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Hauora an exploration through a landscapes well being B onnie L ou Yi G lenn R idley Jill Koh Nick S latter y Tr ina Gaston
Hauora an exploration through a landscapes well-being  B onnie L ou Yi G lenn R idley Jill Koh Nick S latter y Tr ina Gast...
contents 2 3 vision project outline client site location 4 Waipa South Waikato 5 Our Maunga Sanctuary Mountain Maungatautari 6 Our Awa Waikato River site analysis 1 7 Soil Rock Types 8 Land Use Capabilities 9 Slope 10 Aspect 11 Hydrology 12 Infrastructure 13 Archaeology 14 Existing Land Uses Covers strategies 15 16 Concept Hauora Health 17 18 Sub strategy A Arable Land Use Capabilities Vegetation 19 20 Sub strategy B Ecology Hydrology Sub strategy C Land Use Hydrology 21 22 23 Final Strategy Potential Land Uses reference
contents 2 3  vision   project outline client site location  4  Waipa, South Waikato  5  Our Maunga - Sanctuary Mountain M...
vision project outline Our vision is to assist the Ng ti Korok Kahukura people in creating a sustainable landscape with the means to protect restore and enhance their own landscape narrative A landscape that reflects the intimate relationship that tangata whenua have with the land Creating an intergenerational landscape that will promote a strong relationship between the community and environment a relationship that will perpetuate the value of the land and resources The proecess will involve education and suggestion of strategies for change so that the Ng ti Korok Kahukura are able to rebuild their landscape tucked away at the foothills of their Maunga In particular 2000 plants for vegetation site manoeuvrability and identity protection of significant sites fish and avian species is required Yet first an understanding of the local context is key Brief introduction of the factors affecting the local context give meaning to the site and the connectivity of each The understanding of location and place gives reference to the history and stories that have been passed down through generations This will able us to achieve our aims and strategies In particular landscape uses vegetation economy and culture give us a clear strategy for the site and desires of Ng ti Korok Kahukura Heavy emphasis is placed on cultural well being as mentioned by Hauora and a constant for understanding the people who will use the site A definitive strategy allows less room for generalisation or assumptions that could be invasive to the Hapu restoration process W h a t u n ga r o n g a r o t e t a n g a t a t o i t t e w h e n u a As man disappears from sight the land remains 2
vision   project outline Our vision is to assist the Ng  ti Korok   Kahukura people, in creating a sustainable landscape w...
client HISTORY Our client is Ng ti Korok Kahukura who have been guarding their sanctuary Pohara Marae for the return of their families tribes as well as visitors from elsewhere in a role of guardianship 1920s Piupiu Te Wherowhero built a home for her followers Called K nana either named for Rua K nana the Tuhoe prophet or after Mount Canaan in the bible They value two types of relationship a relationship they appreciate and remember to have been sustained from their ancestors who have suffered and sacrificed for the next generations a relationship from maunga to awa for that not only their home is located in between but for that their lives have been spiritually supported and substantially sustained by having been in between They aspire to revitalize the stream at their position in relationship between their maunga and awa as a key to restore the ecosystem services and supplies that will enable the tangata whenua to sustain the source of their ongoing daily needs and to eventually lead to more fruitful guardianship Moved the settlement higher up the hill where the land was in a poor condition at the time He teitei rawa t r ingoa mo koutou kei kore koutou e kaha ki te hapai i roto i te w me noho koutou i roto i te P haratanga You may not be able to uphold the name in time to come it is better that you remain in poverty Te Rata Changed name from K nana to P hara interpreted to mean to be humble 1966 The wharenui Rangi tea opened as coming from a house that stood at T ne an earlier settlement at Maungatautari the ancestral mountain p hara marae poverty remembering our sacrificed ancestors relationship reliance on each other use but not abuse in an appreciating way courtyard the open area in front of the wharenui where formal greetings take place Often include complex of buildings around the marae a home a sanctuary for tribes humble in need of courage and confidence Don t live above live with your men 3 2013 The marae reservation encompasses papak ing with 15 residential homes Our people are Ng ti Korok Kahukura Our lands and waters are the essence of our identity We must preserve our mana whenua our homelands Our long term mission is to maintain our mana whenua in accordance with the tongikura of King Tawhiao Kia mau ki te whenua hei papak inga mo ake tonu Keep the land a home forever
client HISTORY  Our client is Ng  ti Korok   Kahukura who have been guarding their sanctuary, Pohara Marae, for the return...
