Guidelines for the four major components of petroleum work including Aboveground storage tanks, Underground storage tanks, Leak and spill prevention & Piping and fittings

CANADIAN PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION RECOMMENDED PRACTICES VERSION 3-2011 © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION 1
CANADIAN PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION RECOMMENDED PRACTICES VERSION 3-2011     ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIAT...
Member Associations Alberta Petroleum Storage Systems Contractors Association British Columbia Petroleum Contractors Association Association des Entrepreneurs Pétroliers du Québec Inc. Manitoba Petroleum Contractors Association Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Saskatchewan Retail Petroleum Construction Association See page 6 for contact information CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
Member Associations  Alberta Petroleum Storage Systems Contractors Association  British Columbia Petroleum Contractors Ass...
TABLE OF CONTENTS Terms of Use ...........................................................4 Acknowledgements ................................................5 Contact Information ................................................6 Leak & Spill Prevention ..........................................7 UST General Requirements .................................17 UST Installation .....................................................29 UST Removal .........................................................45 UST Piping & Fittings ...........................................69 AST General Requirements ...............................105 AST Installation ...................................................113 AST Removal .......................................................129 Confined Space requirements ...........................145 Petroleum Oriented Safety Training .................161 Glossary of Terms ..............................................169 3
TABLE OF CONTENTS Terms of Use ...........................................................4 Acknowledgements ................
Terms Of Use Disclaimer Although the information and recommendations in this manual are presented in good faith and believed to be correct, the Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association (OPCA) makes no representations or warranties as to the completeness or accuracy of the information. Information is supplied upon the condition that the persons receiving same will make their own determination as to its suitability for their purposes prior to use. In no event will the Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association (OPCA) be responsible for damages of any nature whatsoever resulting from the use of or reliance upon information from this site or the products to which the information refers. This manual is intended for education purposes only. No responsibility is accepted by the Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association (OPCA) or any of its members or by the authors of this manual regarding its content, preparation, or publication, or for any statement herein or omission therefrom which may result in any loss, damage, or injury to any party using or consulting this manual. About this manual This manual is intended to be for resource purposes only. It outlines “best practices” and covers general information that is common to the workplace; it should not replace the instructions provided by the manufacturer for particular materials or pieces of equipment. While this manual provides a sound interpretation and summary of various government legislation, it is every participant’s responsibility to be familiar with all regulations that apply to his or her workplace environment (including municipal guidelines). © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association (OPCA). Copying in whole or in part without the express written permission of the Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association (OPCA) is strictly prohibited. To order additional copies visit the OPCA website at www.OPCAonline.org or call 1-866-360-OPCA (6722) CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
Terms Of Use Disclaimer Although the information and recommendations in this manual are presented in good faith and believ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The OPCA gratefully acknowledges the following individuals and companies who contributed to this manual. Claybar Contracting Inc. Clemmer Steelcraft Technologies Inc. Comco Petroleum Management Inc. Dresser Wayne Dave Ledingham - Petroleum Technical Services Elfent Ltd. Franklin Fueling Systems Free Flow Petroleum Kenstruct Ltd. OPW Canada Petro-Canada Rathwell & Rathwell Petroleum Systems Red Leonard & Associates SAS Petroleum Technologies Inc. Southwest Energy Control Systems of Canada Ltd. Triangle Pump Service Wagg’s Petroleum Equipment Ltd. ZCL Composites Inc. 5
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The OPCA gratefully acknowledges the following individuals and companies who contributed to this manual. ...
CONTACT INFORMATION Canadian Petroleum Contractors Association Toll Free 1-866-360-6722 Web: www.cpcaonline.com Email: info@cpcaonline.com MEMBER ASSOCIATIONS & RELATED ORGANIZATIONS Petroleum Oriented Safety Training - www.POSTtraining.ca Alberta Alberta Petroleum Storage Systems Contractors Association - www.apssca.com Petroleum Tank Management Association of Alberta - www.ptmaa.ab.ca British Columbia British Columbia Petroleum Contractors Association - www.bcpetroleum.com Manitoba Manitoba Petroleum Contractors Association - www.mpcaonline.ca Manitoba Conservation - www.gov.mb.ca Ontario Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association - www.opcaonline.org Toll-Free 1-866-360-OPCA SPILLS ACTION CENTRE- 24 hours - 1-800-268-6060 Technical Standards and Safety Authority - www.tssa.org Toll Free - 1-877-682-8772 Technical Information Desk - Fuels_Technical_Services@tssa.org Quebec Association des Entrepreneurs Pétrolier Du Québec Inc. - www.aepq.com Régie du bâtiment du Québec - www.rbq.gouv.qc.ca Ressources naturelles et Faune Québec - www.mrn.gouv.qc.ca Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Retail Petroleum Construction Association - www.srpca.com Saskatchewan Environment & Resource Management www.environment.gov.sk.ca REGULATIONS National Fire Code - National Research Council of Canada www.nrc.ca or Toll-Free 1-877-NRC-CNRC Environment Canada - www.ec.gc.ca - Storage Tank Team - Tel (819) 934-2991 CCME Environmental Code of Practice for Aboveground and Underground Storage Tank Systems Containing Petroleum and Allied Petroleum Products Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment - www.ccme.ca or Toll-Free 1-800-805-3025 CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
CONTACT INFORMATION Canadian Petroleum Contractors Association Toll Free 1-866-360-6722 Web  www.cpcaonline.com Email  inf...
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LEAK & SPILL PREVENTION TABLE OF CONTENTS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ..................................9 UST SYSTEMS.......................................................10 PROBES .................................................................11 AST SYSTEMS.......................................................12 Under 5000 litres ................................................12 Over 5000 litres ..................................................15 CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
LEAK   SPILL PREVENTION TABLE OF CONTENTS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ..................................9 UST SYSTEMS...............
GENERAL LEAK AND SPILL PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS Aboveground and Underground storage tank systems at all facilities should have a system of leak detection. Anytime a contractor installs or maintains a product storage system or any component of the system, the contractor must ensure that the required spill control and leak detection systems are in place and in working order. All tanks are to have some method of spill prevention and leak detection 9
GENERAL LEAK AND SPILL PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS Aboveground and Underground storage tank systems at all facilities should h...
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SYSTEMS Refer to the Piping & Fittings section of this manual for installation practices. The interstitial space of double wall tanks and all sumps (tank sumps for STPs, suction lines or siphons; transition sumps; dispenser sumps) must be monitored for leaks. There can not be any bypass on the shut down action of the monitoring system. Interstitial space of a double wall FRP UST Monitoring systems are to be electronic systems that are ULC, cUL or CSA approved e.g. Veeder Root, Incon, Autostik. The alarms are to be both audible and visible and placed to notify the operator of the alarm. The interstitial space of a double wall tank should be either brine filled or vacuum monitored. Dry monitoring with a liquid detection probe is not recommended. If a leak is detected in the double wall tank interstitial space, all equipment associated with that tank must be shut down. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SYSTEMS Refer to the Piping   Fittings section of this manual for installation practices. The int...
SENSORS Liquid discriminating sensors are recommended for sumps. If fluid is detected in a sump, the minimum action is to;  Alarm on low water level,  Shut down on high water level,  Shut down on detection of any product. Shut down only the equipment associated with the sump in alarm. If the sensor does not discriminate between water and product, the equipment associated with the sump is to be shut down when any liquid is detected. 11
SENSORS Liquid discriminating sensors are recommended for sumps. If fluid is detected in a sump, the minimum action is to ...
ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANK SYSTEMS 1) Farm Tanks, Utility Tanks and Horizontal Tanks up to 5,000 Litres All aboveground tanks, including farm and utility tanks, must be manufactured in accordance with a ULC Standard. The recommended minimum construction is;    Double wall – can be vacuum monitored with a vacuum gauge Separate fill and vent fittings Separate emergency vent All vents, including the emergency vent, must be 150 mm (6 inches) above the top of the spill prevention device. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANK SYSTEMS 1  Farm Tanks, Utility Tanks and Horizontal Tanks up to 5,000 Litres All aboveground tank...
FILL POINTS For a tight fill;    must have a drop tube, must have a spill containment device, must have an overfill prevention device. NOTE: the proper model must be used to match the type of transfer either gravity drop or pressure delivery. For a fill using a nozzle;   install a spill containment device must have a drop tube without an overfill prevention device or be able to accommodate an extension tube (stinger) on the delivery nozzle. For all tanks, a method to prevent overfilling the tank must be in place. The installation of a high level alarm is recommended. To transfer the product from the aboveground tank, it is recommended to use a tank mounted pump with an antisiphon valve. 13
FILL POINTS For a tight fill               must have a drop tube, must have a spill containment device, must have an overf...
ANTI-SIPHON VALVES If a remote dispenser is used, the product suction is to be piped from a bung on the top of the horizontal tank with a drop tube. An anti-siphon valve with a built in pressure relief valve must be provided if any portion of the piping is below the top of the tank. Some anti-siphon valves can be adjusted in the field to match the head pressure of the system. Others are preset at the factory to a predetermined head pressure. See instructions with valve on how to set it up. The pump air eliminator should be piped back to the supply tank. 3/8” copper tubing is acceptable. A shear valve should be installed under the pump. A sump with a leak detection sensor should be installed under the pump. Product is to be dispensed using approved hoses and automatic shutoff nozzles. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
ANTI-SIPHON VALVES If a remote dispenser is used, the product suction is to be piped from a bung on the top of the horizon...
