IAT Journal Animal Technology and Welfare Management themed issue: G Have you had enough? G Going Green G IAT/LAVA Congress 2013 platform presentations G FELASA/SECAL 2013 posters Official Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology and European Federation of Animal Technologists ISSN 1742-0385 Vol 12 No 3 December 2013
IAT Journal  Animal Technology and Welfare  Management themed issue  G Have you had enough  G Going Green  G IAT LAVA Cong...
OFFICERS President Dr. Robin Lovell-Badge, FRS Immediate Past President Professor Sir Richard Gardner, MA, PhD, FSB, HonFIAT, FRS Vice-Presidents David Anderson, MRCVS Stephen Barnett, BA, MSc, CBiol, FSB, RAnTech John Bleby, TD, JP, DVetMed, DLAS, CBiol, FSB, MRCVS Brian Cass, CBE, Miles Carroll, PhD Gerald Clough, BSc, PhD, EurBiol, CBiol, MSB, SFZSL Paul Flecknell, MA, Vet MB, PhD, DLAS, DipLECVA, MRCVS Barbara Mortimer, BVetMed, DLAS, MRCVS Judy MacArthur-Clark, CBE, BVMS, DLAS, CBiol, FSB, MRCVS Fiona McEwen, BSc, BVM&S, MSc, MRCVS Tim Morris, BVetMed, PhD, DipACLAM, DipECLAM, CBiol, FSB, CertLAS, MRCVS José Orellana, BVSc, MSc, Clive Page, PhD, BSc Sophie Petit-Zeman, PhD, Gail Thompson, RLATG Robert Weichbrod, PhD, RLATG Sheila Whitehead, BVMS, MSc, CertLAS, MRCVS Lord Robert Winston, FMedSci, DSc, FRCOG, FRCP, FRCS Ed, FSB Life Members Roger Francis, MSC, FIAT, RAnTech, Pete Gerson, MSc, FIAT, RAnTech John Gregory BSc (Hons), FIAT, CBiol, FSB, RAnTech Patrick Hayes, FIAT, DipBA, RAnTech, John Kelly, FIAT Robert Kemp, FIAT(Hon) RAnTech, Keith Millican, FIAT, CBiol, MSB Phil Ruddock, MIAT, RAnTech Ted Wills, HonFIAT, RAnTech, Dorothy Woodnott, FIAT Honorary Members John Frogley, FIAT, RAnTech, Andrew Jackson, MIAT, John Lesley, FIAT, RAnTech, Brian Lowe, MSc, FIAT, RAnTech, Ronald Raymond, FIAT, RAnTech, Peter Russell, FIAT, RAnTech, David Spillane, FIAT, Ray Thatcher, FIAT, RAnTech, Peter Willan, DMS, FInstLM, MIAT Animal Technology and Welfare Vol 12 No 3 December 2013 CONTENTS Editorial Jas Barley, Chair of the Editorial Board ix What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility (BSF) managers – a UK perspective. When is enough, enough? Haley Daniels 157 PAPER SUMMARY TRANSLATIONS 165 TECH-2-TECH Avoiding the pitfalls of refurbishment: how to give an animal technician a nervous breakdown! Janet Merrall 169 The paperless animal facility Rob Rutter 175 A defined training programme: something no one should be without Carol Fox 181 Going Green in Ares Brian Gwynne and David Robinson 184 Are you ready for a disaster? Carol Smee and Lynda Westall 191 Making use of a laser pointer as a training and enrichment tool: A discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum Anthony Ferraro, Rebecca Brunelli, Stefanie Nelsen, Genevieve Andres-Kelly, Polly Schultz and Viktor Reinhardt (Moderator) 195 Recruiting animal technologists? It pays to avoid the common pitfalls! Claire Bell, Norman Mortell and Tim McGuire 197 Members of Council *Ken Applebee, Jas Barley, Kate Burton, *Charlie Chambers, Steven Cubitt, Andy Cunningham, *Glyn Fisher, *Cathy Godfrey, Alan Graham, John Gregory, Patrick Hayes, Linda Horan, Andy Jackson, Elaine Kirkum, Adele Kitching, Sarah Lane, Norman Mortell, *Steve Owen, *Wendy Steel, Allan Thornhill, Lynda Westall, Debbi Young (*Members of Executive Committee) AS-ET SPECIAL TRAVEL BURSARY 2013 ESSAYS What do you regard as the most important issues in optimising the care and welfare of laboratory animals? Sharon Jones Council Officers A risk based approach to reducing exposure of staff to laboratory animal allergens Lynda Westall, Ian Graham and James Bussell 209 Competency training in the laboratory animal science environment: the triumphs and tribulations Jennifer Salisbury, Wendy Skeen and James Bussell 213 Cryopreservation of laboratory rodents as back-up in case of disaster Martina Dorsch 216 Introduction to the international nomenclature of laboratory rodents Johannes Schenkel and Jutta Davidson 219 The effects of changes in legislation on staff and researcher training in laboratory animal science in Ireland Sylvia Mehigan, Anne Brayley, Christoph Blau and Peter Nowlan 221 Good practice guide for the care, use and breeding of laboratory rodents Layna Rier et al 225 Chair Steve Owen, FIAT, RAnTech Vice Chair Ken Applebee, FIAT, CBiol, FSB, RAnTech Honorary Secretary Wendy Steel, BSc (Hons), FIAT, RAnTech Honorary Treasurer Glyn Fisher, FIAT, RAnTech Assistant Treasurer Charlie Chambers, MIAT, RAnTech Chair Board of Educational Policy Ken Applebee, FIAT, CBiol, FSB, RAnTech POSTER PRESENTATIONS Approaching animal welfare from a Global Corporate perspective Marilyn Brown 202 205 Effects of thermal sterilisation on selected components of 227 diets for laboratory rodents Anna Tu´ nio, M. Taciak, M. Barszcz, J. Paradziej-Łukowicz, s I. Olędzka, W. Wiczkowski, M. Szumska, B. Pastuszewska and J. Skomiał Chair Board of Moderators Cathy Godfrey, FIAT, RAnTech Chair Registration & Accreditation Board Charlie Chambers, MIAT, RAnTech Emergency solution in a BioModule facing an air-conditioning supply failure C. Muñoz-Mediavilla, S. Salazar, A. Díaz, E. Muñoz, V. Granda and Isabel Blanco 229 Chair ATW Editorial Board Jas Barley, MSc, FIAT, RAnTech LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 231 Instructions to Authors 233 (continued on page ii) i
OFFICERS President Dr. Robin Lovell-Badge, FRS Immediate Past President Professor Sir Richard Gardner, MA, PhD, FSB, HonFI...
BRANCH SECRETARIES 2013 Officers (continued from page i) Bulletin Editor Sarah Lane, MSc, FIAT, RAnTech Assistant Bulletin Editor Elaine Kirkum, MIAT, RAnTech, MIScT Branch Liaison Officer Lynda Westall, BSc (Hons), FIAT, DMS, RAnTech EFAT Representatives Charlie Chambers, MIAT, RAnTech Kate Burton MSc, FIAT, RAnTech Council Website Coordinator Allan Thornhill, FIAT, RAnTech –––––––––––––– IAT INFORMATION Animal Welfare Officers & LABA Representatives Sarah Lane, Debbi Young ATW/Bulletin Editorial Board Jas Barley (Chair), Patrick Hayes (Editorial Assistant), Elaine Kirkum, Sarah Lane, Lynda Westall Aberdeen Ms. Donna Wallace, Rowett Research Institute, Greenburb Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9BJ Cambridge Ms. Fran Flack, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA Cheshire Ms. Julie Humphreys, Block 53, Mereside, Astrazeneca, Alderley Edge, Nr Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG Edinburgh Ms. Janice Young, Evans Building, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU Hertfordshire & Essex Ms. Hazel Sleight, GSK, Safety Assessment, Toxicology Support, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP Board of Educational Policy Ken Applebee (Chair), Steven Cubitt (Secretary), Sarah Lane Huntingdon, Suffolk & Norfolk Ms. Jo Martin, Huntingdon Life Sciences, Woolley Road, Alconbury, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 4HS Board of Moderators Cathy Godfrey (Chair), Glyn Fisher (Secretary), Moderators: Gary Childs, Joanna Cruden, Nicky Gent, Linda Horan, Sue McHugh Ireland Mr. Colin Travis, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College, 157-160 Pearse Street, Dublin 2, Ireland Communications Group Norman Mortell (Chair), Kate Burton, Haley Daniels, Linda Horan, Elaine Kirkum, Allan Thornhill, Lynda Westall Registration and Accreditation Board Ken Applebee, Charlie Chambers (Chair), Gerald Clough, John Gregory, Cathy Godfrey, Sarah Lane, Ron Raymond, Wendy Steel (Secretary), Steve Owen, Stuart Stevenson, Carol Williams Observers: Charles Gentry (Certificate Holders Forum), Adrian Deeny (LASA), Kathy Ryder (Home Office), Lucy Whitfield (LAVA) Advertisement Managers PRC Associates Ltd Email: mail@prcassoc.co.uk IAT OFFICERS MAY BE CONTACTED VIA: IAT Administrator: iat101@btconnect.com OR VIA THE IAT WEBSITE AT: www.iat.org.uk OR VIA THE REGISTERED OFFICE: 5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7JL Although every effort is made to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appear in the journal, the Institute of Animal Technology wish to expound that the data and opinions appearing in the articles, poster presentations and advertisements in ATW are the responsibility of the contributor and advertiser concerned. Accordingly the IAT, Editor and their agents, accept no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, statement or advertisement being published. Furthermore the opinions expressed in the journal do not necessarily reflect those of the Editor or the Institute of Animal Technology. © 2013 Institute of Animal Technology All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. ii London Ms. Karen Robinson, BSU Rayne, 4th Floor Lambeth Wing, St Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 1UL Midlands Mr. Ian Fielding, Tecniplast UK, BCM Box 3058, London WC1N 3XX North East England Ms Nicky Windows, Datesand Ltd, PO Box 45, Manchester M11 1XD Oxford Mr. Adrian Woodhouse, Prosidion, Windrush Court, Transport Way, Watlington Road, Cowley, Oxford OX4 6LT Surrey, Hampshire & Sussex Ms. Lesley Hughes, c/o Building 200, ASU, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB West Middlesex Mrs. Wendy Steel, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Central Biomedical Services, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ West of Scotland Ms. Linda Horan, Biological Procedures Unit, University of Strathclyde, SIBS Building, c/o Phys and Pharm, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 ONR
BRANCH SECRETARIES 2013  Officers  continued from page i  Bulletin Editor Sarah Lane, MSc, FIAT, RAnTech Assistant Bulleti...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare THE INSTITUTE OF ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY ETHICAL STATEMENT “IN THE CONDUCT OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL DUTIES ANIMAL TECHNOLOGISTS HAVE A MORAL AND LEGAL OBLIGATION, AT ALL TIMES, TO PROMOTE AND SAFEGUARD THE WELFARE OF ANIMALS IN THEIR CARE, AND TO RECOGNISE THAT GOOD LABORATORY ANIMAL WELFARE IS AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF GOOD LABORATORY ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE” Editorial Jas Barley Chair of the Editorial Board When I first started work as an Animal Technician I clearly remember, the late Marjorie Sandiford, telling the students on my IAT course that as our education and careers progressed, we would learn many new things. However, I don’t remember her ever mentioning Management but times have changed and many of us spend our days now doing nothing other than ‘managing’. Although IAT courses now include management subjects many of us feel ill-equipped when we first achieve management status and a Management themed issue has been requested by readers. It is far too big a subject to cover in one issue so we will be returning to the topic again in future issues and articles. Our contributors to this issue have covered a diverse range of subjects which fall under the general spectrum of management ranging from Haley Daniels’ thought provoking paper on the Psychological Contract between Managers and their staff, Janet Merrall offers us an insight into avoiding the pitfalls of refurbishment and Rob Rutter deals with the concept of the Paperless Facility, something I’ve been trying to achieve for many years! The future is also certainly going to involve us all thinking about being kinder to our environment and reducing the impact our industry has on resources such as water, energy and also the inevitable waste products created by our charges, as well as conserving diminishing budgets wherever possible. In Going Green in Ares, Brian Gwynne demonstrates how a large facility has managed to reduce both the use of energy and its waste disposal costs by using ‘Green’ measures. These articles have all been based on Platform Presentations from Congress 2013 and I would like to thank the authors for making them available to us. The Institute often receives requests to make more of the Congress material available to members and we are endeavouring to do this but we can only publish what we are provided with, so if you present at Congress or other meetings please do not ignore our appeals for articles. Our readers really want to know what you have to say. Good management involves a planning for future requirements and this issue also includes articles on preparing a disaster recovery plan by Carol Smee and Lynda Westall, whilst Carol Fox deals with providing training programmes. If neither of those work, employing new staff may be necessary and how to avoid the common recruiting pitfalls has been covered by Claire Bell and her colleagues. Animal welfare is as always still our raison d’etre and another contribution from the Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum discusses the use of laser pointers as a training and enrichment tool. What do you regard as the most important issues in optimising the care and welfare of laboratory animals? was the topic for the AS-ET Special Travel Bursary essay competition and I am delighted to have been given the opportunity to include the winning entry from Sharon Jones. We will publish some of the other entries in future issues. As you probably know AS-ET was established to advance education and promote excellence in the care and welfare of animals used in science and amongst other things provides bursaries for course fees, travel and bursaries. The Trust can only do this if money is available so if you are not already an individual supporter, please consider becoming one. The cost is modest but the benefit your money will provide is potentially enormous. Finally I’d like to thank the organisers of the joint FELASA/SECAL Congress 2013 for their permission to reprint posters equally goes to the poster authors who have generously given their permission for us to share their contributions with you and we offer papers from Cuba, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Spain, the USA as well of course the U.K. Hopefully more will be included in next years’ issues. ix
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  THE INSTITUTE OF ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY  ETHICAL STATEMENT    IN THE CONDUCT OF T...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare What obligations of the Psychological Contract are important to Biological Services Facility (BSF) Managers – A UK perspective. When is enough, enough? HALEY DANIELS Biological Service Facility, Department of Biology, York University, North Yorkshire YO10 5DD Corresponding author: haley.daniels@york.ac.uk Summary This research stems from the desire to gain insight into the employment relationship between organisations and managers of animal research facilities within the Biomedical Research Industry. The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development1 argue that organisations are recognising that motivating their staff to perform is a much more complex issue than just providing financial incentives. The importance of engaging staff and securing their discretionar y commitment in achieving high per formance is fundamental. Rousseau (1995)2 defines the Psychological Contract as “an individual’s belief in mutual obligations between the person and another party, such as an employer”. This belief is predicted on the perception that an exchange of promises has been made to which the parties are bound. The Psychological Contract has helped to define and illustrate some key facts influencing the employment relationship and the commitment of staff ”1. Despite extensive research on psychological contracts from Rousseau and others, research focussed on psychological contracts in this industry has not been conducted. Using the Guest and Conway Psychological Contract model (2002)3 and factors influencing the psychological contract1, this research aimed to discover what obligations of the Psychological Contract ‘Deal’ were important to management of animal research facilities within the Biomedical Research industry. The research demonstrates the employment relationships between managers and their organisation are extremely unstable. Critical obligations of the Psychological Contract ‘deal’ such as trust, training and development and job satisfaction have been breached affecting employee loyalty, attitude and behaviours. Salary and job security appear to be fulfilled and appear to be the motivating factors retaining management in this critical industry at the current time. Introduction The term ‘Psychological Contract’ emerged in literature approximately 55 years ago, referring to ‘a concept that captures implicit ideas about the employeeorganisation relationship’4. The term was first used to in the context of work organisations by Argyris (1960)5 to understand organisational behaviour. Further research conducted by Levenson, Price and Solley (1962)6 continued this concept. They defined the Psychological Contract as “The sum of mutual expectations between the organisation and the employee; including what both parties are entitled to receive and what one is obliged to provide to each other”. The underlying concept is that an ‘exchange relationship’ exists between the organisation and the worker. Although interest in the Psychological Contract emerged at an early stage, consideration of its application to management theory did not emerge fully until the 1990’s led by Rousseau2 who defines the Psychological Contract as “an individual’s belief in mutual obligations between that person and another party, such as an employer”. This belief is predicted on the perception that an exchange of promises has been made to which the 157
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  What obligations of the Psychological Contract are important to Biological S...
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility (BSF) managers parties are bound. The concept of the Psychological Contract emerges when “one party believes that a promise of future returns has been made, a contribution has been given, and thus, an obligation has been created to provide future benefits7. This subjective and mutual agreement between employee and employer is key to this piece of research. What ‘content’ of the Psychological Contract ‘deal’ do employees within this industry view as the primary reciprocal deal which binds employee and employer together and furthermore, what are the implications should this be unreciprocated by one party? Seminal literature argues that the formation of the Psychological Contract consists of pre-employment beliefs and post-employment socialisation into the organisation. Seminal literature also suggests that employee expectations develop incrementally in the employment relationship and become embedded in the Psychological Contract. Once the socialisation process between newcomer and employer is underway, it is important to establish what the ‘deal’ comprises and means to each individual. Research conducted in 20068 by Atkinson and Cuthbert identified the ‘deal’ as the “obligations contained within the Psychological Contract” and whilst a great amount of research exists on Psychological Contracts and a wide array of obligations deemed to form the content of the Psychological Contract, there has been no definitive set of obligations agreed upon. In 2002, Guest and Conway3 conducted research on behalf of the CIPD which focused on employee wellbeing and the Psychological Contract. This examined employee attitudes regarding fairness, trust and Influencing Factors 0 Individual Psychological Contract Outcomes characteristics Organisational climate and context HR policies and practices Guest and Conway (2002)3 argue that the Psychological Contract model below (Figure 1) represents the current relationship, identifying influencing factors impacting on the content of the Psychological Contract, which in turn impact on the outcomes of the employee and the employer relationship and behaviour. The above model (Figure 1) identifies that: G G G The extent to which employees adapt people management practices will have a major influence on the state of the Psychological Contract. The state of the Psychological Contract will be reflected in employees’ sense of fairness and trust, their belief that the employer will deliver on the ‘deal’ between them. A positive Psychological Contract will lead to greater employee commitment and satisfaction, increased motivation, positive work attitudes and behaviours, positive job per formance and an increase in productivity for the organisation. The above model formed the basis of this study, enabling the researcher to identify what aspects of the ‘deal’ are the most important to management. Research also conducted by the CIPD1 identified the key factors underpinning the Psychological Contract. Job Satisfaction Motivation Fairness Trust ------------ Employee attitudes Work satisfaction Commitment Trust Fairness Job security -----------Delivery of the deal Employee behaviour Job performance Intention to quit Figure 1. The Psychological Contract model, by Guest and Conway (2002) identifies key factors influencing the outcomes of the Psychological Contract 158 organisational delivery of the ‘deal’ that have a major influence on securing a positive Psychological Contract, increased satisfaction and commitment. Guest & Conway3 argue that the contract is based on employees’ sense of fairness and trust and belief that the employer is honouring the ‘deal’ between them. Work/Life balance Commitment ‘How people feel about their jobs and how it affects their performance’ (Cranny et al 1992, pp.4). CIPD argue that an employee’s level of job satisfaction is the primary source of data, which can be used to predict an employee’s rate of absenteeism or psychological withdrawal. ‘The force within the individual that influences or directs behavior’ (Marquis et al 2008, pp.442) To be treated similar to others in the working environment e.g. fair pay, treated with respect, not being bullied and receiving same opportunities as colleagues (Cooper et al 2012, pp.175) The firm belief in the reliability, truth or ability of someone or something (Oxford Dictionary, 2012) defined by ability, understanding, fairness, openness, integrity and consistency in an employer (Guardian newspaper 2012, pp.49) An important factor in determining workers’ satisfaction – it is argued (Evans, 2001, pg.129) that having a secure income is too thirds as important as having a large one. Having enough time for work and enough time for a life and family commitments. Defined as ‘the relative importance between work and oneself’ (Loscoco, cited in Redmond, 2012). Its concept encompasses a broad range of job related attitudes that consist of work ethic, organisational commitment, job involvement and commitment to an individual’s profession. Figure 2. Factors underpinning the Psychological Contract (adapted from CIPD, 2004)
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility  BSF  managers  parties are b...
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility (BSF) managers These are highlighted in the table (Fig. 2) and used alongside the Guest and Conway model to form the basis of the research design for this study. The CIPD (2004)1 also identified types of commitment that employees and employers might make to one another to form the basis of the employment relationship ‘deal’. These are highlighted in the table below and inform and allow discussion and understanding of this research. Employees promise to: Employers promise to provide: Work Hard Pay commensurate with performance Uphold company reputation Opportunities for training and development Maintain high levels of A great amount of research exists focussing on Psychological Contract theory within specific industries and sectors, however, little published research exists focussing on psychological contract theory in the biomedical research industry. This is particularly relevant to managers of biological services facilities in the biomedical research industry. What state is the employee/employer relationship in and if violation of this important contract does occur when does enough become enough? Opportunities for promotion Methodology attendance and punctuality Show loyalty to the Recognition for innovation or organisation new ideas Work extra hours when Feedback on performance required Develop new skills and state that accompanies violation – the feelings of betrayal, distress, anger, resentment, a sense of injustice and wrongful harm, which culminates in lowered job satisfaction and commitment. Interesting tasks update old ones Be flexible, for example, An attractive benefits taking on a colleague’s work package Be courteous to clients and Respectful treatment colleagues Be honest Reasonable job security Come up with new ideas The impetus for this research stems from the authors experiences of the Psychological Contract within this specific field over the previous 20 years. As a BSF Manager the author has personal experiences of the employee/employer relationship and variations in breach and violation of this relationship. The fact that this study is based on an element of self investigation demanded that the author avoid bias and instill balance throughout the study. In order to ensure that the relevant information could be obtained it was vitally important that the correct methodology and research methods were employed. A pleasant and safe working environment Figure 3. CIPD Employer and Employee Mutual Obligations (CIPD 2004) Psychological Contract Violation – when is enough, enough? It has to be stated that, even with the best intentions from the employer and employee, relationships can break down and the Psychological Contract can be Violated. A Psychological Contract violation can be described as ‘perceived failures to comply with its terms and conditions and can be potentially damaging to all involved (Rousseau 2000) or when employees perceive that their employers have failed to fulfil at least one obligation or promise implied by their employer (Feldman 2009 10). A plethora of studies focussing on Psychological Contract breach and violation have repor ted a substantial relationship between perceived breaches and diverse outcomes, such as lowered job satisfaction11, lowered organisational commitment12, reduced health and well-being of employees, increase in employee turnover, increase in sickness absence13. It is also suggested14 that there is also an emotional The author adopted a phenomenological, interpretivist approach associated with qualitative research whereby the phenomological approach refers to ‘the way in which we as humans make sense of the world around us’ 15. Qualitative methods can be used to uncover what lies behind any phenomenon about which little is yet known and gain novel and fresh slants on things’ 16. Using an interpretivist philosophy, which is most often associated with small samples and in depth interviews, suggests that both ‘subjective meaning and social phenomena can be explored as a result of data collection”16. An inductive approach to this research was adopted as this was deemed to be better suited to the use and interpretation of qualitative data. Additionally this assisted the author to build on theory rather than commence with the study with a pre-conceived hypothesis. A review of existing literature, personal knowledge, experiences and discussions across the industr y suggested that very little research had been conducted in this subject area. Given that the very context of the role of a BSF manager can be deemed as sensitive and extremely demanding, it was important to gain an insight into the state of the Psychological Contracts between managers and organisations. 159
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility  BSF  managers  These are hig...
