The  

Civil War

A war between citizens of the same nation

States

  • Maine
  • New York
  • New Hampshire
  • Vermont
  • Massachussetts
  • Connecticut
  • Rhode Island
  • Pennsylvania
  • New Jersey
  • Ohio,
  • Indiana
  • Illinois
  • Kansas
  • Michigan
  • Wisconsin
  • Minnesota
  • Iowa
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Oregon 

Nicknames

  •  Union
  • Yankees

The North

Leaders

  • Abraham Lincoln
  • George E. McClellan
  • William Tecumseh Sherman
  • David Farragut

 

Strengths

  • larger population
  • more industry
  • more abundant resources
  • better banking system
  • possessed more ships and more efficient railway network
  • had Abraham Lincoln on their side

 

Strategies

  • blockade Southern ports to prevent the South from recieving supplies and earning money by exporting cotton
  • gain control of the Mississippi RIver to cut Southern supply lines and divide the Confederacy
  • take control of Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital

Weaknesses

  • faced difficulties in bringing the Southern states back into the Union
  • the South had a good chance of winning
  • weaker military leadership 
  • were fighting in unfamilar territory

War Aims

  • bring the Southern states back into the Union
  • ending slavery 

States

  • South Carolina
  • Georgia
  • Florida
  • Alabama
  • Mississippi
  • Lousiana
  • Texas
  • Virginia
  • Arkansas
  • North Carolina
  • Tennessee

Strategies

  •  defend its homeland; hold onto as much territory as possible until the North tired of fighting
  •  attack Washington D.C., and other Northern cities, to perusade the North that it could not win the war

Nicknames

  •  Confederates
  • Rebels

The South

Leaders

  • Jefferson Davis
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson 

 

Strengths

  •  figthing in familiar territory
  • stronger military leadership 
  • support for war remained strong

 

Weaknesses

  • smaller population of free men to draw upon in building an army
  • possessed very few factories to manufacture weapons and other supplies
  • food production less than half than that of the North's
  • belief in states' rights 

War Aims

  •  win recognition as an independent nation

Secession Events & Causes of Civil War

The Peculiar Institution

The Kansas - Nebraska Act 

The Kansas - Nebraska Act of 1854 not only

allowed the establishment of Kansas and Nebraska as two separate territories, but was the product of a dispute over another issue of slavery. After much contemplation, Stephen A. Douglas initiated a plan to find a solution to the situation at hand by first suggesting to abandon the Missouri Compromise and replace it with popular sovereignty. This angered the Northerners, but gained much support from the south. Thus, Congress passed the bill to repeal the Missouri Compromise, replacing it with the Kansas - Nebraska Act of 1854. Regardless, the bill still  resulted in deep divisions within the House.

The Peculiar Institution refers to the African

American slavery spreading around the world, namely in the United States. During the time that this practice was legal (250 years), approximately 645,000 African Americans were imported. The controversy associated with slavery divided the nation and began to split the country into two groups; north and south; free and slave.

 

        The secession was the act of a withdrawal from the Union and this act was started by South Carolina on December 20, 1860. Even after this act many still hoped to preserve the Union. Even though some states wanted to preserve the Union by February 1861, Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama,  Georgia, and Florida had joined South Carolina in the secession. Delegates from each state met together and decided to call themselves the Confederates while making Jefferson, a senator from Mississippi, their president. Many Southerners believed that they were justifying the acts of secession by the theory of states’ rights.

Once news of the Kansas-Nebraska Act

had spread to the proslavery and antislavery groups, supporters from each began to journey into Kansas in hopes of increasing their side’s chances to win in the upcoming election. During this process, the two groups were doing everything they can to win the election, and eventually, things had gotten out of hand. In one episodes, abolitionist John Brown killed five proslavery settlers in defense of his belief, resulting in his own death.

 

Bleeding Kansas

The Election of 1860

       The election of 1860 sparked much controversy and had a key role in initiating the Civil War. The presidential candidates were Stephen Douglas  for the Northern Democrats, John Breckinridge for the Southern Democrats, and Abraham Lincoln for the Republicans. The republican’s platform was that slavery should remain where it currently existed, but be excluded from the territories. Lincoln won the election with 180 out of 303 electoral votes, and 40% of the popular vote, though he was not on the Southern ballot. His win enraged the South and divide the country even more.

"Why?"

  • April 12, 1861: Confederacy opened fire upon Fort Sumner

  • April 14, 1861: Union surrendered after 33 hours of being held hostage

"What?"

"When?"

