This is the IB Psychology Guide for First Exams 2011. It is the IB Psychology syllabus or programme guide and covers everything the teacher and student needs to know about the International Baccalaureate Psychology course.

Interactive Psychology Guide

 

First examinations 2011

First examinations 2011
First examinations 2011

IB Psychology

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Diploma Programme Psychology guide First examinations 2011
Diploma Programme  Psychology guide First examinations 2011

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Contents Introduction 1 Purpose of this document 1 The Diploma Programme 2 Nature of the subject 4 Aims 6 Assessment objectives 7 Assessment objectives in practice 8 Syllabus 10 Syllabus outline 10 Approaches to the teaching of psychology 11 Part 1: Core 15 Part 2: Options 20 Part 3: Qualitative research methodology 26 Part 4: Simple experimental study 28 Assessment 29 Assessment in the Diploma Programme 29 Assessment outline—SL 31 Assessment outline—HL 32 External assessment 33 Internal assessment 39 Appendices 59 Glossary of command terms 59 Glossary 60 Psychology guide
Contents  Introduction     1  Purpose of this document   1  The Diploma Programme   2  Nature of the subject    4  Aims   ...

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Introduction Nature of the subject Psychology is the systematic study of behaviour and mental processes. Psychology has its roots in both the natural and social sciences, leading to a variety of research designs and applications, and providing a unique approach to understanding modern society. IB psychology examines the interaction of biological, cognitive and sociocultural influences on human behaviour, thereby adopting an integrative approach. Understanding how psychological knowledge is generated, developed and applied enables students to achieve a greater understanding of themselves and appreciate the diversity of human behaviour. The ethical concerns raised by the methodology and application of psychological research are key considerations in IB psychology. Psychology and the international dimension IB psychology takes a holistic approach that fosters intercultural understanding and respect. In the core of the IB psychology course, the biological level of analysis demonstrates what all humans share, whereas the cognitive and sociocultural levels of analysis reveal the immense diversity of influences that produce human behaviour and mental processes. Cultural diversity is explored and students are encouraged to develop empathy for the feelings, needs and lives of others within and outside their own culture. This empathy contributes to an international understanding. Distinction between SL and HL Both SL and HL students are assessed on the syllabus core (levels of analysis) in paper 1. In addition: • SL students are assessed on their knowledge and comprehension of one option in paper 2, whereas HL students are assessed on two options • HL students are assessed on their knowledge and comprehension of qualitative research methodology in paper 3 • in the internal assessment, the report of a simple experimental study conducted by HL students requires inferential statistical analysis and a more in‑depth approach than that required of SL students. Prior learning No prior study of psychology is expected. No particular background in terms of specific subjects studied for national or international qualifications is expected or required of students. The skills needed for the psychology course are developed during the course itself. 4 Psychology guide
Introduction  Nature of the subject  Psychology is the systematic study of behaviour and mental processes. Psychology has ...

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Introduction Assessment objectives Having followed the psychology course at SL or at HL, students will be expected to demonstrate the following. 1. Knowledge and comprehension of specified content –– –– Demonstrate knowledge and comprehension of psychological research methods –– Demonstrate knowledge and comprehension of a range of appropriately identified psychological theories and research studies –– Demonstrate knowledge and comprehension of the biological, cognitive and sociocultural levels of analysis –– 2. Demonstrate knowledge and comprehension of key terms and concepts in psychology Demonstrate knowledge and comprehension of one option at SL or two options at HL Application and analysis –– –– 3. Demonstrate an ability to use examples of psychological research and psychological concepts to formulate an argument in response to a specific question At HL only, analyse qualitative psychological research in terms of methodological, reflexive and ethical issues involved in research Synthesis and evaluation –– –– Discuss how biological, cognitive and sociocultural levels of analysis can be used to explain behaviour –– 4. Evaluate psychological theories and empirical studies Evaluate research methods used to investigate behaviour Selection and use of skills appropriate to psychology –– Demonstrate the acquisition of knowledge and skills required for experimental design, data collection and presentation, data analysis and interpretation –– At HL only, analyse data using an appropriate inferential statistical test –– Write an organized response Psychology guide 7
Introduction  Assessment objectives  Having followed the psychology course at SL or at HL, students will be expected to de...

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Introduction Assessment objectives in practice Objectives Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Internal assessment Overall 1. Knowledge and comprehension of specified content 40% 40% 33% (HL) 30% 2. Application and analysis 30% 20% 33% (HL) 25% 3. Synthesis and evaluation 20% 20% 33% (HL) 15% 4. Selection and use of skills appropriate to psychology 10% 20% 100% 30% Command terms Classification of command terms In the learning outcomes (see syllabus content) the command terms are associated with assessment objectives 1, 2 or 3 and indicate the depth of understanding that is required of students in relation to each item of content. The grouping of command terms under assessment objectives reflects the cognitive demand of each term and is related to Bloom’s taxonomy. A command term used in an examination question will be: • the same as that specified in the related learning outcome, or • another command term associated with the same assessment objective, or • a command term of less cognitive demand. For example, if a learning outcome begins with the command term “explain”, an examination question based on this learning outcome could contain the command term “explain”, another command term associated with assessment objective 2 (such as “analyse”), or a command term associated with assessment objective 1 (such as “describe”), but not a command term associated with assessment objective 3 (such as “evaluate”). 8 Psychology guide
Introduction  Assessment objectives in practice  Objectives  Paper  1  Paper  2  Paper  3  Internal assessment  Overall  1...

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Assessment objectives in practice Command terms associated with assessment objective 1: Knowledge and comprehension Define Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase, concept or physical quantity. Describe Give a detailed account. Outline Give a brief account or summary. State Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation. Command terms associated with assessment objective 2: Application and analysis Analyse Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure. Apply Use an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in relation to a given problem or issue. Distinguish Make clear the differences between two or more concepts or items. Explain Give a detailed account including reasons or causes. Command terms associated with assessment objective 3: Synthesis and evaluation Compare Give an account of the similarities between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout. Compare and contrast Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout. Contrast Give an account of the differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout. Discuss Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence. Evaluate Make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations. Examine Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue. To what extent Consider the merits or otherwise of an argument or concept. Opinions and conclusions should be presented clearly and supported with appropriate evidence and sound argument. Psychology guide 9
Assessment objectives in practice  Command terms associated with assessment objective  1  Knowledge and comprehension Defi...

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Syllabus Syllabus outline Syllabus component Part 1: Core (SL/HL) • HL 90 90 30 60 The cognitive level of analysis • SL The biological level of analysis • Teaching hours The sociocultural level of analysis Part 2: Options (SL/HL) • Abnormal psychology • Developmental psychology • Health psychology • Psychology of human relationships • Sport psychology Part 3: Qualitative research methodology (HL only) • Qualitative research in psychology Part 4: Simple experimental study (SL/HL) • 30 40 150 240 Introduction to experimental research methodology Total teaching hours 10 50 Psychology guide
Syllabus  Syllabus outline  Syllabus component  Part  1  Core  SL HL        HL  90  90  30  60  The cognitive level of ana...

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Syllabus Approaches to the teaching of psychology The IB recommends 240 hours of teaching time at HL, and 150 at SL. The syllabus is designed to allow sufficient time for in‑depth analysis, evaluation and consolidation of learning. Teachers are encouraged to find ways of delivering the course that are most relevant to their students’ interests and to the school’s resources. The overall aim of the course is to give students a deeper understanding of the nature and scope of psychology. The different parts of the syllabus should complement each other. They are taught most successfully when they are integrated throughout the course of study, allowing students to make comparisons and to evaluate different psychological theories and arguments. Requirements Standard level The course of study must include: • all three compulsory levels of analysis • one option from a choice of five • one simple experimental study. Higher level The course of study must include: • all three compulsory levels of analysis • two options from a choice of five • qualitative research methodology • one simple experimental study. Structure of the syllabus The descriptions of the levels of analysis and options have the following structure. • Introduction • Learning outcomes • Examples Psychology guide 11
Syllabus  Approaches to the teaching of psychology  The IB recommends 240  hours of teaching time at HL, and 150  at SL. T...

