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Ecology of the European Otter Lutra lutra  Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers Ecology Series No. 10
Ecology of the European Otter Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers Ecology Series No. 10 Paul Chanin For more information on this...
Ecology of the European Otter  Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers This account of the ecological requirements of the European o...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  2
Ecology of the European Otter  Contents Introduction  5  Status and distribution UK distribution Predicting the future Sum...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Local incidents Standards PCBs Organochlorine pesticides Heavy metals Monitoring Conclusion...
Ecology of the European Otter  Introduction Over the last two decades the literature on the European  or Eurasian  otter a...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  a  A summary of dietary studies. b  Changes in fish populations in a number of rivers in th...
Ecology of the European Otter  population was widespread and abundant in the early 1980s, when in Britain the distribution...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Figure 1. Distribution of otters in Britain based on the National Surveys of 1991-1994  198...
Ecology of the European Otter  Figure 2. Distribution of otters in England     third National Survey 1991-94. Each circle ...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  the results published during 2005. Figure 1 summarises the status of otters in Britain at t...
Ecology of the European Otter  Table 2. Records of seasonal breeding.  Area Sweden Portugal Belarus Shetland, UK Denmark N...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers   Mason   Macdonald 1986  and between 1.55 and 1.95 for three coastal studies  Kruuk et al. ...
Ecology of the European Otter  Geoff Liles  High, sloping, wooded banks above flood level often provide good root-system h...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  n 97  mainland Scotland, n 148  Shetland  n 146 , separating the samples into violent death...
Ecology of the European Otter  the proportion of juveniles in this sample was underestimated by about 50 . The only substa...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  can vary widely.The data from Kruuk et al. in particular varies by a factor of 17 from the ...
Ecology of the European Otter  Paul Glendell English Nature  Otters can be found in a variety of wetlands, including estua...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Both photos by Geoff Liles  Left  A typical mid-river boulder sprainting site with easy acc...
Ecology of the European Otter  landscape such as the bases of large trees, boulders, bridges, confluences of streams, and ...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Dens, resting and breeding sites Numerous words have been used to describe places where ott...
Ecology of the European Otter  Otters will use a variety of places as resting sites. Top  A cavity behind an old, collapsi...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  kinds are much more common. Based on his experiences while otter hunting, Coghill  1980  su...
Ecology of the European Otter  Kruuk et al.  1998  reported that four otters tracked for a total of 669 days spent 58  of ...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Food availability There are probably more than a hundred reports on the food and feeding ha...
Ecology of the European Otter  reported that 55  of prey remains in the spring were amphibian. It is probable, therefore, ...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  In addition, most studies assume that the proportion of prey available to the otter is the ...
Ecology of the European Otter  Marine prey The diet of otters living and feeding on the coast is also dominated by fish, b...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  between 10 and 20 times greater than the requirements of otters, and that the absence of ot...
Ecology of the European Otter  z  z  On some rivers in the past 30 years there may have been insufficient fish for otters ...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers   Twelves 1983 , but observations in Shetland showed that 98  of dives were in water less th...
Ecology of the European Otter  Substrate Substate characteristics are only likely to affect otters if they affect food sup...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  the timing of the decline that the introduction of dieldrin and related pesticides was the ...
Ecology of the European Otter  z  At a local level, both in Wales and around Glasgow, sprainting intensity was negatively ...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  for concern and that the disappearance of otters in southern Norway could be caused by PCBs...
Ecology of the European Otter  survival  for example at times of food stress . Nevertheless, they concluded that this was ...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  The second approach, adopted by the DOQOP project, relied on an assay for the physiological...
Ecology of the European Otter  Kruuk et al.  1997  illustrate the difficulty of extrapolating safe levels for humans to ot...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  z  z  On these grounds, monitoring of pollutant levels in otters and their environment is e...
Ecology of the European Otter  Introduced species The fact that feral American mink first began breeding in Britain at the...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Norfolk with symptoms and lesions very similar to those of Aleutian disease, an immune defi...
Ecology of the European Otter  40  Number killed  35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 ...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Population size Barring further large-scale changes in the environment, it seems likely tha...
Ecology of the European Otter  The data on water quality obtained for this report and described briefly in Appendix D demo...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Conclusions This review has shown that, at present, there is no evidence to suggest that th...
Ecology of the European Otter  Acknowledgements I would like to thank many colleagues who have provided me with informatio...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Carss DN   Elston DA  1996 . Errors associated with otter Lutra lutra faecal analysis. 2  E...
Ecology of the European Otter  Durbin LS  1993 . Food and habitat utilisation of otters  Lutra lutra L  in a riparian habi...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Hovens JPM  1992 . Microverontreinigingen in water-bodems en visbiota in Nederland  de viso...
Ecology of the European Otter  Macdonald SM   Mason CF  1994 . Status and Conservation need of the otter  Lutra lutra  in ...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  O Sullivan WM  1993 . Studies of the distribution, ecology, habitat requirements and mortal...
Ecology of the European Otter  Weir V   Bannister KE  1973 .The food of the otter in the Blakeney area. Trans. Norf. Norw....
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Appendix A The diet of the European otter The following tables summarise the diets of otter...
Ecology of the European Otter  Table A3. Diets of otters in coastal areas expressed as frequency of occurrence    .  Count...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  References  Coastal otters Beja PR  1991 . Diet of otters  Lutra lutra  in closely associat...
Ecology of the European Otter  Appendix B  Fish population changes A small survey was carried out to collate information o...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Summary of information received A full analysis of these data is beyond the scope of this r...
Ecology of the European Otter  Biomass  g m-2   40 30 20 10 0 0  2  4  6  8  10  12  14  Stream width  m  Figure B1. The r...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Table B4. Proportion of sites where biomass estimates were below 5 and 10 g m-2.  Date Uppe...
Ecology of the European Otter  Fish per 100 m2  40 30 20 10 0 1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  1990  1995  2000  Year  Fish p...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Fish per 100 m2  60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  2000  Year Figure B4. Ch...
Ecology of the European Otter  Appendix C  Changes in water quality in rivers Background Information on water quality in t...
Changes in concentration    g l-1   Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  Dieldrin   HCH  DDT E  10000 1000 100 10 1 1970  1975  ...
Ecology of the European Otter  Appendix D The Otters and Rivers Project Brief questionnaires were sent to all project offi...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers  It would be beneficial to ensure that distribution records are integrated into the National...
Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers Ecology Series 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  Ecology Ecology Ecology Ecology Ecology Ecology Ecol...
Life in UK Rivers was established to develop methods for conserving the wildlife and habitats of rivers within the Natura ...