capabilities to manage bandwidth. Benefits for public cloud hosting providers: • Host customers on a server running Hyper-V and still be able to provide a certain level of performance based on SLAs. • Help to ensure that customers won’t be affected or compromised by other customers on their shared infrastructure, which includes computing, storage, and network resources. Benefits for enterprises: • Run multiple application servers on a server running Hyper-V and be confident that each application server will deliver predictable performance, eliminating the fear of virtualization due to lack of performance predictability. Requirements Minimum QoS can be enforced through the following two methods: • The first method relies on software built into Windows Server 2012 and has no other requirements. • The second method, which is hardware assisted, requires a network adapter that supports Data Center Bridging. For hardware-enforced minimum bandwidth, you must use a network adapter that supports DCB and the miniport driver of the network adapter must implement the NDIS QoS APIs. A network adapter must support Enhanced Transmission Selection and Priority-Based Flow Control to pass the NDIS QoS logo test created for Windows Server 2012. Explicit Congestion Notification is not required for the logo. The IEEE Enhanced Transmission Selection specification includes a software protocol called Data Center Bridging Exchange (DCBX) to let a network adapter and switch exchange DCB configurations. DCBX is also not required for the logo. 30
sufficient bandwidth for all the workloads on a server running Hyper-V in most deployments, but 10-GbE network adapters an...
Enabling QoS in Windows Server 2012, when it is running as a virtual machine, is not recommended. The minimum bandwidth enforced by the packet scheduler works best on 1-GbE or 10-GbE network adapters. 30
Enabling QoS in Windows Server 2012, when it is running as a virtual machine, is not recommended.  The minimum bandwidth e...
8/29/2012 Note: This slide is animated and has 1 click Dynamic Memory was introduced with Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 and is used to reallocate memory between virtual machines that are running on a Hyper-V host. Improvements made within Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V include • Minimum memory setting – being able to set a minimum value for the memory assigned to a virtual machine that is lower than the startup memory setting • Hyper-V smart paging – which is paging that is used to enable a virtual machine to reboot while the Hyper-V host is under extreme memory pressure • Memory ballooning – the technique used to reclaim unused memory from a virtual machine to be given to another virtual machine that has memory needs • Runtime configuration – the ability to adjust the minimum memory setting and the maximum memory configuration setting on the fly while the virtual machine is running without requiring a reboot. Because a memory upgrade requires shutting down the virtual machine, a common challenge for administrators is upgrading the maximum amount of memory for a virtual machine as demand increases. For example, consider a virtual machine running SQL Server and configured with a maximum of 8 GB of RAM. Because of an increase in the size of the databases, the virtual machine now requires more memory. In Windows Server 2008 R2 with SP1, you must shut down the virtual machine to perform the Page 31
8 29 2012  Note  This slide is animated and has 1 click Dynamic Memory was introduced with Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 and ...
upgrade, which requires planning for downtime and decreasing business productivity. With Windows Server 2012, you can apply that change while the virtual machine is running. [Click] As memory pressure on the virtual machine increases, an administrator can change the maximum memory value of the virtual machine, while it is running and without any downtime to the VM. Then, the Hot-Add memory process of the VM will ask for more memory and that memory is now available for the virtual machine to use. 31
upgrade, which requires planning for downtime and decreasing business productivity. With Windows Server 2012, you can appl...
8/29/2012 Note: This slide is animated and has 2 clicks Hyper-V Smart Paging is a memory management technique that uses disk resources as additional, temporary memory when more memory is required to restart a virtual machine. This approach has both advantages and drawbacks. It provides a reliable way to keep the virtual machines running when no physical memory is available. However, it can degrade virtual machine performance because disk access speeds are much slower than memory access speeds. To minimize the performance impact of Smart Paging, Hyper-V uses it only when all of the following occur: • The virtual machine is being restarted. • No physical memory is available. • No memory can be reclaimed from other virtual machines that are running on the host. Hyper-V Smart Paging is not used when: • A virtual machine is being started from an off state (instead of a restart). • Oversubscribing memory for a running virtual machine would result. • A virtual machine is failing over in Hyper-V clusters. Hyper-V continues to rely on internal guest paging when host memory is oversubscribed because it is more effective than Hyper-V Smart Paging. With internal guest paging, the paging operation inside virtual machines is performed by Windows Memory Manager. Windows Memory Manager has more information than does the Page 32
8 29 2012  Note  This slide is animated and has 2 clicks  Hyper-V Smart Paging is a memory management technique that uses ...
Hyper-V host about memory use within the virtual machine, which means it can provide Hyper-V with better information to use when it chooses the memory to be paged. Because of this, internal guest paging incurs less overhead to the system than Hyper-V Smart Paging. In this example, we have multiple VMs running, and we are restarting the last virtual machine. Normally, that VM would be using some amount of memory between the Minimum and Maximum values. In this case, the Hyper-V host is running fairly loaded and there isn’t enough memory available to give the virtual machine all of the startup value needed to boot. [Click] When this occurs, a Hyper-V Smart Paging file is created for the VM to give it enough RAM to be able to start. [Click] After some time, the Hyper-V host will use the Dynamic Memory techniques like ballooning to pull the RAM away from this or other virtual machines to free up enough RAM to bring all of the Smart Paging contents back off of the disk. 32
Hyper-V host about memory use within the virtual machine, which means it can provide Hyper-V with better information to us...
8/29/2012 What is NIC Teaming? NIC Teaming is a method of combining (aggregating) multiple network connections in parallel to increase throughput beyond what a single connection could sustain, and to provide redundancy in case one of the links fails. NIC Teaming is also known as “network adapter teaming technology” and “load balancing failover” (LBFO). NIC Teaming in a Hyper-V environment The failure of an individual Hyper-V port or virtual network adapter can cause a loss of connectivity for a virtual machine. By using two virtual network adapters in a team, you can protect against connectivity loss and, when both adapters are connected, double throughput. To help increase reliability and performance in virtualized environments, Windows Server 2012 includes built-in support for NIC Teaming–capable network adapter hardware. Although NIC Teaming in Windows Server 2012 is not a Hyper-V feature, it’s important for business-critical Hyper-V environments because it can provide increased reliability and performance for virtual machines. Virtual network adapter virtual switch teaming NIC Teaming in Windows Server 2012 lets a virtual machine have virtual network adapters connected to more than one Hyper-V Extensible Switch and maintain connectivity even if the network adapter under that virtual switch is disconnected. Page 33
8 29 2012  What is NIC Teaming  NIC Teaming is a method of combining  aggregating  multiple network connections in paralle...
