This is about the major things that happened during the Civil War.

The Civil War

By: Brianna Lee 

A war between citizens of the same country.

Strength: larger population, more industry, more abundant resources, better banking system so more money for the war

 

Strategies: Blockade Southern ports and to prevent the South from earning money by exporting cotton, Union intended to gain control of the Mississippi River to cut Southern supply lines and to divide the Confederacy, North planned to take control of Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital

 

Leaders: Abraham Lincoln, George McClellan , William Tecumseh Sherman, Ulysses S. Grant, David Farragut

 

 

 

 

 

 

War Aims: Bring the Southern states back into the Union

The North

Weakness: They had to invade the South to bring Southern states back to the Union and occupy the Confederacy's territory and subdue a population of millions

 

States: Maine, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusettes, Conneticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, California, Nevada, Oregon

Nicknames: Yankees, Bluebellies; Unconditional Surrender Grant

Leaders: Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Thomas Jackson

 

 

States: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Lousiana, Texas, South Carolina, Tennesse


Strategies: worked out a defensive strategy. Planned to defend its homeland, holding on to more territory until the North got tired of fighting. Expected that Britain and France would pressure the North to end the war to restore cotton supplies. 


Weakness: smaller population of free men to draw upon in building an army, few factories to manufacture weapons and other supplies, produced less than half as much food as the North, less than half the miles or railroad tracks and fewer trains, government had difficulty delivering food, weapons, and other supplies to troops.

The South

Nicknames: Rebels, Confederates; Stonewall Jackson


Strength: Fighting in familiar territory, defending their land, their homes, and their way of life, military leadership was superior, strong tradition of military training and service, a lot of military college graduates

War Aims: Win recognition as an indpendent nation. Independence would allow Southerners to preserve their traditional way of life, a way of life that included slavery

Abraham Lincoln's Election- States seceded because Lincoln was elected was president and he supported antislavery.

Raid on Harpers Ferry- John Brown led 18 men on a raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia. His target was an arsenal. Killed five proslavery Kansans and hoped to start a rebellion against slaveholders by arming African Americans.

Missouri Compromise- 36 30 degrees N latitude which is the boundary of slavery. Helped resolve the issue of whether new states would be slave states or free states. 

 

 

States seceded: South Carolina held a special convention and voted to secede. South Carolina led other Southern states like Georga, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi,Texas, Lousiana, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee to secede from the Union. 

The Compromise of 1850- Stephen A. Douglas broke Henry Clay's plan into 5 parts which Congress could vote on. 

 

Secession Events and Causes of the War 

Bleeding Kansas- Brown led four of his sons and two other men along Pottawatomie Creek where they seized and killed five supporters of slavery.

The Kansas-Nebraska Act- People that lived in Kansas and Nebraska could vote if they wanted to be a free or slave state.

Dred Scott decision- Dred Scott sued for his freedon and said that he should be free since he lived in a free state. Roger B. Taney said that Dred Scott was still a slave and not a citizen and had no right to bring a lawsuit. 

Fort Sumter- Lincoln told Governor Francis Pickens that he was sending an unarmed expedition with supplies to Fort Sumter. Jefferson Davis ordered their forces to attack Fort Sumter before the Union supplies could arrive.

Uncle Tom's Cabin- Harriet Beecher Stowe's popular book that added fuel to antislavery feelings with its description of slavery as a cruel and unhuman system.

When

April 12th, 1861, Confederates opened fire on the fort.

April 14th, the Union garrison surrendered after they held out for 33 hours

 

North

Abraham Lincoln

Major Robert Anderson

 

Why

Major Robert Anderson, the commander of Fort Sumter, notified Lincoln that they were low on supplies and the Confederates demanded the surrender.

What

There were thousands of shots fired but no one had lost their life. The Union militia held out for 33 hours and surrendered. North and South took action.

 

Winner

Major Robert Anderson surrendered the fort on April 13.

Outcome

Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas voted to join the Confederacy.

No one had lost their life.

