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                                       TABLE OF CONTENTS                            



                                                1:  COVER PAGE                                    9: GOVERNMENT AND RESPONSIBILITIES

2: OVERVIEW                                      10-12: RESOURCES

3: WORLD RELATONS                      13-14: INDUSTRIES

                      4: INTRODUCTION                            16-20: INDUSTRIALIZATION    

                5-6: LANGUAGE                                   21-22: FEATURE CONCEPTS

                                                                7-8: RELIGION                                     23-24: WORLD STATUS

                                                                                                                                 25: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

                                                                                                                                 26: PREDICTIONS

                                                                

Overview

The continent of Concord is fairly isolated due to the surrounding body of water and volcanic mountain chain that is between it and the neighboring continent Pervenche. Because of this, there has been little to no colonization other than the people who originally inhabited the land. This may not have given the states the best chance to prosper, but it gave the neighboring states the chance to cooperate with each other and negotiate deals among themselves. Essentially, this means that Concord didn't need to be involved in foreign affairs and was able to minimize conflict among the other continents. To take a closer look in these two states that make up the continent, we will present them separately and display how they got to where they are now. 

Introduction to Alternate World

CHLOE

This settlement is named Riverway and is on the continent of Concord. This location has mountains and trees for protection, a river for fresh water and catching fish, and flat ground for building structures on. It has animals such as salmon, deer, wolves, buffalo, turkey and elk to eat and make clothes from. However, because of the temperate climate, not much clothing is needed. There are many forests that provide wood for shelter and fire. For recreation, people hike and swim with the nearby mountains and river. The disadvantages of having these are floods, dangerous animals, and little plant variety outside of trees and mosses. Our place, characteristics of a location that make it unique, is very helpful in being able to obtain resources. 

DANIELLE

My settlement is named Waterside. It is located between the river and the ocean at the southern part of the continent.  The location is just east of  0 degrees longitude and 0 degrees latitude. The physical characteristics of this location are mostly flat land with a river and the  ocean coast near the settlement.  This is a good place to settle because there are two water locations which provide food, drinking water, irrigation and trade locations and routes.  Being very close to where  the  river drains into the ocean, this is a good spot for trade with other settlements up and down the river.  Also, the generally flat land allows for places to build and crops can easily be grown here.  In this area the beans from the cocoa tree, antelope, giant forest hogs and elephants could be used for food.  The beans provide cocoa and the rest provide meat.  Clothing can come from the palm trees and the hides from the animals in the area.  Since it is a tropical wet climate, heavy clothing is not needed.  Also since it is warmer, fur may not top choice to wear because of the heat.  Eucalyptus trees could be used to build buildings, because of the wood. Palms from the palm trees can be used for roofing.  Some dangers the settlers face are flooding from the river, river drought and unusual weather.  Also, possible attacks from people coming in from the ocean would be a problem.  On the other hand, the ocean could be considered safe side during a fight with another settlement on the continent.  Making a ball from rolled up palm fronds  could be used with a piece of eucalyptus for a bat as a game similar to baseball.  Also carving wood into canoes could be used for river activities and fishing for food.  Attacks from the oceans could scare off people because they are close to the ocean.  River flooding may scare people of the settlement because they are close to the banks of the river on flat land.  Stampedes from from large animals and attacks from aggressive wild boars could cause the people to worry about the animals.

Language

CHLOE

Riverway has a language independent to most of Concord. The language developed in the central area of the continent.  Any other sub-languages are very similar and have many of the same basic words in common.

Examples:

Sun: Soulles                Mom: Nuum

Eat- Eamst                  Dad: Dash

Happy: Hon                Danger: Dene

Animal: Amir

 In this language, the words are said quickly with few syllables, making it similar to Japanese. Although this language doesn't have any type of voice inflections, one common sound shift is an extension of o’s. The next words are particular to Concord because of the large river, mountains, and numerous forests, making them essential to communication in Riverway. 

Water: Walsh                 Tree: Tris

Fish: Filees                    Fire: Forenes

Mountain: Monest

Language

DANIELLE

My settlement is isolated from contact with other settlements on the neighboring continent due to mountain ranges and volcanoes. Because of this, the root family and root language would have developed from my settlement, making it the hearth. Due to lack of contact with other civilizations, the language consists of grunts and sound effects rather than actual words.