The Windows Server 2012 implementation of NIC Teaming supports up to 32 network adapters in a team. SR-IOV This is particularly important when working with features such as SR-IOV. SR-IOV traffic doesn’t go through the virtual switch and thus can’t be protected by a network adapter team that’s under a virtual switch. With the NIC Teaming feature, you can set up two virtual switches, each connected to its own SRIOV-capable network adapter. NIC Teaming then works in one of the following ways: • Each virtual machine can install a virtual function from one or both SR-IOV network adapters and, if a network adapter disconnection occurs, fail over from the primary virtual function to the backup virtual function. • Each virtual machine may have a virtual function from one network adapter and a nonvirtual function interface to the other switch. If the network adapter associated with the virtual function becomes disconnected, the traffic can fail over to the other switch with minimal loss of connectivity. Because failover between network adapters in a virtual machine might result in traffic being sent with the MAC address of the other interface, each virtual switch port associated with a virtual machine that’s using NIC Teaming must be set to allow MAC spoofing. NIC Teaming management You can configure NIC Teaming in Windows Server 2012 through the NIC Teaming Server Manager configuration UI or with Windows PowerShell. Benefits NIC Teaming benefits include: • Higher reliability against failure. • Better throughput. NIC Teaming gives you the benefit of network fault tolerance on your physical servers and virtual machines by using at least two receive-side scaling (RSS)–capable network adapters by vendors others than Microsoft, with no need for a third-party teaming solution. Requirements To implement NIC Teaming for a virtual machine, you need: • Windows Server 2012. • At least one network adapter or two or more network adapters of the same speed. 33
The Windows Server 2012 implementation of NIC Teaming supports up to 32 network adapters in a team. SR-IOV This is particu...
• Two or more network adapters if you are seeking bandwidth aggregation or failover protection. • One or more network adapters if you are seeking VLAN segregation for the network stack. 33
     Two or more network adapters if you are seeking bandwidth aggregation or failover protection.       One or more netwo...
8/29/2012 Note: This slide is animated and has 2 clicks The failure of an individual Hyper-V port or virtual network adapter can cause a loss of connectivity for a virtual machine. Using multiple virtual network adapters in a Network Interface Card (NIC) Teaming solution can prevent connectivity loss and, when multiple adapters are connected, multiply throughput. To increase reliability and performance in virtualized environments, Windows Server 2012 includes built-in support for NIC Teaming-capable network adapter hardware. Although NIC Teaming in Windows Server 2012 is not a Hyper-V feature, it is important for business-critical Hyper-V environments because it can provide increased reliability and performance for virtual machines. NIC Teaming is also known as “network adapter teaming technology” and “load balancing failover” (LBFO). NIC Teaming in Windows Server 2012 lets a virtual machine have virtual network adapters that are connected to more than one virtual switch and still have connectivity even if the network adapter under that virtual switch is disconnected. This is particularly important when working with features such as SR-IOV traffic, which does not go through the Hyper-V Extensible Switch and thus cannot be protected by a network adapter team that is under a virtual switch. With the virtual machine teaming option, you can set up two virtual switches, each connected to its own SR-IOV–capable network adapter. NIC Teaming then works in one Page 34
8 29 2012  Note  This slide is animated and has 2 clicks  The failure of an individual Hyper-V port or virtual network ada...
of the following ways: Each virtual machine can install a virtual function from one or both SR-IOV network adapters and, if a network adapter disconnection occurs, fail over from the primary virtual function to the back-up virtual function. Each virtual machine may have a virtual function from one network adapter and a nonvirtual function interface to the other switch. If the network adapter associated with the virtual function becomes disconnected, the traffic can fail over to the other switch without losing connectivity. Because failover between network adapters in a virtual machine might result in traffic being sent with the MAC address of the other interface, each virtual switch port associated with a virtual machine using NIC Teaming must be set to permit MAC spoofing. The Windows Server 2012 implementation of NIC Teaming supports up to 32 network adapters in a team. As shown in the following figure, the Hyper-V Extensible Switch can take advantage of the native provider support for NIC Teaming, allowing high availability and load balancing across multiple physical network interfaces. [Click] As you lose one of the NICs within the team… [Click] The network traffic that was going through that adapter will now flow through one of the remaining adapters within the team. 34
of the following ways  Each virtual machine can install a virtual function from one or both SR-IOV network adapters and, i...
8/29/2012 Click through demo located at “\\scdemostore01\demostore\Windows Server 2012\WS 2012 Demo Series\Click Thru Demos\Server Virtualization\Hyper-V QOS Demo environment build instructions are located here: \\scdemostore01\demostore\Windows Server 2012\WS 2012 Demo Series\Demo Builds Page 35
8 29 2012  Click through demo located at      scdemostore01 demostore Windows Server 2012 WS 2012 Demo Series Click Thru D...
8/29/2012 NOTE: This slide is animated and has 3 clicks [Click] Now, lets talk about things that we have done, where we’ve worked with our partners to increase the capabilities of Hyper-V for an organization as well as increase the performance of the virtual machines running within this Hyper-V environment. [Click] We have also increased the management capabilities of running Hyper-V environment through the tools provided inbox and through partner generated tools. [Click] Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V accomplishes this with: • Hyper-V Extensible Switch • Hardware offloading • Windows PowerShell • Integration with Microsoft System Center Page 36
8 29 2012  NOTE  This slide is animated and has 3 clicks  Click  Now, lets talk about things that we have done, where we  ...
8/29/2012 Before Windows Server 2012 Many enterprises need the ability to extend virtual switch features with their own plug-ins to suit their virtual environment. If you’re in charge of making IT purchasing decisions at your company, you want to know that the virtualization platform you choose won’t lock you in to a small set of compatible features, devices, or technologies. With Windows Server 2012 The Hyper-V Extensible Switch in Windows Server 2012 is a layer-2 virtual network switch that provides programmatically managed and extensible capabilities to connect virtual machines to the physical network. The Hyper-V Extensible Switch is an open platform that lets multiple vendors provide extensions that are written to standard Windows API frameworks. The reliability of extensions is strengthened through the Windows standard framework and reduction of required third-party code for functions and is backed by the Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL) certification program. You can manage the Hyper-V Extensible Switch and its extensions by using Windows PowerShell, programmatically with WMI or the Hyper-V Manager user interface. Extensibility of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch Page 37
8 29 2012  Before Windows Server 2012  Many enterprises need the ability to extend virtual switch features with their own ...
Windows Server 2012 extends the virtual switch to provide new capabilities. The diagram shows the architecture of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch and the extensibility model. The Hyper-V Extensible Switch architecture in Windows Server 2012 is an open framework that allows third parties to add new functionality such as monitoring, forwarding, and filtering to the virtual switch. Two platforms Extensions are implemented using the following drivers: • Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) filter drivers are used to monitor or modify network packets in Windows. NDIS filters were introduced with the NDIS 6.0 specification. • Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) callout drivers introduced in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, let independent software vendors (ISVs) create drivers to filter and modify TCP/IP packets, monitor or authorize connections, filter IP security (IPsec)-protected traffic, and filter remote procedure calls (RPCs). Filtering and modifying TCP/IP packets provides unprecedented access to the TCP/IP packet processing path. In this path, you can examine or modify outgoing and incoming packets before additional processing occurs. By accessing the TCP/IP processing path at different layers, you can more easily create firewalls, antivirus software, diagnostic software, and other types of applications and services. For more information, see the Windows Filtering Platform. Extensions may extend or replace these aspects of the switching process: •Ingress filtering •Destination lookup and forwarding •Egress filtering Only one instance of the forwarding extension may be used per switch instance, and it overrides the default switching of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. Some other features of Hyper-V Extensible Switch extensibility are: 37
Windows Server 2012 extends the virtual switch to provide new capabilities. The diagram shows the architecture of the Hype...