2) Horizontal and Vertical Tanks over 5,000 Litres Tanks over 5,000 litres are to have either a drop tube or a filling connection below the product level. Secondary containment is required. It is recommended to use double wall tanks for tank sizes up to 50,000 litres instead of single wall tanks with a dike. Spill containment and overfill prevention systems must be in place. Continuous inventory monitoring and high level alarm systems are available from suppliers for all sizes and orientation of aboveground tanks. For horizontal tanks, a top mounted submersible pump is recommended. An anti-siphon valve with a built in pressure relief valve must be provided if any portion of the piping is below the top of the tank. If a remote pump is used with the suction piping from the tank below the liquid level, check valves and tank isolation valves must be in place to prevent major leaks from line breaks. Aboveground piping and equipment must be protected from damage by vehicles. 15
2  Horizontal and Vertical Tanks over 5,000 Litres Tanks over 5,000 litres are to have either a drop tube or a filling con...
Fill points must have spill prevention;  in-line spill savers to empty the delivery hose,  check valves, which can be provided with internal pressure relief, to prevent backflow from the tank, All lines must have thermal relief valves with the discharge piped into the product tank. The overfill prevention device must be independent of the regular tank inventory gauge system and must shut off the delivery when activated. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
Fill points must have spill prevention       in-line spill savers to empty the delivery hose,       check valves, which ca...
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CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES    ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION  Version 3-2011
UST GENERAL REQUIREMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS UST PROJECTS.........................................................20 GENERAL UST PROJECT REQUIREMENTS..........21 Project Familiarization/ Site Reconnaissance......................................21 Obtain Utility Locates.....................................23 Hazard Evaluation...........................................24 Site Safety Meeting.........................................25 Site Control......................................................26 Environmental Assessments.........................27 Customer Notification....................................27 19
UST GENERAL REQUIREMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS  UST PROJECTS.........................................................20  GENER...
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROJECTS These procedures outline the operations required for installation, removal and decommissioning of USTs. There are a number of scenarios that the contractor will face in UST projects;  New to industry sites  Addition to or replacement of existing USTs  Total replacement of all USTs  Site decommissioning This manual does not provide step by step actions for every operation or specific instruction for possible auxiliary operations such as confined space entry. Every user of this manual must ensure that specific procedures are developed for each project. The user must be knowledgeable in the maintenance, calibration, verification and use of atmospheric testing equipment (combustibles analyzer). Contractor‟s employees performing this work should hold a PM2 certificate and be trained by the manufacturer to install the equipment CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROJECTS These procedures outline the operations required for installation, removal and decommiss...
GENERAL UST PROJECT REQUIREMENTS 1) Project Familiarization/Site Reconnaissance The project supervisor must examine the site to document the site size and conditions prior to commencing work. This will identify specific hazards and obstructions and may identify additional work requirements including but not limited to:  Site and neighbourhood traffic – both vehicular and pedestrian  Overhead hazards: electric wires/canopies – machinery must be 3 metres (10 feet) away from power lines  Topography – a slope on, or at the edge of, the property that must be protected so that spilled product, soil or material will not be carried off-site  Environmentally sensitive areas nearby  Space for the operating equipment and truck movement  Space for stockpile of soil  Disposal of soil, concrete and asphalt rubble  Potential for impacted soil  Disposal of residual fuel  Disposal of sludge 21
GENERAL UST PROJECT REQUIREMENTS 1  Project Familiarization Site Reconnaissance The project supervisor must examine the si...
Diagram not to scale, for illustration purposes only Project drawings for new to industry sites and old drawings of existing sites often do not portray the reality of what is on the site or what was placed underground. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
Diagram not to scale, for illustration purposes only  Project drawings for new to industry sites and old drawings of exist...
2) Obtain Utility Locates It is essential that utilities in the work area be identified and located. This may involve locates by local utilities or their sub-contracted locating service, and/or locates by a private locating contractor. The petroleum contractor may decide to own/rent and operate his own utilities locating equipment. All utility locating work is carried out with the primary objective of preventing damage to essential services. The utilities involved include:       Natural gas Main electrical service Electrical lines to site fixtures Telephone - Cable - Water Storm and Sanitary services Traffic Signalization In many areas a one call number is available. After the first call, a contractor number is assigned for future calls to identify the contractor. All locates are only valid 30 days from the date that they are issued. It is illegal to dig without stakeouts. In a rural area, water and sewer systems present a unique challenge as these have traditionally been placed without as-built drawings or metallic tracing wires. Fibre optic communication cables also present a special challenge. 23
2  Obtain Utility Locates It is essential that utilities in the work area be identified and located. This may involve loca...
3) Hazard Evaluation The safety of site personnel and the general public must be paramount. Hazards to be evaluated include:  Heavy equipment operation ENSURE SITE SAFETY!  Lifting equipment operation  Toxic and flammable vapour emissions  Possibility of excavation collapse  High water table and excavation flooding  Tank stability (rolling, sudden uplift)  Working at heights The control of vapour emissions is an important factor that the liquid fuels contractor must address. Other hazards may need recognition and protective action or be under the control of others. CONTROL HAZARDOUS VAPOURS CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
3  Hazard Evaluation The safety of site personnel and the general public must be paramount. Hazards to be evaluated includ...
4) Site Safety Meeting Before any on-site work starts, a safety meeting with all workers should be held. Safe Work Permits are to be reviewed and signed off by all. A site communication system may be required. Establish an emergency alarm and response plan. Daily „lunch box‟ safety meetings should be held during the project. 5) PPE - Personal Protective Equipment The personal protective equipment to be worn must be defined and its use is mandatory.      Hard Hat Safety Vest Approved Safety Boots Glasses Gloves Petroleum Oriented Safety Training (POST) Major oil companies require all personnel on a fenced construction site obtain POST certification. POST outlines the responsibilities of the Owners, Supervisors and Workers including required documentation and PPE. All relevant documentation required (i.e. JSA and checklists) is included in the program. Please refer to the POST chapter in this booklet for more information.. 25
4  Site Safety Meeting Before any on-site work starts, a safety meeting with all workers should be held. Safe Work Permits...
6) Site Control UST installation and removal invariably attracts “interested” observers. Unauthorized personnel and non-essential workers should be kept as far as practicable from construction operations. A barricaded perimeter of 15 metres (50 Feet) from the excavation is recommended as a minimum. Establish traffic control for equipment on-site and trucks moving on and off site. Designate a trained flag man for busy times of the project to direct construction traffic moving to and from the municipal street. A barricade such as fencing (as shown) should be installed around the perimeter of the jobsite. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
6  Site Control UST installation and removal invariably attracts    interested    observers. Unauthorized personnel and no...
7) Environmental Assessments According to regulation, most provincial regulators, the Ministry of the Environment and applicable municipalities must be notified of a tank removal and a qualified person (consultant) must submit a report. Qualified Person - The Professional Geoscientists Act 2004 clearly defines a qualified person to be either a Professional Geoscientist (P.Geo), a Professional Engineer (P.Eng), Chartered Chemist, Agrologist etc. It is recommended reputable consultants with knowledge in this specific industry are used. 8) Customer Notification It is recommended a Petroleum Contractor notify their customer in writing outlining their responsibilities with respect to environmental reporting. The contractor should retain a signed copy for their records. Although it is the owners responsibility to file the required reports to the authorities having jurisdiction, it is ultimately the PM‟s responsibility to report non-compliance. 27
7  Environmental Assessments According to regulation, most provincial regulators, the Ministry of the Environment and appl...
CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
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CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES    ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION  Version 3-2011
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK INSTALLATION TABLE OF CONTENTS UST INSTALLATION ............................................... 32 Planning the excavation ........................................ 32 Size the excavation ................................................ 34 UST Handling .......................................................... 36 UST Placement ....................................................... 38 Steel USTs............................................................... 40 Fibreglass USTs ..................................................... 40 Ballasting the UST.................................................. 42 Final Steps .............................................................. 43 31
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK INSTALLATION TABLE OF CONTENTS  UST INSTALLATION ............................................... ...
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK INSTALLATION 1) Planning the Excavation The type of soil to be removed from the tank excavation should be known before excavation begins. In most soil conditions, anything but mainly sand, a slope of 1:1 (45 degrees) for the sidewall higher than 4 feet (1.2 metres) off the bottom of the excavation is required. If in doubt, consult a Geotechnical Engineer. Recommended excavation and trench slopes Soil has a weight of 250 lbs per foot of depth. A trapped worker can be asphyxiated very quickly CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK INSTALLATION 1   Planning the Excavation  The type of soil to be removed from the tank excavation...