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Syllabus Part 1: Core The study of the biological level of analysis, the cognitive level of analysis and the sociocultural level of analysis comprises the core of the psychology course. The three levels of analysis focus on three fundamental influences on behaviour: • biological • cognitive • sociocultural. The interaction of these influences substantially determines behaviour. The level of analysis approach reflects a modern trend in psychology towards integration and demonstrates how explanations offered by each of the three levels of analysis (biological, cognitive and sociocultural) complement one another and together provide more complete and satisfactory explanations of behaviour. Cognitive al ic Biolog S cul ociotur al The three levels of analysis can be usefully compared to three microscope lenses of different magnification. Each lens reveals a different picture of the intricate structure that exists at a variety of levels, but no single picture explains the whole object; a synthesis is necessary. Synthesis of the rich and diverse content of modern psychology is the chief aim of IB psychology. Behaviour Figure 1 Microscope lenses analogy for the three levels of analysis Psychology guide 15
Syllabus  Part  1  Core  The study of the biological level of analysis, the cognitive level of analysis and the sociocultu...

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Part 1: Core Biological level of analysis Introduction At the most basic level of analysis, human beings are biological systems. Our cognitions, emotions and behaviours are products of the anatomy and physiology of our nervous and endocrine systems. Over the last few centuries, discoveries have shown that: • the nature of the nervous system is electrical in part (Galvani) • different areas of the brain carry out different functions (Broca) • small gaps exist between nerve cells that require the action of chemicals to carry neural transmissions across these gaps • hormones play an important role in our psychological functioning. Since the 1960s, with the invention and development of brain imaging technologies (for example, CAT (computerized axial tomography), PET (positron emission tomography), fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)) it has become possible to directly study living brains in action as various tasks are performed, and to correlate specific areas of brain damage with specific changes in a person’s personality or cognitive abilities. Advances in psychopharmacology—the field of medicine that addresses the balance of chemicals in the brain—have led to the development of new medications for problems as diverse as depression, anxiety disorders and Alzheimer’s disease. After Darwin published his theory of evolution through natural selection, animals came to be studied in order to shed light on human behaviour. With the completion of the human genome project, the chimpanzee genome project, and with other species having the full structure of their DNA mapped, the contribution of genes to our cognitions, emotions and behaviour is becoming better understood. Behavioural genetics takes the skills of biological analysis used to study the differences between species and applies these skills to studying individual differences in humans. These are the components at the biological level of analysis needed to understand our complex biological system and the psychological functions it supports. Learning outcomes General learning outcomes • Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis (for example, patterns of behaviour can be inherited; animal research may inform our understanding of human behaviour; cognitions, emotions and behaviours are products of the anatomy and physiology of our nervous and endocrine systems). • Explain how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies). • Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis (for example, experiments, observations, correlational studies). • Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis. Physiology and behaviour • Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain (for example, Wernicke, Broca, Gazzaniga and Sperry). • Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour (for example, the effect of noradrenaline on depression). • Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behaviour. 16 Psychology guide
Part  1  Core  Biological level of analysis Introduction At the most basic level of analysis, human beings are biological ...

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Part 1: Core • Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes (for example, effects of jet lag on bodily rhythms, effects of deprivation on neuroplasticity, effects of environmental stressors on reproductive mechanisms). • Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour (for example, agnosia, anosognosia, prosapagnosia, amnesia). Evaluate two relevant studies. • Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies (for example, CAT, PET, fMRI) in investigating the relationship between biological factors and behaviour. Genetics and behaviour • With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic inheritance influence behaviour? • Examine one evolutionary explanation of behaviour. • Discuss ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behaviour. Cognitive level of analysis Introduction At the second level of analysis, the products of our biological machinery can be seen in our cognitive system, which includes our cognitions, emotions and behaviours. Around the 1950s psychologists began systematically to explore cognition to further understanding of human behaviour. This shift in focus from studying observable behaviour to studying mental processes, such as memory and perception, is called “the cognitive revolution”. Cognitive psychologists suggested that humans form internal mental representations that guide behaviour, and they developed a range of research methods to study these. In recent years, researchers within social and cultural psychology have used findings from cognitive psychologists to understand how mental processes may be influenced by social and cultural factors. Cognitive psychology represents a vast array of research areas including cognitive psychology, cognitive science, cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience. Topics such as memory, perception, artificial intelligence, amnesia and social cognition are studied. Cognitive psychologists use traditional research methods (for example, experiments and verbal protocols) but there is an increasing focus on the use of modern technology. Cognitive psychologists collaborate increasingly with neuroscientists, social psychologists and cultural psychologists in order to explore the complexity of human cognition. This approach is illustrated in the field of cultural and social cognitive neuroscience, indicating the complementary nature of social, cognitive and biological levels of analysis. Research that integrates these three levels can develop more meaningful theories to explain the mechanisms underlying complex behaviour and the mind. Learning outcomes General learning outcomes • Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis (for example, mental representations guide behaviour, mental processes can be scientifically investigated). • Explain how principles that define the cognitive level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies). Psychology guide 17
Part  1  Core        Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes  for example, effects of jet lag on...

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Part 1: Core • Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the cognitive level of analysis (for example, experiments, observations, interviews). • Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the cognitive level of analysis. Cognitive processes • Evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies. • Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process (for example, memory, perception, language, decision‑making) with reference to research studies. • Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process (for example, Alzheimer’s disease, brain damage, sleep deprivation). • Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process (for example, education, carpentered-world hypothesis, effect of video games on attention). • With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent is one cognitive process reliable (for example, reconstructive memory, perception/visual illusions, decision‑making/heuristics)? • Discuss the use of technology in investigating cognitive processes (for example, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans in memory research, fMRI scans in decision‑making research). Cognition and emotion • To what extent do cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion (for example, two factor theory, arousal theory, Lazarus’ theory of appraisal)? • Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process (for example, state-dependent memory, flashbulb memory, affective filters). Sociocultural level of analysis Introduction At the third level of analysis, the biological and cognitive systems that make up the individual are embedded in an even larger system of interrelationships with other individuals. At its beginning, psychology largely confined itself to the study of the individual acting alone. As the discipline matured, a few psychologists recognized that human behaviour could be fully understood only if the social context in which behaviour occurred was also taken into account. This recognition led to many investigations of social influence, that is, how the presence and behaviour of one or a few people affect the behaviour and attitudes of another individual. It also provided a broader context for exploring topics such as aggression and helping behaviour that had largely been regarded as individual personality traits. Although there has long been an exchange between the sciences of psychology and anthropology, the study of culture has largely been the province of anthropology. Recently, as many societies have become more multicultural, the need to understand the effect of culture on a person’s behaviour has risen to a new prominence. Social psychologists saw the need not only to achieve an understanding of the role of culture in human behaviour, but also to devise means for alleviating problems that arise from misunderstandings when individuals from different cultures come into contact with each other. In what appeared to be a contrary movement, as social psychologists turned their attention to exploring the power of culture, other investigators were focusing attention on the biological bases of human social behaviour: the role played by genes. These investigators explained important social behaviours as special adaptations to becoming social organisms acquired throughout the course of human evolution. As social psychologists continue to integrate the biological and cultural contributions to social behaviour, there 18 Psychology guide
Part  1  Core        Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the cognitive level of analysis  for exam...