Examples:

 Sun: ahh ( high pitched surprised way)                Mom: nom (High pitched)

 Eat: om (grunted)                                                      Dad: Nom (Low pitched)

 Happy :eee (high pitched)                                       Danger: Three low grunts

 Animal: screech/bird imitation

 No sound shifts occur because the language never reached other people due to no one else inhibiting the land. This results in no dialects forming or language divergence occurring.The system of the language family consists of grunts and sound effects and voice inflections. Higher pitched inflections represent female gender and happy/good words. Lower pitched inflections  represent the male gender and bad/scary things. The language is made up of grunts instead of words because the people were never able to develop knowledge they could have if they had been able to interact with other human beings. My language is unique because they experienced little growth from where they started because of their isolation and nomadic way of life. Words include:

Kill: A vicious medium pitched grunt)                Ahh: Sun

Fire: Ohh                                                                   Leh: Fire/Volcano

Arrow: Hissing sound                                             Sol: Earth

Volcano: Ah ha ah                                                   Ba: Water/River

Hunt: Ahh (grunted)

These words are original and completely unchanged. Backward reconstruction could prove this because no dialects formed from this language due to isolation

The religion of the settlement is animistic. It is called ahh-leh-sol-ga. The people used grunts and voice inflections to identify their beliefs due to their type of language which became more fluent over time. The sounds and grunts were representations of each of their Gods, which formed the name of the religion. 


Religion

CHLOE

The polytheistic religion of the settlement is called Sillism, after its founder. Sillah, a wise woman of the tribe, was hiking in the mountains and saw the gods as she approached the peak. They told Sillah that she should spread their teachings and help guide others. The gods gifted her with immeasurable wisdom and everlasting peace as they disappeared. She was staring at the sunrise as she discovered what the gods wanted her to teach the world. When she returned home, she wrote down everything she had realized while in the mountains. These teachings were made into a book, replicated, and named the Kahn. Sillah can be compared to Muhammad, Jesus’ disciples, and Abraham because she had an epiphany while talking to the God(s), communicated the Gods’ word in a holy book, and she was the main teacher and founder of this religion. The Kahn’s main teachings and rules state that one must pray to the Gods frequently, as in Christianity, hike to the peak of the nearby mountains at least once in one’s lifetime to appreciate the beauty of the world, similar to the pilgrimage to Mecca of the Islam 5 Pillars of Faith, and one must always respect others. The main idea of the Kahn’s word is that one should appreciate everything they are given and take advantage of worthy opportunities while being certain that they are respecting themselves, others, and the Gods. There isn't any form of a social hierarchy or any taboos because Sillah believed that all should be equal and should be able to talk to one another about anything. The main place of worship is a decorated building in the center of the settlement, it is respected and treated as a church or monastery. Sillism is a widely known and respected religion, and is still spreading quickly around the globe.

Religion

DANIELLE

The religion of the settlement is animistic. It is called ahh-leh-sol-ga. The people used grunts and voice inflections to identify their beliefs due to their type of language which became more fluent over time. The sounds and grunts were representations of each of their Gods, which formed the name of the religion. Since there is no original founder of this religion, there is an origin story. When the people of the settlement were trying to find the right land to settle on, they went through many treacherous experiences. The place they settled on had the perfect soil, a babbling river, a distance from the volcano, and the perfect amount of sun. The people looked around and took a great respect for nature. They realized that their surroundings are what would keep them alive so they decided to worship what holds their lives in its hands. Just like in Daoism, the people believe that living in harmony with nature is the way of life. The only difference is that they see significance in aspects of nature which are viewed higher than people. Therefore, the ultimate goal of ahh-leh-sol-ga is to please the Gods of nature by living in harmony with nature and people. The Gods they decided to please are the Sun, Water, Earth, and Fire Gods. Sacrifices are never given because it is viewed as disrespectful to the people and nature. The Gods see it unnecessary to destroy a human life and take something unnecessarily from the nature itself.This leads into the rules and guidelines of the religion. The main rule is to never destroy nature or take more than necessary from nature. Never take advantage of man’s ability to cause destruction. And pay respect and acknowledge that the Gods are what is giving the humans the ability to survive. Give thanks to good seasons and times is also something required. If any of these are broken, the Gods will become angry and bring their wrath among the people.  The aspect of giving respect to good times, like rituals/festivals, and the worship of nature is similar to the belief of Pagans. In the religion, the two taboos are cannibalism and destroying nature.The holy site of this religion is the volcano they see from their settlement. Because the people do not have the ability to write or read, no Holy Book exists. As a replacement, certain people tell the stories and beliefs of the religion through word of mouth. The information then gets passed down from generation to generation through storytelling.  There is not a very strict hierarchy that exists in this religion. The storytellers among the people are considered slightly higher than the rest because they hold the religion’s teachings which makes them the most important. The rest of the people are viewed as equals to avoid any conflict. It is understood why the storytellers are deemed higher so there is no confrontation.  As long as their is peace and understanding among the people, peace can be obtained among people and nature. Due to the few resources to make clothing, there very few to no restrictions on clothing. The Gods don’t believe in taking more from nature than necessary so the clothing the people wear is only what is necessary. Therefore, the clothing is made from the skin of animals they had to eat or the trees around them. 