site location waipa district waikato region Pohara Marae address is 1036 Oreipunga Rd Pukeatua which is located in the Waipa District in the Waikato region of the North Island New Zealand It is located between the cities of Hamilton to the north Rotorua to the east Taupo to the south and king country to the west Pohara s closest township is Arapuni which is 2km south east across the Waikato River Arapuni is a rural town with a population of just over 2 000 residents 4
site location waipa district, waikato region Pohara Marae address is 1036 Oreipunga Rd, Pukeatua which is located in the W...
our maunga sanctuary mountain maungatautari Maunga mountain Tautari upright rock Interpreted as a suspended mountain as it peaked above the fog which blanketed the waikato region Culture History Ecology Economy Tainui tribes involving our client iwi Ng ti Korok have been the settlers on the lower slopes of Maungatautari since the 16th century after the first inhabitation by the Ngati Kahupungapunga Ng ti Korok still remain one of the tangatawhenua people of the land to the present day Land use change Maungatautari has long been visited by explorers missionaries and traders since the European settlement in 19th century Maungatautari is a great symbolic significance for Maori and pakeha who live under the influence of the mana of the mountain having been celebrated in waiata Waiata Aroha mo Petera Pukutua Behold the mist suspended high up yonder On the peak of Maunga Tautari which causes me to weep 5 Maori cultivations and bush have been cleared from the lower slopes taken by farms with pasture with the increase of ownership by pakeha since the early 20th century Sheep and beef farming predominated until the dairy industry established after the First World War 1918 Change on infrastructure Old Maori foot tracks have been upgraded to accommodate horse drawn vehicles and later motor vehicles Change in ecological status Early introduction of rabbits and possum in the 1950s greatly affected the ecological welfare of the mountain The Maungatautari Ecological Island Trust was formed in 2002 to restore forest from having been logged and to reintroduce species enclosing 3 400 ha with a 47km predator proof fence preserving and visualizing New Zealand the way it used to be with flourishing flora and fauna Native habitat for rare birds like kiwi k k takah hihi stitchbirds Tourist attractions Walking trails among native trees 16m high canopy viewing platform guided night walks under cover of darkness confrence and attraction centre in future development plans on the western sie of mountain
our maunga  sanctuary mountain maungatautari    Maunga     mountain    Tautari     upright rock Interpreted as    a suspen...
our awa We are mo u nta i n s M o u nt a i n s a re u s M au n ga a re o u r a n cesto rs S o i s o u r Wa i k ato R i ver waikato river Waikato flowing water Hydrology Many tributaries feed into this longest river 220 miles long in New Zealand It begins at Tongariro National Park more specifically Mt Ruapheu It meanders through the volcanic plateau through the towns of Cambridge Hamilton and Nagarawhahia It then travels north towards meremere then travels west to Port Waikato Used to be an important access route for the Maoris and early European settlers Many ancestors where buried in the river which has caused a number of challenegs for the local tribes Hydro electricity Main source of hydro electricity in the North Island of New Zealand many dams having been constructed along the upper regions between Karapiro and Lake Taupo Tourist attraction recreational activities Offers great kayaking boating and trout fishing spots Lake karipiro holds triathalon kayaking and rowing world championships z Cycling trails Wakiato River Trails 100km exhibiting from native forest to hydro dams suspension bridges and exhilarating downhills for mountain bikers along its banks Pohara Marae in proximity to Karapiro and Arapuni sections of the Waikato River Trails Boardwalks Arapuni suspension bridge in Arapuni section of the river 6
our awa       We are mo u nta i n s. M o u nt a i n s a re u s. M au n ga a re o u r a n cesto rs. S o i s o u r Wa i k at...
site analysis soil rock types Soils in the area vary depending on the morphology of the surorunding land A lot of erosion has taken place moslty due to Waikato River This has caused deposotion of smaller particels in lower elevations Higher elevations have a large composition of lava flow and harder rock types such as grewacke yet still have a blanket of fertile land softer soils This is mostly due to the lahar depsotis from Taupo caused by Mt Taupo eruption In particular Undifferentiated clays sands silts and tephra lay in the flood plain alluviums at edges and surrounding the meandering Waikato River This provides soft soil types and conditions for vegetation to grow well as the water is easly drained It was meantioned by the iwi that there is little flooding in the area except for when the dam was blocked Clement Fuller Holt 2012 Derbyshire Dijkstra Smalley 1995 On site visit it was clear there was a larger amount of fertile soil due the touch A number of areas had soft gritty like textured rock faces which had been exposed On some of the larger hills it was clear that some of the rock layers had water movement that carved out deep valleys 7
site analysis  soil rock types     Soils in the area vary depending on the morphology of the surorunding land. A lot of er...