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Part 1: Core is a general consensus in the discipline of psychology that a synthesis of the biological, cognitive and sociocultural levels of analysis holds out the greatest promise of bringing us closer to the goal of more fully understanding the nature of the complex interacting systems that make up the human being. Learning outcomes General learning outcomes • Outline principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis (for example, the social and cultural environment influences individual behaviour; we want connectedness with, and a sense of belonging to, others; we construct our conceptions of the individual and social self). • Explain how principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies). • Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural level of analysis (for example, participant/naturalistic observation, interviews, case studies). • Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the sociocultural level of analysis. Sociocultural cognition • Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour. • Discuss two errors in attributions (for example, fundamental attribution error, illusory correlation, self‑serving bias). • Evaluate social identity theory, making reference to relevant studies. • Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behaviour. Social norms • Explain social learning theory, making reference to two relevant studies. • Discuss the use of compliance techniques (for example, lowballing, foot‑in‑the‑door, reciprocity). • Evaluate research on conformity to group norms. • Discuss factors influencing conformity (for example, culture, groupthink, risky shift, minority influence). Cultural norms • Define the terms “culture” and “cultural norms”. • Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour (for example, individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, Confucian dynamism, masculinity/femininity). • Using one or more examples, explain “emic” and “etic” concepts. Psychology guide 19
Part  1  Core  is a general consensus in the discipline of psychology that a synthesis of the biological, cognitive and so...

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Syllabus Part 2: Options The options have been chosen to provide continuity with the previous syllabus and to reflect developing fields in psychology. There are five options. • Abnormal psychology • Developmental psychology • Health psychology • Psychology of human relationships • Sport psychology Students at SL must study one option. Students at HL must study two options. The study of the core (levels of analysis) provides a foundation and a broad overview of psychology, whereas the options allow students the opportunity to study a specialized area of psychology in depth (including empirical studies and theories), according to their own particular interests. Teachers are advised to integrate the options with the study of the core (levels of analysis) wherever possible. Abnormal psychology Introduction Abnormal psychology focuses on diagnosing, explaining and treating humans suffering from psychological disorders. This option begins with a consideration of normal and abnormal behaviour. An understanding of issues related to diagnosis provides a framework for the subsequent study of disorders and therapeutic approaches. Although there are numerous psychological disorders this option focuses on the following three groups of disorders: • anxiety (for example, agoraphobia) • affective (for example, depression) • eating (for example, bulimia). By studying one disorder from two of these groups of disorders, students are encouraged to develop an awareness of the range of psychological disorders. This approach embraces the etiology, symptoms and prevalence of each disorder. As a consequence of this understanding, it is possible to administer effective treatments while at the same time having an appreciation of relevant cultural and gender variations. 20 Psychology guide
Syllabus  Part  2  Options  The options have been chosen to provide continuity with the previous syllabus and to reflect d...

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Part 2: Options Therapeutic approaches to treating disorders may be broadly organized into three groups: • biomedical therapies (for example, drug therapy) • individual psychological therapies (for example, systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring therapy) • group psychological therapies (for example, encounter groups, family therapy, community‑based therapy). Therapies from each of these approaches involve the use of specific techniques that need to be applied appropriately. These approaches should reflect a considerable degree of efficacy and ethical appropriateness to the specific disorder. Learning outcomes General framework (applicable to all topics in the option) • To what extent do biological, cognitive and sociocultural factors influence abnormal behaviour? • Evaluate psychological research (that is, theories and/or studies) relevant to the study of abnormal behaviour. Concepts and diagnosis • Examine the concepts of normality and abnormality. • Discuss validity and reliability of diagnosis. • Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis (for example, cultural variation, stigmatization). Psychological disorders • Describe symptoms and prevalence of one disorder from two of the following groups: –– –– affective disorders –– • anxiety disorders eating disorders. Analyse etiologies (in terms of biological, cognitive and/or sociocultural factors) of one disorder from two of the following groups: –– –– affective disorders –– • anxiety disorders eating disorders. Discuss cultural and gender variations in prevalence of disorders. Implementing treatment • Examine biomedical, individual and group approaches to treatment. • Evaluate the use of biomedical, individual and group approaches to the treatment of one disorder. • Discuss the use of eclectic approaches to treatment. • Discuss the relationship between etiology and therapeutic approach in relation to one disorder. Psychology guide 21
Part  2  Options  Therapeutic approaches to treating disorders may be broadly organized into three groups        biomedica...

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Part 2: Options Psychology of human relationships Introduction This social psychology option focuses on human relationships; these relationships may be romantic, friendship, familial, or antagonistic. Humans are social animals, but while we depend upon others for our well‑being, conflict with others can threaten our survival individually and as social groups. Key goals of social psychologists are to understand the complexities of relationships, improve interpersonal relationships, promote social responsibility and reduce violence. Psychologists assume that we may actively change our environment and not simply be manipulated by it. Violence is defined here as a specific aspect of aggression characterized by victimization of another (for example, bullying, domestic violence, genocide). Though much of the research on aggression may be used to understand the basis of violence, the focus of this part of the option is to apply this research to social problems in which violence is often manifested. One approach to the study of human relationships concentrates on the role of hormones and genetics. However, this gives a limited understanding of how relationships develop. Cognitive theorists have contributed to the understanding of relationships by applying schema theory, whereas social psychologists have focused on attribution theory, social identity theory and the role of culture. Studying human relationships, however, has its challenges. It is tempting to oversimplify complex social issues or misdirect the blame for problems. When studying human relationships psychologists must also be concerned about the objectivity of the researcher, the right to privacy of the individual and the temptation of social engineering. Learning outcomes General framework (applicable to all topics in the option) • To what extent do biological, cognitive and sociocultural factors influence human relationships? • Evaluate psychological research (that is, theories and/or studies) relevant to the study of human relationships. Social responsibility • Distinguish between altruism and prosocial behaviour. • Contrast two theories explaining altruism in humans. • Using one or more research studies, explain cross‑cultural differences in prosocial behaviour. • Examine factors influencing bystanderism. Interpersonal relationships • Examine biological, psychological and social origins of attraction. • Discuss the role of communication in maintaining relationships. • Explain the role that culture plays in the formation and maintenance of relationships. • Analyse why relationships may change or end. Violence • Evaluate sociocultural explanations of the origins of violence. • Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence. • Discuss the effects of short‑term and long‑term exposure to violence. 24 Psychology guide
Part  2  Options  Psychology of human relationships Introduction This social psychology option focuses on human relationsh...

