Abraham Lincoln's Election- States seceded because Lincoln was elected was president and he supported antislavery.
Raid on Harpers Ferry- John Brown led 18 men on a raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia. His target was an arsenal. Killed five proslavery Kansans and hoped to start a rebellion against slaveholders by arming African Americans.
Missouri Compromise- 36 30 degrees N latitude which is the boundary of slavery. Helped resolve the issue of whether new states would be slave states or free states.
States seceded: South Carolina held a special convention and voted to secede. South Carolina led other Southern states like Georga, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi,Texas, Lousiana, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee to secede from the Union.
The Compromise of 1850- Stephen A. Douglas broke Henry Clay's plan into 5 parts which Congress could vote on.
Secession Events and Causes of the War
Bleeding Kansas- Brown led four of his sons and two other men along Pottawatomie Creek where they seized and killed five supporters of slavery.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act- People that lived in Kansas and Nebraska could vote if they wanted to be a free or slave state.
Dred Scott decision- Dred Scott sued for his freedon and said that he should be free since he lived in a free state. Roger B. Taney said that Dred Scott was still a slave and not a citizen and had no right to bring a lawsuit.
Fort Sumter- Lincoln told Governor Francis Pickens that he was sending an unarmed expedition with supplies to Fort Sumter. Jefferson Davis ordered their forces to attack Fort Sumter before the Union supplies could arrive.
Uncle Tom's Cabin- Harriet Beecher Stowe's popular book that added fuel to antislavery feelings with its description of slavery as a cruel and unhuman system.
A Civil War campaign between the Union and the Confederates was the cause of the Second Bull Run. Lincoln decided to recall McClellan's army and send in Pope.
Union forces attacked the Confederate's line. The Union repeled each time they attacked. Lee took position on Jackson's right and blocked Porter's advance hoping to unleash Longstreet on the Union. Pope was later convinced that the Confederates were retreating but later the Confederates repulsed the attack later causing Pope to retreated across Bull Run.
August 15, 1862, Lee's army arrived at Gordonsville to destroy Pope.
August 19, Pope withdrew to Rappahannock to foil Lee's plan.
August 29th, Pope attacked the oncoming Confederates.
Richmond was no longer threatened. Lee had took advantage of this situation to lead his army across the Potomac to Maryland for the first attack into the North. 14,000 casualties in the Union and 8,000 casualties for the Confederates.
Major General John Pope
Battle of Second Bull Run
62,000 Union soldiers
50.000 Confederate soldiers
Pope retreated after he thought the war was over but the Confederates attacked. The battle ended in a Confederate victory.
Thorough Gap was where Lee would arrvive so Jackson struck a lone division at the Western Turnpike.Jackson and his forces moved north to attack Pope's supply base whihc was at Manassas Junction.
It started near the First Bull Run.
General Robert E. Lee's Army
After Hooker replaced Burnside, he rebuilt the army and launched a campaign againt Lee but before he could attack, Lee struck at Chancellorsville, Virginia. Jackson took 30,000 soldiers and left Lee with 15,000 soldiers while Jackson went in front of the enemy and swung behind it, Lee had to hold off Hooker's army.
After Burnside had been replaced by Hooker, he rebuilt the army and launched a campaign against Lee but before the attack, Lee struck at Chancellorsville, Virginia.
On May 2, 1863 Lee held off Hooker's army.
May 3rd, they had a match in the woods
Ambrose E. Burnside
General Joseph Hooker
Jackson got shot by one of his own men. He had his arm decapitated but later died a week later. Lots of casualties and deaths in this battle. After reuniting Chancellorsville, their celebration did not last long because word said that at Frederickburg, they broke through and threatened the rear.
Battle of Chancellorsville
Union had 14,000 casualties in the end and the Confederates ahd about 10,000 casualties.
This battle was known as General Robert E. Lee greatest victory during the Civil War and they reunited the Chancellorsville clearing.
Chancellorsville, Virginia is the place where Lee struck which was a few miles west of Fredericksburg. Orange Turnpike and the Orange Plank Road is where Hooker was at the Wilderness.
Robert E. Lee
General Thomas Jackson
General Ulysses S. Grant’s goal was to cut off and destroy Lee’s army which was close at hand. Lee had ordered his troops to retreat to the Appomattox River. Lee decided to surrender the army of 28,000. Confederates were to return home and the Union was to refrain from celebrating too much. The submission of the Confederate army ended the war and began the road to unification. On April 9, 1865, Lee said he surrendered, the Confederates surrendered and President Jefferson Davis was captured which ended the Civil War. The Battle of Appomattox Court House was fought on April 9, 1865. This happened at the Appomattox Court House in the front parlor of Wilmer McLean's house in Virginia.
1. They must be given their roles in the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant.
2. They could keep their horses and mules for planting.
3 They may return home, with no one, not even U.S. authority, to disturb them.
4. They will be given food.
5. Officers would kep their side arms.
6. Lee's starving men would be given Union rations
The Terms of the Surrender