Planning the excavation In rural areas, check for drilled wells (15 metres from USTs) and dug wells (30 metres from USTs) Excavations should be 1.5 metres (5 feet) from any building foundation wall unless a technical review has been done on the foundation and the soil. Plan the entry and exit of workers in the excavation. A means of exit must be available every 7.5 metres (25 feet). Be prepared to dewater the excavation, both from the effect of the local water table and from rain that may accumulate during the project. Appropriate steps must be taken to ensure the water is disposed of properly. Water will have the effect of undermining the side wall and causing the soil to cave in. On some sites, shoring may be required. 33
Planning the excavation In rural areas, check for drilled wells  15 metres from USTs  and dug wells  30 metres from USTs  ...
2) Size the Excavation USTs must be at least  1 metre (3 feet) from a building; however, the load carried by the building foundation cannot be transmitted to the tank;  1.5 metres (5 feet) from a property line;  Conforming to transportation authority setbacks for Highways, Provincial Roads etc. and;  Spaced 0.6 metres (2 feet) apart in the excavation.  15 metres (49 feet) from a drilled water well  30 metres (98 feet) from a dug water well or waterway No building load can be transmitted to the UST In the excavation, provide at least 0.6 metre (2 feet) space at the ends and sides of the outermost tanks for ease of compaction of the backfill. A minimum depth from grade to the top of the UST of 1.2 metres (4 feet) is normal for proper installation of tank sumps. The maximum depth of backfill including the concrete cover over a UST is,  2.1 metres (7 feet) for a fibreglass tank  1.5 metres (5 feet) for a steel tank. If installing fibreglass USTs  Line the excavation with filter cloth (geotextile fabric). CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
2  Size the Excavation USTs must be at least      1 metre  3 feet  from a building  however, the load carried by the build...
Size the excavation There must be 0.3 meters (1 foot) of the bedding material recommended by the manufacturer in the bottom of the excavation. If the bottom of the excavation is a concrete pad, used instead of dead man anchors, a lift of 150 mm (6 inches) of bedding material must be used – USTs are never installed directly on a concrete pad. The bottom of the excavation must be level to ensure that the electronic monitoring equipment used in the UST will function properly. If a UST is being added to an existing installation, place it far enough away from the existing tank to ensure it is not disturbed. Bracing may be needed to stabilize the existing tank. 35
Size the excavation There must be 0.3 meters  1 foot  of the bedding material recommended by the manufacturer in the botto...
3) UST Handling Inspect the UST for damage to the external shell. Check the manufacturer‟s installation directions for details. For fibreglass USTs look for fractures, de-laminations, gouges more than 1/8 inch into the surface, stress cracks. Perform a visual inspection If the interstitial space was under of the tank vacuum from the factory, ensure the gauge still shows the correct vacuum reading acceptable in the manufacturers instructions. Equipment must be suitable to lift, move and lower the UST without dragging. In general, excavators and backhoes are not stable enough to lift, rotate and move USTs and should not be used. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
3  UST Handling Inspect the UST for damage to the external shell. Check the manufacturer   s installation directions for d...
UST Handling Lift the UST with the lifting lugs.  The angle between the vertical and the one side of the chain or cable to a lifting lug should not exceed 30 degrees; If the UST is dropped, dragged or rolled it must be inspected, tested and approved for use!  A s pr eader bar should be used for large tanks to achieve this angle;  New USTs are never to be lifted with slings, cables or chains around the tank – this will damage the outer shell;  Use tag/guidelines to prevent the UST from swinging. Ensure that the lifting equipment operator and his workers are trained and have an established set of hand signals for communication If the tank is to be stored on-site before installation in the excavation, it should be placed on the bedding material recommended by the manufacturer and wooden blocks used to prevent it from rolling. Proper use of sling using lifting lugs 37
UST Handling Lift the UST with the lifting lugs.      The angle between the vertical and the one side of the chain or cabl...
4) UST Placement Remove the temporary plugs and thread protectors and replace with metal plugs. Verify the vacuum reading of the interstitial space as per the manufacturer‟s instructions. For a UST with a brine filled interstitial space, look for leaks or loss of brine level. Place the dead man anchors in the excavation as per manufacturer‟s instructions if required. Slowly lower the UST into place ensuring it does not hit the dead man anchors. The USTs are being lifted with the lifting lugs and tag/guidelines are being used. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
4  UST Placement Remove the temporary plugs and thread protectors and replace with metal plugs. Verify the vacuum reading ...
UST Placement The tank has to be checked to verify that it is level. The worker who gets on the top of the tank to do the work must wear a harness and safety line. For fibreglass tanks, record a tank deflection measurement at a minimum of one location on each tank. Install the dead man anchor straps, ensuring that they are in the proper channel on the UST. Do not over tighten, follow manufacturer‟s instructions. For steel tanks, padding is provided (50 mm [2”] wider than the hold-down straps) to protect the tank. For fibreglass tanks, after tightening the anchor straps, record a second tank deflection measurement. If excessive deflection is found (more than 1 cm [3/8”] of the first reading) adjust the anchor straps to reduce the deflection to within the 1 cm tolerance. Note: If using steel anchor straps, ensure they are protected from corrosion. Installing the anchor straps Diagrams are for demonstration purposes only, proper safety equipment must be worn and used (i.e. fall protection, confined space) 39
UST Placement The tank has to be checked to verify that it is level. The worker who gets on the top of the tank to do the ...
UST Placement It is critical that the lower quarter of the UST be firmly supported. The approved backfill must be put in place manually by shoveling and tamping. For Steel USTs   The approved backfill is screened sand; For sand backfill, place in 30 cm (12 “) lifts equally on opposite sides of the USTs so they do not shift, push under tank and end caps filling all voids and compact each lift. For Fibreglass USTs     The approved backfill is washed pea gravel (1/8“ to ¾”) or crushed gravel (1/8” to ½”); Place backfill in 30 cm (12 “) lifts and push into place between ribs and under end caps eliminating all voids; Place backfill evenly on opposite sides of the USTs so they do not shift; Hand tamp as required with each backfill layer until at least halfway up the UST wall. Worker starting to hand tamp the backfill under the FRP USTs. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
UST Placement It is critical that the lower quarter of the UST be firmly supported. The approved backfill must be put in p...
UST Placement When workers are in the excavation placing the backfill, this may be considered a confined space requiring the appropriate permit, harness, life line and atmospheric testing. Method of egress, stand-by worker, safe work permit procedure, emergency response procedure etc. must be in place. Backfill to the top of tank before installing fittings. Workers must be careful not to damage the exterior shell of the UST while placing backfill. Continue to backfill to the top of the tank, leaving the bungs and fittings exposed. For fibreglass tanks, record a third tank deflection measurement. Calculate the difference between the first and third deflection measurement. Refer to the manufacturer‟s installation procedure for the allowable deflection for the UST model used. If excess deflection is found, contact the manufacturer. Third deflection measurement 41
UST Placement When workers are in the excavation placing the backfill, this may be considered a confined space requiring t...
5) Ballasting the UST Ballast, either water or product, can not be added until the backfill is past the midline of the tank. Then it can be added to the level of the backfill only. When the UST is backfilled to the top of the tank, ballast must be added if there is danger of groundwater or rainwater. The dead man anchors are designed to work in conjunction with the weight of the product, the compacted fill over the tank and the asphalt/concrete cover. They will not hold an empty tank with no cover against a full buoyant force. If the ballast is product:  A temporary vent, [3.5 m (12 feet) of 50mm (2 in) pipe], and quick connect fill point must be installed on the tank;  Monitor the product volume to ensure the tank is not overfilled;  Monitor the product vapours; they may be collecting in the excavation at the top of the UST;  No one is to be in the excavation while a product ballast load is being transferred. If the product delivery driver has to „double hose‟ to get the product to the tank, monitor the hose connection for leaks. The driver may need assistance in emptying the product from the hoses at the end of the delivery. Anchor straps are not to be re-tightened after ballast is put in the UST. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
5  Ballasting the UST Ballast, either water or product, can not be added until the backfill is past the midline of the tan...
6) Final Steps Leak test the tank and interstitial space. Place all sumps, fittings, product and vent piping, electrical, instrumentation etc. and leak test as required. Leak Test Cover the USTs with a 45 cm (18”) lift of approved backfill material, cover with filter cloth, and continue to backfill to grade with approved and compacted secondary backfill. A site with geotextile fabric liner, backfilled to the top of the tanks, ready for piping and electrical. Note the white plastic inspection wells (piezometers) in the centre foreground and background. 43
6  Final Steps Leak test the tank and interstitial space. Place all sumps, fittings, product and vent piping, electrical, ...
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CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
CPCA Recommended Practices    Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association  Version 3-2011
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK REMOVAL TABLE OF CONTENTS VAPOUR MANAGEMENT..........................................48 Tank Purging Procedures..............................51 WASTE MANAGEMENT............................................53 UST REMOVAL..........................................................55 BACKFILLING............................................................65 SCRAPPING TANKS.................................................66 47
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK REMOVAL TABLE OF CONTENTS  VAPOUR MANAGEMENT..........................................48 Tank Pur...
1) VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Flammable vapours can be removed from the UST by either purging or inerting. A) PURGING Purging is the removal of petroleum vapours from the UST internal atmosphere by using an eductor to draw air through the tank or a blower to force air through the tank. When purging, the internal pressure of the UST must be below a pressure of 5 psig and above a vacuum of 1 psig. During this procedure, the vapour space will go through the explosive range (1.4 – 7.6 vol % petroleum vapours in air). The contractor must control sources of ignition and ensure all air moving equipment is bonded and grounded with the UST. This action removes the ignition side of the fire triangle. B) INERTING Inerting is the removal of oxygen (O2) from the UST internal atmosphere, and some of the petroleum vapours, by introducing dry ice (CO 2) [1 kg/500 litres or 1.7 lbs/100 usg capacity] or liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) from a siphon cylinder into the tank. This action removes the oxygen side of the fuel triangle. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
1  VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Flammable vapours can be removed from the UST by either purging or inerting.  A   PURGING Purging is ...
Purging a UST using a forced air system Oklahoma Corporation Commission Petroleum Storage Tank Division UST Removal Guidebook July 2004 VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Tank Purging 49
Purging a UST using a forced air system Oklahoma Corporation Commission Petroleum Storage Tank Division UST Removal Guideb...
VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Tank Purging Purging a UST using an eductor type air mover Oklahoma Corporation Commission Petroleum Storage Tank Division UST Removal Guidebook July 2004 © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011 CPCA Recommended Practices
VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Tank Purging  Purging a UST using an eductor type air mover Oklahoma Corporation Commission Petroleum St...
VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Tank Purging Procedures Dry Ice method - 1 kg per 500 litres or 1.7 lbs per 100 USg of tank storage capacity. The dry ice should be crushed and distributed, as much as possible, evenly over the greatest possible area of the tank’s interior. As the dry ice vapourizes, generating carbon dioxide, the flammable vapours will flow out of the tank. Note: Once the dry ice is gone, the vapours can return. It is important to continue to monitor the tank atmosphere until the tank is destroyed. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) method - is an alternative to dry ice, by introducing liquid Carbon Dioxide which is available in siphon cylinders. This is done by extending a hose from a cylinder filled with compressed carbon dioxide to the UST, and then releasing the carbon dioxide directly into the bottom of the tank. Care must be exercised to prevent build-up of any static charge. All components must be bonded and the gas introduced slowly to reduce static. You should use one cylinder of carbon dioxide per 320 cubic feet (9.06 cubic metres) of tank or three cylinders of carbon dioxide per 5,500 gallon (25,000 litres) tank. Once the tank has been purged, the tank interior should be tested with an oxygen analyzer. The oxygen analyzer will give a reading of % oxygen per volume. For a safe condition, the reading should be less then 7% (note: that the LEL reading on the combustible analyzer is not accurate when O2 is less than 15%). Positive ventilation using an air eductor is another method of purging flammable vapours from a tank. Once the tank has been purged, the tank interior should be tested with a combustion analyzer. After turning off the air, wait 15 minutes to allow vapours to settle, test from top to the bottom of the UST for LEL levels of less than 10%. 51
VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Tank Purging Procedures Dry Ice method - 1 kg per 500 litres or 1.7 lbs per 100 USg of tank storage capa...
VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Toxic and flammable vapours may be released from several sources during tank removal:     During transfer of fuel from the tank; During disconnection and draining of piping; During purging/inerting operations; From exposure of contaminated soil The supervisor should initiate the following actions to reduce vapour exposure:  Minimize the number of people on site during operations which may release vapours  Determine from prior studies if contaminated soils may cause vapour issues  Plan timely removal of contaminated soil from the site. This will involve ensuring that the required regulatory protocols have been observed such as soils analysis and Regulation 558/Leachate testing.  Remove all liquid and sludge from the tanks prior to purging/inerting  Purge/inert the tanks prior to excavation  Purge/inert the tanks during off hours and/or during windy weather  Monitor downwind for buildup of flammable vapours  Communicate vapour issues, primarily odour, with local authorities and neighbours. This will reduce or eliminate delays caused by complaints from neighbours. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Toxic and flammable vapours may be released from several sources during tank removal                   D...
2) WASTE MANAGEMENT Impacted soil and water may be encountered. The supervisor should have contingency plans in place to deal with these issues. Ideally there will have been prior studies of the soil conditions on the site. If these have indicated that contamination exists, the required regulatory protocols should be in place such as that impacted soil and water can be removed from the site as it is encountered. If soil conditions are unknown arrangements must be in place to carry out the necessary testing to permit proper disposal. A) Residual Fuel and Sludge  Ensure selected hauler has appropriate M.O.E. Certificate of Authorization (C of A) for a waste management system (transportation)  Dip tank prior to removal and record volume  Ensure that transport vehicle has sufficient capacity  Bond transport vehicle to tank  Ensure the vacuum truck vent discharges downwind of the motor air intake  Remove drop tube from tank  Ensure the metal end of the vacuum truck hose is bonded or the hose has an internal conductivity wire  Pump or vacuum out residual fuel  Dip tank after pumping and record any residual  Record total volume removed 53
2  WASTE MANAGEMENT Impacted soil and water may be encountered. The supervisor should have contingency plans in place to d...
B) Contaminated Water  Determine if ground water or tank nest water will be encountered  Determine if this water is impacted  Have disposal arrangements been made?  Vacuum truck  On site storage  On site treatment/ disposal C) Contaminated Soil  Determine if soil testing has been carried out and determined whether contaminated soil will be encountered  If contaminated soil is confirmed, have disposal arrangements been made. This has the potential to cause delays and create site security issues  Quantity for disposal  Have Leachate tests (Regulation 558) been carried out?  Environmental consultant in place  Excavation  Loading  Trucking by a MOE licensed hauler  Sampling  Backfilling requirements CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
B  Contaminated Water      Determine if ground water or tank nest water will be encountered       Determine if this water ...
3) REMOVAL Disconnect impressed current cathodic protection from steel USTs 24 hours prior to purging/inerting Assess groundwater/tank nest water to determine if tank uplift pressure will exist  Arrange for dewatering if necessary and disposal of water if contaminated Carefully remove materials with an excavator to the top of the tank  Separate concrete and asphalt for disposal and/ or possible recycling  Remove spill boxes, manholes, risers, STP’s etc  Some equipment may be recovered for salvage 55
3  REMOVAL Disconnect impressed current cathodic protection from steel USTs 24 hours prior to purging inerting Assess grou...
REMOVAL Drain and disconnect piping. Take note that older suction systems have in-tank check valves (foot valves) which hold fuel in the piping requiring containment at the drain point. Most systems can be drained by removing check valves above the tank. Test area above the tank for petroleum vapours. Vapour levels above 10% LEL (1400 ppm) should be considered hazardous. The area should be ventilated and/or the use of respirators required. Note: chemical masks with the appropriate cartridges should only be used when the petroleum vapour level is less than 500 ppm. Regular and/or continuous monitoring of petroleum vapours during the entire tank removal process is recommended. Using non-sparking tools, open tank top connections in at least two locations as far apart as possible Ensure bonding of the pump or vacuum truck, lines and UST is in place  Remove residual liquid and sludge using pumps and/or vacuum truck as appropriate depending on quantities and tank orientation Inert the tank using solid or liquid Carbon Dioxide (solid is called dry ice, while liquid is available in siphon cylinders) or purge the tank using an air eductor or a forced air system. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
REMOVAL Drain and disconnect piping. Take note that older suction systems have in-tank check valves  foot valves  which ho...
REMOVAL Inerting the UST with CO2. Note the temporary vent. Test the tank and excavation for vapours  If inerting with CO2, test for O2 levels of less than 7%. Note; the LEL reading on the combustible analyzer is not accurate when O2 is less than 15%.  If LEL testing is required, use a Dräger® type tester with a hydrocarbon cartridge.  If purging with air, turn off the air moving device then, after 15 minutes to allow vapours to settle, test from the top to the bottom of the UST for LEL levels of less than 10%. 57
REMOVAL  Inerting the UST with CO2. Note the temporary vent.  Test the tank and excavation for vapours      If inerting wi...
REMOVAL Educting air through the UST with a Coppus eductor. Note bonding wires in place. Note: The contractor may opt to make the tank unfit for use at this time by puncturing with excavating equipment. Alternatively, holes may be cut using non-sparking tools such as reciprocating saws or a nibbler. Cutting oil must be applied to cool the cutting surface.  Fibreglass tanks must be punctured in the end caps only  Steel tanks must be punctured away from lifting lugs These precautions are necessary to retain tank structural integrity for lifting. Punctures should be approximately 0.4m2 or 4 ft2 CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
REMOVAL  Educting air through the UST with a Coppus eductor. Note bonding wires in place.  Note  The contractor may opt to...
REMOVAL Confirm visually that all residuals have been removed from the tank bottom. Continue excavating along one side and both ends of the tank. The excavator bucket is scrapping and gouging the tank. Sparks could ignite flammable vapours. All personnel should be clear of the tanks and excavation as vapours in the excavation could ignite due to contact of excavator bucket or arm with the tank or a stone. In case of a fire, It is a good idea to keep a few bucket loads of clean backfill on hand which can be dumped on the fire to help extinguish it. 59
REMOVAL Confirm visually that all residuals have been removed from the tank bottom. Continue excavating along one side and...