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Syllabus Part 3: Qualitative research methodology Qualitative research in psychology Introduction Qualitative research takes place in the real world, as opposed to the laboratory, and deals with how people give meaning to their own experiences. It involves research of behaviour in a natural setting, and is followed by an attempt to interpret the behaviour and the meanings that people have given to their experiences. Qualitative research strategies include the use of observations, interviews and case studies, among others. These will often involve face‑to‑face interactions between researcher and participant where the researcher needs to be flexible and sensitive to the needs of the social context within which the data is obtained. The data is subsequently analysed and interpreted. Generally the aim of qualitative research is to allow themes, categories or theories to emerge from the data, rather than to focus narrowly on preconceived ideas or hypotheses. Sampling methods used in qualitative research are significantly different to those used in quantitative research. Random sampling is not normally used, as generalization of findings to a large population is less important. Purposive sampling is preferred in qualitative research; participants are often selected for their salient features, which are closely tied to the research aim. The number of participants used in qualitative studies is often small and may, in some cases, be limited to a single individual. Qualitative research normally deals with few participants since its great value lies in understanding the in‑depth experiences and feelings of individuals. Psychologists have learned much from the qualitative research that they currently employ and continue to develop, including the notion that it is possible, with considerable care, to offer a limited degree of generalization from their findings. The qualitative approach needs to be transparent in the description of the methods that it uses since this adds to its credibility. Credibility improves when researchers are reflexive; they attempt to make readers of their research aware of their own potential researcher bias. In addition, it should be acknowledged that participants in the research may change their minds as the research proceeds. The methods used to produce data and the manner of analysis can and do influence research findings. Particularly for those who are new to qualitative research, it is imperative to be able to tolerate a degree of uncertainty. Human behaviour is frequently complex; the meaning of similar experiences may be interpreted differently by individuals. For example, chronic injury may have a devastating effect upon elite athletes and their immediate family members since it may involve the end of a playing career and a substantial fall of income; but for others, the same injury may offer an opportunity to retire gracefully from the continual demands of their sport and to start a new career in a different area. It is important for students to realize that qualitative and quantitative research complement each other. Each is suited to investigating different aspects of behaviour and should be used appropriately. 26 Psychology guide
Syllabus  Part  3  Qualitative research methodology  Qualitative research in psychology Introduction Qualitative research ...

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Part 3: Qualitative research methodology Learning outcomes Theory and practice in qualitative research • Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data. • Explain strengths and limitations of a qualitative approach to research. • To what extent can findings be generalized from qualitative studies? • Discuss ethical considerations in qualitative research. • Discuss sampling techniques appropriate to qualitative research (for example, purposive sampling, snowball sampling). • Explain effects of participant expectations and researcher bias in qualitative research. • Explain the importance of credibility in qualitative research. • Explain the effect of triangulation on the credibility/trustworthiness of qualitative research. • Explain reflexivity in qualitative research. Interviews • Evaluate semi‑structured, focus group and narrative interviews. • Discuss considerations involved before, during and after an interview (for example, sampling method, data recording, traditional versus postmodern transcription, debriefing). • Explain how researchers use inductive content analysis (thematic analysis) on interview transcripts. Observations • Evaluate participant, non‑participant, naturalistic, overt and covert observations. • Discuss considerations involved in setting up and carrying out an observation (for example, audience effect, Hawthorne effect, disclosure). • Discuss how researchers analyse data obtained in observational research. Case studies • Evaluate the use of case studies in research. • Explain how a case study could be used to investigate a problem in an organization or group (for example, a football team, a school, a family). • Discuss the extent to which findings can be generalized from a single case study. Psychology guide 27
Part  3  Qualitative research methodology  Learning outcomes Theory and practice in qualitative research       Distinguish...

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Syllabus Part 4: Simple experimental study Students are required to plan and undertake a simple experimental study and to produce a report of their study. A simple experimental study involves the manipulation, by the student, of a single independent variable and the measurement of the effect of this independent variable on a dependent variable, while controlling other variables. Teachers should prepare students for the simple experimental study and the writing of the report. 28 Psychology guide
Syllabus  Part  4  Simple experimental study  Students are required to plan and undertake a simple experimental study and ...

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Assessment Assessment outline—SL First examinations 2011 Assessment component Weighting External assessment (3 hours) 75% Paper 1 (2 hours) Section A: Three compulsory questions on part 1 of the syllabus. 50% Section B: Three questions on part 1 of the syllabus. Students choose one question to answer in essay form. (46 marks) Paper 2 (1 hour) Fifteen questions on part 2 of the syllabus. Students choose one question to answer in essay form. 25% (22 marks) Internal assessment 25% A report of a simple experimental study conducted by the student. (20 marks) Psychology guide 31
Assessment  Assessment outline   SL  First examinations 2011  Assessment component  Weighting  External assessment  3  hou...

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Assessment Assessment outline—HL First examinations 2011 Assessment component Weighting External assessment (4 hours) 80% Paper 1 (2 hours) Section A: Three compulsory questions on part 1 of the syllabus. 35% Section B: Three questions on part 1 of the syllabus. Students choose one question to answer in essay form. (46 marks) Paper 2 (2 hours) Fifteen questions on part 2 of the syllabus. Students choose two questions to answer in essay form. 25% (44 marks) Paper 3 (1 hour) Three compulsory questions based on an unseen text, covering part 3 of the syllabus. 20% (30 marks) Internal assessment 20% A report of a simple experimental study conducted by the student. (28 marks) 32 Psychology guide
Assessment  Assessment outline   HL  First examinations 2011  Assessment component  Weighting  External assessment  4  hou...

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Assessment External assessment Two different methods are used to assess students. • Detailed markschemes specific to each examination paper • Assessment criteria The assessment criteria are published in this guide. For paper 1, there are markschemes and assessment criteria. For paper 2, there are markschemes and assessment criteria. For paper 3, there are markschemes. The assessment criteria are related to the assessment objectives established for the psychology course and the group 3 grade descriptors. The markschemes are specific to each examination. External assessment details—SL Paper 1 Duration: 2 hours Weighting: 50% Paper 1 assesses the core of the syllabus: the biological, cognitive and sociocultural levels of analysis. The paper is divided into two sections (section A and section B). Students have two hours to answer paper 1. It is recommended that students spend approximately one hour on section A and one hour on section B. The maximum mark for the paper is 46. The assessment weighting of paper 1 at SL is 50%. Section A The purpose of this section is to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of all three levels of analysis. Students are required to answer three short-answer questions, one on the syllabus content of each level of analysis. Assessment objective 1 (knowledge and comprehension) and 2 (application and analysis) command terms will be used in section A questions, students could be required to: • analyse • apply • define • describe Psychology guide 33
Assessment  External assessment  Two different methods are used to assess students.       Detailed markschemes specific to...

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External assessment • distinguish • explain • outline • state. The maximum mark for section A is 24. Section B The purpose of this section is to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of the levels of analysis. Theoretical and/or empirical support is required in all answers. Students are required to answer one out of a choice of three essay questions drawn from the learning outcomes of the levels of analysis. In order to access the full range of marks available in the assessment criteria, all questions in section B of paper 1 will include an assessment objective 3 command term (synthesis and evaluation). Within a question, assessment objective 1 and 2 command terms may also be used. Each question is worth 22 marks. The maximum mark for section B is 22. Paper 2 Duration: 1 hour Weighting: 25% The purpose of this paper is to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of the option studied and to give students the opportunity to demonstrate application of psychological research, analysis, synthesis and evaluation in relation to the option. Theoretical and/or empirical support is required in all answers. Paper 2 consists of fifteen questions on the five options, three on each of the following options. • Abnormal psychology • Developmental psychology • Health psychology • Psychology of human relationships • Sport psychology Evidence of critical thinking is expected to be an important element of student responses (see “Critical thinking in psychology: A framework for evaluation” in section “Approaches to the teaching of psychology”). SL students spend one hour on paper 2 and are required to answer one question. Each question is worth 22 marks. The maximum mark for the paper is 22. The assessment weighting of paper 2 at SL is 25%. 34 Psychology guide
External assessment        distinguish        explain        outline        state.  The maximum mark for section  A is  24...