land use capabilities In the Waikato region the soils of smaller sediemtns hold magnesium calcium and potassium due to volcanic activity NZ Derbyshire Dijkstra Smalley 1995 Soils 2011 This makes good production for dairy farming and seasonal crop rotation as seen by 1 4 Arable land on map Steeper slopes have low non arable land due to the smaller amount of nutrients and slightly higher acidic levels in the soils Yet within this area the soil is still quite fertile and ative exotic vegetation growth Deer beef sheep farming has taken place or has the potential too The angle of the slope has more of an effect on the protein produced in the muscles of a number of these farming types expect vegetation Dairy farming does not require steeper slopes yet some rolling relief is suggested Dairy NZ 2015 For Pohara marae the land is highly arable due to the accident path of Waikato river deposits and alluviums clearly seen on the map in redbrown Similar to the marae other settlements such as have settled on the higher side of arable land surrounded by less populated fertile land 8
land use capabilities     In the Waikato region, the soils of smaller sediemtns hold magnesium, calcium and potassium due ...
slope From rolling relief to gullies to steep terrain and channeling valleys Pohara context seems to have a variety of slope angles This creates oppurtiy for a number of different activites or asthetics Around the river there is much rolling relief with the occanisonal gully or cliff as we sore by the Surround cliffs at the marae However due to some of the lahar and lava despoits from manugatauturi the context has some larger 9
slope     From rolling relief to gullies to steep terrain and channeling valleys, Pohara context seems to have a variety o...
aspect Identifying a north East aspect of the site vacinity becomes important when looking at revegetation and which species will thrive in a northerly asepct along with morning and evening suns Clement Fuller Holt 2012 This is a indication of the prevailing winds westerly as to whether these will have an impact on the site or not Complemented by slope we can see the Southern westerly winds will come into effect for the site 10
aspect     Identifying a north- East aspect of the site vacinity becomes important when looking at revegetation and which ...
hydrology Over the recent period 2010 2014 the part of Waikato River that is in proximity to Pohara Marae has been at the 50 excellent and 40 satisfactory level of water quality for supporting aquatic life and not excellent but 85 satisfactory for contact recreation like swimming The part examined is the middle point of Waikato River which is discovered at the excellent water quality in Taupo in the upper Waikato River flowing down to Tuakau Bridge of where the water quality gets worse as the land use gets more intensive The key catchment area around the marae is Waitete Stream which subsequently feeds into Waikato River catchment Hydrological problems advised during the site visit spring that has dried up placement of spillways caused flow changes of the streams and concerned farmers with the resultant erosion problems smelly rocks caused by bones flown out from caves on river banks when dams were built 11
hydrology     Over the recent period 2010 - 2014, the part of Waikato River that is in proximity to Pohara Marae has been ...
infrastructure Pohara Marae is about 15 2km 15min by a vehicle distant from the State Highways The networks of roads that are developed directly along the streamlines need to be considered for any impact of stormwater pollution on stream health The closest town to the Marae is Arapuni a small village with a population of around 2 190 usual residents in accordance to 2013 Census map that is home to a hydro electric power station and dam Arapuni is renowned for tourism opportunities with access for fishing from the Arapuni Dam Bridge recreational activities like water skiing boating and fishing from Jones Landing and a tramping and cycling experience from the Waikato River Trails 12
infrastructure     Pohara Marae is about 15.2km  15min by a vehicle  distant from the State Highways.     The networks of ...
archaeology The circles on the map of monotones represent the historical landscape that has been preserved for at least 500 years after the settlement of Maori tribes around the lower slopes of Mt Maungatautari P and Maori kainga on the north and east of Maungatautari are survived by the Ngati Koriki Kahukura marae of Maungatautari and Pohara Pohara Marae is located in between Mt Maungatautari and Waikato River among with clusters of P s Most of the archaeological sites 60 70 are P Maori village or defensive settlement on foot hills This reflects how Maori ancestors have wisely used the advantages of the dynamic contour allied with a frost free environment that had been suitable for growing the Polynesian crop of kumara and taro The heritage sites that are notable for tourist attraction like Arapuni Dam and Suspension Bridge are found on the eastern side of Waikato River Tracks for walking hiking and cycling have been developed across Maunga and along Awa paying visits to some of the archaeological and heritage sites 13
archaeology     The circles on the map of monotones represent the historical landscape that has been    preserved    for a...