This began the Civil War.

 

Battle of Fort Sumter 

Who

President Lincoln called 75,000 troops to fight to save the Union.

Why

President Lincoln promised that Union forces would not throw in men, arms, or ammunition unless fired upon. 

South

President Jefferson Davis 

Advisers

Governor Francis Pickens

Where

Fort Sumter is a United States fort on an island which guards the Charleston Harbor. 

When

The first major battle of the Civil War on July 21st, 1861

July 22nd, the shattered Union army reached safety

North

Yankees 

Irvin Mcdowell

Major General George B. McClellan

What

About 30,000 inexperienced Union troops attacked a smaller, equally inexperienced Confederate force.  Confederates surged forward with a scream that came to be known as the Rebel yell because it was strange and otherworldly. 

Outcome

The Union army started an orderly retreat which became a stampede when the retreating Union troops collided with the civillians who were fleeing in panic back to Washington D.C. 

Winner

Yankees drove the Confederates back but later the Rebels rallied and was inspired by reinforcements under General Thomas Jackson. 

Battle of First Bull Run

Who

30,000 union troops

smaller Confederate force

Outcome

Thomas Jackson fought the enemy heroically like a stone wall so he got the nickname "Stonewall" Jackson.

Where

A small river in the area that is in northern Virginia, five miles from a town called Manassas Junction which was near Bull Run. 

South

Confederates

Rebels

Brigadier General P.G.T . Beauregard

 

Winner

The Northern soldiers dropped their guns and packs and ran away. 

Why

President Lincoln pushed Brigadier General Irvin Mcdowell of the union to attack the Confederate forces. Their goal was to open a way to Richmond which was the Confederate capital and end the war.

When

February 6, 1862, Grant captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee River.  

February 13th, most of the Union's soldiers arrived at Fort Donelson

February 16th, he captured Fort Donelson

North

Ulysses S. Grant

Henry Halleck

 

Winner

The Confederate commander asked Grant for his terms. Grant became the North's new hero after his "Unconditional Surrender" speech. 

Battle of Fort Donelson

Why

The North's primary goals was to gain control of the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers to separate the Confederate and hinder Southern efforts to transport goods. 

Who

17,000 Confederate soldiers

Later 13,000 Confederate soldiers at Fort Donelson

 

Outcome

Grant's victories helped secure the Tennessee River and opened a path for union troops to march into Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama.

Why

Union commander, Ulysses S. Grant was ordered to move against Confederate forces in Kentucky and Tennessee.  

What

Ulysses S. Grant blocked a landward exit so the Confederates would have to fight their way. The rebels attacked and continued to drive the Union southeast.

South

John B. Floyd

Confederate soldiers

 

Winner

None of the ironclads had won because neither ship could sink each other. But the Union did manage to keep the Merrimack in the harbor so it wouldn't threaten the North's ships. 

When

March 8, 1862, the ironclad attacked a group of Union ships that were off the coast of Virginia.

March 9, the ironclads fired on each other but didn't sink.

North

The Monitor

 

 

What

The North sent an ironclad after the Merrimack attacked the North's ships. 

The Monitor (North's ironclad) engaged the Confederate ship in a battle but none of the ironclads sank. 

 

Battle of Hampton Roads

Who

Franklin Buchanan

Why

Lincoln had ordered a naval blockade of Southern ports to prevent the South from exporting cotton and importing other supplies that was needed to continue the war. This blockade cut the South's supply short during the war. 

Where

Southern salvaged Merricmack in Norfolk, Virginia.

Hampton Roads was where this fight between ironclads was going on. 

Outcome

The battle marked a new age of naval warfare.

The North and South used the ironclads as a model to build more ships. 

South

The Merrimack

 

 

What 

The Confederate forces had launched a surprise attack onto the Union troops. The Confederates made Grant and his troops go back to the Tennessee River but later the Union recovered the day after. There were 25,000 trops in Nashvilled that aided by shelling gunboats on the river and later defeated the Confederates and drove them back to Corinth.