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility (BSF) managers The study adopted a non-probability sampling technique, purposive judgement sampling focused on a small exclusive research sample. The intention was to gain as much information as possible within a small time scale. Structured interviews were the strategic research choice for this study. All interview questions were standardised with each interviewee answering identical questions. This was an in depth interview comprising 35 questions in total. Questions were based on elements of the Psychological Contract ‘deal’ and ‘content’ and were focused on the following areas: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. General background of candidate (e.g. gender, age range, location, length of service) Trust between employee and employer Job security Motivation Loyalty Reward Job Satisfaction Salary Progression Training Autonomy in the role Work/life balance Perceptions of the Psychological Contract (from a management perspective). This research focused on 11 BSF Managers from 11 different organisations, which included both male and female participants, from public and private sector organisations and from various regions from Scotland to the south of England. The interviews were conducted face to face and confidentiality was maintained throughout the process. Interview scripts remained nameless and all scripts were stored confidentially. The data was then grouped into categories and then transcribed question by question into tally charts and emerging themes using a coding system. Data was then displayed and analysed using techniques for qualitative research. Results Results are based on each specific category of the Psychological Contract ‘deal’. G Trust These questions focused on the expectation of the participant towards their line manager and senior management of the organisation with regards looking after the participant’s best interest. There was also a focus on how far the participants felt their organisation would keep its promises and commitments towards 160 them as an employee. The results identified a somewhat lack of trust in immediate line management and even less trust in senior management of the organisation. The majority of par ticipants felt that decisions regarding their organisation, which would significantly impact on the participant, were being made with little engagement. This is extremely relevant to the state of the Psychological Contract as ‘Trust (along with unmet expectations) mediates the relationship between psychological contract breach and employees subsequent commitment to the firm”17. With many changes throughout this industry at the present time it was felt many changes were occurring such as restructuring, downsizing and changes in research focus and it was felt trust was one of the most impor tant elements of the employee/employer relationship. G Job security How participants viewed their current state of job security, commitment from the employer with regards job security and if the participant had any desire to leave in the coming 12-18 months. Seminal research has identified that job security is a key factor in the formation and maintenance of the Psychological Contract. The majority of participants felt ‘very secure’ in their role with the minority of participants looking for jobs elsewhere. The evidence suggests that the concept of ‘a job for life’ is changing in public sector organisations at a time when funding for research is an issue and research establishments are making redundancies. However, there tended to be a positive slant to this question, managers in organisations who had lengthy service appear to think that they would receive a commensurate package should their job no longer be required and many of the participants felt they had transferable skills to other roles. Participants with less service were actively pursuing other activities and qualifications outside the organisation as an alternative route. The majority of managers with long service tended to think that biological research would be required for many years to come, the minority of managers agreed but were actively pursuing other areas ‘just in case’. G Motivation and loyalty Participants displayed an overwhelming response when questioned about how motivated they were in their current job. The majority of managers responded with ‘very motivated’ and when probed further stated reasons such as ‘enjoy the job’, ‘sense of purpose’, ‘friends at work’. Whilst ever yone has different motivation for working, the main focus of work is to
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility  BSF  managers  The study ado...
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility (BSF) managers ‘obtain something for themselves’; this can be salary, love, personal fulfilment, contribution to something larger than themselves or meaningful work18. It appeared interesting that even though trust between the employee and the organisation appears to be incredibly low, motivation amongst the managers who participated in this study was extremely high. It is also interesting to note that when asked about loyalty, the majority of participants displayed very little loyalty towards the organisations in which they work. Again this is interesting when compared to certain motivation theories where factors such as lack of trust and loyalty appear to be de-motivating factors, yet this study identified motivation as being the highest ‘obligation’ which was being upheld from an employee perspective regardless of other influencing factors. G Salary and reward The results of this study identified that on the surface there appear to be no issues when it comes to ‘salary’. The majority of managers interviewed felt that they are fairly paid for the work that they do and that their salary is representative of other managers carrying out the same work. It was also felt that it is difficult to recruit and maintain staff in this area of work which tended to result in higher salaries than standard animal care work. G Training and progression When participants were asked in this study whether they felt that they received adequate training and development, there appeared to be an element of frustration amongst the managers. It became apparent that managers interviewed did not feel that their employer was meeting their side of the ‘deal’ when it comes to training. The majority of organisations appeared to have a very limited staff training budget, and viewed their performance review where training was discussed as a ‘paper exercise’. It is apparent from the study that the organisation believes that managers are responsible for organising their own training, which appeared to result in a ‘perceived lack of interest’ from the employer. This appeared to be a per tinent issue due to the training required for upcoming changes to legislation. G Support and autonomy It appeared apparent from the findings of this study that the majority of organisations did not have support facilities in place and the ones that did have support in place did not necessarily work in practice. It appeared that organisations had refused frequent requests for flexible working practices and it was felt among some participants that ‘workplace benefits’ were sometimes used as marketing tools but were not authorised in practice. It is argued that ‘employees unable to handle work and family demands successfully due to work pressure are more likely to have less commitment to the organisation’19, something which appears to resonate with the findings of this research. In addition, given the demographic changes in the workforce that have taken place over the last few years, increased female representation in the workplace means that couples are juggling both family and work roles20. The majority of participants interviewed felt that they have a high level of autonomy when it comes to planning their own work and daily schedules with senior management of the organisation as one respondent stated ‘senior management do not have a clue what we do on a day to day basis, they do not know the job, do not understand legislation and leave it to us to get on with it’. Research by McKinsey et al21 (1998) suggests that management engagement results in employees being passionate and committed to their work and are willing to invest the discretionar y effor t to see their organisation succeed. This appears not to be the case in this study with results identifying that little trust, loyalty and engagement exist. Breach and violation of these critical Psychological Contract factors appear to be evident, causing behavioural and attitudinal changes to employees such as feelings of resignation and frustration. G Job satisfaction It became evident during this study that job satisfaction appeared low in the majority of interviews. Most managers interviewed rated their satisfaction at work 5 out of 10 or below. The findings identified that managers were happy overall with their life outside work (majority rated 9/10) however on further probing it became evident that managers use the good salary to fund their ‘lifestyles out of work’. Many managers appear to be somewhat frustrated having worked with their organisation for a long time, doing the same job with little input from the employer and lack of training due to budgetary constraints. Commitment from the majority of employees in this study towards the organisation appeared to be low. Job satisfaction reflects how people feel about their jobs. Studies focussed on job satisfaction and commitment have found that satisfied employees have a tendency to be more committed to their organisation, leading to greater loyalty to the organisation22. This link is evident in this study where job satisfaction appears to be low and there also appears to be little loyalty, trust and commitment towards the organisation in the majority of participants interviewed. 161
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility  BSF  managers     obtain som...
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility (BSF) managers Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the Psychological Contract between the majority of managers/ participants in this research and their organisation as an employer has been significantly breached, which is defined as ‘a perceived failure to comply with its terms and conditions’ 9. Findings suggest that there appears to be a significant lack of trust from employees towards employers. Training and development appears to be extremely limited; the majority of employees have little loyalty to the organisation and, in the majority of participants, job satisfaction is extremely low and work life balance can be an issue. Empirical evidence suggests that Psychological Contract breach leads to reduced job satisfaction, trust in the organisation and organisational commitment23, all of which appear to be consistent with the findings of this research. The figure below identifies specific levels of breach/violation for each obligation of the psychological contract ‘deal’ for this study. Figure 4. Level of breach of Psychological Contract obligations Further research24 suggests that a breach in the Psychological Contract also increases intentions to leave the organisation. However, when managers were interviewed as part of this study it became evident that thoughts of leaving their job in the near future were not being considered. Although it could be suggested that this could be due to limited external opportunities in the current climate and high job security and not to loyalty and commitment to the organisation which appeared to be low. It appears evident from this study that the important Psychological Contract obligations as part of the ‘deal’ for the majority of managers within this study are salary and job security. The other ‘obligations of the deal’ identified by CIPD1 and Guest and Conway3 appear to have been consistently violated over a number of years, yet these managers are not considering leaving the 162 organisation. These findings suggest that even though these obligations appear to have been breached, managers are willing to ‘put up with it’ possibly due to the fact that all participants in the study appeared to be extremely dedicated to the animal research ethos of the work and the role they play in advancing science. Comments such as ‘you either love this job or hate it’ and ‘once you are in this industry you get out fast or you stay for life’ were heard often through the study from participants. Alternatively, maybe managers stay in organisations due to the fact that they are ‘isolated’ therefore to the nature of the work, institutionalised having worked in a place a long time or fear the unknown having been in the research industry for a long time. Or could it simply be that salary and job security are the most important obligations of the Psychological Contract for these managers and that these are enough to achieve motivational levels evidenced in the study? As a BSF Manager one would think this is certainly not the case. Whilst the employer adheres to their side of the ‘perceived promise’ to deliver on this element of the ‘deal’ where salaries and job security are not an issue, managers appear to be prepared to tolerate lack of trust in their organisation, little training and development opportunities and little engagement in future organisational change and policies. It could be that employees perceive a moderate breach of obligations, where individuals rationalise what expectations have been met/unmet and where the overall situation might still fall within his/her zone of acceptance prior to reaching individual thresholds of the ‘perceived promises and expectations’. The feelings of violation such as disappointment, resentment, frustration and distress then may follow from the belief that one’s organisation has failed to adequately maintain the psychological contract14. However, if a higher level of breach occurs where the participants’ zone of acceptance is surpassed, further reactions, behaviours and attitudes on the part of the employee are likely to ensue25. Therefore, to return to the research question – what obligations of the Psychological Contract ‘deal’ are important to BSF Managers in the biomedical research industry? It is evident that job security and salary are important and appear to be motivating factors to the majority of these managers at the current time. Internal motivation to do the job and remain passionate towards the animal research industry and junior/ trainee staff appeared to be extremely apparent throughout the study. It appears, and one might suggest, that this passion and motivation for the role of a BSF Manager comes at a price. It appears from the findings that managers at the current time are willing to ‘put up’ with frequent violations in the employee/ employer relationship such as lack of training,
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility  BSF  managers  Conclusion Th...
What obligations of the psychological contract are important to Biological Services Facility (BSF) managers engagement and support from senior management in order to stay in the job they feel motivated and passionate about when their employer appears to be failing to keep their side of the employee/employer relationship promise. 15 16 17 Given that the BSF Managers interviewed appear extremely dedicated to their role, passionate about the industry they work in, staff they manage and the contribution they make to the advances in science, one has to ask the question…how much more of a breach in the Psychological Contract ‘deal’ between employee and employer could they take before ‘enough is enough’? References and bibliography 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 10 11 12 13 14 CIPD (2004). Managing the Psychological Contract: Taking the Temperature. Char tered Institute for Personnel and Development. Rousseau, D.M. (1995). Psychological Contracts in Organisations. London, UK: Sage Publications Ltd. Guest, D.E. and Conway, N. (2002). Communicating the Psychological Contract: An employer perspective. Human Resource Management Journal, 12 (2), p.22-28. Schalk, R. and Roe, R.E. (2007). Towards a dynamic model of the psychological contract. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 37 (2), p.167-182. Argyris, C. (1960). Understanding Organisational Behaviour. Homeward, IL: Dorsey Press. Levinson, H, Price, C.R. and Solley, C.M. (1962). Men, Management and Mental Health, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Sels, L., Jansens, M. and Van Den Brande, I. (2004). Assessing the nature of psychological contracts: a validation of six dimensions. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 25, p.461-488. Atkinson, C. and Cuthbert, P. (2006). Does one size fit all? A study of the psychological contract in the UK working population. International Journal of Manpower. 27 (7) p.647-667. Rousseau, D.M. (2000). Psychological Contract Inventor Technical Report. Version 2. Pennsylvania, USA. Feldman, D.C. and Ng, T.W.H. (2009). Age, work and experience and the psychological contract, Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 30, p.1053-1075. Gakovic, A. and Tetrick, L.E. (2003). Psychological contract breach as a source of strain for employees. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18 (2) p.235-246 Conway, N. and Briner, R.B. (2002). Understanding Psychological Contracts at Work. A Critical Evaluation of Theory and Research. Oxford, UK; Oxford University Press. Johnson, J.L. and O’Leary-Kelly, A.M. (2003). The effects of psychological contract breach and organizational cynicism: not all social exchange violations are created equal. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 24, p.627-647. Morrison, E.W. and Robinson, S.L. (1997). When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract develops. Academy of Management Review, 22 (1), p.226-256. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students. 5th Ed. Harlow UK: Pearson Education Ltd. Strauss, A.C. and Corbin, J.M. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research. 3rd Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. Robinson, S.L. (1996). Trust and Breach of the Psychological Contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41 (4) p.574-599. Heathfield, S.M. (2012). What people want from work: Motivation. http://humanresources.about.com/od/ rewardrecognition/a/needs_work.htm Haar, J.M. and Spell, C.S. (2004). Programme knowledge and value of work-family practices and organisational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14 (6), p.1040-1055. Perrewe, P.L. Treadway, D.C. and Hall, A.T. (2003). The work and family inter face: Conflict, Family-Friendly policies, and Employee Well-Being, in Health and Safety in Organisations: A Multilevel Perspective, eds, Hoffman, D.A. and Tetrick, L.E. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. McKensey et al. [cited in Crim, D. and Seijts, G.H. (2006) What engages employees the most or the Ten C’s of employee engagement, Ivey Business Journal, March/April, p.15]. Porter, L.W. Steers, R.M. Mowday, R.T. and Boulian, P. (1974). Organisational Commitment, job satisfaction and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, p.603-609. Robinson, S.L., Kraatz, M.S and Rousseau, D.M. (1994). Changing obligations and the psychological contract: A longitudinal study. Academy of Management Journal, 31 (1) p.304-320. Taylor, M.S. and Tekleab, A.G. (2003). Taking stock of psychological contract research: Assessing progress, addressing troublesome issues and setting research priorities. In Coyle-Shapiro, J.A-M., Shore, L.M. Taylor, M.S. And Tetrick, L.E. The Employment Relationship: Examining Contextual and Psychological Perspectives: Oxford: Oxford University Press. P.253 - 283. Rigotti, T. (2008). Enough is Enough? Threshold models for the relationship between psychological contract breach and job related attitudes. European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology, 18 (4) p.442-463. 163
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December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare PAPER SUMMARY TRANSLATIONS INHALTVERZEICHNIS Welche Verpflichtungen des psychologischen Vertrags sind für Führungskräfte der Biological Services Facility (BSF) wichtig? – Eine Untersuchung aus britischer Sicht. Wie viel ist genug? HALEY DANIELS Biological Service Facility, Department of Biology, York University, North Yorkshire Y010 5DD Korrespondierende autorin: haley.daniels@york.ac.uk Abstract Diese Untersuchung entstammt dem Wunsch, Erkenntnisse über das Arbeitsverhältnis zwischen Organisationen und Führungskräften in Tierversuchseinrichtungen des biomedizinischen Forschungssektors zu erlangen. Das Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development1 vertritt die Auffassung, dass Organisationen heute begreifen, dass zur Motivierung ihrer Mitarbeiter zu mehr Leistung wesentlich mehr gehört als die Gewährung finanzieller Anreize. Die Einbeziehung der Mitarbeiter und die Sicherstellung ihrer uneingeschränkten Leistungsbereitschaft sind dabei von fundamentaler Bedeutung. Rousseau (1995)2 definiert den psychologischen Vertrag als „Überzeugung einer Person von den wechselseitigen Verpflichtungen zwischen der Person und einer anderen Partei, zum Beispiel einem Arbeitgeber.“ Diese Überzeugung beruht auf der Wahrnehmung, dass ein Austausch von Versprechen erfolgt ist, die die Vertragsparteien binden. Der psychologische Vertrag hat zur Definierung und Veranschaulichung verschiedener wichtiger Faktoren beigetragen, die einen Einfluss auf Arbeitsverhältnis und Mitarbeiterengagement haben.1 Zwar liegen bereits umfangreiche, von Rousseau und anderen durchgeführte Forschungsarbeiten zu psychologischen Verträgen vor, doch eine konkrete Untersuchung psychologischer Verträge in unserer Branche ist bisher nicht erfolgt. Ziel der vorliegenden Forschungsarbeit war es, unter Berücksichtigung des psychologischen Vertragsmodells von Guest & Conway (2002)3 und der den psychologischen Vertrag beeinflussenden Faktoren zu ermitteln, welche der sich aus dem „Deal“ des psychologischen Ver trags ergebenden Verpflichtungen für Führungskräfte von Tierversuchseinrichtungen der biomedizinischen Forschung wichtig sind. Diese Untersuchung weist nach, dass das Arbeitsverhältnis zwischen Führungskräften und ihrer Organisation äußerst instabil ist. Wesentliche, sich aus dem „Deal“ des psychologischen Vertrags ergebende Verpflichtungen wie Vertrauen, Schulung und Fortbildung sowie Arbeitszufriedenheit werden verletzt, wodurch Loyalität, Arbeitshaltung und Verhalten der Mitarbeiter beeinträchtigt werden. Die Verpflichtungen bezüglich Gehalt und Arbeitsplatzsicherheit scheinen erfüllt zu werden und sind heute wohl die ausschlaggebenden Faktoren dafür, Führungskräfte in diesem kritischen Sektor halten zu können. 165
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  PAPER SUMMARY TRANSLATIONS INHALTVERZEICHNIS Welche Verpflichtungen des psyc...
Animal Technology and Welfare December 2013 CONTENU DE LA REVUE Quelles obligations du contrat psychologique sont importantes pour les directeurs des installations des services biologiques (« Biological Services Facility » ou BSF) – Le point de vue du Royaume-Uni. Quand la coupe est-elle pleine? HALEY DANIELS Installations du service biologique, Service de biologie, Université de York, North Yorkshire Y010 5DD Auteur correspondant: haley.daniels@york.ac.uk Résumé Cette étude découle du désir d’avoir un aperçu de la relation entre les entreprises et les directeurs des laboratoires de recherche animale au sein de l’industrie de la recherche biomédicale. Le Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development1 affirme que les entreprises reconnaissent que la motivation du personnel en vue d’une performance accrue est une question beaucoup plus complexe que le seul fait de proposer des encouragements financiers. Il est essentiel d’impliquer le personnel et de maintenir son engagement absolu pour atteindre un haut niveau de performance. Rousseau (1995)2 définit le contrat psychologique comme « la croyance de l’individu en des obligations réciproques entre une personne et un tiers, comme l’employeur ». Cette croyance repose sur la perception qu’un échange de promesses s’est fait entre les parties et les lie. Le contrat psychologique a contribué à définir et à illustrer certains faits importants qui influencent les relations professionnelles et l’engagement du personnel1. En dépit de recherches approfondies sur les contrats psychologiques effectuées par Rousseau et d’autres personnes, aucune recherche en relation avec les contrats psychologiques dans cette industrie n’a été menée. Utilisant le modèle du contrat psychologique de Guest & Conway (2002)3 et des facteurs influençant le contrat psychologique1, cette étude a pour objectif de découvrir quelles obligations du « marché » conclu lors du contrat psychologique sont importantes pour la gestion des laboratoires de recherche animale au sein de la recherche biomédicale. Cette étude démontre que les relations professionnelles entre les directeurs et leur entreprise sont extrêmement instables. Des obligations essentielles du « marché » conclu lors du contrat psychologique telles que la confiance, la formation et le développement, et la satisfaction professionnelle n’ont pas été respectées, ce qui a des conséquences sur la loyauté, l’attitude et le comportement des salariés. Le salaire et la sécurité de l’emploi ont l’air d’être respectés et semblent être les motivations qui retiennent les dirigeants dans cette industrie cruciale à l’heure actuelle. 166
Animal Technology and Welfare  December 2013  CONTENU DE LA REVUE Quelles obligations du contrat psychologique sont import...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare INDICE DE LA REVISTA Obligaciones del Contrato Psicológico que revisten importancia para los Responsables de Instalaciones de Servicios Biológicos (ISB): Planteamiento del Reino Unido. ¿Cuándo hay que decir basta? HALEY DANIELS Instalación de Servicios Biológicos, Departamento de Biología, Universidad de York, North Yorkshire Y010 5DD Autor correspondiente: haley.daniels@york.ac.uk Resumen Este estudio de investigación se lleva a cabo para conocer mejor las relaciones laborales entre las instituciones y los responsables de instalaciones para la investigación con animales dentro del sector de la investigación biomédica. El Instituto de Colegiados en Personal y Desarrollo (CIPD, por sus siglas en inglés)1 pone de manifiesto que distintas instituciones están admitiendo que motivar a su personal para que rinda óptimamente es un tema mucho más complejo, que va más allá de ofrecer incentivos económicos. La importancia de hacer que el personal se involucre y garantice su compromiso discrecional para conseguir un mayor rendimiento es fundamental. Rousseau (1995)2 define el Contrato Psicológico como “una creencia individual en la obligación mutua entre la persona y otra parte como, por ejemplo, una empresa”. Este parecer se asienta en la percepción de que se ha realizado un intercambio de promesas que ambas partes deben cumplir. El Contrato Psicológico ha ayudado a definir e ilustrar algunos factores clave que influyen en la relación laboral y en el compromiso del personal1”. A pesar de investigaciones exhaustivas sobre contratos psicológicos de Rousseau y otros, no se ha llevado a cabo ninguna investigación centrada en los contratos psicológicos dentro de este sector. Utilizando el modelo de contrato psicológico de Guest & Conway (2002)3 y los factores que incluyen en el Contrato Psicológico1, esta investigación trataba de descubrir qué obligaciones del “Contrato” Psicológico eran importantes para la gestión de instalaciones donde se realizan ensayos de investigación con animales dentro del sector de la investigación biomédica. El estudio demuestra que las relaciones laborales entre los responsables y su institución son extremadamente inestables. Las obligaciones fundamentales del “Contrat” Psicológico, como la confianza, la formación, el desarrollo y la satisfacción laboral no se han respetado, y eso ha repercutido en la lealtad, la actitud y el comportamiento del empleado. El salario y la seguridad laboral parecen ser unos criterios de satisfacción y motivación suficientes para que los responsables no dejen su puesto de trabajo en este sector crítico en el momento actual. 167
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  INDICE DE LA REVISTA Obligaciones del Contrato Psicol  gico que revisten imp...
