Title
-ed and -ing Endings
Lesson Objective
This is a 5-lesson unit and it is recommended to teach the lessons over several days.
The students will learn -ed and -ing Endings.
Background Information for Teacher
Teachers words are in bold.
Student Prior Knowledge
N/A
Materials:
Lesson 1-Student Pages: Adding -ed and -ing
Materials: students’ spiral notebooks
Lesson 2-Student Pages: Adding -ed and -ing Word Cards
Materials: students’ spiral notebooks, envelopes or plastic bags, scissors
Lesson 3-Student Pages: Adding -ed and -ing Word Cards, Read, Cover, Remember, Spell
Materials: students’ spiral notebooks, blank paper
Lesson 4-Student Pages: Adding -ed and -ing Word Cards
Materials: spinners or dice
Lesson 5-Student Pages: Which Is the Correct Word?
Step-by-Step Guided Lesson
Step 1: Start Video
(Tips: Interact with the video by pausing, to ask questions or discuss information viewed with student.)
Step 2: Teach Lesson
Lesson One
Write the following words across the board, leaving some space between the words: ask, like, and hop. Read the words aloud. These
words are all verbs in their base form. In other words, they all name an action, and they all are in their simplest forms.
Sometimes, you need to use the past tense form of a verb to show that something happened in the past. In order to form
the past tense of a verb, you usually add -ed. Write this ending on the board. For example, the past tense form of ask is asked.
Write asked on the board, and underline the ending. Sometimes, you need to use the present participle form of a verb to show
an ongoing action. In order to form the present participle of a verb, you add-ing. Write this ending on the board. For example,
the present participle form of ask is asking. Write asking on the board, and underline the ending.
Remember these rules to help you add -ed and -ing to verbs.
Have the following rule written on the board:
The e-Drop Rule: If a verb ends with e, drop the e before adding the ending -ed or-ing.
Look at the word like. What does it end with? (e) So what should we do to form the past tense form of the verb? (drop the e
and then add -ed) Drop the e and then add -ed to the word like on the board. To add -ed or -ing to words like like, we must
drop the e and then add the ending. When changing to the past tense, like becomes liked.
Have the following rule written on the board:
The Double Rule: If a verb with a short vowel sound ends with one consonant, double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing.
Look at the word hop. Does it have a long vowel sound or a short vowel sound? (a short vowel sound) Does it end with one
consonant? (yes) So what should we do to form the present participle form of the verb? (double the consonant and then add
-ing) Double the consonant and then add -ing to the word hop on the board. To add -ed or -ing to words like hop, we must
double the consonant and then add the ending. When changing to the present participle, hop becomes hopping.
Have the following rule written on the board:
Just Add the Ending: If a one-syllable verb does not fit the e-drop rule or the double rule, you can usually just add the ending.
Look at the word ask. Does it fit the e-drop rule or the double rule? (no) This is why we can just add the ending when
forming its past tense form or its past participle form.
Point to the words asked and asking on the board. Have the student copy the spelling rules and the examples into their notebooks.
Have the following written on the board:
1. Yesterday, I got a new pet fish and _______________ it Nemo. (name)
2. Because it was a beautiful day, many boats _______________ the lake. (dot)
3. Alicia _______________ her hair last night. (braid)
4. She is _______________ her eyes a lot because there is something in her eye. (blink)
5. Eduardo is _______________ a birthday cake for his mother. (make)
6. Wyndell is _______________ the flower to his coat. (pin)
Read each sentence with the student. Guide the student in adding the appropriate ending (-ed or -ing) to the word in parentheses to
properly complete the sentence. Write the past tense form or the past participle form on the line. Have the student identify the rule
that explains the spelling.
Answer Key:
1. named (The e-Drop Rule)
2. dotted (The Double Rule)
3. braided (Just Add the Ending)
4. blinking (Just Add the Ending)
5. making (The e-Drop Rule)
6. pinning (The Double Rule)
Distribute “Adding -ed and -ing” (Student Activity 1 in Step 3).
Read aloud the directions of the activity, and discuss them with the student briefly to make sure that s/he understand what to do.
Have the student complete the activity independently.
Lesson 2
In the last lesson, we learned about how to add -ed and -ing to verbs. Tell me what you remember about spelling these
words. Discuss what students learned in the last lesson.
Write the word lean
on the board. How do I write this word in the past tense? Have the student tell you what to do. Also, have the
student identify the rule that explains why. Follow the student’s directions. Correct the student when necessary. Repeat the process
for the words place
and jog
.
Distribute “Adding -ed and -ing Word Cards” (Student Activity 2 in Step 3)
, and have the student cut apart the words.
Then have the student find the words asking, liked,
and dotted
. These words will be your keywords to help you sort the
remaining words. Lay these words down in three columns. Then sort the remaining words, paying close attention to the
spelling of each word. If a word follows the “Just Add the Ending” rule, place it under asking. If a word follows the e-drop
rule, place it under liked. If a word follows the double rule, place it under dotted.
