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SKILLS ACADEMY WALES AN INTRODUCTION TO WELLBEING
SKILLS ACADEMY WALES  AN INTRODUCTION TO WELLBEING
INTRODUCTION As young people mature, there are lots of pressures relating to their personal health which involve emotional and physical wellbeing. Skills Academy Wales will provide you with a programme designed to help you make informed decisions and choices about your own wellbeing. In this booklet you will find information on, and gain knowledge and understanding about:  Section 1: Healthy eating and drinking, and physical exercise that can help you make healthy lifestyle choices.  Section 2: Different types of substance abuse and misuse, and their consequences that can encourage responsible attitudes and behaviours.  Section 3: Mental health awareness and different types of emotional and social health issues that can help your mental and emotional wellbeing.  Section 4: Sexual health issues and how to develop a responsible attitude towards sexuality. Suggested activities and resources to help you get the most out of this booklet include:          Wellbeing self-assessment Alcohol awareness quiz Calendar of events Partner notice boards and displays Your assessor/tutor Partner activities/trips Partner communication systems eg moodle, e-mails List of local clubs/societies Links and useful contacts
INTRODUCTION As young people mature, there are lots of pressures relating to their personal health which involve emotional...
SECTION 1 HEALTHY EATING A healthy, balanced diet is essential for good health and wellbeing. What can we do to get the balance right that will make a difference to our health?  Eat the right amount of calories; if you eat too much you will put on weight. The recommended amount for men is around 2500 calories per day and around 2000 calories per day for women.  Choosing to eat a variety of foods not only improves general wellbeing, but can also reduce the risk of some health conditions, including diabetes, stroke, heart disease, some cancers and osteoporosis.  By steering clear of ready-made foods, snacks and takeaways you can decrease the amount of salt, sugar and fat which are believed to increase cholesterol and block our arteries. Take a look at the “Eat well Plate” which shows how to get a balanced diet from different food groups.
SECTION 1 HEALTHY EATING  A healthy, balanced diet is essential for good health and wellbeing. What can we do to get the b...
As you can see the plate is made up of five food groups:      Fruit and vegetables Bread, rice, potatoes and other starchy foods Milk and dairy foods Foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein Follow the advice below:  Drink plenty of water, about 2 litres a day (6-8 glasses)  Base your meals on starchy foods such as pasta, potatoes, cereals, rice and bread, which should take up about one third of the foods you eat. Use wholegrain bread and keep the skin on potatoes, which increases fibre. Don’t add fat and these foods will be relatively low in calories.  Cut down on foods which are high in fat. There are two types of fat, saturated and unsaturated. Too much saturated fat could increase the risk of developing heart disease and cholesterol levels. Saturated fat is found in pies, sausages, hard cheese, butter, lard, ghee, crisps, sweets, cakes and biscuits. Try low-fat options and food which contains unsaturated fats eg oily fish and vegetable oils. Try trimming off any visible fat from meats.
As you can see the plate is made up of five food groups                       Fruit and vegetables Bread, rice, potatoes a...
 Eat at least five portions of different types of fruit and vegetables a day. A 150ml glass of unsweetened 100% fruit juice can count as one portion. You can have fresh, frozen, dried and canned fruit in its own juice also. Add fresh or frozen vegetables to cooked dishes eg tomatoes to pasta. Choose a variety of fruit and vegetables; as well as providing vitamins, minerals and fibre, the natural colours and flavours add powerful anti-oxidants to our diet.  Eat less salt and sugar! Salt and sugar can be found in foods we eat regularly eg breakfast cereals, soups, breads and sauces, so don’t add these to your food. Most people in the UK eat and drink too much sugar as in sugary foods and drinks, alcoholic drinks, fizzy drinks as well as cakes, sweets, biscuits and pastries.  Try to choose lean meat and remove skin from chicken. Avoid frying were possible. Try to include two portions of fish each week, one oily (eg mackerel, trout, sardines, kippers). Choose fresh, frozen or canned, but always check the label on canned fish as they may be high in salt.