Animal Technology and Welfare December 2013 INDICE DELLA REVISTA Gli obblighi del contratto psicologico importanti per i dirigenti del Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche (BSF): una prospettiva britannica. Quando il troppo è troppo? HALEY DANIELS Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Facoltà di Biologia, Università di York, North Yorkshire Y010 5DD Autore corrispondente: haley.daniels@york.ac.uk Abstract Questa ricerca nasce dalla volontà di comprendere il rapporto di lavoro tra le organizzazioni e i dirigenti degli istituti di ricerca sugli animali nell’ambito della Ricerca Biomedica. Secondo il Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development1, motivare il proprio team a rendere al massimo è una questione molto più complessa per le organizzazioni di una semplice concessione di incentivi finanziari. L’importanza di coinvolgere il personale e garantire il loro impegno discrezionale a dare il meglio di sé è fondamentale. Rousseau (1995)2 definisce il contratto psicologico come "un insieme di credenze circa gli obblighi reciproci che si instaurano tra il lavoratore e l’organizzazione”. Questa convinzione scaturisce dalla percezione che esistano scambi di promesse alle quali le parti sono vincolate. Il contratto psicologico ha contribuito a definire e illustrare alcuni elementi chiave che influenzano il rapporto di lavoro e l'impegno del personale1”. Nonostante ampie ricerche condotte da Rousseau e altri studiosi sui contratti psicologici, nessuna è associata a questo settore. Sulla base del modello di contratto psicologico di Guest & Conway (2002)3 e dei fattori che lo influenzano, questa ricerca ha mirato a individuare gli obblighi del contratto psicologico (deal) più importanti per i dirigenti degli istituti di ricerca sugli animali nell’ambito della ricerca biomedica. La ricerca dimostra che i rapporti di lavoro tra i dirigenti e la loro organizzazione sono estremamente instabili. Gli obblighi fondamentali del ‘deal’, quali la fiducia, la formazione e lo sviluppo e la soddisfazione lavorativa, sono stati violati con ripercussioni sulla fedeltà, atteggiamento e comportamenti del lavoratore. La retribuzione e la sicurezza sul lavoro sembrano rispondere alle aspettative e risultano essere, attualmente, i fattori motivanti alla base della fedeltà dei dirigenti di questo settore critico. 168
Animal Technology and Welfare  December 2013  INDICE DELLA REVISTA Gli obblighi del contratto psicologico importanti per i...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare TECH-2-TECH Haven’t the time to write a paper but want to get something published? Then read on! This section offers readers the opportunity to submit informal contributions about any aspects of animal technology. Comments, observations, descriptions of new or refined techniques, new products or equipment, old products or equipment adapted to new use, any subject that may be useful to technicians in other institutions. Submissions can be presented as technical notes and do not need to be structured and can be as short or as long as is necessary. Accompanying illustrations and/or photos should be high resolution. NB. Descriptions of new products or equipment submitted by manufacturers are welcome but should be a factual account of the product. However, the Editorial Board gives no warranty as to the accuracy or fitness for purpose of the product. Avoiding the pitfalls of refurbishment: how to give an animal technician a nervous breakdown! JANET MERRALL Biological Service Facility, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT Corresponding author: janet.merrall@lshtm.ac.uk Adapted from Platform Presentation given at the Joint IAT/LAVA Congress 2013 Summary This presentation illustrates the highs and many lows of refurbishing a Containment Level 3 animal facility. ‘solution’ extending to twenty four months. Finally, when the problems are resolved satisfactorily, the return to the unit arrives. Hopefully, this will give those about to undertake the enormous task of refurbishment an insight and a ‘what not to do’ guide to the process, so ensuring a smooth progression. It starts with the euphoria of the design stages, moves to the more shaky stage of awarding the contract and deals with the day to day ‘fun’ of when the ‘builders’ move in and includes the dismay experienced when touring the building site you discover that the room doors are too small to pass essential equipment cabinets through and that there is the intention to paint over unprepared brickwork! Introduction – We need a new facility The presentation then moves to the re-opening of the unit and the rapid discovery of the problem arising from poor workmanship. These included a twelve month In 2005 it was decided that the Biological Services Facility (BSF) at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) needed to be refurbished as we were having the following problems: 169
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  TECH-2-TECH Haven   t the time to write a paper but want to get something pu...
Tech-2-Tech G G G G environmental stability – lack of temperature/ humidity control general poor state of repair unable to ‘patch’ things up any more new equipment wouldn’t work with services available Step 3 – What happens next? Very important to consider how was the work going to affect the operation of the facility? Must ask the following questions: G Solution – Sufficient funding was not available therefore the proposal was: G G G G install room heat/cooling units and floor standing humidifiers to help with environmental conditions buy BSF a new cage washer to improve staff morale Stage 1 – Step 1: Call in the Architects! Architects appointed to begin designing the new unit to enable a quick start once funding available. At this stage important to remember that: G G G G planning takes a long time (2 years in our case) so make sure you have it right ensure that the company engaged have experience of designing animal units – check all references for previous work request several design drafts to enable everyone’s agreement on final design essential to keep things realistic – do not let them get carried away! Step 2 – Funding The job now goes to tender. It is strongly recommended that as facility manager you are included in the decision of which company will be rewarded with the contract. (At LSHTM, the manager was excluded from these decisions). The following points are worth including in a check list to be given to the project manager: G G G G vital to check supplied references so that you can actually see where they have previously worked and you are able to ask those establishments their project experiences. (Unfortunately at LSHTM there was no record of this being done). once awarded, if possible, make sure that the personnel involved for the bid for the work are actually the team that carry out the work. planning meetings – as Facility Manager you must attend regardless of the call on time. Insist on someone to chair meetings and that minutes are taken. Took a year of meetings before work started. Value Engineering Exercise (VEE) – there is a risk that this can be a cost cutting exercise. We found items that were cut as part of VEE had to be reinstated once building work was underway with a resulting increase in cost by as much as 100% over the original price than if included in the beginning. 170 G G G will it be necessary to stop all animal work during refurbishment? is it possible to phase the work so that you can keep working during the refurbishment? will it be necessary to vacate completely and if so where to? what is the time frame? How long will it take? – must obtain a realistic time frame, our 12 months completion time was in actual fact 60 months! This is where the builders’ experience counts is there any leverage such as a penalty clause predicted finish date is not met? Make sure it provides sufficient impact to encourage completion on time how will late completion affect the ‘science’ if it occurs? Stage 2 – Step 1: Work commences The unit closed for research and everything was moved to rented accommodation on 19th April 2007 for 1 year! Whilst all the main building work etc. was in progress, LSHTM staff was excluded from the site so had to rely on weekly meeting reports. Eventually we were allowed on ‘site’ although we had to pass a site safety test – this is just common sense given the nature of the work and equipment that is in use during construction. All staff entering the site were required to wear full Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) including hard hat, fluorescent vest, safety boots, protective eye wear and gloves. Unfortunately the first thing we saw was that any existing walls were just being repainted, cracks, divots and all! Explanation was that ‘we weren’t asked to render any existing walls’ (this statement came back to bite us later).We also noticed that some of the door openings were ‘odd’ which was raised at the next weekly meeting. Points to remember: G G ensure that a full specification and brief is drawn up and checked by the end users include minimum measurements for doorways including height insist that sur veys include external walls and guttering as this can seriously affect internal areas Step 2 – Weekly meetings The purpose of these is that they are an opportunity to raise problems relating to the refurbishment in a timely manner. This should be a two-way process between builders, project manager, user representative etc.
Tech-2-Tech  G G G G  environmental stability     lack of temperature  humidity control general poor state of repair unabl...
Tech-2-Tech Usually consists of a series of reports and questions and answers e.g. Why are you not rendering all walls? – Because not included in specification Can you do it then please? – (preceded by sharp intake of breath) It’ll cost you time and money! Statement – Get it done! G G G G G G lumps of plaster were falling off the walls cracks were appearing in many places animal work had to be held to a minimum meetings were extremely heated affairs accusations were rife following duct insulation inspection, out of 51 faults found, 49 of them were down to poor workmanship However, little progress was made as to how problems were going to be resolved! Why are door openings all different sizes? – Because that’s the size they were. As everything is being re-structured, why weren’t they made all a standard size? – Because that’s the size they were! Observation – it is of little surprise that the costs for doors exceeded £145,000 as all new door frames and doors were custom made for each opening! Conclusion – State the obvious – ask loads of questions during the planning phase as things you think may be obvious may not be obvious to others! Stage 3 – Two years later In July 2009, validation to ensure environmental conditions for animals complied with current Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 Code of Practice for the Housing and Care of Animals Used in Scientific Procedures1. We were delighted to find that all rooms were performing as designed and holding temperatures and humidity within HO guidelines. However, the Home Office Inspector (HOI) for LSHTM noted that although all seemed up to standard, there was a smell similar to rust in some of the rooms and asked for this to be investigated. Figure 1. Early stage of the breakdown of the surfaces. We moved back in to the refurbished unit in November 2009 and all was well until we hit an unseasonal (it was winter) cold spell when the humidifier failed to cope with the change in atmospheric humidity. This resulted in some animal rooms’ humidity being held just within guidelines and some were well below recommended percentages i.e. 55%+or-15%. For some species extended periods below 40% or above 70% should be avoided. In order to protect animal welfare, cage racks were moved from room to room to wherever the most appropriate conditions were to be found. The Mechanical and Electrical (M&E) engineers were shaking their heads in disbelief and wringing their hands with worry as to how and why this had happened. Furthermore signs of serious problems started to appear throughout the facility: Figure 2. The wall finish was lifting off the wall revealing wet plaster underneath. 171
Tech-2-Tech  Usually consists of a series of reports and questions and answers e.g. Why are you not rendering all walls   ...
Tech-2-Tech Figures 5 and 6. Once the plaster had fallen off the wall, revealing that what had been a doorway (Fig. 5) had been very poorly filled and there was no mortar between some bricks. Also plaster had been applied to some walls without the previous paint being removed which is why it all fell off (Fig. 6). Figure 3. Cracks appearing in the floor finishes – were initially blamed on building movement. Figure 7. Further evidence of poor workmanship. Finally the remote sensors were not working! The picture below illustrates what was found when one of our BMS sensors was removed. It is no wonder that they didn’t work! Figure 4. Plaster beginning to fall off the walls. The plaster was initially applied too thickly which meant that it had never dried out properly – hence the problems. Stage 4 – Solutions offered were not acceptable The only offers that were made to correct these faults were to ‘patch’ things up, whereas the correct solution was to strip all wall sur faces off and star t again. 172
Tech-2-Tech  Figures 5 and 6. Once the plaster had fallen off the wall, revealing that what had been a doorway  Fig. 5  ha...
Tech-2-Tech Stage 5 – The remedy G G G additional ‘trays’ would be added to the humidifier to increase capacity all duct insulation would be removed and all joints in the ductwork would be sealed internally and externally all duct insulation replaced with higher grade material and procedures would be put in place to ensure that ‘foot traffic’ on roof would be monitored ‘teething problems’ but on the whole we are happy with the results. But – you will have to move out again. Alternative accommodation was fortunately found and the facility was vacated again to allow the builders to return: G G G all walls where cracks and ‘blown plaster’ were stripped back, re-plastered correctly and covered with a formed sheet wall covering countless tests were carried out simulating all weather conditions on HVAC system hundreds of cause and effect tests were repeated and new ones carried out Figures 8 and 9. Fig. 8 shows the same wall as Fig. 1 and 4 but now with the new finish. Fig. 9 shows that we have actually moved in! Conclusion – What went wrong? The ‘team’ that the contractor entrusted to build the facility had NO experience of building anything of this type. There was a sad lack of project management throughout the build on both sides – contractor and establishment, resulting in short cuts being taken. Decisions being made on behalf of the contract without any consultation with customer resulted in a lot of extra work to correct which, in turn, affected the legal battle that inevitably ensued. Many faults spotted by the animal staff leading to essential changes in order to make the building function! There was a failure to follow-up a survey of the existing structures which exposed problems e.g. the external walls of the facility badly needed repointing. There was also damaged guttering running along the length of one wing discharging water down the wall and the missing mortar permitted water entry, causing damp. Current situation We moved back into our facility in September 2012, two years after the problems came to light. However, it is good to report that in the main the facility works well. One major problem is that certain racks cannot be used in some rooms as they will not go through the doors! As with all refurbishments there have been a few Figures 10 and 11. These photos show one of our now well equipped procedure rooms and one of our new isolator suites. 173
Tech-2-Tech  Stage 5     The remedy G G G  additional    trays    would be added to the humidifier to increase capacity al...
Tech-2-Tech Acknowledgements A huge thank you must go to the staff at Imperial College, South Kensington who looked after us from April 2007 – November 2009 Equally, if not more, to the staff at Royal Veterinary College, Camden Town who dried our tears from July 2010 until September 2012 – without whom we would all have been out of a job! Finally what can we say to our own BSF staff who put up with so much over this time – THANK-YOU!!! References 1 2 Code of Practice for the Housing and Care of Animals used in Scientific Procedures. HMSO 1989. Documents relating to the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 can be accessed via the Home Office website https://www.gov.uk/research-and-testing-using-animals The Management, design and operation of microbiological containment laboratories. Advisor y Committee on Dangerous Pathogens. ISBN 978 0 7176 2034 0 first published 2001 http://www.hse.gov.uk 174
Tech-2-Tech  Acknowledgements A huge thank you must go to the staff at Imperial College, South Kensington who looked after...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare The paperless animal facility ROB RUTTER R&W Associates Ltd, 5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7JL Corresponding author: rrutter@randw.biz Adapted from Platform Presentation given at the Joint IAT/LAVA Congress 2013 Is it possible to achieve a paperless Animal Facility? The aim of this Presentation is to investigate if it is possible and practical to implement a paperless technologist environment for animal and procedure rooms. First we must consider the problems associated with having paper in animal and procedure rooms: Paper can be a source of infection: – it may need to be moved across a barrier – allergens may be transported into ‘clean’ areas of the facility. Paper based instructions can often be: – incomplete – not validated in error – lost or destroyed – not signed by the relevant authority. Writing on paper takes time and – pens get lost – stop working – pencils break – can be erased. Written data often has to be keyed into a computer system – two unnecessary calls on people’s time – are you one of those people? – even if you are not, time is still lost – someone may need to read your writing. Time lost could be used more productively Whilst data is being written down and being added to a computer database it’s important to know what are you NOT doing? For example not undertaking two of your primary duties i.e. G G What happens to the paperwork when the technologist has finished? G G G G Keeping records on paper means Difficulties in circulating paper records between ever yone concerned e.g. Managers, Researchers, Certificate Holder. Security of paper based data is a problem: – single copy – fire, flood risk – could be accessible to unauthorised people. What types of data exist in a BSU environment? G G G G G G ASPA licences ASPA Record keeping CPD Records breeding records work orders notification and responses to Researchers. What are the routes of data transfer in the animal facility environment? G G G looking after the animals in your care and increasing animal welfare Effective electronic capture of data refines the animal technologist’s job role and suppor ts the 3Rs – Reduction, Refinement and Replacement. sent to the office filed accumulates dust difficult to access the data quickly to check e.g. training and competency – ASPA transgressions could occur. G one to one emails post-it notes telephone messages – some technologists will be aware of requests, others may not be – no one receives messages, actions can be missed handwritten instructions on cage labels – can lead to disputes – incorrect disposals – potentially no ‘signed off’ audit trail 175
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  The paperless animal facility ROB RUTTER R W Associates Ltd, 5 South Parade,...
Tech-2-Tech What are the potential benefits if this data were held and referred to electronically? G G G Researchers: – the data could be used to guide the researchers to easily raise ASPA validated, digitally signed, work orders via the web with 24/7 accessibility Technologists: – an intuitive process would be made available that allows the technologist to record their work as it happens – it would automatically record and manage all stock, breeding and procedural activities Enterprise and Unit Management: – it would be able to provide managers with all the data they need to manage their work objectives - system would undertake any billing - system would undertake HO reporting - system would be able to monitor and manage all work queues flowing through the units Step by Step guide to how it can be achieved G researcher raises orders at their place of work: – relates to a project and animal strain. A disposal instruction – the researcher is already authenticated, we have their digital signature, they can only dispose of animals they or their team have in stock. Computers should mean paperless! G G G G G G G they should provide fast, accurate data compilation and retrieval they should be networked to keep ever yone informed data should be accessible both inside and outside the barrier – therefore reducing foot traffic data should be instantly retrievable for audit purposes good systems help not hinder system must be intuitive, easy to use, little or no training required good examples are – an ATM or cash teller machine, debit cards How can such a system save time and make life easier? G G G G it should allow the researcher to develop the data not the technologists or management: – they can only do this if provided with intuitive web tools – any system should ensure that any web request is ASPA/Home Office/EU compliant. it should automatically route work requests – no bits of paper to mislay, misdirected emails or missed phone calls make it easy to record work – a few screen touches – little or no typing and no writing necessary – cage labels automatically produced – no time consuming filing of paper records researchers are automatically advised of – their work orders being completed – updates to their breeding and experiment records 176 G G the order is automatically routed to the relevant location/room: – it appears in the technologist’s waiting order queue – the order identifies the cage of animal(s) it relates to cage is retrieved from the rack and brought to the work area:
Tech-2-Tech  What are the potential benefits if this data were held and referred to electronically  G  G  G  Researchers  ...
Tech-2-Tech – it is automatically read and details brought to the screen – NO TYPING! Data is automatically read out and brought to the active form: The save button is touched, the transaction is save and the technologist is returned to the main menu…. The researcher’s web client is immediately updated to reflect the animal disposals 177
Tech-2-Tech      it is automatically read and details brought to the screen     NO TYPING  Data is automatically read out ...
Tech-2-Tech Where would RFID/Barcode readers be placed? G G where activities with animals are undertaken – animal rooms – procedure rooms they can be portable – medical trolleys etc Delivering RFID/Barcode support in the workplace Figures 1 and 2 represent two different delivery methods that we have developed with clients. G the on screen instructions are carried out: – the identified animal(s) are boxed out for the researcher – as each one is transferred from the cage to the carton then the check box is touched – once all four are in the carton G the save button is touched: This saves the transaction and – stock is adjusted – charges are raised if required – compliance reporting records are raised – a full audit trail is maintained G cage goes back on the rack or sent to the cage washer if now empty – job completed Figure 1. Cage Change Cabinet How can the data about cage contents be automatically brought to the screen? A Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip can be placed within the cage. As the cage is withdrawn from the rack and brought to the work area the chip will be automatically read. Its unique ID is used to bring details of the cage contents identification from the database to the screen. Alternatively individual animals could be chipped where relevant. Barcodes are also suppor ted as one or two dimensional. Or a combination of technologies. 178 Figure 2. Mobile medical trolley
Tech-2-Tech  Where would RFID Barcode readers be placed  G  G  where activities with animals are undertaken     animal roo...
Tech-2-Tech Where other peripherals can be attached? G G it should be possible to link to products such as: – weighing scales – digital callipers any data that should be saved to a database: – immediately available to the researchers Has any paper been used? G Yes = Failure! However, cage labels are a current Home Office requirement and must be produced for relevant transactions: – labels should also be supplied for biopsy sample bags and Eppendorf tubes – these are not required if a Transnetxy interface is used Apart from labels… no! Success! G all stakeholders have been immediately informed of activities via web clients: – researchers – enterprise and unit management G where exceptions occur, e.g. recording of health issues the NVS, NACWO, Researcher and Project Leader could optionally be informed via automated email Exception reporting is good G if stakeholders get too many automated emails from a system, then they tend to ignore them by deleting them or adding a rule to their spam filters. Automated e-mails should only be raised in exceptional circumstances to advise of: - health issues - pain threshold breaches - unexpected dead or dying animals - project ver tebrate usage reaching agreed limits Figure 3. Android tablet with inbuilt scanner. A smart phone with a Bluetooth barcode scanner would work just as capably. Second – record when any tank is assigned to a rack row, column: – second technologist app – container position update – used each time a tank is setup, taken down or moved Third – a web application used to find tanks of interest: – before or during a visit to the aquarium using either a PC or smart phone Mapping the room G G the App would run on a hand held tablet PC that should be: – moisture and drop proof – wipable with alcohol – has some sort of scanner set a ‘start’ aisle, rack, row and column: – scan and record each slot’s unique identifier Noting where the tanks are New trends – a case study Everyone has Apps on their phones – are there any Apps for technologists? G A scenario: – you run an aquarium with five thousand tanks used by over one hundred researchers – how do you, your technologists or the researchers find tanks of interest in the aquarium? Three steps: First – map the aisles, the racks within them, the rows and columns within a rack: – First technologist App – Rack Setup – would only be used during commissioning of new rooms G when a tank is established, cleaned down or moved: – use the hand held tablet to: - scan its unique code - scan the slot’s unique code - the map is then updated Finding tanks of interest A web client is provided to: G allows the mapping data to be queried over various criteria e.g. species, project, genotype, owner A report is produced showing where tanks of interest are located within the aquarium. This App could be run on: 179
Tech-2-Tech  Where other peripherals can be attached  G  G  it should be possible to link to products such as      weighin...