REMOVAL Ensure that the lifting equipment  Has adequate lifting capacity  Can reach the tank  Is on a stable base In general, excavators and backhoes are not stable enough to lift, rotate and move USTs and should not be used. Attach rigging to the tank including tag/guidelines  Workers must wear a safety harness and life line when on top of the UST to install rigging  If only one tank is being removed, provide adequate support to the remaining USTs so that they do not roll into the excavated space CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
REMOVAL Ensure that the lifting equipment      Has adequate lifting capacity       Can reach the tank       Is on a stable...
REMOVAL Ensure that  All non-essential personnel vacate the area and essential workers are clear and handling the tag lines  Ensure the lift equipment operator and his assistant are trained in the hand signals required to execute the lift Lift the tank from the excavation  It may be necessary to pull the tank toward the open side of the excavation in order to release it using a rocking motion 61
REMOVAL Ensure that      All non-essential personnel vacate the area and essential workers are clear and handling the tag ...
REMOVAL Lift, do not drag, the UST  Ideally the tank should be placed directly onto the transport vehicle but may be placed on the ground adjacent to the excavation and wooden blocks used to prevent rolling until the vehicle arrives Inspect the transport vehicle  Hold-downs should be fabric, not wire or chain, check for tears etc,  The vehicle must be properly licensed  The vehicle should extinguisher on board  Ensure that completed have transportation  a 20-BC fire documents are x Hold-downs should be fabric as shown on the left and not worn or torn as shown on the right CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
REMOVAL Lift, do not drag, the UST      Ideally the tank should be placed directly onto the transport vehicle but may be p...
Properly sized truck with fabric hold down straps Wooden blocks to stabilize UST on the truck 63
Properly sized truck with fabric hold down straps  Wooden blocks to stabilize UST on the truck 63
REMOVAL Tanks not cut open on site must have an opening to prevent a vacuum or over pressure caused by temperature changes. Once the tank is out of the ground  Confirm and note the tank condition    Perforated Poor Good  Confirm that it is empty or amount of product remaining  Note the tank identification if readable (ULC#, Serial # and Manufacturer) and record in the job file or note that the tank had no tag or the tag was illegible  Remove any remaining tank fittings (fill pipe, extractor valves, elbows) Transportation documentation must as a minimum include a load reconciliation report and may require shipment as dangerous goods if high petroleum vapour readings persist. Always assume that a UST is hazardous even though it is empty, previously purged or inerted and previously tested. Flammable vapours will continue to accumulate from the UST wall and remaining sludge. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
REMOVAL Tanks not cut open on site must have an opening to prevent a vacuum or over pressure caused by temperature changes...
4) BACKFILLING The excavation will be sampled by a qualified environmental consultant. Sampling using the excavating equipment may be required. Entry into the excavation may be a confined space entry. The side walls of the excavation must be sloped for stability. The consultant may require that the excavation be left open awaiting laboratory confirmation. It will be necessary to barricade the site to prevent unauthorized access. This may involve creation of temporary fencing. “Snow” fence and T posts may not provide sufficient protection to minimize liability. Each site must be assessed and secured prior to leaving an open excavation. Once approval from the consultant is received the excavation may be filled with approved material. Compaction levels may be specified but should be carried out in not more than 0.5m (18”) lifts. When an old UST is removed, the tank condition will vary with every site 65
4  BACKFILLING The excavation will be sampled by a qualified environmental consultant. Sampling using the excavating equip...
5) SCRAPPING OF TANKS Vapour test all tanks prior to working on them  Record vapour test unit used, date, time and tank information (Job # and Contents) If air purging was used, test for combustibles  When the vapour test reads less than 500ppm Hydrocarbon Vapours, the tank may be scrapped. Note: tanks registering below 500ppm may ignite but will not explode. The Lower Explosive Limit of gasoline vapours (100% LEL on a combustion analyzer) is generally accepted to be 14000ppm.  When the vapour test reads more than 500ppm Hydrocarbons Vapours:    the tank must be purged with air, or inerted with either solid CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide) dry ice or liquid from a siphon cylinder. Retest the tank vapours and repeat until a safe level is achieved. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
5  SCRAPPING OF TANKS Vapour test all tanks prior to working on them       Record vapour test unit used, date, time and ta...
SCRAPPING OF TANKS If inerting with CO2 was used, test for O2 level  When the O2 level is less than 7%. The tank may be scrapped. Note: the LEL readings on the combustibles analyzer will not be correct – 15% O2 is required for the analyzer to operate accurately.  When the O2 level is more than 5%, the tank must be inerted again.  Retest the tank atmosphere and repeat until a safe level is achieved. A) Method to Scrap Fibreglass Tanks  Fibreglass USTs, which have been purged, punctured, internally inspected and vapour tested may be crushed using the excavating equipment and placed in dumpster for landfill disposal.  Ensure that the landfill in question can receive this material under their permit. 67
SCRAPPING OF TANKS If inerting with CO2 was used, test for O2 level       When the O2 level is less than 7 . The tank may ...
SCRAPPING OF TANKS B) Method to Scrap Steel Tanks  The tank should be cut immediately after purging/ inerting. Otherwise the purging/inerting procedure must be repeated.  Flood all tanks with CO2 prior to cutting. A minimum of ten seconds of discharge from a CO2 siphon cylinder is required. This will flood any tank up to 10,000 gallons  Cut tank end for access (minimum 4ft2 (0.4m2) opening) clean out residual liquid, sludge and solid Properly cover, store or dispose of all material cleaned from tanks and all cleaning materials. Open top drums and pails must be labeled and have lids which are secured. Vapour test the tank prior to loading for transport to a scrap metal dealer for recycling. At all times safety requirements must be observed Personal Protective Equipment       Hard Hat Safety Vest Approved Safety Boots Glasses Gloves Fire extinguisher of at least 20 BC rating on hand CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
SCRAPPING OF TANKS B  Method to Scrap Steel Tanks       The tank should be cut immediately after purging  inerting. Otherw...
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CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES    ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION  Version 3-2011
UNDERGROUND PIPING & FITTINGS TABLE OF CONTENTS SUCTION SYSTEMS............................................ 72 PRESSURE SYSTEMS ........................................ 74 GENERAL PIPING REQUIREMENTS ................. 75 PIPING INSTALLATION - OVERVIEW ................ 76 Service Station Layout ....................................... 77 Pressure Systems ............................................... 78 Suction Systems ................................................. 78 Entry Boots .......................................................... 80 Vent Lines ............................................................ 80 PIPING INSTALLATION - AT THE UST .............. 81 Siphon Lines........................................................ 81 Risers ................................................................... 82 Fill Positions ........................................................ 84 Vents .................................................................... 85 Product Piping at a Sump .................................. 88 PIPING INSTALLATION FROM THE UST TO THE DISPENSERS ........................ 89 Product Piping .................................................... 89 Shear valves ........................................................ 91 Product Piping in the dispenser sump ............. 92 Specialty transition sumps ................................ 93 PRESSURE TESTING PIPING & FITTINGS ....... 94 BACKFILLING .................................................... 102 71
UNDERGROUND PIPING   FITTINGS TABLE OF CONTENTS SUCTION SYSTEMS............................................ 72 PRESSURE SY...
Underground Piping & Fittings This procedure outlines the operations required for installation of piping and fittings for new and rebuilt sites. This manual does not provide either step by step actions for every installation or specific instruction for all makes of piping. Every user of this manual must ensure that specific procedures are developed for each project and manufacturer’s instructions are followed. All equipment and material must be ULC, cUL or CSA approved. There are two types of product transfer systems to deliver product from the underground storage tank (UST) to the vehicle fuel tank; Suction System or Pressure System. SUCTION SYSTEM For each product, there is a pump in the dispensing cabinet, driven by an electric motor and belt assembly with a dedicated suction line from a UST. For existing installations using single wall suction piping from the UST, there must be a check valve under the pump with a test port (a double poppetted shear valve with built-in check valve is recommended) and no other check valve can be installed in the suction line. For double wall suction piping, the check valve can be at the top of the UST in a monitored sump. A shear valve should be installed under the pump for safety reasons and to prevent damage to the piping in case the pump undergoes an impact. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
Underground Piping   Fittings This procedure outlines the operations required for installation of piping and fittings for ...
73 Typical Suction System
73  Typical Suction System
PRESSURE SYSTEM For each product there is a submersible turbine pump (STP) in a sump at the UST. A single line from the STP delivers product to the dispensers. A shear valve must be installed in each line at the dispenser. For existing installations using single wall piping, a mechanical leak detector must be installed on the STP and upgraded with electronic line leak detection. The leak detector must be checked once per year by a qualified contractor. For double wall piping systems, a leak detection system must be in place. (See Leak and Spill Prevention Section of this manual) CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
PRESSURE SYSTEM For each product there is a submersible turbine pump  STP  in a sump at the UST. A single line from the ST...