When

April 6, 1862, Confederate forces launched their surprise attack on the Union troops.

April 7 at 6:00 am, Buell launched an attack so Beauregard launched a counterattack

 

North

General Grant

Union army

Major general Don Carlos Buell

 

 

Winner

The Union forces recovered by the second day and had been aided by the troops from Nashville. They defeated the Confederates because they withdrew from the battle. 

 

Battle of Shiloh

Who

 Addition of Buell's men made it about 40,000 soldiers

Beauregard's army was less than 30,000

 

 

Where

Johnston marshalled his forces at Corinth Mississippi.

Grant prepared offensive at the Tennessee River.

Johnston needed to strike Grant at the Pittsburgh Landing

Hornets Nest is the battle line they established along a sunken road.

 

 

 

Outcome

More than 20,000 casualties. General Johnston of the Confederates died. The Union gained control of Corinth and was starting to control the Mississippi River.

Why

The Civil War had started as Grant and Johnston collided at Shiloh. Johnston had prepared for a battle after Fort Henry and Fort Donelson collapsed. The Confederate troops initiated a surprise attack on the Union troops which started the Battle of Shiloh. 

 

South

General P.G.T Beauregard

Confederate soldiers

General Albert Sidney Johnston

 

Why

A Civil War campaign between the Union and the Confederates was the cause of the Second Bull Run. Lincoln decided to recall McClellan's army and send in Pope. 

What

Union forces attacked the Confederate's line. The Union repeled each time they attacked. Lee took position on Jackson's right and blocked Porter's advance hoping to unleash Longstreet on the Union. Pope was later convinced that the Confederates were retreating but later the Confederates repulsed the attack later causing Pope to retreated across Bull Run. 

When

August 15, 1862, Lee's army arrived at Gordonsville to destroy Pope.

August 19, Pope withdrew to Rappahannock to foil Lee's plan.

August 29th, Pope attacked the oncoming Confederates.

Outcome

Richmond was no longer threatened. Lee had took advantage of this situation to lead his army across the Potomac to Maryland for the first attack into the North. 14,000 casualties in the Union and 8,000 casualties for the Confederates. 

North

President Lincoln

Major General John Pope

 

Battle of Second Bull Run

Who

62,000 Union soldiers

50.000 Confederate soldiers

 

Winner

Pope retreated after he thought the war was over but the Confederates attacked. The battle ended in a Confederate victory. 

Where

Thorough Gap was where Lee would arrvive so Jackson struck a lone division at the Western Turnpike.Jackson and his forces moved north to attack Pope's supply base whihc was at Manassas Junction.

It started near the First Bull Run. 

 

South
Stonewall Jackson

General Robert E. Lee's Army

Confederates

Winner

Both armies suffered the losses. The Battle of Antietam was considered a draw since none of them were defeated. But the Union claimed victory after the Confederates retreated.  

North

President Lincoln

George B. McClellan

Union army

General Ambrose Burnside

Major General Joseph Hooker

 

Where

McClellan's army confronted Lee's army at Sharpsburg, Maryland

Lee moved the wounded to the south of Potomac.

Union attacked and Confederates defended at Miller's cornfield and West Woods. 

Why

After the Second Bull Run, Lee went to Maryland to launch an offensive. Lee issued a proclamation to urge the people of Maryland to join the Confederacy. McClellan's soldiers found Lee's plan that was wrapped in three cigars. McClellan of course decided to wait again so Lee had time to gather his forces together. 

Battle of Antietam

Who

6,000 Union and Confederate soldiers lay dead or dying.

17,000 were seriously wounded.

 

What

Lee had sent his entire force while McClellan sent less than three-quarters of his Federal force. At night they had to tend to the wounded soldiers. Lee later then moved his wounded. McClellan could've used this as an advantage. 

Outcome

President Lincoln removed McClellan and put General Ambrose Burnside in command after McClellan had failed to listen and advance with the plan. The South lost a chance to gain international recognition and remembrance. Lincoln used this to take action against slavery and they gained confidence.