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External assessment External assessment criteria—SL Markbands for paper 1: Section A The framework below provides a general guide for teachers to the assessment of responses to paper 1 section A questions. Markschemes prepared for each examination question guide the awarding of marks by examiners. Markband Level descriptor 0 The answer does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below. Low There is an attempt to answer the question, but knowledge and understanding is limited, often inaccurate, or of marginal relevance to the question. Mid The question is partially answered. Knowledge and understanding is accurate but limited. Either the command term is not effectively addressed or the response is not sufficiently explicit in answering the question. High The question is answered in a focused and effective manner and meets the demands of the command term. The response is supported by appropriate and accurate knowledge and understanding of research. Assessment criteria for paper 1: Section B A Knowledge and comprehension Marks Level descriptor 0 1–3 The answer demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding that is of marginal relevance to the question. Little or no psychological research is used in the response. 4–6 The answer demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding relevant to the question or uses relevant psychological research to limited effect in the response. 7–9 B The answer does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below. The answer demonstrates detailed, accurate knowledge and understanding relevant to the question, and uses relevant psychological research effectively in support of the response. Evidence of critical thinking: Application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation Marks Level descriptor 0 The answer does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below. 1–3 The answer goes beyond description but evidence of critical thinking is not linked to the requirements of the question. Psychology guide 35
External assessment  External assessment criteria   SL Markbands for paper  1  Section  A The framework below provides a g...

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External assessment Marks Level descriptor 4–6 7–9 C The answer offers appropriate but limited evidence of critical thinking or offers evidence of critical thinking that is only implicitly linked to the requirements of the question. The answer integrates relevant and explicit evidence of critical thinking in response to the question. Organization Marks 0 Level descriptor The answer does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below. 1–2 The answer is organized or focused on the question. However, this is not sustained throughout the response. 3–4 The answer is well organized, well developed and focused on the question. Assessment criteria for paper 2 A Knowledge and comprehension Marks Level descriptor 0 1–3 The answer demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding that is of marginal relevance to the question. Little or no psychological research is used in the response. 4–6 The answer demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding relevant to the question or uses relevant psychological research to limited effect in the response. 7–9 B The answer does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below. The answer demonstrates detailed, accurate knowledge and understanding relevant to the question, and uses relevant psychological research effectively in support of the response. Evidence of critical thinking: application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation Marks Level descriptor 0 1–3 The answer goes beyond description but evidence of critical thinking is not linked to the requirements of the question. 4–6 The answer offers appropriate but limited evidence of critical thinking or offers evidence of critical thinking that is only implicitly linked to the requirements of the question. 7–9 36 The answer does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below. The answer integrates relevant and explicit evidence of critical thinking in response to the question. Psychology guide
External assessment  Marks  Level descriptor  4   6  7   9  C   The answer offers appropriate but limited evidence of crit...

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External assessment C Organization Marks 0 Level descriptor The answer does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below. 1–2 The answer is organized or focused on the question. However, this is not sustained throughout the response. 3–4 The answer is well organized, well developed and focused on the question. External assessment details—HL The external assessment at HL is the same as at SL but with the following differences. Paper 1 Duration: 2 hours Weighting: 35% The questions on HL paper 1 are the same as those on SL paper 1 and are marked according to the same markscheme (for section A) and assessment criteria (for section B). The assessment weighting of paper 1 at HL is 35%. Paper 2 Duration: 2 hours Weighting: 25% The questions on HL paper 2 are the same as those on SL paper 2 and are marked according to the same assessment criteria. HL students spend two hours on paper 2 and are required to answer two questions. Each of the questions must be chosen from a different option. Each question is worth 22 marks. The maximum mark for the paper is 44. The assessment weighting for paper 2 at HL is 25%. Paper 3 Duration: 1 hour Weighting: 20% The purpose of paper 3 is to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of qualitative research methodology. This paper consists of questions based on an abstract or an extract from a study, interview, observation or scenario (approximately 500 words) including, for example: • the aim • participant characteristics • the research method used • results and/or findings. Students must answer all the questions. Psychology guide 37
External assessment  C   Organization Marks 0  Level descriptor The answer does not reach a standard described by the desc...

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External assessment The total mark for paper 3 is 30 marks. These marks will be distributed across assessment objectives 1, 2 and 3. The maximum for any one assessment objective will not exceed 12 marks nor be lower than 8 marks. The assessment weighting of paper 3 at HL is 20%. External assessment criteria—HL Paper 1 The assessment criteria for HL paper 1 are the same as those for SL paper 1. Paper 2 The assessment criteria for HL paper 2 are the same as those for SL paper 2. Markbands for paper 3 The framework below provides a general guide for teachers to the assessment of responses to paper 3 questions. Markschemes prepared for each examination question guide the awarding of marks by examiners. Markband Level descriptor 0 Low There is an attempt to answer the question, but knowledge and understanding is limited, often inaccurate, or of marginal relevance to the question. The response makes no direct reference to the stimulus material or relies too heavily on quotations from the text. Mid The question is partially answered. Knowledge and understanding is accurate but limited. Either the command term is not effectively addressed or the response is not sufficiently explicit in answering the question. The response makes limited use of the stimulus material. High 38 The answer does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below. The question is answered in a focused and effective manner and meets the demands of the command term. The answer is supported by appropriate and accurate knowledge and understanding of qualitative research methodology. The response demonstrates a critical understanding of qualitative research methodology applied to the stimulus material. Psychology guide
External assessment  The total mark for paper  3 is 30  marks. These marks will be distributed across assessment objective...

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Internal assessment • A student who attains a high level of achievement in relation to one criterion will not necessarily attain high levels of achievement in relation to the other criteria. Similarly, a student who attains a low level of achievement for one criterion will not necessarily attain low achievement levels for the other criteria. Teachers should not assume that the overall assessment of the students will produce any particular distribution of marks. • It is recommended that the assessment criteria be made available to students. Internal assessment details—SL Simple experimental study Duration: 30 recommended teaching hours Weighting: 25% Introduction The simple experimental study forms an important part of psychological training. It enables students to demonstrate the application of their skills and knowledge of psychology. The purpose of the internal assessment is for students to experience the research process by practising sound research methodology. The psychology course defines a simple experimental study as requiring the manipulation of one independent variable and the measurement of one dependent variable, while other variables are kept constant. Consequently, correlational studies, quasi-experiments and natural experiments (that is, any research undertaken without control over the independent variable and without a controlled sampling procedure) are not acceptable for the simple experimental study. Variables that are based upon pre-existing characteristics of the participants are not suitable for the internal assessment. Variables that are not acceptable independent variables include, but are not limited to: • gender (for example, comparing the results of female and male participants) • age (for example, comparing the performance of 10-year-old participants and 18-year-old participants) • native language (for example, comparing native French speakers and native Mandarin speakers) • culture (for example, comparing the results of Afro-Caribbean participants and Swedish participants) • education level (for example, comparing the performance of students in grade 5 and grade 11) • socio-economic status (for example, poor participants and rich participants) • handedness (for example, left-handed and right-handed participants). While these variables might be of interest to students, they cannot be manipulated within the framework of the internal assessment. If such a variable is defined as the independent variable, the project has not met the requirements and will not earn marks. It should be noted that some of these variables may be used if they are not pre-existing characteristics of the participants and can be manipulated. One example would be gender. If students are interested in studying the effect of gender on behaviour expectations they could show two groups of participants a photograph of a baby in unisex clothing. One group of participants is told that the baby is a boy and the other group is told that the baby is a girl. Both groups are asked to describe the baby in the photograph. The descriptions given by the two groups can then be compared. In this example the student has manipulated the perceived gender of the baby and this would be suitable for the internal assessment. 44 Psychology guide
Internal assessment        A student who attains a high level of achievement in relation to one criterion will not necessa...

