Learn about the animal cell with Avery the Animal Cell!!
The Animal Cell
By Kaleb J. Bakken
Cytoplasm is in the interior or inside of the animal cell.
Phospholipids are lipids made of the phosphate group along with 2 fatty acids which has a polar and non-polar heads that attract and repel certain things
The actin fibers are located beneath the cell surface that is anchored to proteins embedded in the cell membrane.They determine the shape of the cells by contracting and expanding
The microtubules act as a form of transportation from the nucleus to other organelles. Like RNA molecules are passed along the microtubules that extend through the interior of the cell.
These provide a frame in which ribosomes and enzymes can be sent to particular regions of the cell.
The Cell Membrane
The cell membrane is like soap bubbles, and have cytoplasm in them. There are 1 layer in the cell membrane: the lipid bilayer which is made up of phospolipids which are lipids made from the phosophate group along with 2 fatty acids.
The cytoskeleton provides structure for the animal cell, which is composed of networks of fibers anchoring all the parts (nucleus, ribosomes, etc) together. There are actin fibers, microtubules, and intermediate fibers.
The lipid bilayer is made up of phospholipids in a double layer. The non-polar tails make up the interior of the layer. The water is repelled by both outside and inside of the phospholipids, the water flows through the middle. Things that can pass are water sugars and proteins (sugars and proetins are broken down).
There are various proteins in the lipid bilayer in the membrane and stay together because the interior is attracted together but is repelled by either side and vice versa for the polar heads. This attraction helps hold the protein. The motion and fluidity enable some proteins to move around within the bilayer
The nucleus controls the whole cell. The nucleus is made up of 3 parts. the nuclear pores, the nucleolus, and the nuclear envelope.
TheNucleolus: Is the center of the nucleus and makes ribosomal subunits from proteins and ribosomal RNA, also known as rRNA. It then sends the subunits out to the rest of the cell where they combine into complete ribosomes.
The Nuclear Pores: They are small channels that are scattered over the surface of the nuclear envelope. RNA-ribosomal move into the cytoplasm through these pores
The Nuclear Envelope: Surrounds the nucleus with a double membrane and is made up of 2 lipid bilayers that seperate the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Parts of the Nucleus:
Nucleolus, Nuclear Envelope, Nuclear Pores
Ribosomes are translated into proteins, which are essential to the cell to work and are used up. They are made into many different proteins like RNA. Some are free ribosomes which remain in the cell and are used to build new organelles
The ribosomes are what lie on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum which moves proteins and other substances through the cell and the ER are made of lipid bilayers along with embedded proteins. The parts that hold ribosomes are called the rough ER and this helps transport the proteins that made by its attached ribosomes. As each protein is made, it crosses into the ER itself.
The part of the rough ER that contains the completed proteins that pinches off to form a vesicle which is a small membran-bound sac that transports the other substances in cells
It is called smooth ER because lacks ribosomes and appears smooth and makes lipids and breaking down toxis substances
The Golgi Appraratus is a set of flattened membrane-bound sacs that serves as a packaging and distributiion center (like the UPS) of the cell.Enzymes inside modify the proteins that are received in vesicles in the ER. The newly modified proteins are then enclosed in new vesicles that move to the surface of the Golgi Apparatus.
Other vesicles include lysosomes, which are are small spherical organellesthat contain the digestive enzymes. They work together with the ER, and the Golgi Apparatus in production, packaging, and scatter proteins.
The mitochondria harvests energy from organic compounds like oxygen (air) and hyrdrogen (water) to make ATP(main energy currency of cell's). Most of ATP is created in the mitochondria, but some are made from the cytosol. Mitochondria even make some of their own proteins.