Tech-2-Tech G G G G any researcher PC in the lab…prior to an aquarium visit at any PC in the aquarium or procedure room on the hand held scanning tablet on a smart phone The Apps Apps are small and discrete and can interface with numerous systems. They work on android touch screen devices that connect to wireless networks and indicate the future direction of software in this sector. Once again no paper has been used – Success! Example ‘HiVis App’ High visibility of fish, at the tank, data retrieved by scanning bar code label using a smart phone. Figure 4. Tank History The Apps can also record updates such as adult found dead or dying, health issues and disposals. Figure 4. Login to App Figure 4. Tank Summary 180
Tech-2-Tech  G G G G  any researcher PC in the lab   prior to an aquarium visit at any PC in the aquarium or procedure roo...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare A defined training programme: something no one should be without CAROL FOX Learning Curve (Development) Ltd, PO Box 140, Ware, Hertfordshire SG9 0ZN Corresponding author: carol@learningcurvedevelopment.co.uk Summary Examples of information that would be useful include: This article will outline simple steps towards creating an induction pack, training record and training programme for new members of staff in order to develop animal technology skills and continuing professional development throughout their career. G Introduction Thirty years ago the role of an animal technician was relatively basic – minimal technology and a distinct lack of training and records. With the same dedication to care and welfare of animals still paramount, the job of the Animal Technologist has evolved to be considerably more diverse. Science and technology now play an increasingly vital role. Predicting future trends and areas of research is not an easy task and as a training company we are well aware of just how difficult this can be. For example, until recently many facilities used to be multi-species whereas now single species units are more commonplace. This article will suggest how to develop a training programme for new technologists from induction through to continuing their professional development. Mentors Some establishments have set up a ‘buddy’ system and this person is identified before the new technologist commences employment. G G G G G G G provide a summary of the departmental roles and facilities including husbandry, welfare and training experimental support veterinary provision Home Office liaison map of the facilities key colleague list with their role, work location and contact details emergency procedures such as fire alarms, fire alarm tests, evacuation First Aid provision and incident reporting Other basic information such as security, salary, hours of work, break times, holiday allowance and booking, overtime working and sickness absence reporting are all pieces of information that the new starter needs for future reference. Training schedules and records Having a training schedule and a record in place, gives both the employer and the trainee direction. The schedule indicates what training topics should be completed by set time points e.g. first week, first month etc., and completion of these offers the trainee set goals and a sense of achievement with each completed task. Below are a few suggestions of what could be completed within the first month. Handling, sexing and restraint Use of balances From personal experience, providing a mentor for the new colleague is a key part of their training and wellbeing. Mentoring is not a skill that everyone has therefore it is important to assess candidates for their suitability. Ideally the mentor will have good ‘people skills’ and the correct work ethic. Animal identification Daily Animal Health observations and monitoring Cage and rack changing Enrichment programme Facility documentation Induction pack To help the new member of staff settle in quickly and become familiar with their surroundings, people and policies, an induction/information pack is a very useful tool. This should explain their role within their establishment for providing high quality laboratory animal science in the research environment. Housing and environmental requirements Feeding Supply of animal drinking water Cleaning equipment requirements and cleaning schedule 181
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  A defined training programme  something no one should be without CAROL FOX L...
Tech-2-Tech Further training could include: Animal restraint G G attendance at internal/external workshops, seminars, meetings, etc. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) recording Procedures for sick, moribund and dead animals Study documentation Schedule 1 Dose calculations Facility technical equipment These should be kept up to date and readily available for review by Home Office Inspectors or representatives from other external regulatory bodies. Training records can be electronic or paper based, or a mixture of the two. There are a number of examples of recording training and competency (see below). Licensed procedures Many examples of more advanced training throughout an animal technologist’s career can be completed either internally or by attending the many available courses and workshops organised by external course providers. The training record should indicate successful completion of the tasks. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and/or training documents can be used to define tasks giving detailed instruction and guidance of the task and competency requirements. These are ideal to ensure consistency in working practices and to maintain high levels of husbandry and animal welfare. Each training document should have a set of questions which could be asked during the ‘on the job’ assessment. The training record should indicate: G G on-going and completed training certificates of achievement for additional training Figure 1. Example of a training database Figure 2. Example of paper based training records 182 Experience shows that a three-stage training process is a good model to follow as can be seen in the following examples: Level 1 – Working Under Supervision This records the start of training in a particular activity. – The trainee will work under supervision for a varying period, depending upon ability, opportunity and the complexity of the task. – The level of supervision generally relaxes as training progresses and the trainee gains confidence and proficiency. Level 2 – Competency Assessed (Competence = Achievement of abilities, skills and knowledge) This section is completed once the trainee has been assessed as competent to complete the task without supervision and meets the competence criteria in the training documentation. – Ideally the assessor will not be the trainer, however this is not always possible in a small facility. Level 3 – Competent as a Trainer This records the individual as appropriately experienced to provide training/assessment in specific tasks
Tech-2-Tech  Further training could include  Animal restraint  G G  attendance at internal external workshops, seminars, m...
Tech-2-Tech Trainers and assessors A good trainer/assessor will be experienced and competent in the tasks they are demonstrating: G G ideally they have taken a ‘train the trainer’ type of course, have an aptitude for it and can relate well to trainees regular review of trainers and assessors is essential to ensure standards are upheld G work based projects (including new techniques, new species, report writing etc.) Conclusion The initial effort of preparing induction packs, training records and schedules will establish a good career path and give the establishment a well trained workforce. Trainers need to have the skills to understand why training is needed, know what makes effective training, understand competence and differing questioning techniques as well as different teaching and learning styles. There are a number of providers of such training. Directive 2010/63/EU places a greater emphasis on training and CPD for licensees and makes attendance at workshops and short courses more of an important activity. This ensures knowledge on advances of animal welfare and new invocations in technology are kept up to date and CPD is maintained. In-house training Acknowledgements The first week is often filled with inductions, meeting key people and familiarising new staff with the facility. Before the trainee commences their first animal duties it is vital to ensure they understand the importance of adhering to health and safety rules and the correct use of PPE for the protection against Laboratory Animal Allergy (LAA) and other hazards. Thanks to Martin Heath, Ian Garrod, Fiona Jameson for their kind assistance and input with writing this article External training and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Studying an appropriate Institute of Animal Technology (IAT) course would benefit a trainee by providing the theoretical background to the practical skills they are learning in the workplace. This in turn benefits the employer, giving them a skilled, professional member of staff. There are a number of providers offering flexibility in training via classroom or correspondence courses. Further reading Jarvis, L. (2013). Competence of Personnel who work with Laboratory Animals. Lab Animal Europe, Vol 13, No 8, 3-4. http://www.lasa.co.uk/PDF/position_education_training.pdf Fox, C. and Garrod, I. (2005). Training Records and In vivo Training is Refinement and Good Practice. Animal Technology and Welfare, Vol 4, 175-176. Fox, C. (2011). Promoting Flawless Animal Care and Welfare: Through Quality Training Programs. Animal Technology and Welfare, Vol 10, 1-5. CPD starts on commencement of employment for everyone working in laboratory animal science. Directive 2010/63/EU places a greater emphasis on training and CPD for licensees and therefore makes attendance at workshops and short courses of great importance – it is essential that accurate records of CPD credits are maintained. CPD can also be gained through: G G G G G G reading – IAT journal or scientific papers, posters etc. internal/external training courses conferences, IAT Congress and meetings (including Branch educational meetings) presentations/demonstrations at any laboratory animal science meeting Home Office modular courses distance learning, home study (including relevant journal articles, books etc.) 183
Tech-2-Tech  Trainers and assessors A good trainer assessor will be experienced and competent in the tasks they are demons...
Animal Technology and Welfare December 2013 Going Green in ARES BRIAN GWYNNE* and DAVID ROBINSON MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB2 0QH *Corresponding author: bg@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk Adapted from Platform Presentation given at the Joint IAT/LAVA Congress 2013 Introduction Figure 1. The Ares Building – situated to the south of Cambridge on the Babraham Research campus The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the process management at Medical Research Council (MRC) Ares Building followed to reduce the impact the use of the building has on the environment and to share our experiences. Description of each area in building: entrance – for staff and clean animals laboratories for microinjection and cryopreservation Genetically Modified (GM) production and breeding – Production of new GM lines – Rederivation – Continuous breeding – Holding for long-term studies G experimental – Medium term and acute studies – Behavioural testing – Quarantine and Containment Level 2 – with entrance for dirty animals – Specialist procedure rooms – visual imaging, plethysmography, isotope/carcinogen, irradiator and behavioural testing. G caging – cage of choice is Tecniplast Safeseal GM500, (commonly known as Greenline). The cages have a loft incorporated within it as a means of escape during significant flooding events and as an enrichment item. We worked with cage manufacturers to design a cage lid and loft to suit. – 95% of cages in use are on automatic watering G G G G air flow – conditioned air from room into IVC AHU – Exhaust air to thimble in ceiling panel The Ares Building provides a purpose built research resource for MRC Centre in Cambridge, primarily the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, but also houses other MRC units. Frequently asked questions about ARES G G G G single storey 3,300m2 – approximately excluding plant phase 1 will hold 35,000 mice in around 11,700 cages plus quarantine = further 900 cages. Total 12600 phase 2 will hold a further 20,000 mice. (6,700 cages) staff facilities – large staff room with meeting facilities. Natural light wherever possible e.g. into staff rooms, offices and corridors. 184 Figure 2. IVC showing exhaust thimble
Animal Technology and Welfare  December 2013  Going Green in ARES BRIAN GWYNNE  and DAVID ROBINSON MRC Laboratory of Molec...
Tech-2-Tech G G G cagewash – automated cagewash, semi-automatic bottlewash (<5% bottles), rackwasher, autoclaves, Automatic Water chlorination and flushing units. Sufficient size for phase 2 expansion goods in – diet bedding and all consumables staff – 1st year – rederivation of Genetically Modified strains from Small Animal Breeding Unit (SABU) and Central Biological Services – SABU Closed August 2009, CBS closed December 2009. 50% occupied December 2010 – Current census for Feb 12 2013 is 7600 cages (60% capacity) cages in ARES = 38 animal husbandry and support staff (not including veterinarians, administrative or reception) and around 4 administraive staff and managers. Around 60 staff needed for 100% capacity. G G the scheme features a range of reputational, behavioural and financial drivers, which aim to encourage organisations to develop energy management strategies that promote a better understanding of energy usage further information from https://www.gov.uk/crcenergy-efficiency-scheme Summary of energy saving G G G G G G background to the MRC Environmental Strategy Green Committee managing waste – composting of used animal bedding, recycling cardboard, plastics and only contaminated waste incinerated water savings gained by using automated water system energy saving trials – results – conclusions future plans MRC environment and sustainability policy – July 2012 The MRC is committed to managing its activities and environmental impacts by a programme of continual improvement in environmental performance and the prevention of pollution. G G comply with relevant environmental legislation including the Government’s Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Energy Efficiency Scheme employ ‘Best Practice’ to prevent pollution and minimise the environmental impacts arising from our business including the key areas of water usage, waste management, energy, transport and resource efficiency More info – http://www.mrc.ac.uk/Newspublications/ News/MRC008770 Carbon reduction commitment CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme G initiative from the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change G the CRC is a mandatory scheme aimed at improving energy efficiency and cutting emissions in large public and private sector organisations G these organisations are responsible for around 10% of the UK’s emissions Energy saving trial – MRC Ares G G G G G G first mice in July 2008 GM mice in IVCs and isolators capacity to hold 12,600 cages currently holding 8,000 cages but increasing to 10,000 in 2013 energy bill of -– £750K p.a. Ares has been open now for nearly 5 years (April 2008) and has capacity to hold 12600 cages of rodents, almost exclusively GM mice, at high health status and to allow areas for breeding, experimental and quarantine. The expenditure on energy, electricity and gas is around £750,000 p.a. and the cost of water is £55,000 p.a. When planning the building, we looked at similar new facilities in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA) to see the latest ideas in caging, cage handling and cage-washing within a barriered building. The main caging system within Ares are Safeseal Greenline cages (Tecniplast UK Ltd), we also have a dedicated Isolation unit, that contains 16 flexible-film Isolators. Current (2013) occupancy is 8000 cages. 90% of cages are supplied with water via an automatic watering system (Edstrom) with the other 10% housed in isolators or under experimental conditions are supplied with bottled water. 185
Tech-2-Tech  G  G G  cagewash     automated cagewash, semi-automatic bottlewash   5  bottles , rackwasher, autoclaves, Aut...
Tech-2-Tech The major emphasis was on using as much automation as possible to make a safe and pleasant working environment for staff and provide good welfare for animals, the ultimate aim being to provide an excellent resource for science at MRC Centre, Cambridge. reduced to £1454 per month on average with a consequent saving of £700 per month. The average total waste equals 4.365 tonnes per month since April 2011. We did not intend to ‘reinvent the wheel’ and where others had gone before us e.g. MLC, with ‘best practice’ we followed their example e.g. IVCs and isolators, for containment and robotic cage-washing for ser vicing cages. Automated cage watering was installed throughout and by working closely with our suppliers, Tecniplast and Edstrom, we refined the system to maximise its reliability and efficiency. MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology – Green Committee Waste Disposal and Recycling Graph 1. Cost of waste disposal Ares Water Savings Area RO water for animal drinking 7000 auto 500 bottles Plant AHU condensate Consumed To drain Recycled RO reject and Filter back flush All To drain Before April 2012 4% 16% After April 2012 80% 88% Saving = 1,226,000 L 4% 8% Saving 1500L/ day for 7 months each year = 295,000L Total Annual Saving since April 2012 = 1,521,000 L Figure 3. Waste disposal routes G G G G G G recycling for non-hazardous waste paper and cardboard recycling plastic and glass recycling general rubbish including food waste collected by council service majority of soiled bedding is composted separate arrangements for hazardous waste Ares Bio Waste Management Graph 1 shows cost of disposing of Ares waste via the two main routes i.e. Composting – soiled bedding at a cost of 27.5p per kilogramme. Incineration – carcasses, hazardous waste, sharps, waste from quarantine at an average cost of 54p per kilogramme Prior to April 2011 the average monthly cost of incinerating waste was £2150 per month. Following the introduction of waste composting in April 2011, the combined cost of composting plus incineration was 186 Figure 4. Energy costs
Tech-2-Tech  The major emphasis was on using as much automation as possible to make a safe and pleasant working environmen...
Tech-2-Tech It is clear that many laboratories and offices in the building leave many items of equipment turned on 24/7. There is a high cost of wasting energy, not only in terms of financial implications but the effects on the environment and our planet by the exponential production of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels. Travel for work and travel plan The MRC Units on the campus (and therefore all members of staff) are full members of the Cambridge Travel for Work Partnership, which is dedicated to delivering and promoting sustainable and healthy travel to work. Energy saving trial – MRC Ares Figure 6. 12 hour air reduction Background to trial Home Office CoP Ares GM500 IVC`s 15-20 Air Changes per Hour 21C +/- 2C 55%RH +/- 10 Over 20 ACH in Holding Room 65-70 ACH in IVC`s Conditioned air from Holding Room Positive pressure Extract to ceiling thimble Figure 5. Home Office CoP and how Ares compares Reduction in Holding Room ACH will give best savings G G G Objective to reduce by up to 33% for up to 12 hours overnight Four trials carried out – 1) Nov 2011 – 2 hours for 4 days 2) Feb 2012 – 4 hours for 4 days 3) July 2012 – 8 hours for 4 days 4) Oct-Nov 2012 – 12 hours for 28 days Home Office consulted throughout Figure 7. Space temperature average 4th Trial 8th October – 6th November 2012 G G G G G G 12 hour air reduction by 33% over 28 days. 19.00 – 07.00 hrs each day (dark period) 3 sample rooms, T26, E29 and E49 with 1 selected IVC cage per room housing 5-6 adult males measurements – – room and cage temp and humidity to be recorded constantly during test period – room and cage NH3 and room CO2 to be recorded using Dräger tubes by spot tests – measurements taken at end of reduced air flow period (06.30-07.00 hrs) and during normal air flow at regular intervals. measurement of allergen levels breeding and productivity figures recorded if any negative effects or observations made the trial will be stopped immediately Figure 8. Relative Humidity 187
Tech-2-Tech  It is clear that many laboratories and offices in the building leave many items of equipment turned on 24 7. ...
Tech-2-Tech ARES Project – Ground floor the same cage by using the same access point on the cage. Figure 11. Showing Datalogger probe above wire lid G d Floor Figure 9. Ground floor The most accurate data was collected when the cage was in situ on the rack and receiving 65-70 ACH. Within Ares, Breeding and Experimental occupy 8 holding rooms housing majority of IVCs. For the energy saving trials rooms T26, E29 in Breeding Unit and E49 in Quarantine Unit were selected as these have consistently high number of cages and represent different functional areas in building. Equipment used for trials Figure 12. Dräger test kit for CO2 and NH3 Figure 10. Cage lid showing data logger Tiny Tag data loggers (Gemini Data Loggers (UK) Ltd) were used to measure temperature and humidity within the cage. Our workshop adapted the cage top to allow the probe to be held in place above the wire lid. A Drager test kit was used to measure NH3 and CO2 in 188 Figure 13. Dräger glass tube in situ
Tech-2-Tech  ARES Project     Ground floor  the same cage by using the same access point on the cage.  Figure 11. Showing ...
Tech-2-Tech Workplace Exposure Limits (Taken from EH40/2011) Substance Chemical Formula LTEL (8 Hrs TWA) PPM Ammonia Carbon dioxide NH3 NH3 CO2 CO2 STEL (15 minute TWA) PPM 35 15000 25 5000 The long Term Exposure Limits as a guide to acceptable levels for CO2 and NH3 Ares Room NH NH33 Human OEL 25 ppm CO2 CO2 Human OEL 5000 ppm Normal Vent Room T26, E29, E49 Reduced Vent Normal Vent Reduced Vent <0.5 <0.75 360 400 Room Cage Variable approx 25% readings above OEL of 25ppm 1250 1680 1680 Ares 3rd Energy Saving Trial Figure 14 and 15. Room E29 Temperature and humidity measurements within cage 2nd – 6th July 8 hour test period 23.00 – 07.00 hrs Productivity Weaned per female per week No obvious affect from reduced air flows were recorded. The rise and fall of temperature in the cage matching activity in the cage is striking. Although this has been observed before this is a good example and probably more apparent as cage contains the maximum number of adult mice permitted for the floor area. 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 Week Number Reduced room air changes 2012 TYR C57Bl6 189
Tech-2-Tech  Workplace Exposure Limits  Taken from EH40 2011  Substance  Chemical Formula LTEL  8 Hrs TWA  PPM  Ammonia Ca...
Tech-2-Tech Allergen Testing Ares Room and position of monitor Energy Saving     Annual Estimated Saving           Room T26 3m from back door 1.8 2.4 1.4 3.5 Room T26 4m from main entry door 2 2.2 0.7 2.2 Room T35 3m from back door 2.1 2.1 0.5 1.9 Figure 17. Estimated saving per annum Room T35 3m from main entry door 2 2.9 0.8 1.5 What next? Room E29 3m from back door 3.4 3.7 1.7 3.4 Room E29 3m from main entry door 2.2 3.5 1.0 2.1 Continue 4th energy saving trial started 8th October 2012 G 12 hour air reduction by 33% – on-going G monitor room Temperature and Humidity G monitor breeding productivity G plan next allergen level monitoring Room E32 3m from back door 1.4 1.8 1.9 1.4 Next stage: consider further extension of air reduction time 2.7 4.1 0.6 5.5 2.2 2.8 1.08 2.69 Not Detected Not Detected Room E32 3m from main entry door Average Plant Figure 16. Allergen testing  $%  '    The Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) suggests Risk Assessment using a traffic light system where >5 ng/m3 should require use of Personal Protective Equipment. 190 ! # Ammonia Levels in IVC measure NH3 in cages over 2 week cleaning out interval G compare different stocking densities G compare different beddings G preference tests? G Conclusions G Regarding exposure to these allergens it is not possible to say that there is a safe level of exposure. It has been reported that sensitisation and symptoms can be observed in staff persistently exposed to Mus m1 at >2.5 ng/m3. !" # !&#" ! # G G going greener has so far been a positive experience at Ares helped by being a modern stand alone building other facilities are following our example. Acknowledgements ARES – Engineering team, managers and all ARES staff.
Tech-2-Tech  Allergen Testing Ares Room and position of monitor     Energy Saving                          Annual Estimate...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare Are you ready for a disaster? A ‘thoughtstarter’ paper about Business Continuity Planning (BCP) CAROL SMEE and LYNDA WESTALL* Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA *Corresponding author: law@sanger.ac.uk Introduction In this paper we are not talking about Craig Revel Hor wood on Strictly Come Dancing stating that someone’s performance was a ‘disaahster’ but your own facility’s plans for what may turn out to be a real disaster situation. We ask: Have you got plans in place? Could you cope with an extreme ‘bolt from the blue’ wiping out most of your facility, such as an explosion or fire? Or a ‘creeping’, slow-onset situation that begins to cause problems, for example, a fuel shortage or flood? Who else needs to be involved in your BCP and what exactly is a disaster? A disaster is usually referred to as ‘a situation where it is not possible to recover normal working conditions within 48 hours’. However, individual establishments may want to issue a variation to this definition depending on the type of work they are undertaking and the ramifications of different ‘situations’. Hopefully, a real disaster will never happen but it is important that you have a well thought out plan just in case and that this is written down so everyone involved has a document, with instructions, to refer to. Haven’t we all been a little bit too close for comfort at times? In fact, maybe the early stages of a BCP need to be invoked in ‘normal’ situations, such as severe staff shortages. Are long-term trends in our climate showing more extreme highs and lows that affect plant and services and therefore, the possible welfare of the animals and do we seem to have to deal with the effects of these extremes more regularly? This paper is a ‘thought starter’ – it does not set out everything you need to know as each establishment will have its own key issues to consider. It does, however, give you some things to think about and ideas for desktop scenario testing. Your BCP – things to consider G Levels Your BCP can be broken down into different levels, for example, Major or Minor events. Major events could affect much of your site and involve many people, including casualties, such as a large explosion. Minor events are dealt with rapidly by a few people, for example, a chemical spill. G Timing It might be helpful to consider response to a disaster as having 3 phases which overlap. These might be: – Incident Response; what happens immediately? Who are the first points of contact? – Business Continuity; can business or, part of the business, continue operations? What are the priority activities and ser vices which must continue? What can be ‘shut down’? Can you continue to operate with only a few, key staff? – Recovery; how will you get back to normal operation? What activities require re-establishing urgently? Figure 1 shows an example Incident Response Timeline to illustrate the timing of the phases outlined above. G Coordinating committee You might decide you need a Disaster Committee made up of a group of senior individuals. These individuals will have responsibility for specific areas or functions within a large site and these responsibilities should be published so that all staff are aware of these. This committee is usually convened within 24 hours of a major disaster and coordinates the response. The Committee is the central point of contact – other staff will report in to it; it defines priorities such as key stocks, experiments and irreplaceable biological resources; agrees actions; and assigns staff to undertake them. Priorities should be assessed as a cost versus benefit analysis with a strong focus on animal welfare. G Cascades and key staff Ensure that you have a list of key staff and their emergency contact details. These would usually be 191
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  Are you ready for a disaster  A    thoughtstarter    paper about Business Co...