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Internal assessment Studies submitted for internal assessment that do not meet the requirements for experimental work will be awarded no marks. SL students are required to do a simple experiment by undertaking a replication of a published experimental study. Characteristics of the SL simple experimental study are as follows. • Limited in scope • Involves the manipulation of only one independent variable • Involves the measurement of only one dependent variable • Requires the use and interpretation of descriptive statistics • Does not require the use of inferential statistics Many published research studies are quite complex in nature. For the purposes of the internal assessment, the scope of the original study may be deliberately limited in order to fulfill the requirements. As the purpose of the internal assessment is to introduce students to simple experimental research, it is very important for students to keep their experimental studies within a reasonable, limited scope. Students should manipulate only one independent variable with two conditions and should report on only one dependent variable, as outlined in their experimental hypothesis. KEEP IT SIMPLE • Manipulate one independent variable (two conditions) • Measure one dependent variable Choice of topic Students should choose their own topic, but this must be with the teacher’s guidance. For various reasons not all topics are suitable for students at this level. Topics that raise ethical concerns or are socially sensitive in nature should not be approved by the teacher. However, the topic should be one that seems interesting and worthwhile to the student. Students must adhere to the psychology course ethical guidelines when undertaking any study. They must show tact and sensitivity, respect confidentiality and acknowledge all sources used. As part of the topic selection and planning process students should go through the process of identifying, refining and defining their topic. It would be helpful for students to define the topic, aim, hypothesis and variables of their study. The following are some examples of topics and approaches that have proved successful in the past. These should serve only as examples of how to define a topic, aim, independent variable, dependent variable and research hypothesis. Teachers and students are free to choose their own topics and are not limited to those listed here. Psychology guide 45
Internal assessment  Studies submitted for internal assessment that do not meet the requirements for experimental work wil...

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Internal assessment Topic Primacy effect in attribution of performance—replication of “Patterns of performance and ability attribution: An unexpected primacy effect”, Edward E Jones et al (1968) Aim To investigate a primacy effect in performance and ability attribution Independent variable Order in which correct and incorrect answers are given by confederate (condition 1: confederate answers correctly at the start of a list of questions; condition 2: confederate answers correctly at the end of a list of questions) Dependent variable Participants’ rating of confederate’s intelligence Research hypothesis Assessments of intelligence are greater when a confederate answers correctly at the start of a list of questions than when a confederate answers correctly at the end of a list of questions. Topic Chameleon effect—“The Chameleon Effect as Social Glue: Evidence for the Evolutionary Significance of Nonconscious Mimicry”, Chartrand and Bargh (1999) Aim To investigate the occurrence of a chameleon effect in an interview situation Independent variable Presence/absence of foot-tapping and face-rubbing mannerisms in interviewer (condition 1: interviewer exhibits foot-tapping and facerubbing mannerisms; condition 2: interviewer does not exhibit foot-tapping and face-rubbing mannerisms) Dependent variable Frequency of foot-tapping and face-rubbing mannerisms in participants/ interviewees Research hypothesis The frequency of participants’/interviewees’ foot-tapping and face-rubbing mannerisms will be greater when with an interviewer who taps their foot and rubs their face than with an interviewer who does not demonstrate these behaviours. Topic Central traits in impression formation—“Forming impressions of personality”, Asch (1946) Aim To investigate effects of particular adjectives on impression formation Independent variable Adjectives used in a description of a fictional person (condition 1: “warm” included in standardized description of fictional person; condition 2: “cold” included in standardized description of fictional person) Dependent variable Likeability ratings given by participants Research hypothesis Ratings of likeability are greater when “warm” is included in a list of adjectives pertaining to a fictional person than when “cold” is included. 46 Psychology guide
Internal assessment  Topic  Primacy effect in attribution of performance   replication of    Patterns of performance and a...

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Internal assessment Topic Familiarity and liking—“Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure”, Zajonc (1968) Aim To investigate the effect of familiarity on liking Independent variable Familiarity (condition 1: previous exposure to XXX; condition 2: no previous exposure to XXX) Dependent variable Liking ratings Research hypothesis Ratings of likeability are greater for familiar XXX than unfamiliar. Topic Social facilitation—“The dynamogenic factors in pace-making and competition”, Triplett (1898) Aim To investigate the effect of co-actors on competitive performance of a task Independent variable The presence/absence of co-actors (condition 1: co-actors present; condition 2: co-actors absent) Dependent variable Time taken to reel in fishing line through a 4 m course Research hypothesis The time taken to reel in fishing line through a 4 m course is reduced by the presence of co-actors. Topic Odour sensation and memory—“The effects of olfactory stimulation on short-term memory”, Deethardt (2007); “Odour sensation and memory”, Trygg (1991) Aim To investigate the effect of olfactory stimulation on short-term memory of new information Independent variable Association of odours with listed words (condition 1: a different odour associated with each word on a list presented for memorization; condition 2: word list presented for memorization without associated odours) Dependent variable Rate of recall of words from word list Research hypothesis Rate of recall of a word list is greater when words are associated with odours at memorization. Topic Availability bias—“Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases”, Kahneman and Tversky (1974) Aim To investigate availability bias in judgments about lists of names Independent variable Familiarity of listed names (condition 1: list of 19 “famous” males; condition 2: list of 20 “non-famous” females) Dependent variable Response to question: “Which list was longer?” after trying to recall names on both lists Research hypothesis Participants judge a list of “famous” people longer than a slightly longer list of “non-famous” people. Psychology guide 47
Internal assessment  Topic  Familiarity and liking      Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure   , Zajonc  1968   Aim  To in...

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Internal assessment This list is not exhaustive and many other examples of suitable experiments that could be replicated are available in psychology textbooks. Examples of experiments that are ethically unacceptable for SL or HL internal assessment include, but are not limited to: • conformity studies • obedience studies • animal research • placebo experiments • experiments involving ingestion (for example, food, drink, smoking, drugs) • experiments involving deprivation (for example, sleep, food) • experiments involving young children (teachers should observe local laws and guidelines in relation to the involvement of children in psychological research). Students found to have carried out ethically unacceptable experiments will be awarded no marks for the internal assessment. The use of pre-developed resources The purpose of the internal assessment task is for students to gain experience planning, designing, conducting and reporting on an experimental study. While students are encouraged to adapt previously used materials for their own research, they should still have some hand in development, implementation and interpretation. There are now many commercial, free or public-domain tools available for use in research. The use of software, simulations or assessment packages must be carefully monitored. If the use of such resources does not allow the student to experience planning, designing, conducting or reporting their own study, then they should not be used. The report The work will be internally assessed by the teacher and externally moderated by the IB. Every SL student must produce a written report using the following format. Title page Student name and number • Subject and level • Date, month and year of submission • Number of words • Statement of aim • Summary of methods • Summary of results • 48 Title • Abstract • Conclusion Psychology guide
Internal assessment  This list is not exhaustive and many other examples of suitable experiments that could be replicated ...

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Internal assessment Introduction • Aim of the study • Identification and explanation of study being replicated • Design: type and justification of experimental design, controls, ethical considerations including informed consent, identification of independent and dependent variables • Participants: characteristics of sample, sampling technique, allocation of participants to conditions • Materials: list of materials used, reference to copies in appendices • Procedures: described in sufficient detail to allow full replication • Statement of the measure(s) of central tendency, as appropriate • Statement of the measure(s) of dispersion, as appropriate • Justification of choice of descriptive statistic • Appropriate use of fully explained graphs and tables (may be computer generated) • Interpretation of descriptive statistics • Comparison of findings to the study being replicated • Identification of limitations of the student’s research • Suggestions for modification to address limitations of the student’s research • Conclusion References • Works cited within the report listed in a standard format Appendices • Raw data tables and calculations • Supplementary information • One copy of instrument(s) used • Copy of standardized instructions and debriefing notes • Copy of blank, informed consent form (participant and/or parent) Method (sub-section headings are in bold) Results Discussion Words 1,000–1,500* Marks 20 *The word count does not include supplementary information such as abstract, title page, references, section headings, parenthetical citations, graphs, charts and appendices. Psychology guide 49
Internal assessment  Introduction        Aim of the study        Identification and explanation of study being replicated ...