    Eat at least five portions of different types of fruit and vegetables a day. A 150ml glass of unsweetened 100  fruit j...
 Dairy products provide calcium but can be high in fat. Choose reduced fat versions when possible eg semi-skimmed milk, low fat yoghourts, low fat spreads and half fat cheese. Useful tips for healthier eating              Super start your day – don’t skip breakfast Swap it – swap a big dinner plate for a smaller one Veg-tastic – try filling up on fruit and vegetables Hungry or thirsty – a glass of water can take away that “hungry” feeling Watch out for TV snacking Eat a little slower Look at the ingredients Check for healthier options when eating out or having takeaways Get steamy! Swap fried rice/noodles for steamed or boiled versions Swap white rice and pasta for wholemeal versions Swap white bread for wholegrain versions Swap a thick crust pizza for a thin, crispy Try healthier alternatives to takeaways – swap a doner for a shish kebab instead (it contains a lot less fat)  Get some pulses into your meals – swap lasagne for chilli con carne, or try adding lentils to soups Test your BMI BMI (body mass index) is a measure of whether you’re a healthy weight for your height. Use this BMI calculator to check: http://www.nhs.uk/Tools/Pages/Healthyweightcalculator.aspx
    Dairy products provide calcium but can be high in fat. Choose reduced fat versions when possible eg semi-skimmed milk,...
What is an “eating disorder”? An eating disorder is a mental health condition that involves an unhealthy relationship with food and eating, and often an intense fear of being overweight. Anyone can develop an eating disorder, regardless of age, sex, cultural or racial backgrounds. Most affected tend to be young women between 15 and 25 years of age. Around 10% of people with eating disorders are men. There are several types of eating disorder, including:  Anorexia  Bulimia  Binge eating People with eating disorders may experience one or more of the following:  Eating makes you feel upset, guilty or anxious  You’re secretive about your eating habits because you know they’re unhealthy  You are preoccupied about food and gaining weight  You want to lose weight even when those around you worry that you may be underweight  You give people the impression you’ve eaten when you haven’t  You make yourself vomit or use laxatives to lose weight There are many factors which may result in an eating disorder:  Low self-esteem/lack of confidence  Sexual/emotional abuse  Traumatic events such as bereavement, being bullied, divorce, concerns about sexuality etc. What should you do if you think you have an eating disorder?  Talk to someone you trust  Talk to organisations with people who are qualified to talk to you (eg beat 0845 634 1414 and Samaritans 0845 90 90 90)  Talk to your GP
What is an    eating disorder     An eating disorder is a mental health condition that involves an unhealthy relationship ...
EXERCISE Have a healthy body through exercise! Regular exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, and can help with boosting your mental wellbeing. It’s important that people of all ages take part in some physical activity. It doesn’t have to be vigorous eg walking, however it is advised that people should partake in about two and a half hours of moderate aerobic activity a week. Some popular forms of exercise may include:        Cycling Swimming Gym Badminton Basketball Football Aerobics     Jogging Skateboarding Rollerblading Dog walking
EXERCISE  Have a healthy body through exercise  Regular exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, and can help...
Try to minimise the amount of time spent watching TV or playing computer games and being “a couch potato”! Exercise Top Tips  Try to do a combination of cardio-vascular and muscle-strengthening exercise. Raise your heartbeat and get sweaty!  Every 10 minutes counts. Gradually build up to 150 minutes a week.  Try a combination of exercises so you don’t get bored.  Try walking or cycling to work or Centre.  Activity can be fun and social if you try new ways of being active with friends and family.  Keep dancing! This is a fun way to burn energy.  Splash out! Another fun way to get active.  How about a bowling alley with friends or family?  Try a fitness class, which could be anything from aqua aerobics to Zumba, body pump to Bollywood dancing, boxercise to pilates. Take your pick!  Try organised outdoor challenges like Duke of Edinburgh’ Award.
Try to minimise the amount of time spent watching TV or playing computer games and being    a couch potato      Exercise T...