Figure 1. Incident response timeline Tech-2-Tech 192
Figure 1. Incident response timeline  Tech-2-Tech  192
Tech-2-Tech held by site Security, the HR department and/or a senior manager. Cascade lists ensure that everyone who needs to know about a situation gets told! A list of key staff within a 5-mile, 10-mile radius of the facility might be useful. What about plans for staff to car share in an emergency if not already doing so? G Other teams If you work on a large multi-disciplinary site, you may need a site-wide BCP as well as a local BCP for your facility. Desk-top scenario testing can bring together staff from different teams and improve interactions and understanding between staff involved. It might be possible to identify staff from other areas that could assist your area in a BCP situation and vice versa. G Scenario testing, training and communication Although things will never go exactly as they did in a scenario test, the over-arching processes will be similar regardless of the specifics of the scenario. Testing your plans helps highlight where there may be gaps, brings the plan to everyone’s attention and helps staff in other teams understand your facility’s priorities. You might even like to carry out ‘mini’ scenario tests with smaller groups, such as individual teams. It is important that these scenario tests are carried out at least annually to ensure the BCP processes are regularly reviewed and updated and people do not become complacent with them. The basics of the BCP, i.e. what immediate action should be taken should be communicated to all staff. Consider posting FAQs on an intranet page and perhaps sending annual reminders to staff by email (or other routes) on the BCP. Communication to your Home Office Inspector on what is occurring, or is about to, will need to be carried out where a situation has the potential to affect animal welfare. Discussions with your Inspector while the BCP is being written will be useful in identifying when and how often the Home Office may want to be kept informed and what information they will require. suppliers have their own BCP in place to ensure uninterrupted provision of key consumables? Are there alternative suppliers available? Do other establishments use the same supplies that you might ‘borrow’ from i.e. food or bedding? Could you use alternative diets? How much of the key consumables can be kept on site and how long will this last? If the cage wash area is automated, can you undertake manual cage-washing and water bottle changes and for how long? How about alternatives for key utilities, such as, electricity, other fuels and water? If your site is serviced by a company to remove the clinical waste produced, what plans need to be in place if this is delayed for a week or possibly longer? G Site specific considerations Each BCP will differ, especially regarding the following parameters: G geography of site G one site or multi-site G one facility on site/multiple, multi-use facilities/ shared facilities G size of facility/site G number of personnel and job roles G staff training G interaction with other facilities/ser vices on same site G species of animal and number – key stock levels G cryopreservation regimes G building fabric/barrier G infection control/barrier breach protocols G Recovery Do not forget to include a plan to get things back to normal after the incident has been dealt with! Consider: G barrier breaches G animal health screening G prioritising research programmes so they can be brought back on stream in order of priority G de-brief staff G think about lessons learned, revise action plans and BCP documentation Pandemic supplement G Off-site storage/alternative facilities Are there facilities for storage of cryopreserved stocks? Are there alternative places where staff can work or meet? Can live animals be kept temporarily off-site; perhaps share accommodation at another establishment and has this potential been discussed with your Home Office Inspector? G Suppliers and supplies Does your supplier have a local depot where emergency supplies of animal food and bedding stocks can be obtained at short notice? Do your 193
Tech-2-Tech  held by site Security, the HR department and or a senior manager. Cascade lists ensure that everyone who need...
Tech-2-Tech You might like to consider a supplement to your main BCP documentation which focuses on action to take should a pandemic arise. It might be helpful to think about what action would be taken at 2 different levels of pandemic: Low Level – Numbers of people affected (cases) are low and individuals’ time off work is short. There are few severe cases, i.e. there are few hospital admissions of people under 65 years of age. Disaster Committee is convened. High Level – Number of hospitalised cases is significant, number of severe cases (including deaths) is significant. Staff absences are longer in duration than normally expected. In order to gauge at which level your Pandemic BCP is operating, good data collection regarding staff absences is essential. Information from Public Health England should also be used to assess the situation at a national level. Examples of desk-top scenario tests Below are two examples of desk top scenarios; the first is one that would affect the whole site, including the animal facility while the second is directed mainly at the animal facility. What would you do? 1. Fuel shortage Day 1: Newspapers are reporting the possibility of a fuel shortage – diesel, petrol and oil supplies may be affected. Day 2: Panic buying of fuel at the pumps is causing shortages, especially in larger towns. Day 4: Most petrol stations in local area are out of fuel and the remainder are running very low and limiting individual fuel purchases. External contractors are having trouble getting on-site. Day 7: Courier and contracted deliveries have stopped. Deliveries to site stores have ceased. 20% of site staff are working from home. Day 8: Taxis are not operating. Site buses are not operating. 40% of staff are attempting to work from home. On-site Nursery has had to close due to lack of staff. Day 9: 70% of staff are attempting to work from home. Government states fuel only available for critical supplies only. Day 11: Power cuts are affecting site as power stations go off-line intermittently. Emergency generators are using up the remaining fuel. Power keeps going on and off affecting freezers and lab containment facilities. 3 weeks after Day 1: Fuel levels getting back to 194 normal. Power is mostly back on-line. What are the main points in your Business Recovery Plans? What revisions will you make to your BCP? 2. Autoclave and cage-change robot breakdown, and concurrent infection outbreak Day 1: The 2 main autoclaves into the barrier area have been having intermittent break downs over the past couple of weeks. These 2 autoclaves have now stopped completely. The problem appears to be sheared pipework to these two units caused by overpressure of the steam-line. H&S inspection of damaged line and investigation of fault will delay rectification of fault – expected repair in 1 week’s time. Day 6: Over the last few days technicians have noticed an increase in pre-weaning loss in some colonies of mice, i.e., mortality rate is increasing. Technicians also notice offspring with diarrhoea in the same colonies as well as some others and flag to NACWOs. The death rate of mouse pups continues to increase within colonies. Day 9: Autoclaves repaired! Off-site diagnostic lab has confirmed mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection in some specific colonies. (fur ther investigation shows all affected colonies to be linked to same tumour cell line). Day 17: Major ingress of water from condensate from boilers has flooded into the computers for the cage-change robot which has stopped working. Repair is not expected for 3 days. Day 18: No findings of MHV in quarantine areas. Sentinel animals have not showed up MHV! Day 21: Cage-change robot engineer arrives and fixes robot. Day 23: Increased screening of mice is indicating no further spread of MHV. How would you have dealt with these situations in your establishments? What work, if any, would be scaled down or stopped? How would staff be redeployed or ‘borrowed’ from elsewhere? Who else would need to be informed? When would the Home Office be informed? Where might the contamination of MHV have come from? Are all barrier procedures ‘water tight’ in your facility? How can the IAT help? Do you want to know more about BCPs or need help in putting yours together? Perhaps a workshop could be arranged during Congress or a presentation given at an IAT regional symposium to address this topic? IAT meetings could give us all the opportunity to get together with other establishments to discuss working together in the face of disaster!
Tech-2-Tech  You might like to consider a supplement to your main BCP documentation which focuses on action to take should...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare Making use of a laser pointer as training and enrichment tool: a discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum ANTHONY FERRARO1, REBECCA BRUNELLI2, STEFANIE L. NELSEN3, GENEVIEVE ANDREWS-KELLY4 and POLLY SCHULTZ5 1 2 3 4 5 Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, 900 Ridgebury Road, Ridgefield, CT 06877 USA California State University, 400 West First Street, Chico, CA 95929, USA SNBL USA Scientific Resource Centre, PO Box 1638, Alice, Texas 78333 USA Huntingdon Life Sciences, Princeton Research Centre, 100 Mettlers Road, East Millstone, NJ 08875-2360, USA OPR Coastal Primate Sanctuary, 717 Harmony Dr. Longview, WA. 98632 USA Corresponding author: LAREF Moderator, Viktor Reinhardt – viktor@snowcrest.net Does anybody on the forum make use of a laser pointer when working with animals? We had talked about using it as a targeting tool. We wanted to get our rhesus macaques to test their water lixit® on command, instead of the caretakers having to put a pole through the mesh of the cage and push the tip of the lixit. This routine procedure often frightens the animals quite a bit; they sometimes grab the pole in a self-defensive or aggressive reaction and struggle with the caretaker who then has to remove the pole by force. Even if they do not grab it, they often cower at the opposite side of the cage in a fearful posture. We have used a laser pointer occasionally with rhesus and cynos, just for fun. Some really like it, sliding their hands along a surface trying to grab the light point. Some just check it out a bit and ignore it after a short time. It seems that the younger monkeys are more interested than the older ones. (Schultz) Back when I was the enrichment tech at my last job, I trained one cynomolgus macaque to check his lixit® with a laser pointer. My current position does not give me the time to do this kind of work but I think it could be incredibly valuable plus would serve as a great form of enrichment for the monkeys. We thought it would be a great idea if we could have the monkeys target their finger to a laser light point, then transfer it to the lixit® and finally fade out the laser (or even continue to use the laser, if necessary). Sadly, our idea never came to fruition because it was argued that it would not be worth it to invest the time necessary to train all the rhesus monkeys at the facility – so hard to change those traditional perceptions! I am curious if anyone in our forum has successfully trained nonhuman primates to test their lixits® themselves. As a side note, my two house cats absolutely love the laser pointer; they chase the light dot all over the house. I usually do not do it for more than 5-10 minutes a couple times a week to avoid a gradual loss of interest in the game. (Brunelli). Figure 1. Rhesus Macque responding to laser pointer 195
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  Making use of a laser pointer as training and enrichment tool  a discussion ...
Tech-2-Tech an average of four sessions, 7 of the 8 rhesus (88%) and 13 of the 15 cyonomolgus macaques (87%) checked their lixits® on cue. In the beginning, the laser pointer was still needed but eventually phased out; a verbal cue was then sufficient to prompt the animals to check their lixits®1. I have also used the laser pointer to target macaques, prompting them to move from a dirty cage to a clean cage or to enter a chute. Additionally, it has been my experience that the laser pointer is a great enrichment tool; using basic target training, you can entice a monkey to explore an activity cage and participate in physical activity as well. (Nelsen) Acknowledgements Photographs by courtesy of Anthony Ferraro Figure 2. Laser pointing at Rhesus Macque’s finger Reference 1 At home, my cats love the lasers too but strangely enough my dogs are terrified of it. (Andrews-Kelly) We have successfully trained with a laser pointer at least one cyno in each pair/group to target to their lixits®. Currently this stands at about 35 cages housing a total of 63 animals. We no longer need to check the lixits® with poles. Most of the animals no longer even need the laser and will check the lixit upon a verbal command and a simple hand gesture. It is fun to watch the animals as the technician goes around the room and all the animals are checking their lixits themselves. At home, our cat loves to chase the laser. It is his absolute favorite activity, and can keep his attention for over a half-hour – if I do not get bored with it by then. Our dog loves the laser as well but once we stop playing he becomes slightly confused and anxious and looks around the house for it, so we stopped using this type of enrichment for him. (Ferraro) I trained eight rhesus (6 males and 2 females) and fifteen cynomolgus (12 males and 3 females) macaques to check their lixits, using a laser pointer as the target. The macaques were already familiar with me and eight of the cynos had been pole and collar trained by me. I first conditioned each macaque to the sound of a clicker (bridge), by clicking and providing a food reward. This was followed by introducing the individual to the laser pointer either on the side of the cage or the back of the cage. When the macaque touched the laser point on the cage, I clicked the clicker and provided the animal with a reinforcement treat. After the animal consistently touched the laser point on the cage wall or the back of the cage, the laser point was moved to the lixit®. Training sessions lasted 5 minutes or less. After 196 Haba Nelsen, S.L., Bradford, D. and Houghton, P. (2010). Laser lixitTM training: an alternative form of target training that can be utilized in the daily husbandry care of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology, Vol 72, Supplement, 27
Tech-2-Tech  an average of four sessions, 7 of the 8 rhesus  88   and 13 of the 15 cyonomolgus macaques  87   checked thei...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare Recruiting animal technologists? It pays to avoid the common pitfalls! CLAIRE BELL*, NORMAN MORTELL and TIM McGUIRE Agenda Resource Management, PO Box 24, Hull HU12 8YJ *Corresponding author: email@agenda-rm.co.uk Introduction Your organisation’s employees are one of your biggest assets. Without the people that make up your organisation, it would soon cease to exist. The cost of recruiting staff will often be high – whether that is replacing employees leaving the company or taking on new staff. This is just one reason why it is so impor tant to get the recruitment process right. Recruiting Animal Technicians, where the new person will bear considerable responsibility for animals in their care, presents its own unique challenges and makes it vital to attract the right person. In this article, we will provide guidance for recruiting new staff, from defining what type of person you need, through to inter viewing and making the choice between applicants. Identifying your needs Taking the time to accurately define your recruitment needs at the start of the process will pay dividends during both the shortlisting and interviewing stages. Perhaps you are short staffed and need to fill a vacancy urgently and the temptation can be to rush into finding a replacement quickly. Whilst getting a person in at short notice may seem like a problem has been solved, getting the wrong person can be costly in many ways (including time spent dealing with poor performance and additional costs in recruiting again for a replacement). Here are our tips in identifying your needs: 1 Have a clearly defined job description for the role. What will the main duties be in the position? What will the person spend the bulk of their time doing? Having a clear job description will help you describe the role to prospective applicants – having no job description may leave you struggling to ‘sell’ the role to jobseekers or giving different versions to different people. 2 Have a clearly defined person specification for the role. Identify the qualifications and experience you would expect the person to have to be able to per form the job role competently. For trainee animal care roles, do you expect the person to have animal care qualifications such as BTECs or NVQs or would good grades at GCSE level (or equivalent) suffice? What type of experience does the person need to give them a chance at doing the job well? Establish what qualities you consider to be essential to the role (and you would not consider applicants without those qualities). Establish what qualities would be desirable for the applicants to have, but if they did not, you could provide relevant training. Perhaps your organisation already has job descriptions and person specifications in place – which is great as it gives you a good starting point. Take the time to review any existing job descriptions and person specifications to ensure they still accurately reflect the role and your requirements. Following these steps will help you establish a clear framework for identifying suitable candidates for the role once they have applied, comparing candidates objectively and also provides a fair basis for rejecting unsuitable applicants. A good recruitment process ensures a consistent and fair process for each person and having a comprehensive job description and person specification is the first important step. Candidate attraction Attracting suitable candidates to apply for your vacancy is essential; at the same time, consideration must be given to whether your job advert will attract unwanted attention or unsuitable candidates and so care is needed when wording the advert. The choice of how and where to advertise your vacancy is limitless and dealing with incoming candidate enquiries and applications is a time-consuming process. Here are some options for you to consider: 1 Encourage applications and recommendations from current employees. This method will produce fewer applicants but you will have the advantage of your current employees recommending them (and therefore having some prior knowledge and understanding of the person’s background and experience). 2 Advertise the role on websites. There are plenty of 197
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  Recruiting animal technologists  It pays to avoid the common pitfalls  CLAIR...
Tech-2-Tech websites you can consider, from general jobs boards such as Totaljobs to more specialist sites such as jobs.ac.uk and New Scientist. This method of attracting candidates can be costly but should produce plenty of applicants for you to consider. 3 Advertise the role in specialist publications. This method may be more appropriate if your vacancy requires more experience, or specific skills. For example, the Institute of Animal Technology (IAT) Bulletin (aimed specifically at animal technology professionals) would be more appropriate to target more experienced Animal Technicians. 4 Use social media. Sites such as Twitter, Facebook and Linked-In have grown in popularity for job advertising in recent years. Behaviour of jobseekers is always changing and increasingly they are fitting in their job search around their daily lives by using mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. 5 Use a specialist recruitment agency. Agencies often have well established processes for attracting candidates and some will have databases of suitable candidates seeking positions. If an agency advertises on your behalf, it is often included in the fees and your organisation can remain anonymous behind the agency advertising if security and/or anonymity is/are important. research you conduct, your focus on welfare and attractive information such as location, staff facilities and benefits. Your choice of advertising medium will ultimately depend upon how visible you want the vacancy to be, how wide a range of candidates you want to consider and the budget you have to spend on advertising. Job advert Once you have chosen where to advertise your vacancy, putting together a good job advertisement is key to attracting the right candidates. Below is a sample advert. Typically, jobseekers look at 3 key factors when deciding whether a role is going to be suitable for them: 1. Job title 2. Location 3. Salary The words you use to describe your vacancy are also important but the candidate may not bother to read those unless they are satisfied that the 3 areas above meet their initial needs. On the sample advertisement, you will also see a brief description of the role and information for candidates on what qualities they need to possess to be considered. Just as defining your needs was important, clearly articulating these needs to jobseekers is also vital so they can determine whether it is worthwhile for them to apply for the vacancy. If you have space on your advert it is also useful to say something about your organisation, an overview of the 198 Figure 1. A sample job advertisement It is important not to write the advert in such a way that it is impossible to see that you are seeking a person to look after the care and welfare of laboratory animals. Security is an issue though and so a positive statement about high welfare standards and that applicants will be fully security screened may be appropriate. Shortlisting candidates Once you have accumulated a suitable number of applications for your vacancy, you need a consistent and fair way of deciding which applicants you want to consider further. Some applicants may appear to be a good match to your criteria, others may appear to match some of the criteria but possibly not all and further some candidates will clearly not meet your requirements. The work you did at the beginning of the process determining what qualities were required, which were essential criteria and which were desirable, will now be put to good use. You may find it useful to work to a ‘scoring’ system when looking at each applicant’s CV, to determine how many of the criteria they meet and to make it easier to compare the applicants’ CVs. This will keep your process of assessing applicants fair and consistent.
Tech-2-Tech  websites you can consider, from general jobs boards such as Totaljobs to more specialist sites such as jobs.a...
Tech-2-Tech In addition to determining which applicants meet your selection criteria, you should also be on the look-out for any ‘red flags’ apparent in an application. ‘Red Flags’ refer to any warning signs that might give you cause for concern. One or two in isolation may have a good explanation but several may render the application undesirable for your vacancy. Examples of some ‘red flags’ to look out for include: G G G G G gaps in employment history changing from an unrelated career path to animal technology without a good explanation e.g. hairdressing willingness to take a large drop in salary from a previous role without a good reason changing from a senior role to a relatively junior position without a good explanation providing referees that appear to be friends or family members rather than current and former employers Telephone or video interviewing As you are reviewing applications, try to identify a manageable number of applicants you want to consider further and to telephone interview before you decide upon a formal inter view shor tlist. Telephone interviewing is a good way for you to connect with the applicants in the first instance ensure they understand the role and your requirements and to gauge their communication skills. A telephone interview will also give you the opportunity to talk to the applicants about Animal Technology (if they are new to the career area) and to answer any immediate questions they may have. Here are our suggestions for what to include on your telephone interview: 1 Before you start it is useful to develop a template of questions that will be used for all applicants with space to record the details of the person, the interviewer, date/time and responses. The template should be a guide but as with all good interviews space should be left to explore responses that warrant further discussion. 2 Provide the candidate with a basic overview of the role – so if it is a Trainee position, that their main duties will be caring for animals involved in medical research. 3 Ask the candidate about their views on the use of animals in medical research. A candidate may look fantastic on paper if they have relevant animal care qualifications and experience but if they fundamentally disagree with using animals in medical research, the role and environment is not going to be suitable for them. If a candidate is unsure about the role, we would recommend directing them to useful resources such as the IAT website and career information, as well as the Understanding Animal Research web resources. It is better to send a candidate away to research the career area and ensure they understand the role first before proceeding. 4 Do not be afraid to tackle any misconceptions applicants may have about the role – for example they may disagree with using animals for cosmetic testing and not realise this type of testing is not conducted in the UK. 5 Talk generally about the candidate’s motivations for applying for the role and why they believe they are a suitable candidate. This is often a good opportunity to get the candidate talking and to further gauge their communication skills. Use the telephone inter view to screen out any applicants that may be unsuitable for logistical reasons. For example if your site is inaccessible to nondrivers you need to establish early on which applicants would be unsuitable. The use of Skype or pre-determined interviews on Video are becoming more popular options for pre-selecting candidates for a formal interview but this needs to be managed in an appropriate setting for both parties. Face to face interviewing Your telephone interviewing activity should have filtered out any candidates who deemed the role to be unsuitable for them, either in terms of the duties, salary or location and those candidates that you deemed unsuitable. Of the remaining candidates you will now need to identify a suitable number to invite to a more formal, face-to-face inter view. We would recommend anywhere between 3-5 candidates is an appropriate number. If you have more than this number of candidates left, look back at how the candidates scored against the essential and desirable criteria. Then consider how the candidates came across during their telephone interviews. Who performed well in your opinion, who articulated their reasons for applying well and gave a good account of their skills and experience? All of these factors should help you in identifying a suitable number of candidates to invite to a formal interview. Before inviting the shortlisted candidates onto your site for an interview, consider carrying out a basic security check on each applicant. Security screening companies provide this service to organisations, to give them peace of mind that the person they are bringing onto their premises does not pose a security risk. This is particularly important if the interview is to take place within the research facility and/or a facility tour is included in the interview process. Interviews are an important method of determining whether the applicant you have sitting in front of you can meet the needs of the role. It is therefore important to ensure you make the right decisions 199
Tech-2-Tech  In addition to determining which applicants meet your selection criteria, you should also be on the look-out ...
Tech-2-Tech beforehand and get the process right. Here are our top tips: 1 The interview should take place in an uninterrupted setting, a drink should be offered and the interviewee welcomed and relaxed. Small talk is always a good way to get started, for example ask them about their journey (this may also help determine the person’s ability to get into work for example at weekends). 2 Ensure that you introduce the interviewers and their role in the interview, explain the process you will be following and when it will be appropriate for the interviewee to ask questions. You could also start with a summary of the role and a short explanation of the organisation to ease the applicant into the process. 3 Decide upon your interview format in advance and how many interviewers you want to include. We would always recommend using more than 1 interviewer, even if one person serves as the primary interviewer and the other as note taker. Using two interviewers will give you a better picture of how the candidate performed, if each person notices different strengths and weaknesses. The note taker or observer can also pick up on any body language signals. 4 Deciding upon the inter viewers themselves is equally vital. Ideally, one of the interviewers should be the line manager for the vacancy or someone closely associated with the post, so that they have a direct understanding of what is required and both should have had sufficient training in how to conduct interviews in a fair, consistent and legal manner. Interviewers need to be aware of what questions they can and cannot ask (for example questions relating to marital status or religious beliefs are not permitted). 5 The interview structure should be the same for each candidate, including the same questions to ensure consistency and fairness. You may find it useful to use a scoring or weighting system – to rate the interviewees’ responses to each question in an objective manner. When you come to choose between the candidates – this will provide an objective and fair way to make your decision. 6 Pay attention to your inter view seating arrangements. This may seem trivial, but it can impact upon the overall tone of the interview. For example, having several interviewers sitting behind a desk facing one interviewee can be intimidating for the applicant. For observation of body language it is preferable for one interviewer to have a side-on view if possible. 7 Try to use a combination of ‘open’ and ‘closed’ questions during your interview. Closed questions generally require a direct response (or yes or no answer); whereas open questions require a more detailed response and will help the candidate give 200 detailed answers. Open questions will start with either ‘what’, ‘who’, ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘why’ or ‘how’. 8 Consider including other activities in addition to the interview. For example, you may find it useful to have the candidate complete basic literacy or numeracy tests. Providing a tour of the workplace can also provide interesting insights. Often, the interviewee will let their guard down when being shown around and you can ask your staf f conducting the tour to gauge their interest level and engagement about what they are being shown. 9 Conclude the inter view by thanking the candidate and asking if they have any remaining questions. Before they leave, you may need to take copies of relevant documents such as identity, working visas and qualifications, if you have not already done so and finally let the candidate know what will happen next and when they should expect to hear from you. NOTE: You may identify an unsuitable interviewee early in the process but it is recommended that rather than draw the interview to a close quickly you use the time to extol the virtues of your organisation, the research and the high welfare standards and so on. The person will not get the job and whilst he or she may be disappointed he or she will be able to tell others of the excellent work that you do. Coming to a decision Now that you have inter viewed your shortlist of candidates, you may have a clear ‘favourite’ to offer the job role to, or you may have a difficult choice to make. Ensure that you use your scoring system to compare how the candidates performed at interview, how well they answered the questions and let this help you make your choice. Do not forget to listen to your instincts as well. Your preferred candidate may have scored highly when answering interview questions but a good personality and/or team ‘fit’ is often as important and is not as easily assessed with an interview ‘score’. Security checks Now that you have offered the job role to your preferred candidate, your organisation will have paperwork to be completed including provision of an offer letter, confidentiality agreement and contract of employment to the applicant and perhaps arranging an occupational health check. Consideration should also be given to what level of security screening you need for the person prior to them joining your organisation. The following diagram summarises different areas of an animal facility, what access an employee may have to animals and sensitive
Tech-2-Tech  beforehand and get the process right. Here are our top tips  1 The interview should take place in an uninterr...