Responsibilities and Government

CHLOE

In the settlement, the population is typically even in the amount of births and deaths. Because of the high amount of early deaths, the birth rate is very high, as the average family has about 7 children. Early death in the settlement is usually caused by frequent floods, dangerous animal attacks, and disease. The life expectancy in this settlement is 28 years old and one becomes an adult at age 16. All adult citizens are expected to participate in occasional votes, help, give, and attend church, and abide to all rules in the religion’s holy book. The citizens have created a theocracy in which all residents are citizens and are considered equal. Of course, this excludes the highly respected leaders of the settlement, who also run the church. These leaders make executive decisions for the settlement as well as the church, as most of them even work at the church as teachers of the religion. Although citizens in theocracies don’t typically have many rights and usually have many rules, this theocracy is based upon a simple religion with few rules all implied to create tranquility in human society.


DANIELLE

In the settlement Waterside, the people have an average life expectancy of 22-29 years. This is because there is chances for floods, the dangerous of hunting, hurricanes, and severe weather. Since the life expectancy is not very long, one officially becomes an adult at the age of 12. This is because they need adults to join in hunting and farming. Also they need to reproduce so the laws include being in adulthood in order to do that. In addition to those responsibilities as adults, women need to clean, sew and cook while men need to do the majority of field work. Both men and women take care of the child, including the necessary education since there are no schools. If an adult is not a citizen, they have to participate in forced labor. In most cases, if a child is born to non citizen parents, they can go to the government and beg for a citizenship. The type of government of Waterside is a Tyranny. When it first began, there was a storyteller that received the most respect and basically ran the place because he relied the message of the gods and religion to the civilization. A few of the strongest men in the hunting group decided that that was not the way to keep the settlement safe. On a stormy night while everyone was in the safety of their homes, these men overtook the settlement. They put fear into every person, even using violence to every gender and age if necessary. After this night, it was indisputable that these men were now the leaders. The strongest man of the group took the position of Tyrant and every other man in that rebellion took on the position as his assistance and would do anything he needed. As head of the settlement, the Tyrant began to take on a socialist form of economy by overseeing the rations and making it excessive.



Resources 

CHLOE

The natural resources in the settlement are silver, tin, and uranium, all found in the nearby mountains. The resources were first discovered when a citizen was on a hike to see the beautiful views at the mountain peak and found areas with these elements. The silver can be used as currency and made into coins because of its malleability and durability. The tin can be used to coat other metals, such as silver, to make tools that work better and last longer. The tin can also be used to make bronze when mixed with copper. The radioactive properties of uranium will not be of much use to the citizens in this time period, mostly just used for its yellow coloring when making things such as pottery. 

These resources will be used to make tools for farming and additional mining. The silver will be distributed as currency by the government and can be made into art and jewelry. The tin will be able to make tools for the miners and farmers paid by the government, so the government will use most of the tin at first. The uranium, however, will not be commonly distributed because of its limited uses in this early stage. The government will not have to transport these materials to the outpost because it is located on the other side of the mountain and has access to other areas of these resources. This outpost will be a grid village and will have a separate but very similar government with some of the leaders moving there to start it. With these materials and nearby river, the settlement should be able to advance their methods of farming and have a sufficient and steady food source. These materials will also be used for hunting and later trade with other settlements.


