Civil War: a war between citizens of the same country
By Christine Natal
The South was the other side fighting in the Civil War. They were often known as the Confederacy after they gave themselves that name when they seceded from the Union. The South consisted of 11 states compared to 20 in the north. Those 11 states were South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The president of the Confederacy was Jefferson Davis and the army leader was Robert E. Lee. These states allowed slavery, but didn't allow their slaves to fight in the war. The advantages of the South were that they would be fighting in familiar territory and they would be defending everything of theirs, their families, homes, and ways of life. The South also had a tradition of having family members training in the army. The disadvantages that the South had were that they had little population and they didn't have many factories to make the weapons and the supplies they needed for the war. Since they also had little railways, delivering food and supplies to the troops wasn't easy. The war aim for the South was to gain recognition as an independent nation. Their plan was to get Britain and France on their side to get the North to end the war. But during the war, the South changed their mind about the plan and went on the offensive side and attacked. The troops of the South were known as the Rebels during the war.
The causes of the Civil War were the debate between free and slave states. When Stephen Douglas proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, after nullifing the Missouri Compromise, and let the people choose whether to allow freedom in the states. People started to get angry because if the states passed as free states, the southern states would be outnumbered in the Senate. One abolitionist took it too far and led a raid on Harper's Ferry and killed 5 proslavery Kansans. The Southerners were feeling threatened by the North and the power of the Republican party. The election of Abraham Licoln didn't help the issue. The Republican party opposed of slavery, and the South didn't like that. This later caused the southern states to secede, or leave, the Union because they didn't trust the soon-to-be president Abraham Lincoln and the Republican party with their rights. South Carolina took the lead and soon the states that made up the Confederacy joined. They justified their secession with the theory of state's rights. The first shots of the Civil War were fired by the Confederacy at Fort Sumter when Abraham Lincoln sent unarmed men to the fort with supplies for the south. He warned that the Union wouldn't get weapons involved if the Conferderates didn't. Jefferson Davis gave the command to attack the fort and the Union fought back.
Secession Events and Causes of the Civil War
The battle of Hampton Roads was fought on March 8, 1862 and lasted until the next day, March 9, 1862. The Confederates started by smashing the CSS Virginia into the Union's USS Cumberland on the 8th and they kept it going, stopping at nightfall.
What and Why
The battle of Hampton Roads was started by the Confederacy when they crashed their Virginia into the Cumberland. The Virginia lost their iron ram in this move. The Virginia then went towards the USS Congress, more careful with its moves. The battle stopped for the day at nightfall and during the night, the Union made an improved ironclad ship, the USS Monitor. The morning of the 9th, the Virginia went towards the USS Minnesota and out came the new Monitor. the two ships shot at each other but nothing happened. After several hours each ship went to the saftey of shallower waters.
The main leaders of this battle for the Union were General John L. Worden. He led most of the attacks on the opponent's ships. He got wounded in one of the attacks and kept going once he recovered. The Union had 1,400 soldiers fighting.
The outcome of this battle ended up in a draw. Each ship went to shallower waters for safety. The USS Congress did surrender after the Virginia smashed into it, and the Congress had nowhere to go. Even though this battle ended up in a draw, it made a big impact on naval warfare.
The Battle of Hampton Roads
The main leaders of the South were Franklin Buchanan. He was responsible for sinking the ships belonging to the Union the first day of the battle. He got injured after, but helped the Confederacy once he recovered. The South had 188, much less than the Union.
The battle of Hampton Raods was fought in Seawell's Point, in the city of Norfolk, Virginia. The actual battle was fought in the Hampton Roads which is a body of water and the city-like environment in Virginia.
The Battle of Second Bull Run took place on August 28-30, 1862. It started when the Rebels went against Pope's movements on defending Washington and taking the pressure of McClellan's army, and clashed against them.
What and Why
General Robert E.Lee had command of the Confederate army and turned his attention to Pope’s army. Pope had to protect Washington as well as operating northwest to take the tension off General George B. McClellan. Lee was ahead and sent “Stonewall” Jackson against Pope’s army. A victory. Lee wanted to attack the Union troops before McClellan’s men arrived and would outnumber the Rebels greatly. Pope, however didn’t let that happen. James Longstreet’s wing had joined Jackson’s men. Jackson had been ordered to separate the Union’s supply line, and they did overnight. As planned, Pope and his men went after Jackson and were cut off by Lee while Jackson got the rest of the supplies. Jackson was left with the command and Pope thought that they were trying to escape. So he sent scattered forces to attack the Confederates. The Rebels attacked back. Lee wanted to go towards the Union left since it was weak, but Longstreet advised that it was not a good idea. Pope later thought that the Rebels were retreating and attacked them. Lee then ordered a counterattack to the Union’s left. The Union then retreated to Washington’s defenses.
The North had 70,000 troops fighting, and John Pope was the main leader of this battle for the Yankees. He made many attacks on the Rebels but didn't realize that they had well-made plans and always fought back.