Tech-2-Tech data and the level of risk this presents, should access be given to an undesirable person. Summary Throughout this article, we have given you a step by step guide on how to recruit for your job vacancy. A summary of this process can be found below: . Appraisal & Annual Re-Screening Induction & Contact Contract & Confidentiality High: Animal Area Medium: Admin. Low: Grounds Full Background Check (12 Additional Checks, RtoW Face to Face Interview (Experienced & Trained Interviewers) Pre-Interview Background Check (10 Checks including Identity, ARC, Internet) Telephone Interview Including Security Qs Figure 2. Security levels and access CV/Application/Work History If you are filling an Animal Technician role, even at a Trainee level, you should strongly consider conducting a comprehensive security check on the person prior to them starting their employment. The process will include checks on the person’s identity, right to work in the UK, whether they have a criminal record and internet mining checks amongst others. Other checks include a telephone security inter view with the applicant, reference checking (including that the referees are genuine) and checks on qualifications. Completion of a robust security screening will provide peace of mind that your new employee does not present a security risk and has their duties to care for animals as their first and only priority. Red Flag Analysis Figure 3. 8-stage recruitment process As stated at the beginning of the article, recruiting the right person for a vacancy is so important, especially where animal care and welfare standards are at stake. Following the process we have outlined will help you avoid common pitfalls in the recruitment process and ensure a fair and consistent experience for the applicants. Welcoming your new starter You’ve done a lot of hard work so far in attracting and recruiting the right person for your vacancy. The hard work does not stop once your new recruit joins you. Having a good induction process to welcome them into the organisation is crucial, to reduce the chance of the person leaving the organisation in their first few days and to embed the new recruit in the company culture from the moment they join you. Every organisation will have their own unique way of welcoming their new recruits but as a minimum your induction should include: G G G G G G issue of any security passes required health and safety briefing e.g. location of fire exits introduction to company benefits and documentation e.g. pensions information, holiday forms introductions with the team general housekeeping – e.g. location of canteen facilities, car parking, WC etc. schedule of training – and who will be responsible for the new recruit 201
Tech-2-Tech  data and the level of risk this presents, should access be given to an undesirable person.  Summary Throughou...
Animal Technology and Welfare December 2013 AS-ET SPECIAL TRAVEL BURSARY 2013 ESSAYS – Winning Entry What do you regard as the most important issues in optimising the care and welfare of laboratory animals? SHARON JONES UCB Celltech, 208 Bath Road, Slough, Berkshire SL1 3WE Corresponding author: sharon.jones@ucb.com The modern concept of animal welfare employs the presence of positives, incorporating ideas about needs, feelings, stress and health1. This has replaced the outdated definition of the Five Freedoms, which considered good welfare as the absence of negatives i.e. freedom from pain, injury and disease2. It is important to provide laboratory animals with a high standard of care and welfare because healthy, wellcared for animals are an essential prerequisite for sound science3,4,2. The purpose of this essay is to propose and evaluate the most important issues in optimising the care and welfare of laboratory animals. Initially, the different types of legislation will be discussed and how this impacts on animals across the globe. Next, housing and husbandry conditions will be examined and how they affect animal welfare. After that, the different forms of environmental enrichment are reviewed and how they can improve well-being. Then, the importance of the animal technicians will be explained. Finally, the conclusion is presented, illustrating the various issues that affect the care of laboratory animals with a final word on the most important issue concerning laboratory animal welfare. There is specific legislation in place that covers the use of animals for scientific purposes. In 1985, the US Congress amended the Animal Welfare Act of 19665. They enacted two laws containing provisions for the care and use of animals in research, with the main focus on competence of personnel involved in animal experimentation. Revisions of current legislations have also been under consideration in individual countries, such as Canada, New Zealand, China, Korea and Brazil6. In the UK, the new EU Directive 2010/63/EU 202 was recently adopted, amending the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. It is aimed at strengthening legislation, improve animal welfare and firmly anchor the 3Rs principle, to Reduce, Refine and Replace the use of animals in research. It is a positive step for animal welfare that the EU Directive has been implemented into national legislation by all 27 European Union Member States6; yet, the variance of standards between other countries is still a cause for concern. This is especially true for those whose regulations have not been clearly formulated or implemented6,7 which could lead to the transfer of animal-based studies to those countries with weaker requirements3. Experts from around the world that attended an international workshop organised by the ILAR in November 2003, proposed there should be an international benchmark for animal welfare3. I agree that the harmonisation of welfare standards would have a positive effect on laboratory animals owing to the fact that animal science is a developing discipline. Enhanced transparency between countries and the creation of a standardised legislation, would ensure that any developments or discoveries regarding improvements on care and welfare could benefit laboratory animals on a global scale. Housing and husbandry conditions within a laboratory have been shown to have a major impact on the health and welfare of the animals8,9. Environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, ventilation, lighting and noise, should be stable in order to reduce the possibility of causing unnecessary stress4,10,11. There are legal requirements regarding the quantity and quality of accommodation12 but in order to optimise
Animal Technology and Welfare  December 2013  AS-ET SPECIAL TRAVEL BURSARY 2013 ESSAYS     Winning Entry What do you regar...
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2013 essays animal welfare I believe emphasis should be placed on exceeding the legal minima. It is essential that animals are able to perform the widest possible range of normal behaviours and therefore, housing and husbandry should be designed to satisfy the different requirements of each species. It is also important to consider other factors that can influence the optimal housing conditions for an animal, such as its age, health, reproductive status and the impact of scientific procedures8. Failure to acknowledge the importance of these factors can result in abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies, prolonged periods of inactivity and heightened aggression1,12,13, 14, all of which indicate poor welfare. Therefore, regular reviews of housing and husbandry practices are essential to ensure necessary improvements are made. Equally important to the quality of housing is the quality of those conditions; an essential component of the overall laborator y animal care programme9. Environmental enrichment is increasingly appreciated as a way to enhance the well-being of animals15, whether it is through internal objects and structures, social relationships and/or stocking densities4. For example, Rochlitz (2000)9 has argued that an enclosure with separate functional areas and a complex internal structure “allows the cat some control over its physical and social environment . . . [to] develop more flexible strategies for coping with stimuli” (Rochlitz, 2000, p3). Many laboratory animals (mice, rats, rabbits, guinea-pigs, cats, dogs, farm animals) are highly social species and therefore benefit from group housing and social interaction16,4. They are able to create micro-environments, social hierarchies and exhibit behaviours that are not possible when housed singly17. However, caution must be placed on the stocking densities of individual species, since, mice (in particular Balb/c) housed in groups of eight animals displayed considerably higher levels of aggression than those housed in groups of three18, which is not providing the optimal care and welfare. Since it is crucial for an animal to manipulate and exert control over its own environment19,4, the primar y aim of enrichment is to provide sensory and motor stimulation through physical exercise, manipulative activities and cognitive challenges20. Not only does it facilitate the expression of species-specific behaviours but it also promotes the psychological well-being of the animals15. I believe it is important to continuously evaluate the use and preference for environmental enrichments because essentially it is for the animals’ benefit and aids in the continual quest to improve welfare. Arguably, the most important factor in optimising the care and welfare of laboratory animals is the personnel involved in their care. Animals within a research facility are completely dependent on the competence of the staff 7 therefore, they should be sufficiently educated, trained and motivated to perform their duties to the highest degree20. It is their responsibility to ensure the animals are examined with sufficent frequency to maintain general health and well-being and this is especially important when the animals are undergoing scientific procedures4. Consequently, staff should be thoroughly trained and competent in correct animal handling and restraint, in order that checks can be carried out with minimal stress to the animal. Additionally, a fundamental confidence when handling an animal, established through regular contact, is also imperative to lessen stress levels4. It is also a prerequisite that caretakers are knowledgeable and familiar with an animal’s basic needs and requirements9. This is because an awareness of what constitutes normal behaviour enables the caretaker to identify and address abnormal behaviour and monitor the effectiveness of change9. Positive reinforcement training has also been widely effective to improve the well-being of animals. The benefits include diminished stress on the animals, reduction in anaesthetic use, increased safety of attending personnel and enhanced enrichment for the animals21. Some laboratory animals even actively seek out interaction with their staff and organise their daily activity patterns around those of their caretakers9. Therefore, I believe the knowledge and care of the laboratory staff is perhaps the most important issue, since it appears to have the largest impact on the welfare of the animals. There has been a great deal of research emphasising the optimal care and welfare of laboratory animals, since not only does it increase their well-being but it also improves the reliability of the science. The 3Rs principles are firmly anchored into legislation, yet there are varying degrees of standards between institutions and different countries, which leads us to believe there are varying standards of animal welfare. Enhanced transparency and harmonisation of standards on a global scale would be a step towards improvement because ultimately it is the animals who deserve the benefit. Yet, essentially we should be striving to go beyond the legal minima, in order to provide the optimum housing and enriching conditions. Each species and animal should be provided the opportunity to perform natural species-specific behaviours in order to promote the highest standards of welfare and most advantageous psychological well-being. This is where the caretakers’ knowledge and training comes into play because it is they who have the most influence to make any necessary improvements. With the knowledge and familiarity of what constitutes normal behaviour, they are the first to observe any departure from health and can therefore make steps towards improvements. Thus, there are many issues concerning the care and welfare of laboratory animals but the care and attention provided by the animal staff is the factor that can have the highest impact. 203
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2013 essays  animal welfare I believe emphasis should be placed on exceeding the legal minima...
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2013 essays References 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Broom, D. (2007). ‘Welfare in relation to feelings, stress and health’ Volume VIII, No. 12B. [Online]. Available: http://www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n121207B/ BA018ing.pdfb (Accessed Wolfensohn, S. and Lloyd, M. (2013). Handbook of Laboratory Animal Management and Welfare. 4th ed. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Demers, G. et al. (2006). ‘Harmonization of Animal Care and Use Guidance’ Science, 312: 700-701. [Online] Available: http://fbae.org/2009/FBAE/website/images/ PDF%20files/biosafety/Harmonization%20of% 20Animal% 20Care%20and%20Use%20Guidance.pdf (Accessed 15th April 2013). Home Office Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (1986). Code of Practice for the Housing And Care of Animals Used in Scientific Procedures, London: HMSO Publications Centre. Animal Welfare Act (Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966, P.L.89-544 http://www.nabr.org/Biomedical_ Research/Oversight/Animal_Welfare_Act.aspx Bayne, K. (2013). ‘Research animal welfare: a progress report on global convergence of standards’ Lab Animal Europe, 13(5): 3 Zutphen, B. (2007). ‘Education and Training for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: An Overview of Current Practices’ ILAR Journal, 48(2): 72-74. National Centre for the Replacement Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3R) (2013) Housing and Husbandr y, [online]. Available: http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/categor y.asp?fid=1&catID=42 (10th April 2013). Rochlitz, I. (2000). ‘Recommendations for the housing and care of domestic cats in laboratories’ Laboratory Animals, 34: 1-9. Milligan, S., Sales, G. and Khirnykh, K. (1993). ‘Sound levels in rooms housing laborator y animals: An uncontrolled daily variable’ Physiology and Behavior, 53(6): 1067-1076 Peterson, E. (1980). ‘Noise and laboratory animals.’ Lab Anim Sci, 30(2):422-39. Dean, S. (1999). ‘Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals used in regulatory toxicology studies’ Laboratory Animals, 33: 309-327. Wolfer, D. et al. (2004). ‘Laboratory animal welfare: Cage enrichment and mouse behaviour.’ Nature, 432: 821822. Wurbel, H. (2001). ‘Ideal homes? Housing effects on rodent brain and behaviour’ Physiology and Animal Husbandry, 24(4): 207-211. Smith, A. and Corrow, D. (2005). ‘Modifications to Husbandr y and Housing Conditions of Laborator y Rodents for Improved Well-being’ ILAR Journal, 46(2): 140-147. Hetts, S. et al. (1992). ‘Influence of housing conditions on beagle behaviour’ Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 34(1-2): 137-155. Whary, M. et al. (1993). ‘The effects of group housing on the research use of the laboratory rabbit’ Lab Anim, 27(4): 330-341. Pascalle, L.P. et al. (2001). ‘Modulation of aggression in male mice: influence of group size and cage size,’ Physiology & Behavior, 72: 675-683. Baumans, V. (2005). ‘Science-based assessment of 204 20 21 animal welfare: laboratory animals’, 24(2): 503-513. National Research Council (NRC) (2010). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 8th ed. Washington DC: The National Academies Press. Laule, G., Bloomsmith, M. and Schapiro, S. (2003). ‘The Use of Positive Reinforcement Training Techniques to Enhance the Care, Management, and Welfare of Primates in the Laboratory.’ Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 6(3): 163-173. Suggested further reading Baumans, V. (2005). ‘Environmental Enrichment for Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits: Requirements of Rodents, Rabbits, and Research’ ILAR Journal, 46(2): 162-170. Broom, O. and Johnson, K. (1993) Stress and Animal Welfare. London: Chapman and Hall. Carlstead, K., Brown, J. and Strawn, W. (1993). ‘Behavioural and physiological correlates of stress in laboratory cats’ Applied Animal Behaviour Science 38: 143-58. Randall et al. (1990). ‘Sounds from an animal colony entrain a circadian rhythm in the cat’ Journal of Interdisciplinary Cycle Research, 21: 55-64. Karsh, E. and Turner, D. (1988). The human-cat relationship In: The Domestic Cat: the Biology of its Behaviour [Turner, D. and Bateson, P., eds]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp: 159-77. DeLuca, A. and Kranda, K. (1992). ‘Environmental enrichment in a large animal facility’ Laboratory Animals, 21: 38-44.
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2013 essays  References 21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  1...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare POSTER PRESENTATIONS Originally presented at: The 12th FELASA/SECAL Congress 2013 and reprinted with the permission of both organisations and the authors Approaching animal welfare from a global corporate perspective MARILYN J. BROWN Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. 251 Ballardvale Street, Wilmington, MA 01887, USA Corresponding author: marilyn.brown@crl.com Introduction At Charles River, we wanted to assure that the ethical care and use of animals remains at the heart of all the work we do. It is helpful for every institution or company to have a core value or position statement to anchor the animal care and use program. From this anchor, we implemented activities which enhance a culture of caring: G G G G G G specific training about ethics, animal welfare, humane care and the 3Rs continuous open communication about the animal welfare topics, reinforcement of the message recognition of excellence in the area of humane care, establishment of appropriate programs for environmental enrichment and behavioural husbandry increased awareness of the 3Rs and the importance of implementation of the 3Rs A strong program starts with senior institutional officials and includes middle management, a group solely dedicated to animal welfare (The Animal Welfare and Training Department – AW&T) and in the case of a global organisation, a network of such individuals at every location (Animal Welfare Specialists). In our organisation, these individuals have other duties and report to someone at the location but they formally serve as a liaison with AW&T and are appointed by the CEO. Figure 1. Welfare programme hierarchy Training Orientation – Our orientation is seen by all employees, regardless of job description. It introduces the role animals play in biomedical research and our obligations to those animals, including mechanisms to report concerns. The concepts of the 3Rs are also introduced and all employees sign a commitment pledge to humane care. Reinforcement training – In addition to duty specific training, employees with animal related responsibilities have additional, detailed training about animal welfare within the first 3 months of hire. 205
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  POSTER PRESENTATIONS Originally presented at  The 12th FELASA SECAL Congress...
Poster Presentations Annual Animal Welfare Training is mandatory for all employees who have animal related duties. Topics vary each year and have included such subjects as: G G G G G G G G Begins with YOU’ flyer, describing the mechanisms to report animal welfare concerns and make suggestions for improving animal welfare. the ethics, morals and values underlying our relationship with animals; the effect of handling on various research models how EVERY member of the team can impact animal welfare how animal research models are created and what they do for us unique features of various species and how they impact welfare the importance of environment to animal welfare how animal welfare events are reviewed animal behaviour as an indices of animal welfare implementation of the 3Rs; and engaging in the conversation about the use of animals in research After annual training, employees re-sign their commitment pledge to humane care. All training is archived and maintained on our intranet for later use. Communication On-going communication about the importance of animal welfare keeps the culture alive. In our company, there are quarterly videos from our CEO which never fail to mention animal welfare. In addition, at site and even room level, a regular item on the agenda is how we can enhance animal welfare. These are two way conversations where staff are encouraged to participate. AW&T produces a quarterly Newsletter which shares great ideas coming from different locations as well as regular contributions on enrichment, behavioural husbandry and the 3Rs. Contributions are received from around the company globally. As the web becomes a pervasive communication tool in our society, having an animal welfare focused presence on the organization’s intranet website is critical. We use our site for announcements, sharing information and resources (such as training and articles), providing real-time details about our programs and downloadable flyers. Targeted email ‘blasts’ are used to alert our users when material has been added that may be of interest to them. Included in these materials is our ‘Animal Welfare 206 Figures 2 and 3. Animal Welfare Training network news
Poster Presentations  Annual Animal Welfare Training is mandatory for all employees who have animal related duties. Topics...
Poster Presentations Reinforcing the message Activities used to reinforce animal welfare include: Figure 6. Give-aways Posters prominently displayed around our sites; Figure 4. Flyer in Spanish Flyers are in multiple languages containing different species to represent animals housed or used at each site. Posting flyers is mandatory at all company sites. Also available are our ‘Promoting Animal Welfare and Safety’ (PAWS) flyers. These are produced bimonthly and remind staff of a single important detail about handling animals. Subject matter often comes from the site level and creation of the flyer is a collaborative effort. They are translated and shared globally. Posting may be site specific and is not mandatory. Figure 5. PAWS flyer 207
Poster Presentations  Reinforcing the message Activities used to reinforce animal welfare include   Figure 6. Give-aways P...
Poster Presentations Figures 7-9. Examples of AWT posters and a three tiered Awards Program that includes: G G G Quarterly Promoting Animal Welfare and Safety (PAWS) Awards Annual Humane Care Value Awards, An Annual President’s Award Figure 12. Keely Harding receiving her 2012 Human Care Award Environmental enrichment and behavioural husbandry To facilitate on-going enhancements in this area, we have a network of behaviourists /behavioural champions. A web-based team site, regular t-cons and collaboration on global guidelines fosters communication. Figure 10. Happy recipients of PAWS award The 3Rs are regularly highlighted on our intranet homepage. Our 3Rs Working Group (WG) maintains a page on the intranet featuring the latest 3Rs advances implemented at Charles River and beyond and meetings opportunities. The 3Rs WG created a set of 3Rs training modules, mandator y for our Study Directors. Summary There is no one formula for assuring animal welfare. The various facets of our program provides some activities we have found successful. Figure 11. Previous winners of Humane Care Awards 208
Poster Presentations  Figures 7-9. Examples of AWT posters  and a three tiered Awards Program that includes  G G G  Quarte...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare A risk based approach to reducing exposure of staff to laboratory animal allergens LYNDA WESTALL*, IAN GRAHAM and JAMES BUSSELL Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Research Support Facility, Hinxton, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA *Corresponding author: law@sanger.ac.uk Introduction Within the research and biomedical industry one of the many risks for staff working with small laboratory animal models is possible sensitisation and development of Laboratory Animal Allergy (LAA) which can lead to occupational asthma. Reducing the potential for exposure of LAA is achieved in part by putting in place infrastructure and environmental controls and ensuring associated equipment is regularly serviced. Although not a legal requirement in the UK, at the Sanger Institute it has been found invaluable to monitor allergen levels to assess the effectiveness of the controls, together with any refinements to these and for reviewing and updating risk assessments. Often the levels of allergen detected are unpredictable. The observed levels have helped to define the overall risk and additional Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) required for safe working in the animal facility. G G G G G average weekly occupation of approximately 16000 IVCs (during the past 3 years) rooms are at negative pressure relative to the corridors air changes in holding and procedure rooms range between 16 and 22 changes per hour staff wear dedicated PPE (scrubs, safety shoes and mob cap) additional PPE (e.g. long-sleeved gowns and gloves) is worn when handling the mice Assuming that specific activities present a high risk level of exposure to allergens, staff are currently required to wear respiratory protective equipment (RPE) to FFP3 level in addition to normal PPE for the following procedures: G G G G cage changing procedures on live animals that are out of containment culling large numbers of rodents on downflow tables working in the cage wash area While there is disagreement as to what corresponds to a ‘safe’ level of allergen protein (Mus m1) in the working environment, we have adopted a conservative figure of 2.5 ng/m3 as the tolerable limit for the wearing of Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE). General circulation areas such as changing rooms, corridors and offices were considered low risk, where staff are not required to wear RPE. Background Method The Sanger Institute works predominately with mice that are housed in Individually Ventilated Cages (IVCs) and handled or taken out of cages in ventilated change stations. Terminal procedures on the mice are carried out on down flow tables. A subset of activities are carried out where mice have to be removed from ‘containment’ i.e. behavioural tests. LAA levels have been monitored within the facility for the past four years using two methods: The following measures assist in preventing exposure to allergens: G IVCs are kept at positive pressure to the rooms G G room or static monitoring, where a sampler is set up in a room close to where an activity might release allergens personal monitoring, where a sampler is attached as close as possible to the breathing zone on a member of staff undertaking the activity Examples of the areas and activities that are monitored for LAA are described overleaf. 209
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  A risk based approach to reducing exposure of staff to laboratory animal all...