• Extension monitoring. In addition, by monitoring extensions you can gather statistical data by monitoring traffic at different layers of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. Multiple monitoring and filtering extensions can be supported at the ingress and egress portions of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. • Extension uniqueness. Extension state/configuration is unique to each instance of an Extensible Switch on a machine. • Extensions that learn virtual machine life cycle. Virtual machine activity cycle is similar to that of physical servers, having peak times during various parts of the day or night based on their core workloads. Extensions can learn the flow of network traffic based on the workload cycle of your virtual machines and optimize your virtual network for greater performance. • Extensions that can veto state changes. Extensions can implement monitoring, security, and other features to further improve the performance, management, and diagnostic enhancements of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. Extensions can help ensure the security and reliability of your system by identifying harmful state changes, and stopping them from being implemented. • Multiple extensions on same switch. Multiple extensions can coexist on the same Hyper-V Extensible Switch. 37
     Extension monitoring. In addition, by monitoring extensions you can gather statistical data by monitoring traffic at ...
8/29/2012 This table lists the various types of Hyper-V Extensible Switch extensions. These are some of the things that you can do when you have the extensible switch. Depending on which layer you filter, which layer you integrate into, you could help with things like networking monitoring, packet filter so you can increase security, you can also create virtual file walls as well as things like intrusion detection within the systems. Page 38
8 29 2012  This table lists the various types of Hyper-V Extensible Switch extensions.  These are some of the things that ...
8/29/2012 Crucial maintenance tasks for virtual hard disks, such as merge, move, and compact, depend on copying large amounts of data. SAN vendors are working to provide near-instantaneous copy operations of large amounts of data. This storage lets the system above the disks specify the move of a specific data set from one location to another, a hardware feature known as a copy offload. In Windows Server 2012, Hyper-V takes advantage of the new SAN copy offload innovations to copy large amounts of data from one location to another. Whenever possible, the speed of your virtualization platform should rival that of physical hardware. Offloaded Data Transfer (ODX) support is a feature of the storage stack of Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012. ODX, when used with offload-capable SAN storage hardware, lets a storage device perform a file copy operation without the main processor of the Hyper-V host actually reading the content from one storage place and writing it to another. Technical description The storage stack of Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 supports ODX operations so that these operations can be passed from the guest operating system to the host hardware, letting the workload use ODX–enabled storage as if it were running in a non-virtualized environment. The Page 39
8 29 2012  Crucial maintenance tasks for virtual hard disks, such as merge, move, and compact, depend on copying large amo...
Hyper-V storage stack also issues copy offload operations in VHD and VHDX maintenance operations such as merging disks and storage migration meta-operations in which large amounts of data are moved from one virtual hard disk to another virtual hard disk or to another location. ODX uses a token-based mechanism for reading and writing data within or between intelligent storage arrays. Instead of routing the data through the host, a small token is copied between the source and destination. The token simply serves as a point-in-time representation of the data. As an example, when you copy a file or migrate a virtual machine between storage locations (either within or between storage arrays), a token that represents the virtual machine file is copied, which removes the need to copy the underlying data through the servers. In a token-based copy operation, the steps are as follows (see the following figure): 1. A user initiates a file copy or move in Windows Explorer, a command-line interface, or a virtual machine migration. 2. Windows Server automatically translates this transfer request into an ODX (if supported by the storage array) and receives a token representation of the data. 3. The token is copied between the source and destination systems. 4. The token is delivered to the storage array. 5. The storage array performs the copy internally and returns progress status. ODX is especially significant in the cloud space when you must provision new virtual machines from virtual machine template libraries or when virtual hard disk operations are triggered and require large blocks of data to be copied, as in virtual hard disk merges, storage migration, and live migration. These copy operations are then handled by the storage device that must be able to perform offloads (such as an offload-capable iSCSI, Fibre Channel SAN, or a file server based in Windows Server 2012) and frees up the Hyper-V host processors to carry more virtual machine workloads. Benefits ODX frees up the main processor to handle virtual machine workloads and lets you achieve native-like performance when your virtual machines read from and write to storage. Feature-level benefits of ODX are: • Greatly reduced time to copy large amounts of data. 39
Hyper-V storage stack also issues copy offload operations in VHD and VHDX maintenance operations such as merging disks and...
• Copy operations that don’t use processor time. • Virtualized workload that operates as efficiently as it would in a non-virtualized environment. You can more rapidly perform crucial maintenance tasks for virtual hard drives (such as merge, move, and compact) that depend on copying large amounts of data without using processor time. Enabling ODX support in the Hyper-V storage stack makes it possible to complete these operations in a fraction of the time it would have taken without the support. Requirement ODX support in Hyper-V requires the following: • ODX-capable hardware to host the virtual hard disk files, connected to the virtual machine as virtual SCSI devices or directly attached (sometimes referred to as pass-through disks). • This optimization is also supported for natively attached, VHDX-based virtual disks. • VHD- or VHDX-based virtual disks attached to virtual IDE do not support this optimization because integrated development environment (IDE) devices lack ODX support. 39
     Copy operations that don   t use processor time.       Virtualized workload that operates as efficiently as it would ...
8/29/2012 The figure shows the architecture of SR-IOV support in Hyper-V. Support for SR-IOV networking devices Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) is a standard introduced by the PCI-SIG, the specialinterest group that owns and manages PCI specifications as open industry standards. SR-IOV works in conjunction with system chipset support for virtualization technologies that provide remapping of interrupts and Direct Memory Access, and allows SR-IOV-capable devices to be assigned directly to a virtual machine. Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 enables support for SR-IOV-capable network devices and allows an SR-IOV virtual function of a physical network adapter to be assigned directly to a virtual machine. This increases network throughput and reduces network latency while also reducing the host CPU overhead required for processing network traffic. Benefits These new Hyper-V features let enterprises take full advantage of the largest available host systems to deploy mission-critical, tier-1 business applications with large, demanding workloads. You can configure your systems to maximize the use of host system processors and memory to Page 40
8 29 2012  The figure shows the architecture of SR-IOV support in Hyper-V. Support for SR-IOV networking devices Single Ro...
effectively handle the most demanding workloads. Requirements To take advantage of the new Hyper-V features for host scale and scale-up workload support, you need the following: • One or more Windows Server 2012 installations with the Hyper-V role installed. Hyper-V requires a server that provides processor support for hardware virtualization. • The number of virtual processors that may be configured in a virtual machine depends on the number of processors on the physical machine. You must have at least as many logical processors in the virtualization host as the number of virtual processors required in the virtual machine. For example, to configure a virtual machine with the maximum of 32 virtual processors, you must be running Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 on a virtualization host that has 32 or more logical processors. SR-IOV networking requires the following: • A host system that supports SR-IOV (such as Intel VT-d2), including chipset support for interrupt and DMA remapping and proper firmware support to enable and describe the platform’s SR-IOV capabilities to the operating system. • An SR-IOV–capable network adapter and driver in both the management operating system (which runs the Hyper-V role) and each virtual machine where a virtual function is assigned. 40
effectively handle the most demanding workloads.  Requirements To take advantage of the new Hyper-V features for host scal...
