Introduction:

     In this booklet you will learn about the function of organelles in plant and animal cells, what they look like, and how they work together with other organelles around them. We first learned that all plants and animals are composed of living cells by Mattias Schwann and Theodor Schleiden. Here is an example of plant cells and animal cells:

 

Golgi Apparatus:

 

Cell:

  • Plant and animal

 

Function:

  • Packages and distibutes proteins from the endoplastic recticulum (ER)

 

Relationships:

  • Is one of the 5 manufacturing organelles, the others are nucleus, ribosomes, rough ER, and smooth ER.

Chloroplast:

 

Cell:

  • Plant cell

Function:

  • Contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.

Relationships: 

  • Works with other organelles to carry out the chemical reaction of photosynthesis.

 

 

Ribosome:

 

Cell:

  • Plant and animal

Function:

  • Bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.

Relationships:

  •  One of the 5 manufacturing organelles.

 

 

Nucleus:

 

Cell:

  • Plant and animal

Function:

  • Directs cell activity and acts like a control center to maintain cell functionand carry out metabolic processes.

Relationships:

  • Works with all other organelles to carry out chemical processes in the cell.

Mitochondria:

 

Cell:

  • Plant and animal cells

Function:

  • Acts like a digestive system which takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy rich molecules for the cell.

Relationships:

  • Responsible for energy processing and working with chloroplasts in plant cells.

Cell Membrane:

 

Cell:

  • Plant cells and animal cells

Function:

  • Protects the cell from its surroundings.

Relationships: 

  • The ER processes proteins and prepares them for transport and secretion. The cell membrane receives the vesicles that contain proteins tagged for secretion from the cell

Cell Wall:

 

Cell:

  • Plant cells

Function: 

  • Maintains the cells shape and protects it from damage.

Relationships:

  • Helps with support, movement, and communication between cells.

 

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:

 

Cell:

  • Plant and animal

Function:

  • Important in the synthesis and packaging of proteins. Ribosomes are attached to the  ER, making it “rough.” It also allows for the movement of molecules through both membranes.

Relationships:

  • One of the 5 organelles resonsible for manufacturing, along with smooth ER, nucleus, ribosomes, and golgi apparatus.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:

 

Cell:

  • Plant and animal

Function: 

  • Regulates and releases calcium ions and processes tocins. Also acts as a storage organelle. It is important in the creation of lipids (fats) and steroids.

Relationships:

  • Has links with the mitochondria to carry out chemical reactions.

Lysosome:

 

Cell:

  • Animal

Function:

  • Lysosomes are organelles that contain digestive enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts and help complex reactions occur everywhere in life.

 

Vacuole:

 

Cell:

  • Plant and Animal
  • Bigger in plant cells

Function:

  • Functions to maintain the proper pressure within the plant cells to provide structure and support for the growing organism.

 

 

 

Cytoplasm:

Cell:

  • Plant and Animal

Function:

  • Serves as a molecular soup,it is in the cytoplasm where all the cellular organelles are suspended and are bound together by a lipid bilayer membrane.

Relationship:

  • Metabolic pathways like glycolysis and cellular processes like cell division take place in the cytoplasm.

Centriole

 

Cell:

  • Animal Cell ( near the nucleus)

Function:

  • The main function of the centriole is to help with cell division in animal cells. The centrioles help in the formation of the spindle fibers that separate the chromosomes during cell division.

Nucleolus:

 

Cell:

  • Animal

Function:

  • Its main function is to rewrite ribosomal RNA and combine it with proteins.

Nuclear Pore:

 

Cell:

  • Plant and Animal

Function:

  • The nuclear pore is a protein-lined channel in the nuclear envelope that regulates the transportation of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Cilia:

 

Cell:

  • Animal

Function:

  • Cilia and moves liquid past the surface of the cell so the cell can move around the organism.

Flagellum:

 

Cell:

  • Animal cell

Function:

  • The primary role of the flagellum is motion, but it also often has function as a sensory organelle, being sensitive to chemicals and temperatures outside the cell.

Cytoskeleton:

 

Cell:

  • Plant and Animal

Function:

  • forms a framework for the movement of organelles around the cytoplasm - most of the organelles are attached to the cytoskeleton. It also provides an important structural framework for cell shape.