The outcome of the battle was a victory to the Confederacy, when the last counterattck made Pope take what was left of his troops to Washington's defense. The Union had lost a total of 13,824 troops in the battle, and the Rebels had lost 8,353 troops.
Battle of Second Bull Run
The South’s major leader was Robert E. Lee. He had all the plans made and all the expected moves of Pope and his men. Lee led his men to this battle’s victory. General T.G Jackson’s men and James Longstreet’s wing of the Army of Northern Virginia joined Lee too. They had 55,000 men fighting in total.
The battle of Second Bull Run was basically fought on the same grounds of the first, in Virginia.
General Joseph Hooker didn’t use his numerical advantage in the battle so the south was able to confront the Yankees in 2 groups and draw them back. The North had 97,382 troops fighting, which was almost twice the number of the Rebels.
The battle of Chancellorsville took place on April 30-May 6, 1863 when the Rebels found some Union troops behind them after the Yankees had crossed a river. Their counterattacks started the battle
What and Why
This war was considered to be Lee’s greatest victory. He was strategic and split his army in 2, going against the Union army that was almost twice his army’s size. Hooker’s numerical advantage was left on its own and instead he fell back to opposing positions. On May 2, "Stonewall" Jackson attacked Hooker’s right flank and successfully ruined his line. When Hooker started defending against Lee’s attacks on May 3, it was the day with the most action and combat. On the last day, May 6, Hooker crossed the Rappahannock River once again, this time retreating because he had lost so many casualties in the battle.
The Confederacy won this battle when Hooker and his men retreated after they had lost so many casualties, the Rebels almost forced them to retreat back to cross the Rappahannock. The Rebels lost the irredeemable “Stonewall” Jackson in this battle when he was severely injured by is own men while inspecting at night. The Union lost 17,304 troops compared to the Confederacy’s 13,460 troops.
Battle of Chancellorsville
General Robert E. Lee split his army in 2, attacking the Yankees, surprising them every time. He was daring when ordering the attacks and making his plans, He was outnumbered greatly, with 57,352 troops to almost 10,000 Union troops.
This battle was fought in Spotsylvania County, Virginia. This is the same place where the battle of Fredericksburg was fought.
Surrender of Appottomax and Terms of Surrender
When 4 years of fighting in battles, losing and winning. General Robert E. Lee was considering to surrender his army to General Ulysses S. Grant. He wrote a letter to Grant and looked for a place to have the meeting. Lt. Colonel Charles Marshall and Private Joshua O. Johns accepted the offer to have the meeting at the McLean’s house. Lee got there first, followed by Grant. They conversed for a while and then Lee brought up the subject of the surrender. Lee asked for the terms and Grant told him they were the same as the ones in the letter he had written. Lee asked for them to be written again. The terms were that the Confederate military equipment would have to be given up and officers and enlisted men would be released. Lee asked if his men would be able to keep their horses for they would need them for when they are back as American citizens. Grant responded that the terms didn’t say they could but allowed them if they claimed it. He also commanded 25,000 rations to be sent to the Confederates went Lee mentioned that they hadn’t had rations for many days. Ulysses S. Grant was very generous that Robert E. Lee was convinced that he had done the right thing and that his men would be able to go back to normal civilian life.
Abraham Lincoln was one of the main people of the Civil War. When he was elected 16th president of the United States, southern states seceded. They didn't trust their rights with the Republican Party. Although the states had seceded, he was careful with every move to keep the border states and what was left of the Union throughout the whole four years of war. He was careful not to take away slavery in some states, because he didn't want to lose some of the border states due to some important locations. His plan was to get the two sides to reunite during the battles, but the plan didn't go as expected. Lincoln decided to make a change and pass the Emancipation Proclamation. General George McClellan failed to obey Lincoln's orders in the battle of Antietam and was replaced with General Ulysses S. Grant. Ulysses did everything the right way and had everything Lincoln wanted in his military leader, After the battle of Gettysburg, Lincoln gave a short speech at the Cemetery of Gettysburg. That speech is the most well-known of all the speeches in his presidency.
Important Person in the Civil War
Important Person in the Civil War
Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee was appointed commander in cheif of the militray and naval forces by Governor Jogn Letcher, when the Civil War had begun. On May 14, 1861, he was promoted to brigadier general and soon to a full general. This was the highest rank at that time. After his failure at his first field command in the west, he was the militray advisor to President Davis. General Joesph E. Johnston was injured in a battle and Lee became the commander of the Army of Virginia. Most of his victories were made due to his aggressive and daring moves compared to those of General George B. McClellan. Lee's most famous victory was the defeat of General Joseph Hooker at the battle of Chancellorsville. After one battle he was charge of being too bloody-minded, and because he was so emotionally engaged in teh fighting, he fought until the nasty end. He surrendered his army to General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865.