8/29/2012 Before Windows Server 2012 Windows PowerShell is the scripting solution for automating tasks in Windows Server. However, in earlier versions of Windows Server, writing scripts for Hyper-V with in-box tools required you to learn WMI, which provides a very flexible set of interfaces that are designed for developers. IT professionals who are involved with virtualization need ways to easily automate a number of administrative tasks without having to learn developer skills. New automation support for Hyper-V Windows Server 2012 introduces more than 150 built-in Hyper-V cmdlets for Windows PowerShell. The new Hyper-V cmdlets for Windows PowerShell, designed for IT professionals, let you perform all available tasks in the GUI of Hyper-V Manager and several tasks exclusively through the cmdlets in Windows PowerShell. This design is reflected in the following ways: • Task-oriented interface: o Hyper-V cmdlets are designed to make it easier for IT professionals to go from thinking about the task to actually performing it. o Hyper-V administrators often must manage more than just Hyper-V. By using the same verbs as other Windows PowerShell cmdlets, the Hyper-V cmdlets make it easier for you to extend your existing knowledge of Windows PowerShell. For example, if you are familiar with managing services by using Windows PowerShell, you can reuse the same verbs to perform the corresponding tasks on a virtual machine. Page 41
8 29 2012  Before Windows Server 2012 Windows PowerShell is the scripting solution for automating tasks in Windows Server....
• Consistent cmdlet nouns to simplify discoverability. There are many cmdlets to learn (more than 140). The nouns of the Hyper-V cmdlets make it easier for you to discover the cmdlets you need when you need them. Requirements To use the new Hyper-V cmdlets you need the following: • Windows Server 2012. • Computer with processor support for hardware virtualization. • Hyper-V server role. • Administrator or Hyper-V Administrator user account. • Optionally, if you want to use the Hyper-V cmdlets remotely, install the Hyper-V Windows Powershell cmdlets feature on a computer running Windows 8 and run the cmdlets as an Administrator or Hyper-V Administrator on the server. 41
     Consistent cmdlet nouns to simplify discoverability. There are many cmdlets to learn  more than 140 . The nouns of th...
8/29/2012 When you have many Hyper-V hosts, administration across these environments can become very challenging. Microsoft System Center provides the management capabilities for Windows Server 2012. The main component within System Center 2012 SP1 for managing Hyper-V is Virtual Machine Manager which will support all of the new capabilities of Windows Server 2012. Not only are we providing access via PowerShell for organizations to support and create their own custom workflows in automation but we are also building within System Center the ability itself to support these new features and advancements within Windows Server 2012. For example, a hosting provider may use System Center to configure the Network Virtualization components of Windows Server 2012 to support the multitenancy capabilities that Windows Server 2012 enables. Another example would be the support of Shared Nothing Live Migration. Within Virtual Machine Manager you will be able to migrate virtual machines between hosts within a cluster, or hosts where the only connection between them is an Ethernet cable. Page 42
8 29 2012  When you have many Hyper-V hosts, administration across these environments can become very challenging. Microso...
8/29/2012 We only have a Video capture of this Demo at this time, but it is placed in “\\scdemostore01\demostore\Windows Server 2012\WS 2012 Demo Series\Click Thru Demos\Server Virtualization Page 43
8 29 2012  We only have a Video capture of this Demo at this time, but it is placed in      scdemostore01 demostore Window...
8/29/2012 NOTE: This slide is animated and has 4 clicks [Click] With Windows Server 2012, we have talked about how customers want to be able to handle a multitenant environment. Whether you are an enterprise organization, or even a small organization or you are hosting provider, you may have multiple business units or customers that require you to support multiple different domains or multiple customers that have separate distinct networks but may have the exact same IP space. Previously, you would have had to do this with many different VLANs. With Windows Server 2012, we’ve added some capabilities to help handle a multitenant environment allowing you to have multiple customers or divisions on the same subnets without IP address conflicts. [Click] When hosting these many different customers it is imperative that you have knowledge regarding the usage of your resources, and that you have the ability to showback and chargeback to the organization or customers utilizing your resources. [Click] And lastly, whether you have organizations running virtual machines on their premises and want to also run virtual machines at your site, you will need to be able to span or connect from outside networks to your existing networks. This becomes a challenge for Page 44
8 29 2012  NOTE  This slide is animated and has 4 clicks  Click  With Windows Server 2012, we have talked about how custom...
organizations to be able to handle these requests and Windows Server 2012 does a great job of supporting this type of environment. [Click] Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V supports this with: • Network Virtualization • IP Portability • Resource Metering 44
organizations to be able to handle these requests and Windows Server 2012 does a great job of supporting this type of envi...
8/29/2012 Virtualized data centers are becoming more popular and practical every day. IT organizations and hosting providers have begun offering infrastructure as a service (IaaS), which provides more flexible, virtualized infrastructures to customers—“server instances on-demand.” Because of this trend, IT organizations and hosting providers must offer customers enhanced security and isolation from one another. If you’re hosting two companies, you must help ensure that each company is provided its own privacy and security. Before Windows Server 2012, server virtualization provided isolation between virtual machines, but the network layer of the data center was still not fully isolated and implied layer-2 connectivity between different workloads that run over the same infrastructure. For the hosting provider, isolation in the virtualized environment must be equal to isolation in the physical data center, to meet customer expectations and not be a barrier to cloud adoption. Isolation is almost as important in an enterprise environment. Although all internal departments belong to the same organization, certain workloads and environments (such as finance and human resource systems) must still be isolated from each other. IT departments that offer private Page 45
8 29 2012  Virtualized data centers are becoming more popular and practical every day. IT organizations and hosting provid...
clouds and move to an IaaS operational mode must consider this requirement and provide a way to isolate such highly sensitive workloads. Windows Server 2012 contains new security and isolation capabilities through the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. The Hyper-V Extensible Switch is a layer-2 virtual network switch that provides programmatically managed and extensible capabilities to connect virtual machines to the physical network with policy enforcement for security and isolation. The figure shows a network with Hyper-V Extensible Switch. With Windows Server 2012, you can configure Hyper-V servers to enforce network isolation among any set of arbitrary isolation groups, which are typically defined for individual customers or sets of workloads. Windows Server 2012 provides the isolation and security capabilities for multitenancy by offering the new features presented in the next slides. 45
clouds and move to an IaaS operational mode must consider this requirement and provide a way to isolate such highly sensit...
8/29/2012 NOTE: This slide is animated and has 3 clicks Multitenant security and isolation using the Hyper-V Extensible Switch is accomplished with private virtual LANs (PVLANs) (this slide) and other tools (next slide). Virtual machine isolation with PVLANs. VLAN technology is traditionally used to subdivide a network and provide isolation for individual groups that share a single physical infrastructure. Windows Server 2012 introduces support for PVLANs, a technique used with VLANs that can be used to provide isolation between two virtual machines on the same VLAN. When a virtual machine doesn’t need to communicate with other virtual machines, you can use PVLANs to isolate it from other virtual machines in your data center. By assigning each virtual machine in a PVLAN one primary VLAN ID and one or more secondary VLAN IDs, you can put the secondary PVLANs into one of three modes (as shown in the following table). These PVLAN modes determine which other virtual machines on the PVLAN a virtual machine can talk to. If you want to isolate a virtual machine, put it in isolated mode. The animation shows how the three PVLAN modes can be used to isolate virtual machines that share a primary VLAN ID. In this example the primary VLAN ID is 2, and the two secondary VLAN IDs are 4 and 5. Page 46
8 29 2012  NOTE  This slide is animated and has 3 clicks Multitenant security and isolation using the Hyper-V Extensible S...