GENERAL PIPING PROJECT REQUIREMENTS Contractor’s employees performing this work must hold a PM2 certificate and be trained by the manufacturer to install the piping. All new and rebuilt sites require; For underground product lines:  Double wall flexible pipe and double wall fiberglass reinforced pipe (FRP) that meets ULC/ORD 971C.  Backfill for pipe runs is to be placed in filter cloth (Geotextile fabric) to prevent migration of native soils into the backfill material. For underground lines such as;  Vent lines, risers for; fills, Stage I Vapour Recovery and instrumentation, single wall piping is allowed.  For remote underground fills, double wall piping is required. Single wall piping is allowed when running vent lines 75
GENERAL PIPING PROJECT REQUIREMENTS Contractor   s employees performing this work must hold a PM2 certificate and be train...
All product lines must slope to a sump monitored to detect leaks. (Refer to Leak & Spill Prevention section of this manual). All mechanical product pipe connections must be in a sump monitored to detect leaks. Risers coming directly to grade from the UST e.g. fill pipes, Stage I Vapour Recovery, do not need to be in sumps. All vent lines must slope back to the underground tank and have no low spots. PIPING INSTALLATION - OVERVIEW After the USTs are backfilled to the top of the tank, and the positions of the dispenser sumps are established, the piping installation can be laid out. Sumps are mounted on the USTs either as a  submersible turbine pump enclosure  an enclosure for a siphon line For a suction system  as an enclosure for the tank end termination of the double wall (secondary) portion of the product flexible pipe. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
All product lines must slope to a sump monitored to detect leaks.  Refer to Leak   Spill Prevention section of this manual...
SIMPLIFIED VIEWS OF SERVICE STATION LAYOUTS 77
SIMPLIFIED VIEWS OF SERVICE STATION LAYOUTS 77
NEW OR REBUILT SITE For a new or rebuilt site, it is recommended to use the tank manufacturer’s sump or a matching sump from a petroleum equipment supplier that will be bonded onto the UST sump mounting ring. If no ring is available and the tank is fiberglass, the manufacturer can install a new one on the tank in the field. It is not recommended to use a retrofit that mounts to the tank bungs. If it is necessary (i.e. on an existing steel tank) to use a retrofit sump, use a minimum of 2 bungs to attach the sump to the UST. The example shown on the next page has attachments at 4 bungs. PRESSURE SYSTEMS For pressure systems, the underground flex piping will be installed for each product as an unbroken run from the STP in the UST sump to the first dispenser in the line. The flex pipe is continued through each dispenser sump to the last one in line. SUCTION SYSTEMS For suction systems, a single line of double wall flex pipe will be used from the UST to the suction of each pump. The line should connect from a seeney valve at the tank and there should be a shear valve at the pump. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
NEW OR REBUILT SITE For a new or rebuilt site, it is recommended to use the tank manufacturer   s sump or a matching sump ...
79 If it is necessary to use a retrofit sump, use a minimum of 2 bungs to attach the sump to the UST. The example shown above has attachments at 4 bungs.
79  If it is necessary to use a retrofit sump, use a minimum of 2 bungs to attach the sump to the UST. The example shown a...
ENTRY BOOTS Entry boots are used to ensure a liquid tight seal between the double wall pipe, or duct if used, and sumps. Entry boots on a tank sump Entry boots are also required for all electrical connections to the sump. Use the proper seal connections for the type of conduit or tech cable used for the electrical runs. Entry boots on a dispenser sump VENT LINES Single wall vent lines (yellow coloured in the photo below) are installed from each UST to the vent rack position. Vent lines are single wall and can be flexible hose or FRP to meet ULC/ORD 971C. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
ENTRY BOOTS Entry boots are used to ensure a liquid tight seal between the double wall pipe, or duct if used, and sumps.  ...
PIPING INSTALLATION – AT THE UST 1) Siphon Lines  To siphon two or more tanks together, suction stubs are placed in the bungs and cut to give 150 mm (6 inch) clearance from the bottom of the tank.  The siphon line between the tanks is recommended to be double wall and can be either FRP or flex pipe.  The siphon line is to be sloped from the donor tank up to the STP sump on the receiving tank.  The siphon line must be supported during backfilling to ensure that there are no sags or low points. Two USTs siphoned together. NOTE: Sumps are from the UST manufacturer and bonded to the tank mounting ring.  Remove duct tape from sump joint after resin is cured and prior to hydrostatic testing of sump 81
PIPING INSTALLATION     AT THE UST 1  Siphon Lines      To siphon two or more tanks together, suction stubs are placed in ...
Siphon piping, FRP (entering from 4 and 9 o’clock position) transitioned to steel. Copper air extraction line from the STP not yet installed. NOTE: Sump is a retrofit. 2) Risers Risers for fills, Stage I Vapour recovery and UST electronic monitoring devices are typically 100 mm (4 inch) diameter single wall steel pipe protected by Denzo® tape and paste and/or a mastic coating (see photo on next page). Note the 4 x 4 x 3 x 2 vent extractor valve. The extractor valve is used for Stage I Vapour Recovery on gasoline USTs. Risers before being coated CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
Siphon piping, FRP  entering from 4 and 9 o   clock position  transitioned to steel. Copper air extraction line from the S...
Risers continued Diesel or Fuel Oil For diesel or fuel oil USTs a riser and extractor valve are not necessary but should be installed if there is any future need to test the UST separately from the vent line. Vent lines can not enter the UST more than 25 mm (1 inch). 83
Risers continued Diesel or Fuel Oil For diesel or fuel oil USTs a riser and extractor valve are not necessary but should b...
3) Fill Positions Product fill positions must have a spill containment box, a vapour tight closure, a drop tube that has a 45o angle at the bottom with at least 150 mm (6 inch) clearance from the bottom of the UST and an overfill prevention valve. Aboveground spill containers are not approved for UST installations For below grade spill containment boxes with hatches, the hatch must open away from the delivery truck position to allow the elbow and delivery hose to be positioned properly from the truck. For below grade spill containment boxes, there must be a 50 mm (2 inch) minimum clearance between the top of the hatch or cap and the bottom of the manhole cover so no force can be transmitted to the tank by traffic passing over the manhole cover. The collar on the fill riser pipe must be no deeper than 200 mm (8 inches) from the finished surface of the concrete slab to permit the delivery elbow to connect properly. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
3   Fill Positions  Product fill positions must have a spill containment box, a vapour tight closure, a drop tube that has...
4) Vents Vent lines:  Can be single wall and made of either flex pipe or FRP [recommended for runs over 15 m to ensure proper slope to the tank];  Are recommended for every UST product compartment. This will ensure that Class I (gasoline) and Class II (diesel) vapours are always separated regardless of potential future UST compartment product switches (i.e. don’t manifold vents);  Must have a minimum depth of bury of 450 mm. (18 inches);  Must have a minimum 1% slope back from the vents to the UST;  Must be supported and protected from vehicle impact;  A gasoline vent must be 6 m (20 feet) from a dispenser;  Gasoline tanks at sites that dispense over 1 million litres per year must be equipped with a Vapour recovery fitting if the site is in the Stage I Vapour Recovery area of Southern Ontario. For FRP vent lines; Use a minimum 1.2 m (4 foot) dog leg connection at the UST. 85
4   Vents  Vent lines       Can be single wall and made of either flex pipe or FRP  recommended for runs over 15 m to ensu...
No flexible connector should be used when the vent piping goes from horizontal to vertical and transitions to steel at the vent rack position. A two elbow swing joint is recommended where FRP or steel piping is used to ensure a proper slope from the vent to the UST. (see the line on the right in the photo) CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
No flexible connector should be used when the vent piping goes from horizontal to vertical and transitions to steel at the...
Electrical Code classifications around gasoline vents. Perimeter lighting, air compressors for tire inflation, any equipment with a sparking motor must be installed a minimum of 1.5 m (5 feet) away from the vent. 87
Electrical Code classifications around gasoline vents. Perimeter lighting, air compressors for tire inflation, any equipme...
5) Product Piping at a Sump All piping and conduits must enter the sump through a liquid tight boot. Each manufacturer has their own design. Do not mix pipe and sump boot fittings From different manufacturers! CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
5  Product Piping at a Sump  All piping and conduits must enter the sump through a liquid tight boot. Each manufacturer ha...
PIPING INSTALLATION FROM THE UST TO THE DISPENSERS 1) Product Piping  Must be of double wall construction and if flex pipe must meet ULC/ORD 971C;  Must slope to a sump;  When bending the pipe, must not exceed the manufacturer’s specified bend radius;  Backfill for pipe runs is to be placed in filter cloth (Geotextile fabric) to prevent migration of native soils into the backfill material. 89
PIPING INSTALLATION FROM THE UST TO THE DISPENSERS 1  Product Piping      Must be of double wall construction and if flex ...
Product Piping continued  All mechanical connections must be inside a sump;  All sumps must be monitored for leaks;  After the pressure test is completed, THE TEMPORARY TEST BOOTS ON THE SECONDARY SPACE OF THE DOUBLE WALL PIPE MUST BE OPENED SO THAT ANY FUTURE LEAKAGE WILL DISCHARGE INTO THE SUMP;  Must have a minimum depth of bury of 450 mm (18 inches). All mechanical connections must be inside a sump CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
Product Piping continued      All mechanical connections must be inside a sump        All sumps must be monitored for leak...