When

September 16, 1862, McClellan's army confronted Lee's army at Sharpsburg, Maryland.

September 17, the Union and the Confederates clashed in the Battle of Antietam. 

September 18, Lee continued to fight but removed the wounded to the south of Potomac.

 

South

Confederate army

Robert E. Lee

 

 

When

Fought December 11-15, 1862.

December 13, general Ambrose Burnside clashedwith Lee. 

 

North

Ambrose Burnside

Union soldiers

General Joseph Hooker

 

What

Burnside had a diversion for the Confederates. Later, waves of Federal soldiers marched forth and the Confederates took position and each one was met by devastating rifle and artillery fire. Repeated attacks failed to overcome Lee's troops as thousands of Union soldiers fell. 

Winner

About 6 weeks after the Battle of Fredericksburg, Lincoln removed Burnside from command and was replaced by General Joseph Hooker. The Confederates won this battle. 

Battle of Fredericksburg

Who

There were about 200,000 combatants

Outcome

Featured the first major opposed river crossing in American military history. 13,300 casualties for the Army of Potomac. Lee's army had 4,500 losses.  Since Burnside was removed and was replaced by Joseph Hooker who was going to grieve at the Battle of Chancellorville.

Why

After McClellan got fired by Lincoln for not carrying out the plan, he was replaced by Burnside who immediately made a plan against the Confederates.The Confederate's position was strong but Burnside still chose to attack. 

South

Robert E. Lee

Confederate soldiers

Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

Where

Fought in the streets of Fredericksburg, Virginia.

 

What

After Hooker replaced Burnside, he rebuilt the army and launched a campaign againt Lee but before he could attack, Lee struck at Chancellorsville, Virginia. Jackson took 30,000 soldiers and left Lee with 15,000 soldiers while Jackson went in front of the enemy and swung behind it, Lee had to hold off Hooker's army. 

Why

After Burnside had been replaced by Hooker, he rebuilt the army and launched a campaign against Lee but before the attack, Lee struck at Chancellorsville, Virginia. 

When

On May 2, 1863 Lee held off Hooker's army.

May 3rd, they had a match in the woods

North

Ambrose E. Burnside

General Joseph Hooker

 

Outcome

Jackson got shot by one of his own men. He had his arm decapitated but later died a week later. Lots of casualties and deaths in this battle. After reuniting Chancellorsville, their celebration did not last long because word said that at Frederickburg, they broke through and threatened the rear. 

Battle of Chancellorsville

Who

Union had 14,000 casualties in the end and the Confederates ahd about 10,000 casualties. 

Winner

This battle was known as General Robert E. Lee greatest victory during the Civil War and they reunited the Chancellorsville clearing.

Where

Chancellorsville, Virginia is the place where Lee struck which was a few miles west of Fredericksburg. Orange Turnpike and the Orange Plank Road is where Hooker was at the Wilderness. 

South

Robert E. Lee

General Thomas Jackson

 

When

On July 4, 1863, Vicksburg surrendered.

Federals attacked the Rebel stronghold on May 19 and 22.  

Winner

After they surrendered Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the Union had control over the whole Mississippi River. The Confederacy’s destiny was sealed.

What

Grant had a new and bold campaign against Vicksburg and the defenders. They conducted a surprise landing at Bruinsburg.

Grant’s forces moved inland and pushed back the threat of Johnston’s forces. Later, Grant turned his sight to Vicksburg.

The Union victories had caused the Confederate chief no alternative but to retreat the defenses at Vicksburg.

North

Ulysses S. Grant

Union forces

Assault on Vicksburg

Who

There was 75,000 Union soldiers engaged and 34,000 Confederate soldiers. 

Outcome

The victories of Gettysburg and VIcksburg marked a turning point in the war.

They drove Lee’s army out of Pennsylvania, secured the Mississippi River as a highway, and cut the South in two.

There was 4,800 casualties for the Union.

 For the Confederates, there was 3,300 casualties with 30,000 soldiers captured. 