You can put the secondary PVLANs into one of three modes: [Click] • Isolated. Isolated ports cannot exchange packets with each other at layer 2. If fact, isolated ports can only talk to promiscuous ports. [Click] • Community. Community ports on the same VLAN ID can exchange packets with each other at layer 2. They can also talk to promiscuous ports. They cannot talk to isolated ports. [Click] • Promiscuous. Promiscuous ports can exchange packets with any other port on the same primary VLAN ID (secondary VLAN ID makes no difference). 46
You can put the secondary PVLANs into one of three modes    Click       Isolated. Isolated ports cannot exchange packets w...
8/29/2012 Note: This slide is animated with 1 click Before Windows Server 2012 Isolating the virtual machines of different departments or customers can be a challenge on a shared network. When these departments or customers must isolate entire networks of virtual machines, the challenge becomes even greater. Traditionally, VLANs are used to isolate networks, but VLANs are very complex to manage on a large scale. The following are the primary drawbacks of VLANs: • Cumbersome reconfiguration of production switches is required whenever virtual machines or isolation boundaries must be moved, and the frequent reconfiguration of the physical network to add or modify VLANs increases the risk of an unplanned loss of service. • VLANs have limited scalability because typical switches support only 1,000 VLAN IDs (with a maximum of 4,095). • VLANs cannot span multiple subnets, which limits the number of nodes in a single VLAN and Page 47
8 29 2012  Note  This slide is animated with 1 click Before Windows Server 2012  Isolating the virtual machines of differe...
restricts the placement of virtual machines based on physical location. In addition to the drawbacks of VLANs, virtual machine IP address assignment presents other key issues when organizations move to the cloud: • Required renumbering of service workloads. • Policies that are tied to IP addresses. • Physical locations that determine virtual machine IP addresses. • Topological dependency of virtual machine deployment and traffic isolation. The IP address is the fundamental address that is used for layer-3 network communication, because most network traffic is TCP/IP. Unfortunately, when IP addresses are moved to the cloud, the addresses must be changed to accommodate the physical and topological restrictions of the data center. Renumbering IP addresses is cumbersome because the associated policies that are based on the IP addresses must also be updated. The physical layout of a data center influences the permissible potential IP addresses for virtual machines that run on a specific server or blade server that is connected to a specific rack in the data center. A virtual machine that is provisioned and placed in the data center must adhere to the choices and restrictions regarding its IP address. Therefore, the typical result is that data center administrators assign IP addresses to the virtual machines and force virtual machine owners to adjust their policies that were based on the original IP address. This renumbering overhead is so high that many enterprises choose to deploy only new services into the cloud and leave legacy applications unchanged. With Windows Server 2012 47
restricts the placement of virtual machines based on physical location.  In addition to the drawbacks of VLANs, virtual ma...
Hyper-V Network Virtualization solves these problems. With this feature, you can isolate network traffic from different business units or customers on a shared infrastructure and not be required to use VLANs. Hyper-V Network Virtualization also lets you move virtual machines as needed within your virtual infrastructure while preserving their virtual network assignments. Finally, you can even use Hyper-V Network Virtualization to transparently integrate these private networks into a preexisting infrastructure on another site. Hyper-V Network Virtualization extends the concept of server virtualization to allow multiple virtual networks, potentially with overlapping IP addresses, to be deployed on the same physical network. With Hyper-V Network Virtualization, you can set policies that isolate traffic in your dedicated virtual network independently of the physical infrastructure. The figure illustrates how Hyper-V Network Virtualization isolates network traffic belonging to two different customers. In it, Blue and Yellow virtual machines are hosted on a single physical network, or even on the same physical server. However, because they belong to separate Blue and Yellow virtual networks, the virtual machines can’t communicate with each other even if the customers assign them IP addresses from the same address space. [Click] Server Virtualization is a well-understood concept that allows multiple server instances to run on a single physical host concurrently, but isolated from each other, with each server instance essentially acting as if it’s the only one running on the physical machine. Network Virtualization provides a similar capability. On the same physical network: • You can run multiple virtual network infrastructures. • You can have overlapping IP addresses. • Each virtual network infrastructure acts as if it’s the only one running on the shared physical network infrastructure. How network virtualization works • Two IP addresses for each virtual machine. To virtualize the network with Hyper-V Network Virtualization, each virtual machine is assigned two IP addresses: 47
Hyper-V Network Virtualization solves these problems. With this feature, you can isolate network traffic from different bu...
o The Customer Address (CA) is the IP address that the customer assigns based on the customer’s own intranet infrastructure. This address lets the customer exchange network traffic with the virtual machine as if it had not been moved to a public or private cloud. The CA is visible to the virtual machine and reachable by the customer. o The Provider Address (PA) is the IP address that the host assigns based on the host’s physical network infrastructure. The PA appears in the packets on the wire exchanged with the virtualization server that hosts the virtual machine. The PA is visible on the physical network, but not to the virtual machine. The layer of CAs is consistent with the customer's network topology, which is virtualized and decoupled from the underlying physical network addresses, as implemented by the layer of PAs. Problems solved Network virtualization solves earlier problems by: • Removing VLAN constraints. • Eliminating hierarchical IP address assignment for virtual machines. 47
o The Customer Address  CA  is the IP address that the customer assigns based on the customer   s own intranet infrastruct...
8/29/2012 Example (see figure) In this scenario, Contoso Ltd. is a service provider that provides cloud services to businesses that need them. Blue Corp and Yellow Corp are two companies that want to move their Microsoft SQL Server infrastructures into the Contoso cloud, but they want to maintain their current IP addressing. With the new network virtualization feature of Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012, Contoso can do this, as shown in the figure. Page 48
8 29 2012  Example  see figure   In this scenario, Contoso Ltd. is a service provider that provides cloud services to busi...
8/29/2012 Note: This slide is animated with 2 clicks Your computing resources are limited. You need to know how different workloads draw upon these resources—even when they are virtualized. In Windows Server 2012, Hyper-V introduces Resource Metering, a technology that helps you track historical data of the use of virtual machines. With Resource Metering, you can gain insight into the resource use of specific servers. You can use this data to perform capacity planning, to monitor consumption by different business units or customers, or to capture data needed to help redistribute the costs of running a workload. You could also use the information that this feature provides to help build a billing solution, so that customers of your hosting services can be charged appropriately for resource usage. Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 lets providers build a multitenant environment, in which virtual machines can be served to multiple clients in a more isolated and secure way, as shown in the figure. Because a single client may have many virtual machines, aggregation of resource usage data can be a challenging task. However, Windows Server 2012 simplifies this task by using resource pools, a feature available in Hyper-V. Resource pools are logical containers that collect resources of the virtual machines that belong to one client, permitting single-point querying of the client’s overall resource use. Page 49
8 29 2012  Note  This slide is animated with 2 clicks  Your computing resources are limited. You need to know how differen...