The Battle of Fort Sumter was started by the Confederates on April 12, 1861. President Lincoln had originally sent an unarmed expeditions to Fort Sumter to gather Union supplies. However, the plan suddenly changed. Confederate president Jefferson Davis saw this as a chance to exhibit their superiority. So, Confederate forces were sent to Fort Sumter, where they attacked the Union garrison.

The Battle of Fort Sumter is marked as the fierce bombardment that initiated the American Civil War. The Union Garrison remained there in Fort Sumter for 33 hours, unable to receive help from Union relief ships due to high seas, until they finally surrendered on April 14 of 1861. It is said that although thousands of shots were fired, zero casualties resulted from the battle.

Battle of Fort Sumter

"Who?"

  • North

    • President Abraham Lincoln

    • Major Robert Anderson

    • Governor Francis Pickens

  • South

    • Confederate Jefferson Davis

    • Abner Doubleday

"Outcome?"

In the first battle of the American Civil War, the Confederates took the victory with no casualties whatsoever from either side. While this did mean good news for the South, this only motivated President Lincoln to save the Union. He gathered 75,000 troops who voluntarily signed up for the job. The South also took action and seemed to also witness growth in the Confederacy when Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas voted to break off from the Union.

"Where?"

  • Fort Sumter: United States fort on an island guarding Charleston Harbor in South Carolina

"Why?"

"What?"

"When?"

The first major battle of the Civil War took place in northern Virginia near Bull Run. Hundreds of people from Washington D.C. came to watch the action, confident that the Union would surely win. The troops from both sides were on an equal level of experience, which was none at all. However, the Rebels still managed to win using strategies from General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, scaring away the Union soldiers with the Rebel yell.

After the Union’s loss at Fort Sumter, President Lincoln assembled troops to save the Union. Lincoln even set up a naval blockade that affected the South’s ability to export cotton and import supplies. This assured the minds of the North that victory will come. Still, the South was confident as well, and took home yet another victory for the Confederacy.

First Battle of Bull Run

July 21, 1861

"Who?"

  • North

    • Corporal Samuel J. English

  • South

    • General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

"Outcome?"

The First Battle of Bull Run was the second victory for the Confederates, and a shock to the North. Still, President Lincoln prepared another call for volunteers willing to join the Union army, signing two bills in the process. These bills called for 1 million soldiers who would serve for three years in the army. George B. McClellan was also added into the mix to head the army and organize troops.

"Where?"

 

  • Northern Virginia, five miles from Manassas Junction near Bull Run river

 

"Why?"

"What?"

"When?"

After Grant’s officer’s unsuccessful attempt at retrieving a rebel battery, Grant created a barrier around Fort Donelson by moving a flotilla up the Cumberland River, creating problems for the Confederates. However, the Confederates attacked the Union, startling the Yankees. Although the Rebels caught the Union off guard, the Union still won because of the Confederate general’s life-changing mistake.

Union commander Ulysses Grant was making a name for himself as he transferred from Cairo, Illinois to Kentucky and Tennessee. After capturing Fort Henry, they travelled to Fort Donelson. In an attempt to capture a rebel battery, which was unsuccessful, one of Grant’s officers caused the Battle of Fort Donelson. Still, Grant succeeded in capturing the fort, earning his nickname “Unconditional Surrender.”

February 11-16, 1862

Battle of Fort Donelson

"Who?"

  • North

    • Commander Ulysses Grant

  • South

    • General Gideon Pillow

"Outcome?"

The Battle of Fort Donelson resulted in the loss of 12,000 captured and wounded and 1,400 wounded and killed for the Confederate side. The Union lost around 2,700 of the 24,500 troops that participated. The battle was also a success for the Union, but a great loss for the Confederacy. They lost both Kentucky and Tennessee, while the Union was able to secure the lower Tennessee River and gain paths for their troops to pass through in Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama. This was completed by Ulysses S. Grant, who gained popularity for his accomplishments in the Union Army and the Civil War itself.

"Where?"

 

  • Fort Donelson, Tennessee

 

"Why?"

"What?"

"When?"

Also known as the Battle of the Ironclads (Monitor and Merrimack), this battle was marked as the most famous naval battle of the American Civil War. Putting the nation’s first ironclads against each other, the Battle of Hampton Roads was ironically all on water with absolutely no roads. The South’s Virginia was initially under the North’s ownership and known as the Merrimack , but after seizing the Union naval shipyard in Norfolk, Virginia, the Confederates rebuilt an abandoned warship into an ironclad. Soon, the Union created its own ironclad, the Monitor,  which helped to keep the Merrimack in the Harbor. Even so, neither ship managed to overcome the other, leaving the North and the South with no victory.