Have the student sort his/her word cards. Monitor the student as he/she works to guide their practice. Assist when necessary. If you
notice that a word is in an incorrect place, guide the student in finding the mistake instead of pointing it out.
Make sure the student has his/her word cards and notebook. Have the student write the three headings below, across the top of a
page and then record each word from the cards in the appropriate column.
Just Add the Ending The e-Drop Rule The Double Rule
Have the student store their cards in envelopes or plastic bags.
Lesson 3
Redistribute or have the student take out his/her Adding -ed and -ing Word Cards.
Provide five minutes for the student to read aloud the word cards. If the student needs assistance with a particular word, the student
should record the word in his/her notebooks so that he/she may discuss it with you.
The student will participate in a “No Peeking” writing sort. Give a blank sheet of paper to the student. Have the student fold the paper
lengthwise in thirds. Have the student title the first section “Just Add the Ending”, the second section “The e-Drop Rule”, and the
third section “The Double Rule”. Then have the student secretly select 10 cards from his/her Adding -ed and -ing Word Cards.
Finally, have the student follow the instructions detailed below:
1. Teacher reads aloud the student’s 10 words one at a time for the student to write.
2. After a word is read aloud,the student repeats the word aloud and writes it correctly in the appropriate section.
3. After writing all 10 words, the student checks his/her spelling using teacher’s cards.
4. Any words that are not spelled correctly should be corrected by the student.
Have the student open his/her notebooks. Distribute “Read, Cover, Remember, Spell” (Student Activity 3 in Step 3)
. Explain that the
student will do an activity that will help him/her spell words with -ed and -ing endings. The student is now to follow these steps for
each word on the worksheet:
1. Read the word.
2. Cover the word with your hand.
3. Remember what you just read.
4. Spell the covered word on your paper (without peeking).
5. Check to see whether the word was spelled correctly.
6. Write any misspelled words in your notebook.
7. Review misspelled words.
Monitor the student as he/she works, and make anecdotal records of his/her strengths and areas where improvement is needed.
Lesson 4
Provide three to five minutes for the student to practice reading and sorting his/her Adding -ed and -ing Word Cards. Observe the
student as he/she reads and sorts the words.
I will write on the board three words. Your job is to identify the rule that the words follow: the e-drop rule, the double rule, or
the “Just Add the Ending” rule. If necessary, review the three spelling rules with the students. Write planning, shrugged,
and sitting
on the board. What is the rule? (the double rule) Have the student explain how he/she knew the answer.
Continue the activity with the following sets of words:
lifted, mailed, and peeking
shaking, waved, and wiping
(This activity will require more than one participant)
Today, you’re going to play a card game called Category. Combine your word cards, shuffle them, and stack them face
down in a deck. Supply a spinner or die. Read the rules of the game. As you read the first three rules, have players complete the
steps. Then read the remaining rules and answer any questions that the student has.
1. Each player selects seven cards from the top of the deck, leaving the remaining cards facedown in the stack.
2. Each player spins the spinner (or rolls the die). The player who gets the higher number gets to be the first player.
3. The first player sets a card from his or her hand on the table, reads the word, and says the rule that the word follows. For example,
the e-drop rule says, “If a verb ends with e, drop the e before adding the ending -ed or -ing.” That is the category, or rule, that is in
play.
4. The next player then plays a card from his or her hand that fits the same category and reads it aloud.
5. Play continues until both players are out of words that belong in the category.
6. A player passes if he or she does not have a word to match the category.
7. A player loses a turn if he or she reads the word incorrectly, plays an incorrect card, or states the wrong rule. He/she also has to
draw a card from the stack.
8. The player who last played a card begins the new round. This player plays a different card, reads the word, and declares the rule
for spelling the word.
9. The object of the game is to be the first player to play all of his or her cards.
Monitor the student as he/she plays to guide their practice. Assist when necessary.
Lesson 5
Distribute “Which Is the Correct Word?” (Student Activity 4 in Step 3)
.
Tell the student that he/she will work individually to demonstrate his/her knowledge of spelling words ending in -ed or -ing. Administer
the assessment by reading the instructions and each word and sentence below.
Circle the word in each group that is said by the teacher and is spelled correctly.
1. lifted—Jonathan lifted his heavy backpack.
2. liked—Tina liked to visit her relatives in the country.
3. asking—Students are always asking questions.
4. mailed—David mailed a letter to his grandmother.
5. pinning—At the party, he was pinning the tail on the donkey.
6. making—I am making spaghetti for dinner.
7. leaned—Martin leaned forward to see the words on the board better.
8. wiping—Carlos is wiping his car dry.
9. braided—Maria braided her horse’s tail for the show.
10. shrugged—Adam just shrugged when his teacher asked about his homework.
Write each bonus word said aloud by the teacher.
11.turning—Bethany is turning thirteen this year.
12. smiled—He smiled for the camera.
13. clipping—He is clipping his fingernails.
Step 3: Complete the worksheet attached below.
Worksheets needed to complete the lesson
Step 4: Start the next lesson with the game or activity attached below for review so the student can demonstrate understanding of
this lesson before moving forward.
Smiling, Knitting Grandmas (offline) activity