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Internal assessment Internal assessment criteria—SL Simple experimental study The SL experimental study is assessed against seven criteria that are related to the objectives for the psychology course and the sections of the report. Criterion A Introduction 2 marks Criterion B Method: Design 2 marks Criterion C Method: Participants 2 marks Criterion D Method: Procedure 2 marks Criterion E Results 4 marks Criterion F Discussion 6 marks Criterion G Presentation 2 marks Total 20 marks A Introduction Marks Level descriptor 0 1 The study replicated is identified but not explained. The aim of the student’s study is not clearly stated. 2 B There is no relevant introduction. The study replicated is not identified. The aim of the student’s study is not stated. The study replicated is clearly identified and relevant details of the study are explained. The aim of the student’s study is clearly stated. Method: Design Marks Level descriptor 0 1 The independent variable and dependent variable are accurately identified but are not operationalized. The experimental design is appropriate to the aim of the research but its selection is not appropriately justified. There is clear indication and documentation of how ethical guidelines were followed. 2 50 The independent variable and dependent variable are not accurately identified. No appropriate experimental design is identified. There is no evidence of appropriate application of ethical guidelines, for example, there is no evidence that informed consent was obtained from participants or their parents. The independent variable and dependent variable are accurately identified and operationalized. The experimental design is appropriate to the aim and its use is appropriately justified. There is clear indication and documentation of how ethical guidelines were followed. Psychology guide
Internal assessment  Internal assessment criteria   SL Simple experimental study The SL experimental study is assessed aga...

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Internal assessment C Method: Participants Marks Level descriptor 0 1 Some characteristics of the participants are identified but not all are relevant. Some relevant participant characteristics have been omitted. The sample is selected using an appropriate method but the use of this method is not explained. 2 D No relevant characteristics of the participants are identified. No relevant sampling technique is identified or the sampling method is incorrectly identified. Relevant characteristics of the participants are identified. The sample is selected using an appropriate method and the use of this method is explained. Method: Procedure Marks Level descriptor 0 1 The procedural information is relevant but not clearly described, so that the study is not easily replicable. Details of how the ethical guidelines were applied are included. Necessary materials have not been included and referenced in the appendices. 2 E No relevant procedural information is included. The information provided does not allow replication. There are no details of how the ethical guidelines were applied. The procedural information is relevant and clearly described, so that the study is easily replicable. Details of how the ethical guidelines were applied are included. Necessary materials have been included and referenced in the appendices. Results Marks 0 Level descriptor There are no results or the results are irrelevant to the stated aim of the student’s experimental study. Descriptive statistics have not been applied to the data. There is no graphing of data. 1–2 Results are stated and accurate and reflect the aim of the research. Descriptive statistics (one measure of central tendency and one measure of dispersion) are applied to the data, but their use is not explained. The graph of results is not accurate, is unclear or is not sufficiently related to the aim of the study. Results are not presented in both words and tabular form. 3–4 Results are clearly stated and accurate and reflect the aim of the research. Appropriate descriptive statistics (one measure of central tendency and one measure of dispersion) are applied to the data and their use is explained. The graph of results is accurate, clear and directly relevant to the aim of the study. Results are presented in both words and tabular form. Psychology guide 51
Internal assessment  C   Method  Participants Marks  Level descriptor  0  1  Some characteristics of the participants are ...

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Internal assessment F Discussion Marks 0 Level descriptor There is no discussion or it is irrelevant to the aim of the research. 1–2 3–4 Discussion of the results is not well developed. The findings of the student’s experimental study are discussed with reference to the study being replicated. Some relevant limitations of the design and procedure have been identified, but a rigorous analysis of method is not achieved. Some modifications are suggested. The conclusion is appropriate. 5–6 G Discussion of the results is very superficial. The findings of the student’s experimental study are not compared to those of the study being replicated. Limitations of the design and procedure are not accurately identified. No modifications are suggested and there is no conclusion. Discussion of results is well developed (for example, differences in the results of calculations of central tendency and/or dispersion are explained). The findings of the student’s experimental study are discussed with reference to the study being replicated. Limitations of the design and procedure are highly relevant and have been rigorously analysed. Modifications are suggested and ideas for further research are mentioned. The conclusion is appropriate. Presentation Marks Level descriptor 0 1 The report is within the word limit of 1,000–1,500 words. The report is complete but not in the required format. The reference for the study being replicated is cited but it is not presented using a standard method of listing references. Appendices are not labelled appropriately and/or are not referenced in the body of the report. The abstract is poorly written and does not include a summary overview of the student’s experimental study, including the results. 2 52 The report is not within the word limit of 1,000–1,500 words. Required sections of the report are missing, for example, no abstract is included. No references are provided. Appendices are missing or incomplete. The report is within the word limit of 1,000–1,500 words. The report is complete and in the required format. The reference for the study being replicated is cited using a standard method of listing references. Appendices are labelled appropriately and are referenced in the body of the report. The abstract is clearly written and includes a summary overview of the student’s experimental study, including the results. Psychology guide
Internal assessment  F   Discussion Marks 0  Level descriptor There is no discussion or it is irrelevant to the aim of the...

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Internal assessment Internal assessment details—HL Simple experimental study Duration: 40 recommended teaching hours Weighting: 20% See the internal assessment details in “Internal assessment details—SL”. HL students may undertake a replication or a modification of a published experimental study. In addition to the internal assessment requirements made of SL students, HL students are required to: • undertake more extensive background research related to their simple experimental study • provide an operationalized experimental hypothesis and an operationalized null hypothesis • apply an inferential statistical test to their data and interpret the result of the test. The report The work will be internally assessed by the teacher and externally moderated by the IB. Every HL student must produce a written report using the following format. Title page Date, month and year of submission • Number of words • Statement of aim and hypotheses • Summary of methods • Summary of results • Conclusion • Aim of the study • Literature review (analysis of relevant background studies and theories) • Operationalized experimental hypothesis • Operationalized null hypothesis • Design: type and justification of experimental design, controls, ethical considerations including informed consent, identification of independent and dependent variables • Participants: characteristics of the sample, target population, sampling technique, allocation of participants to conditions • Materials: list of materials used, reference to copies in appendices • Psychology guide Subject and level • Method (sub-section headings are in bold) Student name and number • Introduction Title • Abstract • Procedures: described in sufficient detail to allow full replication 53
Internal assessment  Internal assessment details   HL Simple experimental study Duration  40 recommended teaching hours We...

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Internal assessment Results • Statement of the measure(s) of central tendency, as appropriate • Statement of the measure(s) of dispersion, as appropriate • Justification of choice of descriptive statistic • Reporting of inferential statistics and justification for their use (calculations in appendix) • Statement of statistical significance • Appropriate use of fully explained graphs and tables (may be computer generated) • Interpretation of descriptive and inferential statistics • Comparison of findings to studies and theories reviewed in the introduction • Identification of limitations of the student’s research • Suggestions for modification to address limitations of the student’s research • Conclusion References • Works cited within the report listed in a standard format Appendices • Raw data tables and calculations • Supplementary information • One copy of instrument(s) used • Copy of standardized instructions and debriefing notes • Copy of blank, informed consent form (participant and/or parent) Discussion Words 1,500–2,000* Marks 28 *The word count does not include supplementary information such as abstract, title page, references, section headings, parenthetical citations, graphs, charts and appendices. 54 Psychology guide
Internal assessment  Results        Statement of the measure s  of central tendency, as appropriate        Statement of th...