The Battle of Hampton Roads was the result of the Confederate effort to interrupt the Union blockade of Southern ports. The Confederates’ tool to complete this task was the Merrimack. Once a Union warship, the Merrimack was soon turned into an ironclad called the Virginia by the South. As a result, the North also built an ironclad named the Monitor, and on March 9, the two ships engaged in battle.

Battle of Hampton Roads

March 8-9, 1862

"Who?"

  • North

    • Louis M. Goldsborough

    • USS Monitor

  • South

    • Franklin Buchanan

    • USS Merrimack

"Outcome?"

"Where?"

As fierce as the battle was, the winner was inconclusive. However, it did result in a new age in warfare, inspiring the two sides to continue building more iron-clad ships. It also resulted in 500 Union casualties, while there were 100 Confederate casualties.

  • Off Sewell’s Point, near Hampton Roads, Norfolk, Virginia

"Why?"

"What?"

"When?"

The Union was headed toward Corinth, Mississippi where they traveled 20 miles further to Pittsburg Landing and camped near a church called Shiloh. The Union troops from Nashville came to join General Grant when the Confederate forces opened a surprise attack on them on April 6 of 1862, initiating the Battle of Shiloh which would leave thousands of casualties among both sides.

Once the most bloody battle of the war had begun with the Rebels’ surprise attack on the Union troops, the Confederates took the lead, driving the Union troops back to the Tennessee River. But by the next day, the Union regained their strength, taking the Confederates down with the creation of a blockade by gunboats on the river and an additional 25,000 troops from Nashville.

Battle of Shiloh

April 6-7, 1862

"Who?"

  • North

    • General Ulysses S. Grant

  • South

    • Albert Sidney Johnston

"Outcome?"

Although the Battle of Shiloh was the Union’s victory, both sides suffered from thousands of casualties: a total of 20,000, including the Confederate general Johnston. With this victory, the Union received control of Corinth, and later, gained Memphis, Tennessee as well, making their way to their next target: the Mississippi River.

"Where?"

  • Pittsburg Landing. Hardin County, Tennessee

  • Corinth, Tennessee

"Why?"

"What?"

"When?"

General Pope’s troops, along with McClellan’s, were the first to engage in battle with Stonewall Jackson’s troops at Manassas, the same ground in which the First Battle of Bull Run was fought. However, instead of leading the Union into success like Lincoln had hoped, Pope proved to be an equally unable general as McClellan, whom he had replaced. Due to this, the Jackson was able to lead the Confederates into victory.

The first attempt at capturing Richmond under the control of General George B. McClellan failed miserably due to McClellan’s inability to follow Lincoln’s orders. So, another call for volunteers was made, and the Union tried a second time, hoping for success under Major General John Pope.

August 28 – 30, 1862

Second Battle of Bull Run

"Who?"

  • North

    • Major General John Pope

  • South

    • Stonewall Jackson

"Outcome?"

Compared to the First Battle of Bull Run, the Second Battle of Bull Run was much larger, as well as the number of casualties. For the Union, there was around 14,000 who were killed or wounded, and for the Confederates 8,000. The Second Battle of Bull Run was also Confederate triumph over Union forces. This left the city of Richmond in peace. The battle also helped the Confederates draw nearer to the Union’s capital, Washington, D.C.

"Where?"

Manassas, Virginia

"Why?"

"What?"

"When?"

The Battle of Antietam was fought at Sharpsburg, Maryland near Antietam Creek on September 17, 1862, even though it could’ve been four days earlier because of the discovery made by Union soldiers of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s orders. The whole battle was fierce, marking its spot at the #1 single bloodiest day in American history.

Confederate president Jefferson Davis planned to launch an attack into Maryland in order to gain support from Britain and France, if they won. He then hoped to persuade Maryland to join the Confederacy. However, McClellan soon figured out this plan and could’ve used it to his advantage, but failed to approach the opportunity effectively.

September 17, 1862

Battle of Antietam

"Who?"

  • North

    • Major General George B. McClellan

  • South

    • General Robert E. Lee

"Outcome?"

This war resulted in 6,000 soldiers killed and 17,000 wounded, however neither was destroyed. Though the Union had won, for the Confederate troops decided to retreat to Virginia. This caused problems for McClellan, as he once again did not follow Lincoln’s orders, which resulted in his loss of command. The Union victory also prevented the British from sharing its support for the South, who was unable to gain international recognition and support.

"Where?"

  • Sharpsburg, Washington County, Maryland

"Why?"

"What?"

"When?"