Shear Valves Shear valves with double poppets are to be installed under all dispensers in both suction and pressure systems. The shear plane of the shear valve is to be installed within 25 mm (1 inch) of the top of the island Low Profile Shear Point Main Poppet Seat Patented Thermal Relief Valve Air Test Port Secondary Poppet Fusible Link Nickel-Plated, Teflon-Coated Main Stem Combination Body Main Poppet 91
Shear Valves Shear valves with double poppets are to be installed under all dispensers in both suction and pressure system...
2) Product Piping in the Dispenser Sump  All product connections, pipe and fittings, must be from the same manufacturer;  Special equipment supplied by the manufacturer must be used to make the joints when fitting metal connectors to double wall flex pipe;  When flex connectors are used as a riser in a dispenser sump, always offset the ends to ensure movement (as shown below). Shear Valves Steel Riser Pipes Flex Connector Swivel Tee Fitting Swivel Elbow Fitting Swivel Pipe Coupling Connector Tube Connector Tube Primary Piping  The schematic above shows the temporary connections in place to pressure test the secondary pipe. Sumps around each riser are not shown;  All pipe and electrical conduit entries into the sump must be through liquid tight boots. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
2   Product Piping in the Dispenser Sump       All product connections, pipe and fittings, must be from the same manufactu...
3) Specialty Transition Sumps There are some occasions where a transition for product piping from underground double wall pipe to aboveground steel pipe is required. There are special sumps available for this installation. Durable Access Cover Non-Metallic Container Padlock Hasp Height Adjustable Base Sealed Entries Below Ground Burial Concrete Anchors Double Entry Boots 93
3  Specialty Transition Sumps There are some occasions where a transition for product piping from underground double wall ...
PRESSURE TESTING THE PIPE AND FITTINGS After all the double wall piping, mechanical fittings, vents and electrical conduits or tech cable are in place, the piping and the sumps must be tested to ensure all connections are liquid tight. The Contents of the piping shall be drained prior to conducting the pressure test. Hydraulic pressure testing may be done using water but can never be done using product. It is a standard practice to perform a pneumatic pressure test using nitrogen when testing petroleum installations. Air can be used as the test gas if the system has never contained product. The following procedures may be used if the volume of the piping that is being test is less than 1000 L; 882 m of 38 mm (1.5 in) diameter pipe, 503 m of 50 mm (2 in) diameter pipe, or 125 m of 100mm (4 in) diameter pipe. Pumps, dispensers, tanks, and any other auxiliary equipment that cannot withstand the pressure of the test shall be isolated from the piping.  Primary piping is to be tested at 420 kPa (60 psi) or 1.5 times the maximum operating pressure.  Secondary piping, vent lines and USTs are to be tested at 35 kPa (5 psi).  The pressure must stay steady in each system for a minimum of 2 hours (timing beginning after a stabilization period of up to 30 minutes after initial pressurization). All connections must be liquid tight! CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
PRESSURE TESTING THE PIPE AND FITTINGS After all the double wall piping, mechanical fittings, vents and electrical conduit...
 Sumps are to be filled with water to the top and visually inspected for leaks  Pressure gauges are to have increments no larger than 4 kPa (0.5 psi) Pressure test the primary piping before applying pressure to the UST/vent system to ensure that all product piping and fittings are in place and tight. If 35 kPa (5 psi) was put on the tank/vent system first and the primary piping was not complete, product would be forced from the tank – through the primary piping - to the open joint and a spill would occur. It is standard practice that once the pressure test is in place a soap solution test should be performed on all fittings and auxiliary equipment. Performing soap tests on the fittings 95
     Sumps are to be filled with water to the top and visually inspected for leaks       Pressure gauges are to have incre...
NOTE: Leave the 5 psi pressure on the secondary pipe and the vent lines until backfilling is complete. A loss of pressure will indicate damage to the double wall pipe or vent during placement of the backfill. Never apply pressure to an FRP UST secondary containment space until pressure is in the primary tank. When testing the tank and its secondary containment, apply 35 kPa (5 psi) to the UST then bleed the test gas from the tank into the secondary space. Continue to put test gas into the tank until the 35 kPa pressure is reached in both the product and secondary spaces. A pneumatic pressure test requires 30 minutes for the pressure to equilibrate throughout the system, particularly in the tank/vent portion, due to the large volume of gas and the relatively low pressure. Temperature also affects the pressure readings over time as the test gas will expand or contract as the temperature rises or falls during the test period. When water testing tank sumps, remove the duct tape from the outside of the tank ring/sump joint that contained the sealant used to bond the STP sump to the tank ring before filling the sump with water to the top. Visible water from the sumps will show if the boots and sump joint are liquid tight. It will also show any leaks in both the primary and secondary piping system connections within the sump with a stream of readily visible bubbles from the leaking joint when the piping is pressurized. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
NOTE  Leave the 5 psi pressure on the secondary pipe and the vent lines until backfilling is complete. A loss of pressure ...
If there is a loss of pressure from the tank/vent system: A soap solution test will have to be used on all fittings to determine a leak. Fittings to be tested include;  Un-used tank bung plugs;  Collars and caps on risers;  Stage I Vapour Recovery poppets and caps;  Threaded joints at the tank/riser connection;  Threaded joints at the riser/spill prevent or connection;  Temporary plugs at the vent and the test gas source connection. 97
If there is a loss of pressure from the tank vent system  A soap solution test will have to be used on all fittings to det...
Sources of leaks in the primary pipe system that are not under water in the sump and have to be soap tested are;  Temporary plugs on risers;  Threaded connections at shear valves;  Shear valve bodies and seals When any leaks are found and repaired, the pressure test must be restarted and the pressure held for 2 hours. All pressure readings and the time the system was under test is to be recorded on an appropriate form and kept in the project file. Keep the test on. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
Sources of leaks in the primary pipe system that are not under water in the sump and have to be soap tested are       Temp...
Testing of Bungs, Risers and Vents on Underground Double Wall Tanks Test should be applied for a minimum of 48 hours. The pressure test equipment that would be required is:  A calibrated digital manometer capable of reading pressures in 1/100;  A pressure relief valve set to open at a maximum of 35 kPa (5psi);  A pressure regulator set at the maximum test pressure;  A positive shut off valve located as close to the tank as possible Pressure Relief Shut off valve Pressure Regulator Pressure Gauge Air Supply Digital Manometer Double Wall Underground Tank 99
Testing of Bungs, Risers and Vents on Underground Double Wall Tanks Test should be applied for a minimum of 48 hours. The ...
Testing Procedures: After tank, piping and fittings have been installed and before completion of the backfilling process, install test piping and plug, cap and seal off remaining openings.  Close shut off valve;  Use air where the system has not been exposed to fuel, and inert gas where the system has been exposed to fuel;  Connect regulated air supply to test piping. Caution: Test the regulator to see that pressure is properly set before proceeding;  Slowly open the shutoff valve to pressurize the primary tank to 35 kPa (5 psi). When the test pressure is reached close the shutoff valve and disconnect the air supply;  The pressure must stay steady in each system for a minimum of 48 hours (timing beginning after a 30 minute stabilization period). Do not apply pressure to the interstitial space between the walls of a double wall tank without the same 35 kPa (5 psi) pressure on the primary of the tank and without consent from the manufacturer. Damage to the tank may result. Keep away from tank top and fittings when pressurizing tank. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
Testing Procedures  After tank, piping and fittings have been installed and before completion of the backfilling process, ...
Once the pressure test is in place a soap solution test should be performed on all fittings and auxiliary equipment.  Once the pressure is stabilized and after completing the soap test, the pressure shall be recorded and the remaining backfill operation may proceed.  The pressure shall remain on the system until the site is fully completed and through the commissioning stage. At no time during the process shall the pressure be topped up.  The pressure shall be monitored at the beginning and end of each shift and the pressure recorded on a work sheet.  The minimum test period shall not be less than 48 hours. Pass/Fail Criteria: A continuous loss of pressure or a decrease in pressure greater than 6.8 kPa (1.00 psi) is indicative of a problem and a Precision Leak Test approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be performed before placing the system in service. 101
Once the pressure test is in place a soap solution test should be performed on all fittings and auxiliary equipment.      ...
BACKFILLING When the pressure testing is completed and any required inspections (electrical or Fire Marshal) have taken place, the backfill can be placed. The excavation trench for piping runs should have been lined with filter cloth (geotextile fabric) before the pipe was laid. Approved backfill for FRP USTs, FRP pipe and flex double wall pipe is either   Washed pea gravel 3 mm - 18 mm (1/8 - ¾ inch size) or Crushed gravel 3 mm - 12 mm (1/8 - ½ inch size). A 150 mm (6 inch) layer of backfill should surround the pipe and be wrapped in the filter cloth. The FRP UST should be covered with 45 cm (18 inches) of approved backfill. For steel USTs the approved backfill is screened sand. CPCA RECOMMENED PRACTICES © ONTARIO PETROLEUM CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION Version 3-2011
BACKFILLING When the pressure testing is completed and any required inspections  electrical or Fire Marshal  have taken pl...