DANIELLE

The tyrannt sent out a group of men to explore resources and it was discovered that they had bauxite, titanium, and nickle.  Titanium was decided to be used for possible machinery or to add to structures because it is sturdy and weather resistant. Bauxite will be used for irrigation because it is a form of copper and copper works well with irrigation systems. Nickel can be used to make a way to distill seawater to freshwater. It can also be made into stainless steel for sturdy structures since it resists corrosion. Copper and Nickel can be used to improve hunting tools such as arrows. Of course, some of these can be used as trade items.  The Tyrant decided that in order to get to the resources efficiently, he needed to set up outposts and select who goes to the outposts. Men went to the desired location and put in grueling hours to have it done as quickly as possible. The outpost is located in the South Eastern part of the continent near the waterside. Because of its location, the village is set up as a cluster village. There are minimal crops around  so they will make use of the crops. Bauxite will not be mined yet because the settlement is near a river so they are good on water. Since nickel is near the settlement, occasionally men will be sent out to mine some then return. 

Industries

CHLOE

These resources will be used to make tools for farming and additional mining. The silver will be distributed as currency by the government and can be made into art and jewelry. The tin will be able to make tools for the miners and farmers paid by the government, so the government will use most of the tin at first. The uranium, however, will not be commonly distributed because of its limited uses in this early stage. The government will not have to transport these materials to the outpost because it is located on the other side of the mountain and has access to other areas of these resources. This outpost will be a grid village and will have a separate but very similar government with some of the leaders moving there to start it. With these materials and nearby river, the settlement should be able to advance their methods of farming and have a sufficient and steady food source. These materials will also be used for hunting and later trade with other settlements.


DANIELLE

Most of the resources either traded or collected were very useful for dishware, silverware, and  cooking ware. Because of this, these industries will be clumped together. The agglomeration of this will be located near the bustling Waterside since they aren’t heavy industries and will still keep the city in fairly good living conditions and clean. The other industries will be farther out since they are producing bigger and bulkier machinery. These industries will include the production of ships and boats as well as weapons. Therefore this industrial belt  includes the city Waterside and goes west toward the agricultural town Quarry. Quarry is not part of the industrial belt but is very close to it since that is the area where the resources are originally. Due to the location of the industrial belt, the Demographic transitions for Quarry and Waterside have changed. Waterside has moved up to stage three since it is in the midst of all the industrializing. Quarry, on the other hand, is in stage two since it is not part of the industrialization, leaving it as an agricultural village.

As seen in the map above, there is a trade system going on between the two states. The railroads connect the outposts to the main settlements and the roads connect Prosiliience and Conqueria.


Industrialization

CHLOE

As a stage 3 country, leading causes of death in Conqueria are stroke, influenza, hypertension, and tuberculosis. Birth rates are still relatively high, but being lowered by ending any policies that previously rewarded families for having high amounts of children. They are being replaced with taxation plans that highly increase with each child added. We will also guarantee education for girls through high school and change any gender-bias laws, because women that have jobs, are educated, and have equal rights to men are more likely to have a low number of children. Because of this, women play a much larger role in the workforce. Women comprise approximately thirty five percent of the working population. They are allowed a maternity leave of three weeks, but even so, less than half of working women decide to have children.

Our agricultural industry is centered around wheat, corn, and cotton. They are harvested with a primitive harvesting machine, recently invented during our industrial revolution. The most common service jobs are teachers, mechanics, and doctors. Because of the high amount of factories, many mechanics are needed in the city. The high population in the city, mainly caused by an influx of industrial workers coming from rural areas, causes a need for many doctors and teachers near the city center. As an effect of this, the population is very concentrated in and around the capital, Riverway. The industrialization has caused the city to resemble a different urban model, the sector model. As the distance from the city center increases, the population density gradually decreases. 

The country of Conqueria is not currently accepting help from multinational corporations due to the high interest and low success rates. We are, however, involved in many supranational organizations that benefit us. These organizations are the National Nunc Network of Trade (NNNT) and the National Nunc Network of Healthy Hardworking Humans (NNNHHH), including the countries Conqueria, Verbena, Deciduo, Perosiliience, and Viridia, all on two adjacent continents. The NNNT resembles the World Trade Organization, in which it promotes a smooth trading system across the countries. The NNNHHH is very similar to Red Cross, as it gives education on health and nutrition and helps with disaster relief. These organizations mainly operate within the two continents, but often help the other countries of the world, creating a friendly reputation for our countries.