More men engaged in the Battle of Fredericksburg than in any other battle in the American Civil War. The first major opposed river crossing in American history was also started by the Confederates, who interrupted the Union’s attempt at crossing the Rappahannock River. Burnside’s order that the Rebels be shelled was quick, but a failure. From that day until the end of the battle, the Union was unsuccessful at overcoming the Confederates.

Major General Ambrose E. Burnside was the replacement for George E. McClellan. President Abraham Lincoln was relying on Burnside to bring home a victory in order to shine more light on and win political backing for the Emancipation Proclamation. Burnside planned to make a direct attack on Richmond, Virginia by taking the troops to Falmouth, then across the Rappahannock River from Fredericksburg, to the Confederate capitol.

December 11-15, 1862

Battle of Fredericksburg

"Who?"

  • North

    • Major General Ambrose E. Burnside

  • South

    • General Robert E. Lee

"Outcome?"

During this five-day battle, the Union suffered a loss at 13,000 casualties, and the Confederacy at 5,000. The Confederacy also came out as the victor in this battle, even though they had been outnumbered. This ashamed Burnside, as he could not prove himself as an adequate replacement , so he decided to ask permission to resign in which Lincoln accepted.

"Where?"

  • Fredericksburg, Virginia

"Why?"

"What?"

"When?"

The Battle of Chancellorsville started out as the Union’s attempt at outflanking the Confederate army. However, Lee effectively halted Hooker’s plan by dividing his army, leading the Union troops into defensive positions, which Lee fought back with another division of his army. This would lead Lee into his most successful victory yet, but the biggest loss of the Confederate army.

Major General Joe Hooker replaced General Burnside after Burnside resigned from his position. Being the third replacement in a row, Lincoln hoped for Hooker to be the right choice. So, Hooker planned to outflank the Confederate Army and avenge the Union’s losses. Lee, on the other hand, was on a spree of wins, determined to bring home another one.

April 30 – May 6, 1863

Battle of Chancellorsville

"Who?"

  • North

    • Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker

  • South

    • Gen. Robert E. Lee

"Outcome?"

The Battle of Chancellorsville resulted in 14,000 Union casualties and 10,000 Confederate. Although the Confederates proved triumphant once again, they had lost one of their strongest assets, General Stonewall Jackson. This loss proved to have made the Confederacy weaker in future battles.

"Where?"

  • Chancellorsville, Spotsylvania County, Virginia

"Why?"

"What?"

"When?"

This battle consisted of two parts: the First Assault on Vicksburg and the Second Assault on Vicksburg. In the First Assault, the Union decided set bombardments up with naval vessels while Grant advanced overland. The Confederate general Forrest, however, met up with Grant, destroying Grant's rail supply line, while also giving Confederate general Earl Van Dorn time to capture his supply base as well.

President Abraham Lincoln thought that capturing Vicksburg would be vital instrument in the ending of the Civil War. The reason being was the fact that the control of the city would result in the severance of the Trans-Mississippi Confederacy all the way from the east of the Mississippi river. It would also allow Northern traffic along the river, one of the primary goals of the Union.

May 18-July 4, 1863

Assault on Vicksburg

"Who?"

  • North

    • Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant

  • South

    • Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton

"Outcome?"

In this battle, there were 4,800 Union casualties and 3,300 Confederate casualties with nearly 30,000 captured. This was also a major win for the Union as it helped them attain one of their primary goals to finally bring closure to the Civil War. It deeply divided the Confederacy by the east and the west. It also brought more attention to Grant as a general, who was later promoted to commander in which his decisions shortened the war, but also prolonged incarceration for prisoners.

"Where?"

  • Vicksburg, Mississippi. Warren County

 

"Why?"

"What?"

"When?"

In Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the Union cavalry initiated the battle by attacking the Confederate infantry when they'd been in search for shoes. Although outnumbered, the Northerners struck back the second day, counterattacking the Rebels when they launched another assualt. On the third day, General George Pickett led his Confederate soldiers into an attack that unfortunately failed miserably.

Lee's goal was to obtain another victory so as to gain support from Britain and France. So, he moved north in June with his army of 75,000 Rebels. Hooker, on the other hand, set his eyes on Richmond, only, Lincoln advised him to go after Lee's army. Still, he stuck with his idea, which resulted in his being reolaced with General George Meade. Meade planned to avoid any Confederate Attack on Washington or Baltimore.

July 1-3, 1863

Battle of Gettysburg

"Who?"

  • North

    • General George G. Meade

  • South

    • General Robert E. Lee

"Outcome?"