 

Why

North wanted to gain control of the Mississippi River which was one of the major war goals and they succeeded.

Where

Vicksburg stood on a high bluff above the Mississippi River.

The Union victories were at Champion Hill and Big Black Bridge.

South
John Pemberton

Confederate defenders

Joseph E. Johnston

What

Lee concentrated his army around Gettysburg after he learned that Meade was in Pennsylvania. Buford’s job was to slow down the Confederates. Later, 30,000 Confederates defeated 20,000 Yankees. On the second day, Lee launched a heavy assault.

Winner

On the last day, July 4,  Lee led his army on a  torturous retreat back to Virginia which was a great loss the the Confederates.

When

July 1, 1863, the two armies collided west and north of the town.

July 3, fighting resumed on Culp’s Hill.

North

Abraham Lincoln

Joseph Hooker

George Gordon Meade

John Buford

 

Battle of Gettysburg

Who

Union had engaged 82,289 soldiers and the Confederate army had 75,000 soldiers.

Outcome

As many as 51,000 soldiers from the Union and Confederates side were killed, wounded, captured, or missing. After the battle, President Lincoln had a dedication ceremony for Gettysburg’s Soldiers National Ceremony To honor the soldiers and remind people what the purpose of the war in the historic Gettysburg Address.

Why

After Robert E. Lee’s victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville, he decided to attack and have his second invasion at Gettysburg.

Lee wanted to collect supplies and take the fighting away from Virginia.

Where

The Yankees fell back through Gettysburg to the hills of the south of the town which was Cemetery’s Hill and Culp’s Hill.

The fight on the second day happened at Devil’s Den, Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, the Peach Orchard, and Cemetery Ridge.

South

Robert E. Lee

Army of Northern Virginia

General Ulysses S. Grant’s goal was to cut off and destroy Lee’s army which was close at hand. Lee had ordered his troops to retreat to the Appomattox River. Lee decided to surrender the army of 28,000. Confederates were to return home and the Union was to refrain from celebrating too much. The submission of the Confederate army ended the war and began the road to unification. On April 9, 1865, Lee said he surrendered, the Confederates surrendered and President Jefferson Davis was captured which ended the Civil War. The Battle of Appomattox Court House was fought on April 9, 1865. This happened at the Appomattox Court House in the front parlor of Wilmer McLean's house in Virginia.

1. They must be given their roles in the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant.

2. They could keep their horses and mules for planting.

3 They may return home, with no one, not even U.S. authority, to disturb them.

4. They will be given food. 

5. Officers would kep their side arms.

6. Lee's starving men would be given Union rations

 

Surrender at Appomattox 

The Terms of the Surrender

Fun Facts:

Born on April 27th, 1822

 

Died on July 23rd, 1885

 

The S. in his name didn't stand for anything

 

Grant wasn't doing well before the Civil War and was poor and bankrupt

 

Ulysses S. Grant won the first major Union victory

 

He had gotten drunk on duty and had to resign from the army 

 

Grant didn't like wearing the uniforms

 

Ulysses was supposed to show up at the day that Abraham Lincoln died and he wondered if he could've stopped the assassination

 

Grant stopped Robert E. Lee from being charged with treason

 

He was responsible for taking down the KKK and they didn't resurface until later on

 

 

 

 

 

Who is Ulysses S. Grant?

Ulysses S. Grant is a war hero during the Civil War. He led the Union armies and had many victories over the Confederacy. 

What did Ulysses S. Grant do? 

During the Civil War, he fought in many battles like the Battle of Shiloh, Fort Donelson, and Vicksburg. He fought brave and didn't give up. 

What did Grant do after the Civil War ended?

Actually, Grant became the 18th President of the United States and worked to remove the vestiges of slavery. 

 

Ulysses S. Grant

Who is Robert E. Lee? 

Robert E. Lee was one of the finest officers in the United States. He was offered to be in command of the Federal forces by Abraham Lincoln but he declined. 