Poster Presentations Changing rooms G G G staff remove all clothing to underwear staff don PPE (dedicated scrubs, safety shoes and mob cap) on entry all PPE removed and scrubs bagged for washing at end of the day Corridors Procedures Activities that are conducted outside the animal holding rooms including: G G procedures carried out on downflow tables (e.g. necropsies or culls) procedures where animals are taken out of containment (e.g. embryo transfers and behavioural tests) Wearing of RPE is frequently worn by users but is not mandatory for all activities G G G +ve pressure to animal holding and procedure rooms transient storage of soiled items from holding rooms soiled cage bases ‘capped’ with clean one Offices G G G G Working office for animal technicians Free movement between here and holding rooms Minimal paperwork; majority of data captured on database No storage of items from holding rooms 210
Poster Presentations  Changing rooms  G G G  staff remove all clothing to underwear staff don PPE  dedicated scrubs, safet...
Poster Presentations Case study LAA monitoring performed in January 2009 identified that the manual scraping of autoclaved cages gave rise to an extremely high personal reading. A thorough analysis of the task was undertaken, including the technique employed and the location of the task. This resulted in the identification of additional training requirements and the repositioning of the local exhaust ventilation equipment used for the task, which had previously been sited directly below an air supply duct. Subsequent monitoring revealed a dramatic (97%) decrease in the LAA levels to which staff were exposed (July 2009). G G G bottle changing weaning ear-marking (for ID and genotyping) Staff are not required to wear RPE As an additional improvement, a new laminar air flow cabin was purchased in which to perform the task, resulting in a further 75% reduction in LAA levels detected by personal sampling (September 2010). Changes to autoclave temperatures and robot programming now enable these cages to be processed automatically, eliminating the LAA risk to staff from this previously high risk activity. Disturbed activities; where cage bedding is significantly disturbed and includes cage changing duties such as: G G transfer of animals (together with some bedding) from soiled to clean cages dismantling cage components Wearing of RPE is mandatory for all staff in room Animal holding rooms Undisturbed activities; where cage bedding remains largely undisturbed and includes general duties such as: Note the different scales on the y-axes 211
Poster Presentations  Case study LAA monitoring performed in January 2009 identified that the manual scraping of autoclave...
Poster Presentations Cage Wash G cage sanitisation performed by robotic system G removal of bedding materials from cages causes allergen release G robot line housed within enclosure G waste materials removed via vacuum system Wearing of RPE is mandatory for all staff in room while robot is in operation of engineering controls and the robustness of working practices in minimising risk of exposure and enabling a positive review of PPE requirements. 2 The results presented here confirm that the LAA levels in corridors, offices and changing rooms are all well below the adopted threshold value of 2.5 ng/m3, with many observations being below the limit of detection. 3 Static sampling of LAA levels in animal holding rooms suggests that staff within the room but not undertaking activities which pose an LAA risk (see below) do not need to wear RPE, as is currently required. 4 The use of personal monitors gives a more direct indication of the risk to individuals. This has identified that activities in holding rooms which do not disturb cage bedding, as well as some procedures elsewhere, should require the wearing of RPE. This has not thus far been compulsory and further monitoring will be performed to clarify any required changes to current practice. 5 Results from cage wash, which has long been regarded as a high risk area, indicate a rapid decline in allergens as samplers are moved away from the robot waste bedding disposal point. This suggests that the current practice of requiring all staff to wear RPE whenever the robot is operational may be relaxed for visitors under some circumstances. This is still under consideration. 6 The monitoring process has also informed improvements in infrastructure and technique (as typified by the Case Study). 7 While the establishment of LAA levels is an important step in risk assessment, it is also important to continue a rigorous health surveillance programme, to encourage compliance through education and training, and to ensure that, where RPE is required, all staff have been fit-tested for an appropriate mask. 8 However low LAA levels may be, continual improvement to enhance local controls is key to reducing levels and therefore risk, as far as possible. On-going monitoring at the Sanger Institute is focussing more specifically on activities that we have established as high risk. Discussion and conclusions Acknowledgements 1 Sensitisation to LAA is a significant and unpredictable health risk among workers in animal facilities. Routine monitoring of LAA levels in our facility over a number of years has proved to be a powerful tool in establishing both the effectiveness We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of staff at The Cube Ltd for collecting and processing all of the samples. 212
Poster Presentations  Cage Wash G cage sanitisation performed by robotic system G removal of bedding materials from cages ...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare Competency training in the laboratory animal science environment: the triumphs and tribulations JENNIFER SALISBURY, WENDY SKEEN and JAMES BUSSELL* Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Research Support Facility, Hinxton, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA *Corresponding author: jb21@sanger.ac.uk The European Union Directive 2010/63 seeks to harmonise the use of animals in scientific procedures across Europe. Training and learning seeks to ensure standardised knowledge, whilst competency assessment of individuals undertaking husbandr y care, procedures and euthanasia ensures quality of practical skills. In this poster we set out our preparations and experiences to date in implementing a competency framework for the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Research Support Facility. European Union Directive 2010/63 dependent on the quality and professional competence of the G G G buddying of new technicians with experienced technicians standard Operating Procedures setting out work methods recording competency using a paper-based training folder Areas for development were: training standards stating the knowledge and skill required G appointed trainers deliver the training standard G assessment mechanism to establish the standard met by individuals G competency and refresher tracking system facilitating continuous assessment. G (a) procedures on animals; (b) designing procedures and projects; (c) taking care of animals; or (d) killing animals. Furthermore, it is important that staff are supervised in the performance of their tasks until they have obtained and demo A review of training needs Current published documents do not define how competency should be assessed, making it challenging to implement and standardise the assessment of those training and being trained. In order to understand our training needs we reviewed the processes, approaches and documentation already in place. Our findings were as follows: actively educating our technicians in industr y recognised qualifications. G Continuing Professional Development opportunities i.e. Congress, NC3Rs Symposia G 213
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  Competency training in the laboratory animal science environment  the triump...
Poster Presentations Stages of implementation: G identified trainers (principal technicians and suite managers) G provided bespoke Train the Trainer courses G define 10 compulsory competencies (risk based list) G promotion events to aid engagement G continuous feedback to improve the process and areas of development The 10 key competencies we focused on were risk based. i.e. activities that expose the welfare of the animal if not carried out correctly. G G G G G G G G G G daily checking of animal holding rooms understanding normal health conditions of mice monitoring and reporting of health concerns completion of Daily Record Book provision of water to mice provision of diet to mice handling and restraint of mice cage changing of mice weaning of mice end of day ‘sign off’ of rooms The above competencies should be completed within the first six months of being within the facility and together with a comprehensive schedule of induction they ensure that the core principles and working practices have been instilled. Compulsory Competency Training Project After reviewing our training approach we initiated a Compulsory Competency Training Project. The training took a risk based approach and sought to educate current and new starters to an equal standard. Training standard documents would ensure standardisation of operational areas and core tasks. 214
Poster Presentations  Stages of implementation  G identified trainers  principal technicians and suite managers  G provide...
Poster Presentations Resources G G G G G G Training standard pack consists of: front cover sheet – title, date, version controlled standard operating procedure technician training notes trainer checklist – defines competency criteria assessment G G engagement to a more controlled deliver y of knowledge and skills greater awareness of development opportunities and proactive uptake of these Future development: extend the approach to encompass Licensed Procedures and euthanasia G develop bespoke content in the Institute’s Learning Management System to support training G develop curriculum and career pathways for technicians G Training and development of staff requires a financial and time investment to deliver. This is a challenge when balancing against the daily work commitments of all who need to be involved and contribute. The rewards are measurable in the growth of an individual’s knowledge and practical skills but also in the motivation, culture and ethic of the team as a whole. Acknowledgements Team 83 trainers, assessors, technicians and users. Face to Face Training: appointed trainer arranges a ‘face to face’ training session with technician G the training standard and SOP is used as the reference G trainer uses the stated competency criteria to drive the training delivery G Discussion Benefits gained: G review of practices and a harmonisation of these between operational areas G greater recognition of responsibilities and accountability for standard of work G documentary evidence of training and achievement of competency 215
Poster Presentations  Resources G G G G G G  Training standard pack consists of  front cover sheet     title, date, versio...
Animal Technology and Welfare December 2013 Cryopreservation of laboratory rodents as back-up in case of disaster MARTINA DORSCH Institute for Laboratory Animal Science, Hannover Medical School, Germany Corresponding author: dorsch.martina@mh-hannover.de Introduction Cr yopreser vation of embr yos and gametes of laboratory rodents to establish a genetic back-up is a tool to guard against loss of valuable animal models. Conceivable reasons are: G G G G G loss of genetic authenticity inbreeding depression infections and/or disease outbreak failures of facility equipment environmental disasters In addition, cryopreservation of strains that are not under actual scientific use frees up space and reduces shelf costs. Figure 1a. Pros and cons of cryopreservation of different reproductive material Acceptable cryopreservation methods have to fulfill the following requirements: Revitalisation success of cryopreserved pre-implantation embryos G G G G it has to be reliable and validated for the respective samples the revitalisation ability of the frozen cargo has to be tested samples of one strain should be stored at two different places permanent cooling has to be guaranteed at any time Options for cryopreservation, pros and cons Table 1. Revitalisation success of mouse embryos. Figure 1. Comparison of the revitalisation success of cryopreserved embryos from different species. 216
Animal Technology and Welfare  December 2013  Cryopreservation of laboratory rodents as back-up in case of disaster MARTIN...
Poster Presentations Revitalisation success of cryopreserved ovaries Table 4. Revitalisation success of cr yopreser ved ovaries The challenges of ovary-cryopreservation are the size of the organ and the fact that it is composed of different cell types. Also the developmental capacity of primary follicles, that are in the meiotic arrest, has to be preserved. The final difficulty is to find an ovary recipient that accepts the grafted organ. Table 2. Revitalisation success of rat embryos Table 3. Revitalisation success of guinea pig embryos Tables 1-3: A: morphological intact embryos (in %) after thawing; B: live born pups (in %) after embryo transfer; C: number of strains with the respective genetic background. Figure 3. Comparison of the revitalisation success of cryopreserved ovaries of mice and rats. Left bars show the portion of ovary recipients that established normal oestrus cycle after ovary transplantation. Right bars show the portion of ovary recipients that produced litter (in %). Revitalisation success of cryopreserved sperm Figure 2. Comparison of the revitalisation success of cryopreserved embryos from different species Rat and mouse embryos (2-4 cell stage) were frozen by a two-step protocol with 1.5M PROH as cryoprotectant. Directly after thawing they were transferred to pseudopregnant females to continue the development. Guinea pig 4-8-cell embryos were frozen by the same protocol but with 2.0M PROH. The exact conditions for embryo transfer are still under development. Figure 3. Comparison of the revitalisation success of cr yopreser ved sperm in different sub-strains of C57BL/6 mice. JAX-method: Sperm frozen by the method described by Ostermeier et al1. “pellet-method”: sperm frozen by a method described by Dorsch2. Given is the fertilisation rate (in %) after IVF (i.e. development to the 2-cell stage. 217
Poster Presentations  Revitalisation success of cryopreserved ovaries  Table 4. Revitalisation success of cr yopreser ved ...
Poster Presentations Meanwhile the cryopreservation of mouse sperm is well established. However, despite the fact that most genetically modified mouse strains are on a B6 background, revitalisation success is below that of other backgrounds. Even B6 sub-strains differ. The success of cryopreservation depends more on the strain, than on the method. Cryopreservation methods for rat sperm for routine use are still under development Conclusion More data for cryopreservation is available for embryos in mice and rats. Therefore this option is still assumed as the safest. Ignoring factors determined by species the success of any cryopreservation option is strongly influenced by the genetic background of the respective strain. Genetic modifications often reduce the success of cryopreservation. In addition we found, that only well trained and skilled staff guarantee reproducible results. References 1 2 Ostermeier et al. (2008). PLoS One 3: e2792. Dorsch (2004) in: The Laboratory Mouse, 2nd ed.: 435–448. 218
Poster Presentations  Meanwhile the cryopreservation of mouse sperm is well established. However, despite the fact that mo...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare Introduction to the international nomenclature of laboratory rodents JOHANNES SCHENKEL*1,2 and JUTTA DAVIDSON3 1 2 3 Cryopreservation German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Heidelberg University, Germany Charles River Germany, Sulzfeld, Germany *Corresponding author: j.schenkel@dkfz-heidelberg.de Introduction Example transgenic insert The number of genetically modified laboratory rodents is increasing enormously. A clear identification of mutants is mandatory and today more important than ever. Multiple generations of comparable mutations or double imports of mutants are not acceptable for many reasons and should be avoided. However, without following strict rules for the nomenclature it is difficult to identify correctly specific mutant lines. Programme-oriented funding as well as consortial projects leads to a major increase of double or multiple mutated lines, making correct nomenclature very complex. The international nomenclature rules allow the identification of specific alleles as well as the laboratories, keeping a given line. Only the correct use of the given nomenclature provides a unique identifier for a specific strain, gene or allele and thus allows sufficient documentation of experiments and a clear communication with others. B6;D2-Tg(HPV11-lacZ)1704Aal Genetic background: B6 and D2: “.” : incipient congenic (N=5) or completely congenic (N=10), “;” : mixed background Cg = congenic, STOCK = unknown Type of mutation: Tg = transgenic insert Gene name (according to MGI): HPV11-lacZ. Genes with endogenous promoter: one Gene name cDNA-constructs, fused genes, etc.: Promoter plus Gene (coding sequences) Example homologous recombinant In addition, in many countries authorities require the use of strain and allele names according to international nomenclature rules. Subsequently, all staff dealing with genetically modified and mutant mice or rats should be trained to understand and apply these rules. B6;129P2-En1tm1(Otx2)Wrst Genetic background: B6: recipient 129P2: homologous recombinant ES-cells The rules of nomenclature for all types of mutations are well defined and can be found on relevant web-pages, e.g., MGI: http://www.informatics.jax.org. It is highly recommended to register the laboratory of origin (as lab code) with the Institute of Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR); other lab codes are not reproducible. To preserve the information of a given mouse line, including – or even especially – of cryopreserved lines, the correct use of the international nomenclature rules is crucial. The generation and characterisation of a mutant is highly resource consuming (animals, staff, and material). The loss of a line or the need of additional experiments due to an unclear designation is unacceptable. During our long term experience on this topic we address similar problems or mistakes observed repeatedly. mutated gene : En1: gene name according to MGI tm1: targeted allele # Otx2: introduced gene (in case of knock-ins; according to MGI) Wrst: Lab Code according to ILAR Frequently observed mistakes/ problems G G G G Genetic Modification not clearly defined wrong designation of the affected gene (not according to MGI or other data bases, no Gene-ID#) laboratory of origin unknown wrong laboratory code (not according to ILAR) 219
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  Introduction to the international nomenclature of laboratory rodents JOHANNE...
Poster Presentations G G G G G genetic background not clearly defined, unknown double and multiple transgenic animals are error prone Cre <-> Cre/ERT2 mixed up (different mechanisms of activation): Cre is regulated by promoter ERT/2 is activated by application of Tamoxifen (possibly influenced by phytoestrogens in the diet) Consequences of an unclear designation Mutant hard to identify: G holder of rights/responsibility unclear G unclear Information about suitable controls e.g. – further use difficult or impossible – loss of scientific meaning – repeated generation or repeated import of a given mutant (animal welfare relevance!) What is not explained? G G clear discrimination between knock-in and knock-out discrimination of zygosity (homo-, hemi-, hetero-zygous 220
Poster Presentations  G G G G G  genetic background not clearly defined, unknown double and multiple transgenic animals ar...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare The effects of changes in legislation on staff and researcher training in laboratory animal science in Ireland SYLVIA MEHIGAN*, ANNE BRAYLEY, CHRISTOPH BLAU and PETER NOWLAN BioResources Unit, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland *Corresponding author: mehigans@tcd.ie Abstract In house and outsourced education We present an outline on current policies surrounding both in-house and outsourced education and training in laboratory animal science within our institution. We describe the importance of education and training within our animal units, outlining the increased need for further education and training of staff, for their own benefit as well as to ensure compliance on regulated procedures. We describe the methods used in ensuring that all researchers are highly educated and trained when it comes to working in an animal unit so that it enables good and responsible use of animals within research and strict adherence to the 3Rs. Using examples of how empowering education and training can be to staff; giving them the ability to be open to new ideas and enabling them to improve their working environment and that of the animal. With the new Directive in EU and the new legislation in Ireland we show the difference between pre and post the new Directive and the impact it has on animal facilities, showing the increase in paperwork and the depth of record keeping now needed. Also discussed are how changes to animal units affect both the staff and researchers working within the unit. We look at the procedures and documentation that we have put in place to record training, as well as criteria we have for our staff and researchers doing further education and how we encourage both groups to actively take part. All staff and researchers must do the LAST Ireland course, be signed off for procedures that they have on their licences/authorisations and we maintain a central information management database that captures the training and education records on an on-going basis to enable easy retrieval of data during compliance inspections. Increased need for further education and training G G G G G G G to have highly trained and educated staff and researchers ability to keep up with new techniques and equipment being up to date with improvements in animal welfare ability to help with Researchers training researchers on animal care and welfare being compliant with regulations having competent persons supervising Competency It is a requirement for those working under a competent authority’s authorisation at TCD that they have undergone an accredited training programme to use animals in research. The standard of training must conform to the programme content laid down by FELASA for categories A, B & C: http://www.felasa.org/ recommendations.htm. There are various programmes that can achieve this. Examples are the modular training approved by the UK Home Of fice. Documentary proof of having passed to an appropriate standard is required. Supplementary modules on Irish law and policies may be required. The acceptability of the training will be determined by the IMB. Currently in Ireland, the programmes available are “LAST-Ireland” or “NITG”, others may become available in the future. 221
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  The effects of changes in legislation on staff and researcher training in la...
Poster Presentations LAST-Ireland LAST-Ireland is a training programme and support structure to help the scientific community in Ireland to use animals in accordance with best international and national practices. This course follows the guidelines drawn up by the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) for standards of training for those persons carrying out, or responsible for directing, animal experiments. The course comprises two days of lectures and presentation after which a separate written examination and introduction to animal handling must be satisfactorily completed prior to a certificate being issued. This course is recognised in the UK as meeting Home Office requirements for modules 1, 2 and 3 in rodents of the licensee training programme. Regardless of Licence status the course is highly recommended for all those involved in work with laboratory animals. Training courses for researchers/staff working with animals are run at least twice yearly in Dublin. Courses also are arranged in Cork and Galway. Universities in Ireland often accept the Modular training courses from the UK. Dates and locations of courses run by the Universities Training Group can be obtained by application to sec@last-ireland.org. Website: http://www.lastireland.ie/ Example of empowerment brought about by training and Further Education We have several members of staff who have benefitted from further education by attaining IAT qualifications and learned new technique, and in doing so were promoted within TCD. For further details please refer to the staff training records table. Legislation Post 2013 (Pre-2013, the competent authority in Ireland was the Department of Health & Children). From January 2013, this role has been taken over by the Irish Medicines Board (IMB). The named persons/bodies in the new Legislation are the user, Compliance Officer, Training Officer, Named Veterinary Surgeon, Named Animal Care & Welfare Officer and the Animal Welfare Body. Compliance Officer: Under Regulation 44 of SI No. 543 of 2012 states that each establishment that breeds, supplies or uses animals shall designate one or more suitably qualified persons as compliance officer, responsible for ensuring compliance with the provisions of the regulations. 222 Training Officer: As a result of the new legislation, each animal facility must name a training officer. The Training officer for Trinity College is Sylvia Mehigan. The chief responsibility of the Training Officer is to make sure that all researchers and staff are trained correctly and training records are in place. These records should be available to the competent authority during their inspections. Animal Welfare Body In accordance with Article 26 of Directive 2010/63/EU and Regulation 50 of SI No. 543 of 2012, each establishment which breeds, supplies or uses animals intended for scientific purposes must have an internal Animal Welfare Body (AWB) with the primary task of focusing on giving advice on animal-welfare issues. The body should also follow the development and outcome of projects at establishment level, foster a climate of care and provide tools for the practical application and timely implementation of recent technical and scientific developments in relation to the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement, in order to enhance the life-time experience of the animals. The advice given by the animal-welfare body should be properly documented and open to scrutiny during inspections. Each project authorisation shall name the persons responsible for the overall implementation of the project and its compliance with the project authorisation and with the principles of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement. Members of the Animal Welfare Body are Named Veterinary Surgeon, Named Animal Care & Welfare Officer, Chair of the Bio Resources Committee and Compliance Officer. Competent authority All researchers must be trained in the techniques they plan on implementing and must have individual authorisation. Once individual authority has been received they can only carry out those techniques under supervision until signed off by the Training Officer that they are competent to work unsupervised. Euthanasia In Ireland, the IMB has stipulated that euthanasia must be performed only by persons appropriately authorised by the competent authority (CA). Before applying for euthanasia competency the person must be fully trained and signed off by the Training Officer in the technique to be used.
Poster Presentations  LAST-Ireland LAST-Ireland is a training programme and support structure to help the scientific commu...
Poster Presentations Increase in Paper work and record keeping Training Records Pre 2013 Training Records Post 2013 223
Poster Presentations  Increase in Paper work and record keeping Training Records Pre 2013  Training Records Post 2013  223...