existing land uses covers The most common land cover is grasslands expected to be intensively managed for grazing in dairy production and can be cultivated With the overall rolling contours surrounding Mt Maungatautari the open grassed fields are prone to erosion The isolated patches of vegetation illustrate the significant need of connectiviy for sustaining ecological habitats and diversity Mt Maungatautari is identified as a significantly large source of New Zealand flora and fauna Some portions of the site including within the boundary of the Marae are already established with manuka and kanuka which could be one of the key native species in our planting materials with medicinal effects Ko te Kai too Ronga Ko te Ronga to Kai Let your food be your medicine and medicine be your food 14
existing land uses   covers     The most common land cover is grasslands, expected to be intensively managed for grazing i...
strategies concept hauora health Ko au te whenua te whenua ko au I am the land and the land is me Hauora is a health concept implemented in schools to promote all aspects of health The concept is based on a Whare all four walls of a whare represent all four dimensions of hauora since they influence and support the other and do not function in isolation The four dimensions are Taha tinana Physical well being Taha hinengaro Mental and emotional well being Taha whanau Social well being Taha wairua Spiritual well being We have used this as a base of our conceptual idea and strategy plan but have adapted it to be more specific to Papatuanuku the land the mother of all things who nourishes all life She is the foundation she is the physical and spiritual basis of life her well being is important taha tinana physical Economic well being The resources the land has to offer at its broadest sense taha hinengaro mental emotional Hydrological well being Hydrological since rivers run as fluid as thoughts taha whanau social Ecological well being Ecology the relationship living things have with its surroundings taha wairua spiritual Cultural well being The places that hold the essence of the land 15
strategies concept  hauora - health    Ko au te whenua, te whenua ko au I am the land and the land is me  Hauora is a heal...
This diagram represents our interpretation of sustainable landscape and how the four aspects of it interact Economic ecology and hydrology overlap but culture is what drives a manmade sustainable landscape holding the three together 16
This diagram represents our interpretation of sustainable landscape and how the four aspects of it interact. Economic, eco...
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sub strategy a arable land use capabilities vegetation Fragmented vegetation exists throughout the site mostly created through european settlers clearing the surrounding landscape Large amounts of native vegetation was either burnt off for pasture or used as wood production The aim is to replensih the vegetaion in areas to provide a stable and balanced income between land use and vegetation regrowth Opportunities Selecting the correct location for short rotation crops seasonal crops and stock grazing is essential for utilising the best positions towards re vegetation of the surrounding landscape The need for farming production to consume the entire landscape would threaten the chance of native vegetation becoming established throughout selected sites therefore a compromising approach is needed to establish a balance between ecology and economic gain Planting of native species within selected positions amongst the arable land is less likely to be effected by production this also creates the opportunity to increase the biodiversity within the landscape Native species are able to withstand less nutrient rich soils however regrowth of Pines for example will increase potassium and phosphate in the soils This allows undergrowth and a heircahy of native planting to occur similar to that seen in the local maunga 18
sub-strategy a.  arable land use capabilities   vegetation Fragmented vegetation exists throughout the site, mostly create...
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sub strategy b sub strategy c Hydrologly can act as a transport further influencing the re vegetation of an area once the source has been established Due to the impact of hydrological flow in the area the land has become imprinted with meandering rivers lake bowls and gentle steep gullies This creates and removes oppurtunites for land useage around the context Water is a vital connection to the local Iwi and how land use can be applied throughout the landscape ecology hydrology Opportunities Introduction of staged native plantings along valleys and gullies allowing regrowth along stream edges Seeds and pollen can travel down waterways creating a source for re vegetation further afield aiding in filtration of waterways in a number of areas This also creates a bridge between fragmented ecosystems that exist in the surrounding environment Riperian planting filtrates waterways allowing fish species to thrive or be introduced Planting near waterways provides a natural pathway to the site creating a link between Maunga and Marae Farming is less likely to occur on or near a streams buffer zone and therefore provide a green passgae for Avian species to travel land use hydrology Opportunities Short rotational crops to be repeated further in larger flat alluvial plains due to the softer soils This allows for the Hapu to retain a stable income and link to the waterways This can be clearly seen by the historical water movements of the Waikato river flowing through the site Strategic placement of buildings and the stabilisation of stream or river banks will mitigate the effects of pollutants entering the waterways This also prevents acidic soils and rock types coming to the surface as it s currently covered with fertile soils Placement and management of farming runoff kept to a minimum to migate any effects to waterways Allow the waterways to provide a food source for fish species such as Lond fin Tuna 20
sub-strategy b.  sub-strategy c.  Hydrologly can act as a transport, further influencing the re-vegetation of an area once...