Hyper-V Resource Metering has the following features: • Uses resource pools, logical containers that collect resources of the virtual machines that belong to one client and allow single-point querying of the client’s overall resource use. • Works with all Hyper-V operations. • Helps ensure that movement of virtual machines between Hyper-V hosts (such as through live, offline, or storage migration) doesn’t affect the collected data. • Uses Network Metering Port ACLs to differentiate between Internet and intranet traffic, so providers can measure incoming and outgoing network traffic for a given IP address range. Resource Metering can measure the following: • Average CPU use. Average CPU, in megahertz, used by a virtual machine over a period of time. • Average memory use. Average physical memory, in megabytes, used by a virtual machine over a period of time. • Minimum memory use. Lowest amount of physical memory, in megabytes, assigned to a virtual machine over a period of time. • Maximum memory use. Highest amount of physical memory, in megabytes, assigned to a virtual machine over a period of time. • Maximum disk allocation. Highest amount of disk space capacity, in megabytes, allocated to a virtual machine over a period of time. • Incoming network traffic. Total incoming network traffic, in megabytes, for a virtual network adapter over a period of time. • Outgoing network traffic. Total outgoing network traffic, in megabytes, for a virtual network adapter over a period of time. 49
Hyper-V Resource Metering has the following features       Uses resource pools, logical containers that collect resources ...
8/29/2012 Other tools Other tools that provide enhanced multitenant security and isolation through the Hyper-V Extensible Switch are: Protection from Address Resolution Protocol/Neighbor Discovery (ARP/ND) poisoning (ARP spoofing) The Hyper-V Extensible Switch provides protection against a malicious virtual machine stealing IP addresses from other virtual machines through ARP spoofing (also known as ARP poisoning in IPv4). With this type of man-in-the-middle attack, a malicious virtual machine sends a fake ARP message, which associates its own MAC address to an IP address it doesn’t own. Unsuspecting virtual machines send the network traffic targeted to that IP address to the MAC address of the malicious virtual machine instead of the intended destination. For IPv6, Windows Server 2012 provides equivalent protection for ND spoofing. Dynamic Host Protocol (DHCP) guard protection blocks virtual machines from providing services to other virtual machines. In a DHCP environment, a rogue DHCP server could intercept client DHCP requests and provide incorrect address information. The rogue DHCP server could cause traffic to be routed to a malicious intermediary that sniffs all traffic before forwarding it to the legitimate destination. To protect against this particular type of man-in-the-middle attack, the Hyper-V administrator can designate which virtual switch ports can have DHCP servers connected to them. DHCP server traffic from other virtual switch ports is automatically dropped. The Hyper-V Extensible Switch now protects against a rogue DHCP server attempting to provide IP addresses that would cause traffic to be rerouted. Virtual port ACLs Page 50
8 29 2012  Other tools Other tools that provide enhanced multitenant security and isolation through the Hyper-V Extensible...
Virtual port access control lists (ACLs) provide the ability to block traffic by source and destination virtual machine. Port ACLs provide a mechanism for network isolation and metering network traffic for a virtual port on the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. By using port ACLs , you can meter the IP or MAC addresses that can (or can’t) communicate with a virtual machine. For example, you can use port ACLs to enforce the isolation of a virtual machine by allowing it to talk only to the Internet or communicate only with a predefined set of addresses. By using the metering capability, you can measure network traffic going to or from a specific IP or MAC address, which allows you to report on traffic sent or received from the Internet or from network storage arrays. You can configure multiple port ACLs for a virtual port. Each port ACL consists of a source or destination network address and a permit to deny or meter action. The metering capability also supplies information about the number of instances where traffic was attempted to or from a virtual machine from a restricted (“deny”) address. Trunk mode to virtual machines. A VLAN makes a set of host machines or virtual machines appear to be on the same local LAN, independent of their actual physical locations. With the Hyper-V Extensible Switch trunk mode, traffic from multiple VLANs can now be directed to a single network adapter in a virtual machine that could previously receive traffic from only one VLAN. As a result, traffic from different VLANs is consolidated, and a virtual machine can listen in on multiple VLANs. This feature can help you shape network traffic and enhance multitenant security in your data center. Monitoring. Many physical switches can monitor the traffic from specific ports flowing through specific virtual machines on the switch. The Hyper-V Extensible Switch also provides this port mirroring. You can designate which virtual ports should be monitored and to which virtual port the monitored traffic should be delivered for further processing. For example, a security monitoring virtual machine can look for anomalous patterns in the traffic flowing through other specific virtual machines on the switch. In addition, you can diagnose network connectivity issues by monitoring traffic bound for a particular virtual switch port. Windows PowerShell/Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). Windows Server 2012 now provides Windows PowerShell cmdlets for the Hyper-V Extensible Switch that let you build command-line tools or automated scripts for setup, configuration, monitoring, and troubleshooting. These cmdlets can be run remotely. Windows PowerShell also enables third parties to build their own tools to manage the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. Benefits Windows Server 2012 multitenant isolation keeps customer virtual machines isolated, even when they are stored on the same physical server. Windows Server 2012 provides better multitenant 50
Virtual port access control lists  ACLs  provide the ability to block traffic by source and destination virtual machine. P...
security for customers on a shared IaaS cloud through the new Hyper-V Extensible Switch. Benefits of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch for better multitenant security and isolation are: • Security and isolation. The Hyper-V Extensible Switch provides better security and isolation for IaaS multitenancy with PVLAN support, protection against ARP poisoning and spoofing, protection against DHCP snooping, virtual port ACLs, and VLAN trunk mode support. • Monitoring. With port mirroring, you can run security and diagnostics applications in virtual machines that can monitor virtual machine network traffic. Port mirroring also supports live migration of extension configurations. • Manageability. You can now use Windows PowerShell and WMI support for commandline and automated scripting support plus full event logging. Multitenant isolation in Windows Server 2012 addresses concerns that may have previously prevented organizations from deploying Hyper-V within their data centers. Two such concerns are (1) the additional management overhead of implementing VLANs on their Ethernet switching infrastructure to ensure isolation between their customers’ virtual infrastructures, and (2) the security risk of a multitenant virtualized environment. With Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012, you can now use port ACLs to isolate customers’ networks from one another and not be required to set up and maintain VLANs. Also, your security needs are provided by protection against ARP spoofing and DHCP snooping. Requirements The requirements for using the Hyper-V Extensible Switch for multitenant security and isolation are: •Windows Server 2012 •The Hyper-V server role 50
security for customers on a shared IaaS cloud through the new Hyper-V Extensible Switch. Benefits of the Hyper-V Extensibl...
8/29/2012 Click through demo located at “\\scdemostore01\demostore\Windows Server 2012\WS 2012 Demo Series\Click Thru Demos\Management and Automation\Resource Metering Demo environment build instructions are located here: \\scdemostore01\demostore\Windows Server 2012\WS 2012 Demo Series\Demo Builds Page 51
8 29 2012  Click through demo located at      scdemostore01 demostore Windows Server 2012 WS 2012 Demo Series Click Thru D...
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8/29/2012 Here are the different scenarios where we see organizations using Hyper-V and the benefits they are going to get from leveraging the new capabilities within Windows Server 2012. But what we have talked about today is just the tip of the iceberg as far capabilities that Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V supports. Page 53
8 29 2012  Here are the different scenarios where we see organizations using Hyper-V and the benefits they are going to ge...
8/29/2012 So I want to show you now some other features and capabilities that are also available within Windows Server 2012 Hyper V that give organizations the ability to take virtualization from just simply running a bunch of VMs to gaining many more benefits in operational cost savings around virtualization. Page 54
8 29 2012  So I want to show you now some other features and capabilities that are also available within Windows Server 20...