Poster Presentations Staff Training Records Training Database for Named Trainers References http://www.last-ireland.ie/ http://www.lasa.co.uk/PDF/GP-ERPJuly2010printFINAL.pdf www.tcd.ie/bioresources http://www.felasa.org/recommendations.htm Acknowledgements BioResources Unit, Trinity College, Dublin. 224
Poster Presentations  Staff Training Records  Training Database for Named Trainers  References http   www.last-ireland.ie ...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare Good practice guide for the care, use and breeding of laboratory animals in Cuba LAYNA RIERA*1, LLIANA SOSA1, DASHA FUENTES1, LÁZARA MARTÍNEZ PEREZ2, YUNEIDYS MENGANA TAMOS1, SAHILIS SÁNCHEZ STERLING3, ODYS HERNÁNDEZ VASALLO1, ANTONIO ALFONSO MORALES1, EVARISTO ÁLVAREZ, BÁRBARA GONZÁLEZ, MARÍA ELENA ARTEAGA, ROMMY ORPHEES, REBECA CASTILLO, ILEANA PÉREZ, CÁNDIDA FORTE MIRANDA, SONIA LUGO, ANGEL ENTRENA, MARÍA CARIDAD ACEVEDO, HAYDÉE LLANES, CECILIA ORRET, KATIUSKA RODRÍGUEZ, NATACHA NEGRÍN, MAIKEL GONZÁLEZ and NIDIA FERNÁNDEZ 1 2 3 National Centre for the Breeding of Laboratory Animals (CENPALAB), Havana, Cuba Centro para el Control Estatal de la Calidad de los Medicamentos (CECMED), Calle 200 No.1706 e/17 y 19, Reparto Siboney, Havana City, Cuba Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio (CENPALAB), Havana, Cuba *Corresponding author: layna.riera@cenpalab.inf.cu Abstract The procurement and breeding of experimental animals, their use, protection, welfare, microbiological categories and the establishment of ethical principles in experimentation, have been subjected to national and international regulations. In order to establish and standardise technical specifications related to these aspects, the Guide to Good Practice for the care, use and reproduction of experimental animals (BPCURAL) was developed. This document can be used as a national reference for verifying the performance of good clinical and nonclinical practice and the activity of the Institutional Committees for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (IACUC) respecting to facilities, maintenance, care and use of animals, as well as, for the training and qualification of the related staff. The BPCURAL guide contains the following headings: Introduction, Definitions and Concepts, Reach and Responsibilities, Basic, Specific and Ethical Principles in animal experimentation, Institutional Programmes for the care, use and breeding of laboratory animals and bibliographic and reference annexes. This guide as a manual is par t of the quality management system for these experimental biomodels, allowing performance of these tasks in the animal facility, vivariums and institutions that use animals in experiments. It meets what is established in the regulations, standards and national and international codes, making it applicable to all staff and structures, which because of their work, are directly or indirectly linked to the performance of tasks for the breeding and use of experimental animals. Also, it will harmonise the principles and criteria used in the national system of experimental animals in Cuba, favouring the transparency in the process of inspections and accreditations. Development 1 Institutions related to animal breeding, regulatory entities and scientific associations have been working towards introducing the internationally accepted norms for the care, use and breeding of animals as well, as quality systems and their verification. 2 In this sense, Cuba required its own Guide of Good Practice that, adapted to our own necessities and conditions and conformed to the internationally accepted criteria and which served as a reference for the Program of Verification of the GPL and the activities of the CICUAL, especially in the confection of the Institutional Programme of the animal care and use. 3 This Guide allow us to limit the use of the diversity of international references in this discipline in the country, favouring transparency of the process of inspections and accreditations. 225
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  Good practice guide for the care, use and breeding of laboratory animals in ...
Poster Presentations 9.1. 9.2. 9.3. 9.4. 9.5. 9.6. 9.7. 9.8. 10. 10.1. 10.2. 11. 12. Figure 1. Increase in number and diversity of experimentation animals and institutions related to their use. Results CONTENTS OF THE BPCURAL GUIDE 1. Introduction 2. Definitions and Concepts 3. Reach and Responsibilities 4. Basic, specific and ethical Principles in the experimentation animal 5. Reception and admission 6. Quarantine and re-adaptation 7. Acceptance of animals for use 8. Care and and maintenance for use 9. Maintenance and/or breeding of laboratory animals G G Facilities Facility Cleaning and Sanitation Maintenance of animals Animal Handling Breeding and Genetics Veterinary Activities Health Controls Feeding -Nutrition Staff, Accreditation and Qualification Principles Qualification Bibliography Annexes Conclusions 1 BPCURAL Guide as a manual, is part of the Quality Management System of CENPALAB, allowing the performance of all the tasks in animal facilities, vivariums and institutions that use experimental animals. 2 BPCURAL Guide meets established national and international regulations, norms and codes, therefore it is applicable to all staff and working structure which are directly or indirectly related to the breeding and use of experimental animals. 3 BPCURAL Guide allows the harmonisation of the principles and criteria used in the national system of experimental animals in Cuba. Practical Code for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1992) Guide of Good Practices for the Care, Use and Breeding of Laboratory Animals (2009-2011) Contents: Definitions and Concepts Basic, Specific and Ethical Principles in the Experimentation Animal Institutional Program for the Care, Use, and Breeding of Laboratory Animals 226
Poster Presentations  9.1. 9.2. 9.3. 9.4. 9.5. 9.6. 9.7. 9.8. 10. 10.1. 10.2. 11. 12. Figure 1. Increase in number and div...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare Effects of thermal sterilisation on selected components of diets for laboratory rodents ´ ANNA TUSNIO*1, M. TACIAK1, M. BARSZCZ1, J. PARADZIEJ-ŁUKOWICZ2, I. OLĘDZKA3, W. WICZKOWSKI4, M. SZUMSKA5, B. PASTUSZEWSKA1 and J. SKOMIAŁ1 1 2 3 4 5 The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jabłonna, Poland Medical University of Gdańsk, Tri-City Central Animal Laboratory, Gdańsk, Poland Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland *Corresponding author: a.tusnio@ifzz.pan.pl Introduction Manufacturing of animal feeds comprises a number of thermo-mechanical technologies such as pelleting, extrusion or expansion which result in physical, chemical and biochemical changes of their components. Autoclaving is a convenient and preferentially applied method of sterilisation comprising steam, pressure and heat treatment of pelleted feeds. Heating at too high temperature and/or over longer time, leads to the depression of content and availability of nutrients particularly vitamins and protein and to formation of harmful components within Maillard reactions. Objective of the study was to assess the effects of the two most frequently used autoclaving programmes on the content of minerals and vitamins and on formation of acrylamide in two experimental diets containing either soybean meal or casein (low-phytoestrogen diet) and in an autoclavable commercial diet of unknown composition. The isoflavones (phytoestrogens) in non autoclaved and autoclaved soya containing diet were also analysed. Materials and methods Two natural-ingredient diets containing either soybean meal (HS) or casein (HC, phytoestrogen- free diet) as the main protein supplements and a commercial autoclavable (SN) diet, were autoclaved at 121°C for 20 minutes (T1) and at 134°C for 10 minutes (T2). Chemical composition of the diets including fibre fractions ADF, NDF, N-NDF, starch and sugars were determined. The concentration of minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) was determined in mineralized samples by a flame (air-acetylene) atomic absorption spectrometry using the AA-6300 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (SHIMADZU, Japan). Content of total and phytic phosphorus were determined. The water soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, panthotenic acid and folic acid) were separated by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. The fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) were determined simultaneously using developed method of micro-emulsion electrokinetic chromatography. The acrylamide content was determined on Ultimate 3000 HPLC (Dionex, USA) apparatus using Alltima C 18,5 m column. Isoflavones (phytoestrogens) and their conjugates in HS diets (daidzin, daidzein, genistein, genistin, glycitein, glycitin, 6’’-O-malonylbeta-glucosides of daidzein, 6’’-acetyl-glucosides of daidzein, 6’’-Omalonyl-beta-glucosides of genistein and 6’’-acetyl-glucosides of genistein) using HPLC (SHIMADZU, Japan) were determined. Results 1 Autoclaving affected neither macro nutrients content, except NDF, nor minerals. The increase of NDF and N-NDF was greater due to T2 than T1 and was the greatest in SN (1.5% DM) and the smallest in HC (0.4% DM) diet. 2 Water soluble vitamins (B1, B2 and B6) were the least affected whereas panthotenic acid was depressed at T1 and T2. Fat soluble vitamins, except tocopherol (vit. E), were more affected by autoclaving at T2 than T1 program. Vitamins: A and D were the least stable but even the greatest vitamin losses did not exceed 50% (Table 1). 3 The increase of acrylamid concentration was greater in diets autoclaved at T2 than T1 and in diets HS and HC than SN (Table 2). 227
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  Effects of thermal sterilisation on selected components of diets for laborat...
Poster Presentations G Autoclaving had small effect on the total isoflavones content in HS diet tended to decrease by 5 and 15% at T1 and T2, and decreased concentration of malonyl genistein and daidzein glucosides. Vitamin HS HC SN T0 T1 T2 T0 T1 T2 T0 T1 T2 B1 28.9 25.9 21.6 18.5 20.8 20.2 15.3 14.9 14.2 B2 13.3 12.4 125.8 11.6 14.3 12.6 12.2 10.4 10.1 B6 7.4 7.3 10.1 8.8 9.3 8.9 10.9 10.7 10.6 Panthotenic 23.3. 12.7 24.4 22.7 11.6 10.1 25.7 25.4 23.1 NF 5.8 NF NF NF NF NF NF NF 37.5 41.8 33.9 41.5 25.3 39.1 36.7 36.5 NF NF NF NF NF NF NF NF 1 2 3 Water Soluble acid Folic acid Ascorbic 32.8 acid Biotin NF Fat Soluble A 182.0 152.0 101.0 168.0 155.0 115.0 100.7 91.2 76.9 D 34.2 24.8 25.5 35.8 25.4 20.6 38.0 26.7 E 89.0 76.5 75.5 76.5 76.0 76.0 146.8 130.1 123.0 K 24.9 22.6 21.2 26.6 22.8 19.2. 29.1 25.4 27.3 25.2 1= non-autoclaved; 2 = autoclaved at 121°C for 20 minutes; 3 = autoclaved at 134°C for 10 minutes. Table 1. Vitamin content of diets following autoclaving 1= non-autoclaved; 2 = autoclaved at 121°C for 20 minutes; 3 = autoclaved at 134°C for 10 minutes Table 2. Effect of autoclaving n acrylamid concentration T Conclusions Effects of autoclaving depend on the dietar y composition and that longer autoclaving at lower temperature is less detrimental than shorter at higher temperature Acknowledgements Financial suppor t from the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland No. NR12 0035 06. 228
Poster Presentations  G  Autoclaving had small effect on the total isoflavones content in HS diet tended to decrease by 5 ...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare Emergency solution in BioModule facing an air-conditioning supply failure CLARA MUÑOZ-MEDIAVILLA*1,2, S. SALAZAR1, A. DÍAZ2, E MUÑOZ1, V. GRANDA1 and ISABEL BLANCO1 1 2 Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) Melchor Fernandez Almagro nº328029 Madrid, Spain Charles River Laboratories, Spain *Corresponding author: cemunoz@srv.cnio.es Introduction Materials and methods BioModule is a modular laboratory concept which allows for the rapid construction of a workspace that is able to meet and uphold stringent bio-containment and biosecurity requirements for the housing of laboratory animals. Since 2003, at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), BioModules are used to weekly receive and maintain imported rodents. Pierced hosepipes were placed in loop shape over the BioModule (Figure 2) and continuous water supply was provided (Figure 3). Ice was also introduced inside, causing cooling of the environment when evaporated. A mobile cooler was fitted in the air conditioner system, taking advance of the exhaust air ducts (Figure 4). temperature inside the BioModule was equilibrated and monitored during those two days. Figure 1. BioModule compressor functioning. Figure 2. Pierced hosepipes were placed in loop shape over the BioModule. In July 2010 (Tº = 40º maximum, 20 minimum), one of them suffered an air conditioning supply failure caused by a compressor breakage. The BioModule affected is used to house importing rodents before rederivation. The Emergency plan included animal transfer to other concerted facility. However, transfer co-ordination lasted two days during which an increasing temperature inside the BioModule had to be controlled. Objective Development of a quick, optimal and monitored strategy which allowed lowering the temperature to suitable values until animal transfer could be effected. Figure 3. Mobile cooler was fitted in the air conditioner system. 229
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  Emergency solution in BioModule facing an air-conditioning supply failure CL...
Poster Presentations Figure 4. Continuous falling water over the BioModule. Results The three mechanisms used (pierced pipes, ice and mobile cooler) allowed to supply a suitable environment inside BioModule. However, the use of the pierced hosepipes results proved the most effective method due to the continuously running water, cooling the external structure. This resulted in a rapid lowering of the internal temperature. Due to the methods used the temperature was stabilised during those two days animals were transferred. One month later, the faulty compressor was repaired and continues to function correctly. Conclusion This emergency solution based on running water provides a temporary and low investment manner to resolve an unexpected temperature rise in animal housing modules, where an uncontrolled increase of temperature could be fatal for animals. 230
Poster Presentations  Figure 4. Continuous falling water over the BioModule.  Results The three mechanisms used  pierced p...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Dear Editor Communication, Communication, Communication In the discussion paper “Reducing severe suffering” by Penny Hawkins from the Research Animals Department, Science Group of the RSPCA, published in the August issue of Animal Technology & Welfare (Vol. 2:2 pp: 87-91) there was a suggestion to set up an online chat room for animal technologists. As the Chair of the Communications Group I thought that it would be useful for the Institute of Animal Technology (IAT) to respond positively and promptly to the suggestion by providing a short update on IAT communications. The IAT believes that effective communication and networking between members is essential for the transfer of best practice and development of new animal care and welfare initiatives. The recently produced IAT communications strategy (published as a series in the IAT Bulletin) includes many multi-channel opportunities to facilitate and encourage such communications. The strategy includes the increased use of social media such as IAT Linked In and Facebook groups. The IAT also has an established website (revamped in 2012) which includes options to discuss items directly with members of IAT Council and a members section which includes a discussion function. The new IAT e-newsletter developed in 2013 is another good example of the IAT trying to reach individual members and to provide alternatives to the traditionally published Bulletin and Journal (Animal Technology and Welfare) publications which are still highly regarded by members. Whilst a lot has been done, the Institute will not rest on its laurels and welcomes ideas and suggestions to keep the momentum going. Initiatives such as the “youth reps” meetings assist in this regard as do the surveys to Congress attendees, to members on communication and to seek employers’ views, all help the IAT to shape future communication but if you have any other ideas or suggestions we would be happy to hear them. Sincerely Norman Mortell BA (Hons), MIAT, RAnTech Chair, Communications Group Institute of Animal Technology Email: communications@iat.org.uk 231
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Dear Editor  Communication, Communication, Communicati...
Letters to the Editor Dear Editor I recently read the Poster Presentation of Rebecca Varrall et al, entitled “Maximising operational and research activities through the use of disposable caging” (Animal Technology and Welfare (ATW), 2013, 12:2 2013, pages 136-137). As Ms. Varall’s poster mentions me, I feel that it is my duty to send the following comments to you, as publisher, in order to clarify some misunderstandings reported in the aforementioned poster in Sentence before Conclusions (page 137) i.e. “however recycling and waste to energy programmes that reduce CO2 emissions were not considered” – this is not correct! If you look at my original article in the ATW Journal, December 2010, page 149 and in particular Table 1, it is fully evident that the recycling opportunity was considered both for disposable and reusable cages (IVC) and therefore, some of Rebecca’s conclusions should be reconsidered. The worldwide Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) community, which assesses the environmental impact associated with all stages of a product’s life (cradle-to-the grave), when dealing with “end of life scenario” of products uses, where primary data is not available, data from public administration or industrial associations to consider the best possible method to treat the component materials used within the product. For example, different streams for recycling, incineration or disposal including respective percentages. Consequently both recycling and waste to energy programs were considered in the comparative LCA study of disposable and reusable IVC cages. Furthermore, according to ISO 14044 standard for LCA, all the comparative assertion of products having the same function, must be peer reviewed from an Independent international expert (review statement is available on demand). In contrast, many of the sentences reported in Rebecca’s poster are in fact only suppositions and are not based on actual data as the authors themselves state in the last sentence (see Conclusions). I would like to add some further considerations regarding the end of life of disposable cages, namely: Recycling: The cage material PET could be recycled but which organisations would be willing to handle PET cages which are potentially infected? A sterilisation process for cages would be mandatory before handling by internal and external operators. To avoid any further misconceptions I would suggest that the FDA and EPA be contacted on the subject, as these are the best reference sources in the USA on this subject. Incineration: If the PET cage is incinerated the embedded energy content could be extracted but it is completely false that CO2 emissions are avoided! Why? Because the fossil carbon content in the plastic cage, PET or other plastics, during combustion, releases CO2 (fossil origin) into the atmosphere. The CO2 was stored as Carbon within the PET material and released during combustion. (Lavoisier Principle on materials conservation). As these comments are somewhat on the technical side, it is perhaps wise to also to consider some economic points. It is evident that for 1 reusable cage (usable for 7-8 years) more than 200 disposable cages must be balanced with the terrific amount of energy and material (PET) needed for manufacturing, irradiation, transport and disposal of such cages, as potentially infected waste. Unfortunately Rebecca does not include economic considerations within her study. In closing I must stress that when considering Sustainability only the Life Cycle Thinking gives a full understanding of the situation for any product. Sincerely Vito D’Incognito Email vdincognito@take-care.it 232
Letters to the Editor  Dear Editor I recently read the Poster Presentation of Rebecca Varrall et al, entitled    Maximisin...
December 2013 Animal Technology and Welfare Instructions to Authors Subjects considered for publication may include original articles, technical notes and reviews pertaining to all aspects of animal science and technology, management and education. The Editorial Board wishes to offer par ticular encouragement to papers leading to improvements in environmental enrichment, the general care and welfare of the animals used, in particular those species and strains exhibiting harmful genetic defects, and papers describing refinements in techniques, a reduction in the number of animals that need to be used or alternatives to animal use. Papers describing experimental procedures will only be accepted for publication if authors clearly state that the procedures conform to the prevailing principles and Codes of Practice of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986. Papers submitted from outside the U.K., should state what legislation and/or ethical approval the work has been carried out under. In addition, authors who describe surgical techniques with recovery should include details of post-operative care and any analgesic therapy provided. All sheets should be typewritten on one side in double spacing and serially numbered. Any photographs or graphs should be supplied as originals and conform to the format in 4) below. Address for submission: Journal Editorial Board Chairman, 5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7JL. No responsibility will be accepted for loss or damage to such articles. Electronic files of submissions are required together with separate files of photographs and any graphics that appear in the manuscript. Electronic submissions should be sent via email via atw.iat.org.uk alternatively, manuscript plus two copies may be sent as hard copy to the address below. All sheets should be typewritten on one side in double spacing with 4 cm margins and serially numbered. Additionally, a copy on disk should be provided or sent by email via atw@iat.org.uk The Editorial Board reser ves the right to seek independent advice on any aspect of the content of an article but the final decision on acceptance or rejection remains with the Board. Articles for submission should be sent to: Journal Editorial Board Chairman, 5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford, OX2 7JL. Submission No responsibility will be accepted for loss or damage to such articles. Material submitted for publication will be considered provided that it is contributed exclusively to Animal Technology and becomes the property of the Institute of Animal Technology. Format Articles may be submitted either electronically or by hard copy as follows: Electronic Articles should be submitted in Word format with double spacing to the lines and all pages serially numbered. Any photographs or graphs must be submitted as separate files and conform to the format in point 4) below. The relevant ar ticle must clearly indicate where photographs and/or graphs are to be inserted. Address for submission: atw@iat.org.uk Hard copy The original manuscript plus two copies should be sent to the address below together with a copy on disk (CD or DVD). 1). The first sheet of the article should contain the following: i. the full title of the paper ii. the initials and last name of the author(s) iii. the full address of the depar tment(s) and institution(s) where the work was carried out. iv. the address for correspondence if different to above. 2). For the remainder of the paper, the text should be clear and concise and, where appropriate, sub-divided under the following headings: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Summary Introduction Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References 233
December 2013  Animal Technology and Welfare  Instructions to Authors Subjects considered for publication may include orig...
Instructions to Authors 3). Measurements should be given in metric units – see The use of S.I. Units (1969) British Standards Institution publication and spelling should follow that of the Oxford English Dictionary. Abbreviations must be defined in full at their first appearance in the text. The 24 hour clock should be used for times. Words to appear in italic type should be underlined. Designation of inbred strains should be in accordance with the International Index of Laboratory Animals, 6th edition, compiled, edited and published by M.W. Festing, 1993. 4). Photographs should have clear and well contrasted tone values and be in colour. All illustrations, charts (e.g. histograms and graphs) and photographs should be submitted separately and bear on the reverse side the author’s name, a number corresponding to the order in which it appears in the text e.g., Figure 1, and an arrow pointing to the top. Illustrations, charts and photographs supplied on disk should be in JPEG, TIFF or EPS formats and have a resolution of no less than 300dpi. The captions for illustrations, charts and photographs should be typed in double spacing in numerical order on a separate sheet of paper. 5). References to other literature should be indicated in the text by superior figures12 and should be typed in numerical order in the order in which they appear in the text on a separate sheet of paper. References should be set out as follows: Journals:- Surname and initials of author(s) (date), title of article. Name of journal in full, volume number, first and last page numbers. Content Papers describing procedures involving the use of animals should always include full details of the animals and husbandry conditions used. These would be as follows: Animals Species Breed or strain Sex Age and weight at start of procedure Genetic status: inbred; outbred; hybrid; mutant Source Microbiological status: conventional; specified pathogen free (define which pathogens animals are free from); gnotobiotic (define which microorganisms are present) Quarantine or acclimatisation period Husbandry during procedure Type of housing: material; size; cage type if relevant Number of animals per cage or unit Bedding: type; quality; any pretreatment Type of system: conventional; barrier; ventilated rack; isolator Environmental temperature (°C ± range) Relative Humidity (% ± range) Lighting: natural; artificial (state hours of light and dark) Ventilation: number of air changes per hour Period of acclimatisation before start of procedure Feed: type; composition; any pretreatment; amount; frequency Water: type; quality; any pretreatment; amount; frequency Scientific procedure e.g. Saigeman, S. (1998). Environmental enhancement of cats – what? why? how? Animal Technology, Vol 49, No.3, 145-154. Number of animals and any pretreatment Time of day of procedure(s) Quantity and frequency of any samples Books:- Surname and initials of author(s) (date), title of book. Name of publisher, Town of publisher. Statistics e.g. Flecknell, P.A. (1987). Laborator y Animal Anaesthesia. Academic Press, London. Reprints Chapter from a multi-author book:- Surname and initials of chapter author(s) (date), title of chapter. In: title of book (surname and initials of book editors). Name of publisher, Town of publisher, first and last page numbers of chapter. e.g. Gregory, J.A. (1985). Principles of Animal Husbandry. In: Laboratory Animals – An Introduction for Experimenters. Second Edition. (Tuffrey, A.A.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, 87-105. 234 Tests used should be named Free reprints are no longer provided but the ATW Editorial Board are happy to provide PDF files of articles after publication. Use of these files is subject to Copyright restrictions.
Instructions to Authors  3 . Measurements should be given in metric units     see The use of S.I. Units  1969  British Sta...
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Record all animal work as it is undertaken using our intui ve apps. Automa c cage recogni on using RFID or barcode technol...
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The Learning Curve provides high quality training and CPD for animal technologists, in vivo scien sts and support sta     ...
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS December 2013 Allentown Inc ...................................................................................................................................iv ARMIS – R & W Associates ...............................................................................................................xi Bell Isolation Systems ......................................................................................................................iv Charles River Laboratories ..............................................................................................................IFC Edstrom Industries Inc ....................................................................................................................xiv Harlan Laboratories ..........................................................................................................................vi Institute of Animal Technology ............................................................................................xii, xvi, xviii IPS Product Supplies Ltd ................................................................................................................IBC LBS ...............................................................................................................................................xvii PFI Systems ...................................................................................................................................xiii Special Diets Services ......................................................................................................................v Surrey Diagnostics ..........................................................................................................................viii Sychem Ltd ......................................................................................................................................x Tecniplast UK ...............................................................................................................................OBC The Learning Curve ..........................................................................................................................xv VetTech Solutions ............................................................................................................................vii
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS  December 2013  Allentown Inc ..........................................................................