DRINKING ALCOHOL What is alcohol? To make alcohol you need to put grains, fruits or vegetables through a process called “fermentation”, resulting in the production of ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol features in the type of alcoholic drinks we drink. With so many different types of drinks and glass sizes, from shots to pints – not to mention bottles – it’s easy to get confused about how much alcohol we are consuming. To help keep track on how much we drink, alcohol is measured in “units”, which were introduced in the UK in 1987. But how many of us know what a unit of alcohol actually is? One unit equals 10ml or 8g of pure alcohol, which is around the amount of alcohol the average adult can process in an hour. The size and strength of your drink will determine the number of units it contains. The strength of alcohol is referred to as ABV or alcohol by volume, and you will see this written on the label of a bottle of alcohol eg wine may state 12.5% ABV or 12.5% vol, which means that 12.5% of the volume of that bottle is pure alcohol, and contains 9 units. The recommended consumption for men is 3-4 units /day, and 2-3 for women.
DRINKING ALCOHOL  What is alcohol  To make alcohol you need to put grains, fruits or vegetables through a process called  ...
The risks of drinking too much Over-consumption of alcohol, known as “binge-drinking”, is when a person drinks more than the guided amount in a short period of time to get drunk or feel the effects of alcohol. Alcohol isn’t any less powerful than other drugs, and can have many bad effects, including:  It is a depressant, which slows the body’s responses in all kinds of ways  Just enough can make you feel sociable; too much and you’ll have a hangover the next day and may not remember what you got up to  Too much alcohol in a single session could put you in a coma or even kill you from alcoholic poisoning  Cause a wide range of health problems, including cancers, high blood pressure, stroke, liver disease, falls and other accidents  Too much alcohol in a single session can leave you feeling out of control – slurring your words, losing your balance and vomiting. You could also breathe in your own vomit and suffocate  Alcohol can make you argumentative and aggressive, and take risks you normally wouldn’t take eg unprotected sex  Alcohol contributes to all kinds of problems, from violent crime to domestic violence to car-related deaths to missing work and unemployment An estimate of around 40% of A & E admissions are alcohol-related illnesses or injuries, often because of binge-drinking.
The risks of drinking too much Over-consumption of alcohol, known as    binge-drinking   , is when a person drinks more th...
What are the long-term risks of drinking too much? Regularly drinking more than the recommended daily limits risks damaging your health, and it’s not only people who get drunk or binge-drink who are at risk. Alcohol’s hidden harms usually only emerge after a number of years, by which time serious health problems can have developed:           Liver problems - cirrhosis Reduced fertility High blood pressure Various cancers – mouth, neck, throat, breast Fatigue or depression Weight gain Poor sleep Sexual problems Heart attack Damage to an unborn child where alcohol reaches the baby through the placenta called foetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Children with FAS have restricted growth, facial abnormalities and learning/behavioural disorders
What are the long-term risks of drinking too much  Regularly drinking more than the recommended daily limits risks damagin...
As well as health problems, long-term alcohol abuse can lead to social problems such as:     Unemployment Divorce Domestic abuse Homelessness Tips on cutting down
As well as health problems, long-term alcohol abuse can lead to social problems such as                   Unemployment Div...
 Make a plan. Before you start drinking, set a limit on how much you’re going to drink  Set a budget. Only take a fixed amount of money to spend on alcohol and pace yourself  Let them know. Tell your friends and family you’re cutting down and you should gain their support  Take it a day at a time. Cut back a little each day - that way every day will be a success  Make it a smaller one. Try bottled beer instead of pints, or a small glass of wine instead of a large one  Have a lower strength. Swap strong beers or wines for ones with a lower strength (ABV in %). Check the bottle  Stay hydrated. Drink water before you start drinking, and have soft drinks as well. Try and have a glass or bottle of water on the table as well as your alcoholic drink – this can help you to avoid dehydration. Eating before you go out or while you are out will definitely help  Take a break. Have the odd day each week when you don’t have an alcoholic drink. If you have drunk too much, you should avoid alcohol for at least 48 hours to give your body a chance to recover
    Make a plan. Before you start drinking, set a limit on how much you   re going to drink     Set a budget. Only take a ...