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8/29/2012 Importing a virtual machine from one physical host to another can expose file incompatibilities and other unforeseen complications. Administrators often think of a virtual machine as a single, stand-alone entity that they can move around to address their operational needs. In reality, a virtual machine consists of several parts: • Virtual hard disks, stored as files in the physical storage. • Virtual machine snapshots, stored as a special type of virtual hard disk file. • The saved state of the different, host-specific devices. • The memory file, or snapshot, for the virtual machine. • The virtual machine configuration file, which organizes the preceding components and arranges them into a working virtual machine. Each virtual machine and each snapshot that is associated with it use unique identifiers. Page 58
8 29 2012  Importing a virtual machine from one physical host to another can expose file incompatibilities and other unfor...
Additionally, virtual machines store and use some host-specific information, such as the path that identifies the location for virtual hard disk files. When Hyper-V starts a virtual machine, it undergoes a series of validation checks before being started. Problems such as hardware differences that might exist when a virtual machine is imported to another host can cause these validation checks to fail. That, in turn, prevents the virtual machine from starting. Windows Server 2012 includes an Import wizard that helps you quickly and reliably import virtual machines from one server to another. The Import Wizard for virtualization: • Detects and fixes problems. Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 introduces a new Import Wizard that is designed to detect and fix more than 40 different types of incompatibilities. You don’t have to worry ahead of time about the configuration that’s associated with physical hardware, such as memory, virtual switches, and virtual processors. The Import Wizard guides you through the steps to resolve incompatibilities when you import the virtual machine to the new host. • Doesn’t require the virtual machine to be exported. You no longer need to export a virtual machine to be able to import it. You can simply copy a virtual machine and its associated files to the new host and then use the Import Wizard to specify the location of the files. This “registers” the virtual machine with Hyper-V and makes it available for use. The flowchart shows the Import Wizard process. When you import a virtual machine, the wizard does the following: 1. Creates a copy of the virtual machine configuration file. This is created as a precaution in case an unexpected restart occurs on the host, such as from a power outage. 2. Validates hardware. Information in the virtual machine configuration file is compared to hardware on the new host. 3. Compiles a list of errors. This list identifies what needs to be reconfigured and determines which pages appear next in the wizard. 58
Additionally, virtual machines store and use some host-specific information, such as the path that identifies the location...
4. Displays the relevant pages, one category at a time. The wizard identifies incompatibilities to help you reconfigure the virtual machine so it’s compatible with the new host. 5. Removes the copy of the configuration file. After the wizard does this, the virtual machine is ready to start. Benefits The new Import Wizard is a simpler, better way to import or copy virtual machines. The wizard detects and fixes potential problems, such as hardware or file differences that might exist when a virtual machine is imported to another host. As an added safety feature, the wizard creates a temporary copy of a virtual machine configuration file in case an unexpected restart occurs on the host, such as from a power outage. The Windows PowerShell cmdlets for importing virtual machines let you automate the process. Requirements Import wizard requirements are: • Two installations of Windows Server 2012 with the Hyper-V role installed. • A computer that has processor support for hardware virtualization. • A virtual machine. • A user account that belongs to the local Hyper-V administrators group. 58
4. Displays the relevant pages, one category at a time. The wizard identifies incompatibilities to help you reconfigure th...
8/29/2012 Before Windows Server 2012 Virtual machine snapshots capture the state, data, and hardware configuration of a running virtual machine. Snapshots provide a faster and easier way to revert the virtual machine to a previous state. However, to merge a snapshot into the parent virtual machine requires downtime and results in virtual machine unavailability. Snapshots have mainly been used for testing changes to existing virtual machine environments, as a way to return to a previous state or time if required. Having a straightforward way to revert a virtual machine can be very useful if you need to recreate a specific state or condition so that you can troubleshoot a problem. There are certain circumstances in which it may make sense to use snapshots in a production environment. For example, you can use snapshots to provide a way to revert a potentially risky operation in a production environment, such as applying an update to the software running in the virtual machine. After a successful test of new changes or updates, many customers merge their snapshots back into the original partner (to reduce storage space and increase virtual machine disk performance). However, this operation pauses the live virtual machine, effectively making it unavailable while the merge is taking place. Page 59
8 29 2012  Before Windows Server 2012  Virtual machine snapshots capture the state, data, and hardware configuration of a ...
With Windows Server 2012 In Windows Server 2012, the Hyper-V Live Merge feature now allows organizations to merge current snapshots back into the original parent while the virtual machine continues to run. Technical description The Hyper-V virtual machine Snapshot feature provides a fast and straightforward way to revert the virtual machine to a previous state. Snapshot data files (the current leaf node of virtual hard disk that is being forked into a read-only parent differential disk) are stored as .avhd files. When a snapshot is deleted, the associated .avhd disks cannot be removed while the virtual machine is running. Windows Server 2012 date now provides the ability to merge the associated .avhd disk into the parent while the virtual machine continues to run. As the process proceeds, I/O is suspended to a small range while data in that range is read from the source and written to the destination. When the leaf is being merged away, further writes to areas that have already been merged are redirected to the merge destination. Upon completion, the online merge fixes the running chain to unlink merged disks and closes those files. Benefits Virtual machine snapshots capture the state, data, and hardware configuration of a running virtual machine. Many organizations use snapshots in their current environments for testing updates and patches. However, merging a snapshot into the parent virtual machine requires downtime and virtual machine unavailability. Now, with the Live Merge feature of Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V, you can merge snapshots into the virtual machine parent while the server is running, with little effect on users. Live merging of snapshots provides a faster, easier way to revert a virtual machine to a previous state. Requirements • Windows Server 2012 • The Hyper-V role 59
With Windows Server 2012  In Windows Server 2012, the Hyper-V Live Merge feature now allows organizations to merge current...
8/29/2012 Data Center Bridging (DCB) refers to enhancements to Ethernet LANs for use in data center environments. These enhancements consolidate the various forms of network into one technology, known as a Converged Network Adapter (CNA). Before Windows Server 2012 Separate isolated connections for network, live migration, and management traffic make managing network switches and other networking infrastructure a challenge. As data centers evolve, IT organizations consider using some of the latest innovations in networking to reduce costs and management requirements. With Windows Server 2012 In the virtualized environment, Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012 can take advantage of DCBcapable hardware to converge multiple types of network traffic on a single network adapter with a maximum level of service to each. Technical description Support for DCB-enabled 10-G network adapters is one of the new QoS bandwidth management features in Windows Server 2012 that let hosting providers and enterprises provide services with predictable network performance to virtual machines on a Hyper-V server. Page 60
8 29 2012  Data Center Bridging  DCB  refers to enhancements to Ethernet LANs for use in data center environments. These e...