Pie graphs representing the amount of people in and GDP generated from the various industries.

A model of the capital city of Conqueria, Riverway, similar to the Generalized Model of the Land Use Areas in the Large Southeast Asian City.

This population pyramid reflects the average population in Conqueria, a stage three country moving through industrialization. As shown, this pyramid is shifting toward a column shape, where it would be soon considered a stage four country.

The first pyramid shows the population of a rural, stage three town as industrialization is beginning. The shape is a triangle, with all ages groups widening, showing progression. The second pyramid shows a city in the industrial belt, with a high population of working men.

Industrialization

DANIELLE



When industries first started, men were mainly used. They could have been men in need of work or poor, the status didn’t exactly matter because work was the same. For clothing industries or industries involving sewing, women were typically used because they already knew the skill needed for that type of production. At some point, Child Labor became popular among the industries. This is where children were put in the grueling conditions of the factory and were forced to work. This was looked down upon eventually so the use of children in industries is not around anymore. Based off this, the industries in my alternate world will go along the path of mainly men, but some women in the fields of work they have the skill for. Children will not be put into the industries until the age of 16 because the youth is needed to be healthy to be in the military and keep the population strong. Also, whoever is captured during war or any criminals will be forced to do longer hours in the factories than a normal worker. These people will also receive little to no pay since they are looked down on. People who are not part of the continent but are found will be captured and receive the same treatment as criminals and prisoners of war when it comes to industry work. 

Industries caused social life to even out in the real world when it began. Since all workers were being paid the same, money was evenly dispersed. When the great depression came around and jobs were low in the industries, wages were dropping significantly and people were losing jobs so the equality among people were still similar.   Society also became hard workers due to the grueling conditions they had to work in. Cities became dirty and living conditions worsened as well. In the modern world, all the products during the industrial revolution let us live in luxury in certain place.  Of course, money is what determines the level of luxury. Third and second world countries tend to have ore struggles and less luxuries than first world countries. Among people, the more you make, the more money you have. The more money you have, the more you can buy from what industries produce. Overall, in modern world, industries cause social life to be separated because workers in the industries make less money than doctors. Also, what industries produce can be bought but money is different among every person. The social life in the region currently is separated by Government as the highest then military then the rest of the people. When industries come in, the people are going to have to work since the government won’t change positions. The citizens will not be enough to work all the industries so some of the military men will become apart of the workforce, eventually leading to the military to do both. Wages will not be high and just like before, the government will try to make everything equal, only this time military will be at the same status as the rest of the people. Work conditions will be rough and unfavorable but will eventually be fixed. Also, people will spend the same amount of time in the industries as everyone else so no one will make more money. They will have long work hours and the rest of their minimum time will be left to them. 







The two population pyramids depict the stages that Quarry and Waterside are in. Quarry, the outpost, is stage two because it never industrialized. Therefore, it still remains a city for agricultural purposes. Becuase o fhtis, there is still a large need for children so the pyramid is shaped more like a triangle. Waterside, the bustling city, has moved to stage three because it industrialized, making it not as necessary to have a large children population. This means that the age groups begin to even out and life expectencies increase.

DANIELLE

The image above is a representation of the state during the time of industrialization. It depicts how people lived and the conditions of the city. Prosiliience has both heavy and light industries, the heavy industries being outside the city. The heavy industries include production of ships/boats and weapons.  The light industry is mainly for utensils like dishware, silverware, and cooking ware. Given that light industries are within the main city, that is where the majority of workers in that field live. Even if they work at the heavy industries, housing is closest to work by living in the city. Therefore, people are moving away from rural areas to the city to be closer to work. Prosiliience doesn’t have a large amount of industry so there is still a large amount of population living in rural areas because the need to farm. This impacts the state because they don’t have as much advancements, meaning they can't have the best living standards. Especially in the city, it is dirty and unpleasant to be in since the industries are polluting the living areas. Also, housing is tight and not the best quality because living conditions are not a big concern.  Similar to the United States’ industrial revolution, work conditions were grueling. Long hours with minimal pay in terrible work conditions was prevalent in Prosiliience.  Also, child labor was around for some time but was banished since it was highly frowned upon.  All of the industry was for domestic purposes. Prosiliience is classified as a semi-peripheral country so it’s contribution to the global economy was seen through its large amount of agricultural exports. 