What did Robert E. Lee do? 

Robert E. Lee later accepted a general's comission to become one of the leaders of the Confederate's newly formed army. 

What happened during the Civil War with Robert E. Lee?

Robert E. Lee named the army the Army of Northern Virginia. He was in the Battle of Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. Lee later surrendered his army at the Appomattox Court House, ending the Civil War.

What did he do after the Civil War? 

Robert E. Lee went back home and eventually became the president of Washington College in Virginia.

Robert E. Lee

Fun Facts:

 

Born on January 19th, 1807 

 

Died on October 12th 1870

 

Robert E. Lee married the granddaughter of Martha Washington

 

His plan contributed in America's victory during the Mexican War

 

He was against the Civil War

 

Lee was undecided when he had to choose his loyalties in the Civil War

 

His starting campaign failed and was defeated

 

Robert Lee's nickname was Granny Lee and changed to Marse Robert

 

He was buried without his shoes

 

 

 

African American Soldiers

1862, Congress passed a law stating that African Americans could serve the Union army. African Americans made 10 percent of the army and 15 percent in the navy so about 200,000 African Americans served and 37,000 lost their lives. They were organized into regiments that separated them from the rest of the army. They had received lower pay than the white soldiers but later had a protest. The white Southerners were outraged that African Americans were fighting for the Union and threatened to kill any of them that were caught. While that happened, enslaved workers were happy that they included African Americans in the war. 

 

The Lives of Soldiers

At the beginning of the war, men had rushed in to volunteer in the army. Soldiers mainly stayed and lived in camps. They had pleasant times like when they were singing, read letters, played baseball. But most of the time, it was dull. They had drills, disgusting food, marches, and rain. Many men had deserted and ran away because many had died and others were in last agonies as they passed. Confederates ran away because of fear, hunger, and sickness. Rebels ran away because the lack of food and supplies

 

Life During Civil War

Lives of Women 

Women during the war often became teachers, office workers, and farmers. Women had to have and perform jobs that helped the soldiers and armies. Women rolled bandages, wove blankets, and made ammunition. Others collected food, clothing, and medicine give to the troops. They also raised money for the supplies that they needed. Women that stayed home was touched in some way because of the war. Some women were served as spies like Rose O'Neal Greenhow who passed on information about the plans was exiled, Belle Boyd informed the movement, and Loretta Janeta Velazquez was disguised as a man to become a soldier. Thousands of women served as nurses during the Civil War. Dorothea Dix, Clara Barton, and Sally Tompkins was known for helping the prisoners with disabilities, helping wounded soldiers, and establishing a hospital for the soldiers. 

Life of Children

Most of the childen dropped out of school and those who stayed in school had earned a lot of patriotism. They were forced to grow up faster and had to go through all different kinds of hardships and see battles at their own towns. They read books to kill time and took the place of their brother's or father's job. The kids learned a lot about propoganda of patriotism towards te Union or the Confederacy. 

The North's victory had saved the Union. Their government was strengthened and now powerful. 

After 4 years of war, and the death of nearly 600,000 Americans, the North finally defeated the South.

Since the Union won victory, 4 million slaves had been freed and given their rights.  

The war caused billions of dollars worth of damage mostly in the South and had left South's economy in a state of collapse. 

Results of the War

Andrew Johnson passed something called black codes to control the behavior and labor of former slavesand other African Americans which caused outrage in the North. 

After Lee's surrender, the Confederacy's president Jefferson Davis was captured. But after 5 days of Lee's surrender, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. So the vice president Andrew Johnson became president. 

Two-thirds of the transportation system was destroyed. Miles of bridges and railroads twisted and useless

The KKK would later restore white supremacy in the South. 

It created a bitter feeling among the defeated South, lasting for generations. 

http://www.civilwar.org/

 

http://www.historynet.com/

 

http://www.history.com/

 

http://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-may-not-

know-about-ulysses-s-grant

 

https://learnodo-newtonic.com/robert-e-lee-facts

 

 

Work Cited