DCB is a hardware mechanism that classifies and dispatches network traffic that depends on DCB support on the network adapter, supporting far fewer traffic flows. It converges different types of traffic, including network, storage, management, and live migration traffic. However, it can classify network traffic that doesn’t originate from the networking stack. A typical scenario involves a CNA that supports iSCSI offload, in which iSCSI traffic bypasses the networking stack and is framed and transmitted directly by the CNA. Because the packet scheduler in the networking stack doesn’t process this offloaded traffic, DCB is the only viable choice to enforce minimum bandwidth. Benefits The Hyper-V ability to take advantage of the latest DCB innovations (a converged modern 10-Gb LAN) lets you converge network, storage, management, and live migration traffic and helps ensure that each customer receives the required QoS in the virtualized environment. This approach also makes it easier to change allocations to different traffic flow when needed, because the allocation becomes software controlled and therefore more flexible and easier to modify. This helps reduce costs and makes it easier to maintain separate connections in the data center. Requirements In the Hyper-V environment, you need the following to take advantage of DCB: •Windows Server 2012 •The Hyper-V role •A DCB-enabled network adaptor 60
DCB is a hardware mechanism that classifies and dispatches network traffic that depends on DCB support on the network adap...
8/29/2012 Before Windows Server 2012, backing up your data required you to perform full file backups. This meant that you had to either (1) back up the virtual machine and snapshots as flat files when offline or (2) use Windows server or third party backup tools to back up the virtual machine itself with a normal backup of the operating system and data. Windows Server 2012 supports incremental backup of virtual hard disks while the virtual machine is running. Technical description Incremental backup of virtual hard disks lets you perform backup operations more quickly and easily and saves network bandwidth and disk space. Because backups are VSS aware, hosting providers can run backups of the Hyper-V environment, backing up tenant virtual machines efficiently and offering additional layers of service to their customers without the need for a backup agent inside the virtual machines. Incremental backup can be independently enabled on each virtual machine through the backup software. Windows Server 2012 uses “recovery snapshots” to track the differences between backups. These are similar to regular virtual machine snapshots, but they are managed directly by Hyper-V software. During each incremental backup, only the differences are backed up (green highlights in the figures). These figures consider a virtual machine with one virtual hard disk and show 3 days of backups (Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday) followed by a restore (Friday). Notes on the figure: • To enable change tracking, the virtual machine must be configured to use incremental backup and a full backup must be performed after incremental backup is enabled (see Sunday). Page 61
8 29 2012  Before Windows Server 2012, backing up your data required you to perform full file backups. This meant that you...
• During an incremental backup, the virtual machine will briefly be running off of two levels of recovery snapshots. They merge the earlier recovery snapshot into the base virtual hard disk at the end of the backup process. • The virtual machine’s configuration XML files are very small and are backed up often. For simplicity, they’re not shown in the figures. Benefits Incremental backup of virtual hard disks saves network bandwidth, reduces backup sizes and saves disk space, and lowers the cost of each backup. It also lets you increase backup frequency because it is now faster and smaller, so backups can be made more recent. Because backups are VSS aware, hosting providers can run backups of the entire Hyper-V environment, backing up tenant virtual machines in an efficient way and offering additional layers of service to their customers without the need for a backup-agent inside the virtual machines. Requirements To use incremental backup of virtual hard disks, you need Windows Server 2012 and the Hyper-V role. 61
     During an incremental backup, the virtual machine will briefly be running off of two levels of recovery snapshots. Th...
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8/29/2012 Hyper-V is an integral part of Windows Server and provides a foundational virtualization platform that enables you to transition to the cloud. Windows Server 2008 R2 provides a compelling solution for core virtualization scenarios—production server consolidation, dynamic data center, business continuity, Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI), and testing and development. Hyper-V gives you better flexibility with features like live migration and cluster shared volumes for storage flexibility. Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V also delivers greater scalability with support for up to 64 logical processors and improved performance with support for Dynamic Memory and enhanced networking support. Page 63
8 29 2012  Hyper-V is an integral part of Windows Server and provides a foundational virtualization platform that enables ...
8/29/2012 Extensibility features • Extension monitoring. By monitoring extensions you can gather statistical data by checking the traffic at different layers of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. Multiple monitoring and filtering extensions can be supported at the ingress and egress portions of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. • Extension uniqueness. The extension state/configuration is unique to each instance of a Hyper-V Extensible Switch on a machine. • Extensions that can learn the virtual machine lifecycle. • Extensions that can veto state changes. Page 64
8 29 2012  Extensibility features       Extension monitoring. By monitoring extensions you can gather statistical data by ...
• Multiple extensions on same switch. Multiple extensions can coexist on the same Hyper-V Extensible Switch. • Integration with built-in features. Extensions integrate with built-in Hyper-V Extensible Switch features. • Capture extensions. Capture extensions can inspect traffic and generate new traffic for report purposes. Capture extensions do not modify existing Hyper-V Extensible Switch traffic. Manageability Management features built into the Hyper-V Extensible Switch allow you to troubleshoot and resolve problems on Hyper-V Extensible Switch networks. • Windows PowerShell and scripting support. Windows Server 2012 provides Windows PowerShell cmdlets for the Hyper-V Extensible Switch that let you build command-line tools or automated scripts for setup, configuration, monitoring, and troubleshooting. • Unified tracing and enhanced diagnostics. The Hyper-V Extensible Switch includes unified tracing to provide two levels of troubleshooting. o At the first level, the Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) provider for the Hyper-V Extensible Switch allows tracing packet events through the Hyper-V Extensible Switch and extensions, making it easier to pinpoint where an issue has occurred. o The second level allows capturing packets for a full trace of events and traffic packets. Benefits 64
     Multiple extensions on same switch. Multiple extensions can coexist on the same Hyper-V Extensible Switch.       Inte...
Hyper-V Extensible Switch benefits include: • Open platform to fuel plug-ins. The Hyper-V Extensible Switch is an open platform that allows plug-ins to sit in the virtual switch between all traffic, including virtual machine-tovirtual machine traffic. Extensions can provide traffic monitoring, firewall filters, and switch forwarding. To jump-start the ecosystem, several partners will announce extensions with the unveiling of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch; there’s no “one-switch-only” solution for Hyper-V. • Free core services. Core services for extensions are provided without charge. For example, all extensions have live migration support by default; no special coding for services is required. • Windows reliability/quality. Extensions experience a high level of reliability and quality from the strength of the Windows platform and the Windows logo certification program, which set a high bar for extension quality. • Unified management. The management of extensions is integrated into Windows management through Windows PowerShell cmdlets and WMI scripting. There’s one management story for all. • Easier support. Unified tracing means that it’s quicker and easier to diagnose issues when they arise. Reduced downtime increases the availability of services. • Live migration support. The Hyper-V Extensible Switch provides capabilities so extensions can participate in Hyper-V live migration. Requirements Hyper-V Extensible Switch extensibility is built into the Hyper-V server role and requires Windows Server 2012. 64
Hyper-V Extensible Switch benefits include        Open platform to fuel plug-ins. The Hyper-V Extensible Switch is an open...
8/29/2012 How Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Works • GRE is defined by RFC 2784 and RFC 2890. • One customer address is required per virtual machine. • One provider address is required per host that is shared by all virtual machines on the host. • A tenant network ID is embedded in the GRE header Key field. • A full MAC header is included in the packet. Benefits of GRE As few as one IP address per host lowers the burden on the switches. Full MAC headers and explicit tenant network ID marking allows for traffic analysis, metering, and control. Page 65
8 29 2012  How Generic Routing Encapsulation  GRE  Works      GRE is defined by RFC 2784 and RFC 2890.       One customer ...
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