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Internal assessment Internal assessment criteria—HL Simple experimental study The HL experimental study is assessed against nine criteria that are related to the objectives for the psychology course and the sections of the report. Criterion A Introduction 5 marks Criterion B Method: Design 2 marks Criterion C Method: Participants 2 marks Criterion D Method: Procedure 2 marks Criterion E Results: Descriptive 2 marks Criterion F Results: Inferential 3 marks Criterion G Discussion 8 marks Criterion H Citation of sources 2 marks Criterion I Report format 2 marks Total 28 marks A Introduction Marks 0 Level descriptor There is no introduction or the background research presented is not made relevant to the experimental hypothesis. The aim of the study is not stated. No hypotheses are stated. 1–3 Background theories and/or studies are identified but are limited in number, not well explained and/or not highly relevant to the hypotheses. The aim of the study is clearly stated. The experimental and/or null hypotheses are stated but are unclear or not operationalized. The prediction made in the experimental hypothesis is not clearly justified by the background studies and/or theories. 4–5 Background theories and/or studies are adequately explained and highly relevant to the hypotheses. The aim of the study is clearly stated. The experimental and null hypotheses are appropriately stated and operationalized. The prediction made in the experimental hypothesis is justified by the background studies and/or theories. Psychology guide 55
Internal assessment  Internal assessment criteria   HL Simple experimental study The HL experimental study is assessed aga...

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Internal assessment B Method: Design Marks Level descriptor 0 1 The independent variable and dependent variable are accurately identified but are not operationalized. The experimental design is appropriate to the aim of the research but its selection has not been appropriately justified. There is clear indication and documentation of how ethical guidelines were followed. 2 C The independent variable and dependent variable are not accurately identified. No appropriate experimental design is identified. There is no evidence of appropriate application of ethical guidelines, for example, there is no evidence that informed consent was obtained from participants or their parents. The independent variable and dependent variable are accurately identified and operationalized. The experimental design is appropriate to the aim and its use is appropriately justified. There is clear indication and documentation of how ethical guidelines were followed. Method: Participants Marks Level descriptor 0 1 Some characteristics of the participants are identified but not all are relevant. Some relevant participant characteristics have been omitted. The sample is selected using an appropriate method but the use of this method is not explained. The target population has been identified and is appropriate. 2 D No relevant characteristics of the participants are identified. No relevant sampling technique is identified or the sampling method is incorrectly identified. The target population has not been identified. Relevant characteristics of the participants are identified. The sample is selected using an appropriate method and the use of this method is explained. The target population has been identified and is appropriate. Method: Procedure Marks Level descriptor 0 1 The procedural information is relevant but not clearly described, so that the study is not easily replicable. Details of how the ethical guidelines were applied are included. Necessary materials have not been included and referenced in the appendices. 2 56 No relevant procedural information is included. The information provided does not allow replication. There are no details of how the ethical guidelines were applied. The procedural information is relevant and clearly described, so that the study is easily replicable. Details of how the ethical guidelines were applied are included. Necessary materials have been included and referenced in the appendices. Psychology guide
Internal assessment  B   Method  Design Marks  Level descriptor  0  1  The independent variable and dependent variable are...

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Internal assessment E Results: Descriptive Marks Level descriptor 0 1 Results are stated and accurate and reflect the hypotheses of the research. Descriptive statistics (one measure of central tendency and one measure of dispersion) are applied to the data, but their use is not explained. The graph of results is not accurate, is unclear or is not sufficiently related to the hypotheses of the study. Results are not presented in both words and tabular form. 2 F There are no results or the results are irrelevant to the stated hypotheses of the student’s experimental study. Relevant descriptive statistics have not been applied to the data. There is no graphing of data. Results are clearly stated and accurate and reflect the hypotheses of the research. Appropriate descriptive statistics (one measure of central tendency and one measure of dispersion) are applied to the data and their use is explained. The graph of results is accurate, clear and directly relevant to the hypotheses of the study. Results are presented in both words and tabular form. Results: Inferential Marks Level descriptor 0 1 An appropriate inferential statistical test has been chosen, but not properly applied. 2 An appropriate inferential statistical test has been chosen and explicitly justified. Results of the inferential statistical test are not complete or may be poorly stated. 3 G No appropriate inferential statistical test has been applied. An appropriate inferential statistical test has been chosen and explicitly justified. Results of the inferential statistical test are accurately stated. The null hypothesis has been accepted or rejected appropriately according to the results of the statistical test. A statement of statistical significance is appropriate and clear. Discussion Marks 0 1–2 Psychology guide Level descriptor There is no discussion section, or the discussion of the results is irrelevant to the hypotheses. Discussion of the results is very superficial. The findings of the student’s experimental study are not compared to those of the study being replicated. Limitations of the design and procedure are not accurately identified. No modifications are suggested and there is no conclusion. 57
Internal assessment  E   Results  Descriptive Marks  Level descriptor  0  1  Results are stated and accurate and reflect t...

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Internal assessment Marks Level descriptor 3–5 6–8 H Discussion of the results is not well developed or is incomplete (for example, discussion of either the descriptive or inferential statistics is missing). The findings of the student’s experimental study are mentioned with reference to relevant background studies and/or theories. Some relevant limitations of the design and procedure have been identified, but a rigorous analysis of method is not achieved. Some modifications are suggested. The conclusion is appropriate. Discussion of results is well developed and complete (for example, descriptive and inferential statistics are discussed). The findings of the student’s experimental study are discussed with reference to relevant background studies and/or theories. Limitations of the design and procedure are highly relevant and have been rigorously analysed. Modifications are suggested and ideas for further research are mentioned. The conclusion is appropriate. Citation of sources Marks Level descriptor 0 1 The references are incomplete or a standard citation method is not used consistently. 2 I Sources are not cited within the report. No references are provided, or no standard citation method is used. All in-text citations and references are provided. A standard citation method is used consistently throughout the body of the report and in the references section. Report format Marks Level descriptor 0 1 The report is within the word limit of 1,500–2,000 words. The report is complete but not in the required format. Appendices are not labelled appropriately and/or are not referenced in the body of the report. The abstract is poorly written and does not include a summary overview of the student’s experimental study, including the results. 2 58 The report is not within the word limit of 1,500–2,000 words. Required sections of the report are missing, for example, no abstract is included. Appendices are missing or incomplete. The report is within the word limit of 1,500–2,000 words. The report is complete and in the required format. Appendices are labelled appropriately and are referenced in the body of the report. The abstract is clearly written and includes a summary overview of the student’s experimental study, including the results. Psychology guide
Internal assessment  Marks  Level descriptor  3   5  6   8  H   Discussion of the results is not well developed or is inco...

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Appendices Glossary of command terms Command terms with definitions Students should be familiar with the following key terms and phrases used in examination questions, which are to be understood as defined below. Although these terms will be used frequently in examination questions, other terms may be used to direct students to present an argument in a specific way. These command terms are grouped under associated assessment objectives in the section “Assessment objectives in practice”. Analyse Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure. Apply Use an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in relation to a given problem or issue. Compare Give an account of the similarities between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout. Compare and contrast Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout. Contrast Give an account of the differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout. Define Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase, concept or physical quantity. Describe Give a detailed account. Discuss Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence. Distinguish Make clear the differences between two or more concepts or items. Evaluate Make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations. Examine Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue. Explain Give a detailed account including reasons or causes. Outline Give a brief account or summary. State Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation. To what extent Consider the merits or otherwise of an argument or concept. Opinions and conclusions should be presented clearly and supported with appropriate evidence and sound argument. Psychology guide 59
Appendices  Glossary of command terms  Command terms with definitions Students should be familiar with the following key t...

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