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final strategy potential land uses The final strategy is a composition of a thorough analysis of the surrounding landscape with slope aspect arable land soil type hydrology vegetation and cultural sites taken into account to provide the best position for rotational crops seasonal crops grazing stock and re vegetation across the landscape This strategy provides a balance between continuous economic growth and the establishment of a more complex eco system within the surrounding landscape A more diversified use of the landscape from stock grazing allows for other types of income to be established within the Marae providing more stable revenue This also allows other members of the Hapu to become more involved within the daily operations of the Marae labour intensive jobs such as harvesting of crops and the re vegetation of the landscape will allow everyone to play their part This type of recommended land use will also allow the Marae to form a stronger relationship with the landscape forming an overall healthier eco system that benefits all 22
final strategy.  potential land uses The final strategy is a composition of a thorough analysis of the surrounding landsca...
reference LITERATURE RESEARCH Clement A Fuller I Holt K 2012 145 121 Introdction to Geogrpahy Retrived from massey ac nz Dairy NZ 2015 Waipa sustainable milk plans Retrieved from http www dairynz co nz environment in your region waikato environmental policy waipa sustainable milk plans Derbyshire E Dijkstra T Smalley I 1995 Genesis an Properties of Collapsible Soils Louborough UK Springer Science Business media Dordrect Hamilton and Waikato Tourism 2016 Natural habitat Retrieved from http www hamiltonwaikato com experiences natural habitat Hamilton and Waikato Tourism 2016 Waikato river trails Retrieved from http www hamiltonwaikato com experiences cycling waikato river trails marae 2016 In Online M ori Dictionary Retrieved from http maoridictionary co nz search idiom phrase proverb loan histLoanWords keywords marae NZ Soils 2011 Soils data resources Retreived from http www nzsoils org nz PageFiles 233 SoilsOfNZ 20By 20Region pdf p hara 2016 In Online M ori Dictionary Retrieved from http maoridictionary co nz word 5709 P hara Marae Committee 2013 Submission to the M ori Affairs Select Committee on Raukawa Claims Settlement Bill Retrieved from http www parliament nz resource mi nz 50SCMA_EVI_00DBHOH_BILL12285_1_A357579 10a50e93521a7b6430cf20c3585a41cfd15fb3ec Schofield J 1966 Waikato River In A McLintock Ed Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand Retrieved from http www TeAra govt nz en 1966 waikato river Scott J n d History of Maungatautari Received from http www maungatrust org files 6648 History 20of 20Maungatautari pdf South Waikato District Council 2014 Arapuni Retrieved from http www southwaikato govt nz our district living here Pages Arapuni aspx Statistics NZ 2013 2013 Census map Retrieved from http www stats govt nz StatsMaps Home People 20and 20households 2013 census quickstats about aplace map aspx Swarbrick N 2015 June 3 Waikato places Kakepuku to Maungatautari Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand Retrieved from http www TeAra govt nz en waikato places page 11 23 Te Kete Ipurangi n d Well being hauora Retrieved from http health tki org nz Teaching in HPE Health and PE in the NZC Health and PE in the NZC 1999 Underlying concepts Well being hauora Waikato Regional Council 2014 Narrows Bridge Retrieved from http www waikatoregion govt nz Environment Natural resources Water Rivers Waikato River map Narrows bridge Woodward Ltda 2016 April 6 Maori proverbs Retrieved from http www maori cl Proverbs htm ADDITIONAL GIS DATA RESOURCES Land Information New Zealand 2015 NZ Walking and Biking Tracks Retrieved from https data linz govt nz layer 2100 nz walking and biking tracks
reference LITERATURE RESEARCH Clement, A., Fuller, I.,   Holt, K.  2012 . 145.121 Introdction to Geogrpahy. Retrived from ...