This painting displays the most popular recreational activities in Concord, while also portraying the laid-back atmosphere of the continent. It shows some of the industries in Concord that make a large part of the GDP, along with the most common jobs. The biggest industries in Concord are lumber, ship-building, and fishing. The culture and common industries make Concord very similar to Canada, which is currently the sixth biggest seafood export country, adding to the large amount of GDP also coming from foresting.

World Status

DANIELLE

                              Prosiliience is semi-peripheral since industry is not soaring and its main natural resources are bauxite, titanium, and nickel, which are mainly used for heavy industry and some light industry like silverware. In general, semi peripheral countries are major providers of exports of minerals and agriculture as well as raw materials and industrial goods. Based off this, services provided by this country include the basic light industry, such as silverware production, and exportation of agriculture. Some of the agriculture provided by this country include beans, apples, citrus, and grains. Also, The minerals exported would be bauxite, titanium, and nickel. Banks and lawyers would be provided because semi peripheral places are a major part in economy and political issues. They are defined as buffers for those issues, but at the same time they don’t have a ton of say. Since agriculture is a major export, we should look into farming styles. Farming is a mix of sustainable agriculture and commercial agriculture. Because industry in not the main part of the state, a ton of machines can’t be built. Therefore, there isn't a possible way the agriculture can be fully commercial. The state has titanium and bauxite, therefore machines such as blows and tractors can be built as well as irrigation systems. The heavy industry builds these machines, but not in bulk.


 In order to get protection and boost their state, Prosiliience got involved in Add to supranational organizations.  in an organization that allows free trade. The organization that allows free trade iis called NNNT, which stands for National Nunc Network of Trade. So far, the states included are Concordia, Verbena, Viridia, and Deciduo. Part of this organization is to ensure free and easy trade among these states. Prosiliience hopes that one day they will have enough say to dictate some of the organization. The government and people hope that they can make it similar to CIS, or ECOWAS so tariffs and import restriction decrease. This way, no money is unnecessarily spent. For now, they will propose this at meetings and hope for their way. If not, Prosiliience will be patient and keep suggesting this action. In addition to NNNT, they are part of an organization called NNNHHH, National Nunc Network of Healthy Hardworking Humans. This organization is similar to modern day red cross. It ensures aid when outbreaks occur and that the states involved will give assisted medical care. Also, they will help to provide health and nourishmen, say if one state involved has famine, food will be sent. Just like the NNNT, the states involved are Concordia, Verbena, Viridia, and Deciduo. In the future, there is a possibility more states will join since these organizations are open to everyone.  








Spatial Distribution

DANIELLE

Since agriculture is still a major part of Prosiliience, the majority of people live in this area. Industry is also a part of this state but since there isn't as much of a need for it, less people live near the industries. People live where they work so more people are in the farm areas rather than the city. The people who live in the city are only there because of work, so all employees in the industries are in the city and it's outskirts. The same goes for the farmers. They live near work so there is a large population of people out in the rural area. 


CHLOE

In Riverway, the highest concentrations of people are in the port, new industrial area, squatter settlements, and suburbs. In the state of Conqueria, the population is most dense in and around large cities and gradually decreases as the distance from them increases.

Predictions 

CHLOE

Conquereia will soon move in to stage four of the Demographic Transition Model. Along with this, Conqueria will most likely switch from a theocratic government to a less restrictive government, such as a democracy. Similar to Canada, it will thrive in industries in service, such as health, as well as the technology industry. These industries and new jobs will hopefully raise the gross domestic product of Conqueria and gross domestic product per capita of citizens, giving it more stability than it currently has. 


DANIELLE

Prosiliience is going to have slow growth since the government is not very apt on having outside aid. Also, the state will eventually move on to a core country since it has a great economy and is trying to move to stage 4. This will help when the government fully switches over form a tyranny to a democracy.

The World is going to have a huge power struggle. There are many people in the class who already are trying to gain power so the world will get into wars over these power hungry people. Eventually, the world will have agreements and deals to come to peace again. Like in the real world, there will be a few continents and states that remain passive and peaceful the entire time but there is a chance they will be pulled into the mess.