Benefits of cutting down The immediate effects of cutting down include:      Feeling better in the mornings Being less tired during the day Your skin may start to look better You’ll start to look fitter You may stop gaining weight Long term benefits include:  Mood – there’s a strong link between heavy drinking and depression, and hangovers often make you feel anxious and low. If you already feel anxious or sad, drinking can make this worse, so cutting down may put you in a better mood generally  Sleep – although alcohol can help some people to fall asleep quickly, it can disrupt your sleep patterns and stop you from sleeping deeply. Cutting down on alcohol should help you feel more rested when you wake up.  Behaviour – drinking can affect your judgement and behaviour. You may behave aggressively when you’re drunk. Memory loss can be a problem during drinking and in the long term for regular heavy drinkers  Heart – long-term heavy drinking can lead to your heart becoming enlarged. This condition can’t be reversed, but stopping drinking can stop it getting worse  Immune system – heavy drinkers tend to catch more infectious diseases Getting help cutting down It’s not all doom and gloom! For most people, if you drink within the guidelines, you have a lower risk of health harm. For some people, however, drinking gradually gets out of control and the increased levels place them into high risk and, for some, leads to dependence on alcohol. Withdrawals from alcohol can be severe, with typical symptoms including sweating, shaking, nausea and retching, in addition to high levels of anxiety, delirium and hallucinations. There are many websites with helpful information (see Links at end of booklet).
Benefits of cutting down The immediate effects of cutting down include                       Feeling better in the morning...
DENTAL HEALTH A healthy diet is good for your teeth; diet, smoking and alcohol all have an effect on dental health. Maintaining good oral hygiene can help to prevent dental problems, most commonly dental cavities, gingivitis, gum disease and bad breath. Recent clinical studies suggest oral disease may be a risk factor for some serious health conditions like heart attack, stroke, diabetes and osteoporosis.
DENTAL HEALTH  A healthy diet is good for your teeth  diet, smoking and alcohol all have an effect on dental health. Maint...
How can we help ourselves to maintain good dental health?  The “eat well plate” shows what types of foods should make up your diet. Eat a healthy, balanced diet that includes plenty of fruit and vegetables; starchy foods such as pasta, rice, potatoes and bread; sources of protein like meat, fish, eggs and beans; some milk and dairy products. Only eat small amounts foods high in fat and sugar.  Reduce sugar to prevent tooth decay. A lot of sugar can be found in foods such as sweets, chocolate, cakes, pastries and biscuits, sugary breakfast cereals, ice cream and jam, and in drinks such as soft drinks, fizzy drinks, alcohol and fruit juice.  Smoking can stain your teeth, cause bad breath and increases your risk of gum disease, breathing problems, lung cancer and mouth cancer. So give up smoking if you want to keep good dental and general health.  Alcohol misuse has been linked to an increased risk of developing mouth cancer, particularly if you are a smoker as well. Alcohol can wear away the outer surface of the teeth.  Wine, cigarette smoke, tea and coffee are all teeth-staining culprits – keep these to a minimum. Taking care of your general health and your mouth is the key to making the most of your smile.  Teeth-cleaning is the removal of dental plaque and tartar from teeth to prevent cavities, gingivitis, gum disease and tooth decay.
How can we help ourselves to maintain good dental health      The    eat well plate    shows what types of foods should ma...
 Severe gum disease causes at least one-third of adult tooth loss.  Flossing is an important element of oral hygiene, since it removes plaque and decaying food stuck between the teeth.  Tongue cleaning removes bad-breath-generating bacteria, food particles, fungi and dead cells from the tongue.  Chewing gum can help with removing food particles between and around the teeth and to clean the surface of the teeth. Sugar-free dental chewing gums are suggested. It is recommended that you brush your teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste and visiting your dentist for regular check-ups can help keep your teeth healthy.
    Severe gum disease causes at least one-third of adult tooth loss.      Flossing is an important element of oral hygien...