The Battle of Gettysburg was the largest battle in the history of the American Civil War as well as all of North America. Both sides suffered heavy losses, the Union with 23,049 and the Confederates with 28,063. However, the these casualties plus the loss of the battle hit the South hard. It was definitely a turning point for the Confederacy and even the Civil War itself, but it would take them two more years to finally solve the conflict between the two divisions.

"Where?"

  • Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in Adams County

After Grant succeeded

in capturing the Confederate capital of Richmond, Lee decided that there was no longer any hope for the Confederacy. So, he and his troops traveled to a village in Virginia called Appomattox Court House to finally bring the long-awaited closure Lincoln had been hoping for. The terms that the Confederates were given by Grant were generally simple. They were required to draw back their arms in order to receive their permission to go home. In addition, they were allowed to keep their horses and were provided with a three-day supply of food for hungry troops. Soon after this history-changing event, North Carolina’s forces also surrendered.

Surrender at Appomattox & Terms of Surrender

On April 27, 1822, in Point Pleasant, Ohio, the Grant family welcomed into the world Ulysses S. Grant. Little did they know that he would become the Union’s lieutenant general in America’s biggest war and have the privilege to lead the nation.

Ulysses S. Grant had a strong role in the American Civil War. He fought and won several of the battles that made up the war, including Battle of Fort Donelson, Battle of Shiloh, Siege of Vicksburg, Siege of Petersburg, and more. Grant participated in some of the war’s major events as well, such as the Chattanooga Campaign, Overland Campaign,  and the Surrender at Appomattox.

After his experience as a veteran of the Civil War, he became the eighteenth president of the United States of America in 1868. During his presidency, however, his administration was ruined by a scandal, while in his second term, he struggled to get the nation through one of its worst financial crisis, the Panic of 1873.

Despite the hardships he faced, Ulysses

Grant is still remembered for his vital presence in the American Civil War.

Ulysses S. Grant

Robert E. Lee was born onJanuary 19,

1807 in Stratford Hall, Virginia. He would later become one of the most respected of all Civil War commanders.

    Lee, an iconic Civil war device, originally opposed secession, but he felt in heart to stay loyal to his native state. So, he resigned from the U.S. Army and later commanded the largest Confederate army., where he proved to be one of the greatest assets to the army. The battles he fought and won for the Confederacy serve as the impact he made in the Civil War. Those battles included the Battle of Fredericksburg, Battle of Antietam, Battle of Gettysburg, and several more.

    Later during the war, his confrontation with Ulysses S. Grant led him to his surrender. Time after time, he was defeated, proving he found an equally competitive commander as him. Finally, at the Appomattox Court House, he and his troops surrendered to Grant. Other troops soon followed his actions.

    Although the Confederate States of America had lost the Civil War, that will never change the impact Robert E. Lee left on the history of America.

Robert E. Lee

Life during the Civil War did not only affect soldiers, but American families and civilians as well. It was not a rare occurrence to see brother vs. brother on the battlefield due to the divided sides of the once united nation.

During the Civil War, women were required to take new responsibilities in addition to their daily workload. They took on jobs as teachers, office workers, and even farmworkers. They also assisted in the making of supplies from woven blankets to ammunition needed for soldiers and armies. Woman also served as spies in order to obtain important information from the other side that might be used to their advantage. Two of these iconic spies are Harriet Tubman, who worked for the North, and Bell Boyd, who gathered information for the Confederacy. If they got caught, they were viable to face serious charges. Others worked as nurses who cared for soldiers wounded in battle, despite society’s stereotypes regarding females.

African Americans also experienced drastic changes in their way of life. In 1862, a law was passed that allowed the participation of African Americans in the Union army. However, they were categorized into regiments that were specifically only for African Americans, though their commanders were all white. They received lower pay than white soldiers, but their performance was not affected by this. In fact, 10 percent of the Union and 15 percent of the navy were made up of African Americans. One of the most famous African American regiments was the 54th Massachusetts, who served the Union devotedly and proved to be vital assets to the army.

Life During the Civil War

    The Civil War, although solved, left a devastating impact on the nation, not to mention bitter feelings in the minds of Southerners. The two sides grieved over more than 600,000 deaths, and struggled from billions of lost dollars due to the war, leaving the South in an economical collapse. The transportation system was also greatly affected by the war, which left it in desolation.

    However, what really mattered was that the nation was saved. If not for the North, America would not be what it is today. The federal government would have remained at a weaker state. African American slaves would not have been freed until years later.

Still, questions arose concerning the strategy of how to win back the Southern states and where the African Americans will stand. This period of questioning would lead into the area of Reconstruction, which was where the answers lay.

Results of the Civil War