To ensure proper water drainage from the finished installation, cone pea gravel backfill to the top of all risers and all STP sumps. Complete the backfill with 150 mm (6 inch) lifts of ‘A’ gravel, and compact each lift to meet a 95% proctor density. At the UST, all risers and sumps should be covered by 300 mm (12 inch) deep manhole covers and lids. It is important that the bottom of the manhole lids be at least 50 mm (2 inches) from the bottom of the manhole cover to the top of the riser cap to ensure that no loads can be transmitted to the tank via the riser when vehicles pass over the manhole covers. The area above the USTs is to be covered by a 200 mm (8 inch) thick, 32 MPA C2 concrete slab. The concrete slab is to have 1 layer of re-enforcing wire mesh, 6 X 6 #6 wire placed mid slab. To prevent surface water from entering any sumps or fittings, particularly a surface mounted fill containment box, the surface of the concrete slab should be crowned up 50 mm (2 inch) around each manhole cover. 103
To ensure proper water drainage from the finished installation, cone pea gravel backfill to the top of all risers and all ...
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AST GENERAL REQUIREMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS AST PROJECTS .................................................. 108 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .............................. 109 Project Familiarization/ Site Reconnaissance ......................................... 109 Obtain Utility Locates ........................................ 110 Hazard Evaluation .............................................. 111 Site Safety ........................................................... 112 Site Control ......................................................... 112 107
AST GENERAL REQUIREMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS AST PROJECTS .................................................. 108 GENERAL REQ...
ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANK PROJECTS These procedures outline the operations required for installation, removal and decommissioning of ASTs. There are a number of scenarios that the contractor will face in AST projects;  new industry sites  addition to or replacement of existing ASTs  total replacement of all ASTs  site decommissioning This manual does not provide step by step action for every operation. Every user of this manual must ensure that specific procedures are developed for each project. The user must be knowledgeable in the maintenance, calibration, verification and use of atmospheric testing equipment (combustibles analyzer). This guide does not apply to aboveground fuel storage tanks constructed to CAN/ULC-602, “Standard for Aboveground Steel Tanks for Fuel Oil and Lubrication Oil”, or ULC/ORD C80.1, “Aboveground Non-Metallic Tanks for Fuel Oil”. These tanks must be installed in accordance with the CSA B139, “Installation Code for Oil Burning Equipment”, and any applicable local codes. Contractor’s employees performing this work should hold a PM3 Certificate CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANK PROJECTS These procedures outline the operations required for installation, removal and decommiss...
GENERAL AST PROJECT REQUIREMENTS 1) Project Familiarization/Site Reconnaissance The project supervisor must examine the site to document the site size and conditions prior to commencing work. This will identify specific hazards and obstructions, and may identify additional work requirements including:  Site and neighbourhood traffic – both vehicular and pedestrian  Overhead hazards – electric wires/canopies – equipment must kept be 3 metres (10 feet) away from power lines  Topography – a slope on, or at, the edge of the property that must be protected so that spilled product, soil or material will not be carried off-site  Nearby environmentally sensitive areas nearby  Area required for any operating equipment and truck movement  Area required for stockpiling of soil  Disposal of soil, concrete and asphalt rubble  Potential for impacted soil  Disposal of residual fuel  Disposal of sludge 109
GENERAL AST PROJECT REQUIREMENTS 1  Project Familiarization Site Reconnaissance The project supervisor must examine the si...
2) Obtain Utility Locates It is essential that utilities in the work area be identified and located. This may involve locates by local utilities or their sub-contracted locating service, and/or locates by a private locating contractor. The petroleum contractor may decide to own/rent and operate his own utilities locating equipment. All utility locating work is carried out with the primary objective of preventing damage to essential services. The utilities involved include:       Natural gas Main electrical service Electrical lines to site fixtures Telephone - Cable - Water Storm and Sanitary services Traffic Signalization In many areas a one call number is available. After the first call, a contractor number is assigned for future calls to identify the contractor. All locates are only valid 30 days from the date that they are issued. It is illegal to dig without stakeouts. In a rural area, water and sewer systems present a unique challenge as these have traditionally been placed without as-built drawings or metallic tracing wires. Fibre optic communications cables also present a special challenge. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
2  Obtain Utility Locates It is essential that utilities in the work area be identified and located. This may involve loca...
3) Hazard Evaluation The safety of workers and the general public must be paramount. Hazards to be evaluated include:  heavy equipment operation  lifting equipment operation  toxic and flammable vapour emissions  working at heights. CONTROL HAZARDOUS VAPOURS The control of vapour emissions is an important factor that the liquid fuels contractor must address. Other hazards may need recognition and protective action, or be under the control of others. 111
3  Hazard Evaluation The safety of workers and the general public must be paramount. Hazards to be evaluated include      ...
4) Site Safety Meeting Before any on-site work begins, a safety meeting with all workers should be held. Safe Work Permits are to be reviewed and signed off by all. PPE - Personal Protective Equipment The personal protective equipment to be worn must be defined and its use is mandatory.      Hard Hat Safety Vest Approved Safety Boots Glasses Gloves 5) Site Control AST installation and removal invariably attracts “interested” observers. Unauthorized personnel and non-essential workers should be kept as far as practical from construction operations. A barricaded perimeter of 15 metres (50 Feet) from the work area is recommended as a minimum. Establish traffic control for equipment on-site, and trucks moving on and off site. Designate a trained flag man for busy times of the project to direct construction traffic moving to and from the municipal street. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
4  Site Safety Meeting Before any on-site work begins, a safety meeting with all workers should be held. Safe Work Permits...
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ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANK INSTALLATION TABLE OF CONTENTS AST PROJECTS ............................................... 116 Bedding/Slabs ................................................. 117 Secondary Containment ................................. 118 AST Handling ................................................... 119 Vehicle Impact Protection .............................. 120 Venting ............................................................. 121 Openings other than Vents ............................ 121 Testing of Tanks .............................................. 122 115
ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANK INSTALLATION TABLE OF CONTENTS  AST PROJECTS ............................................... 116 ...
Aboveground Storage Tank Projects Regardless of location, proper installation and maintenance of the aboveground storage tanks is critical. All ASTs are at risk for movement, due to seasonal weather conditions that may cause ground shifts and frost heaves, especially if the new installations are placed on recently disturbed ground. Therefore, all ASTs installations should be installed on a prepared bedding surface (preferably concrete or well compacted gravel) with all organic materials, such as sod, removed. The site must be determined to have a load bearing soil matrix that is capable of withstanding the total combination weight of the tank and the stored liquid, plus 25% of the gross weight. ASTs should be properly supported to prevent it from shifting, settling, or falling over. In areas subject to flooding and/or high winds, consult the manufacturer of the tank for anchoring or stability bracket options and requirements. Unless otherwise approved, ASTs shall be at least:       1 metre (3’) from a building 3 metres (10’) from the property line 1 metre (3’) from an adjacent tank 1.5 metres (5’) from the center line of the dike wall 15 metres (49’) from a drilled well 30 metres (98’) from a dug well or waterway Under every tank a grounding system should be utilized to dissipate static electricity built up when filling the tank or from a lighting strike. A licensed qualified electrician should be involved with laying this out. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
Aboveground Storage Tank Projects Regardless of location, proper installation and maintenance of the aboveground storage t...
1) Bedding/Slabs The bed for the tank shall either be free flowing gravel or concrete, and shall be designed by a Professional Engineer. The bed shall be designed to suit the particular support structure of the tank, and ensure that the load transfer on any leg will not result in the leg base being allowed to sink into the bedding material. Depending on the load support analysis of the soil on the site, the concrete pad may consist of a single concrete pier for each of the support structure. Where the concrete pad is a single pad for all the legs, attention shall be paid to the load transfer of the legs to the pad; to make certain the pad shall not crack or sink. The bedding shall be designed so that water runoff does not accumulate under the support structure or the tank bottom. A well drained sub grade should be utilized to provide appropriate drainage; 100-150 mm (4-6 in) of stone is recommended. 117
1  Bedding Slabs The bed for the tank shall either be free flowing gravel or concrete, and shall be designed by a Professi...
2) Secondary Containment Tanks of 5000 L or less do not require a dike, except in the event of an overfill or loss/escape product where the spilled liquid does not,     Create a hazard to public health or safety; Contaminate any fresh water source or waterway; Migrate beyond the site; Allow entry of the product into a sewer system, underground stream or drainage system. Where a dike is required it shall be designed and constructed to the requirement of the applicable code for your province (i.e. fire code). The minimum capacity of a dike shall be 110% of the capacity of the tank. Where the dike contains more than one tank, the minimum capacity shall be 100% of the largest tank plus 10% of the aggregate capacity of all the other tanks, or 110% of the largest tank whichever is greater. Tanks equipped with secondary containment, conforming to ULC-C142.20 or an approved Standard for secondary containment, shall be considered to be in compliance with the dike requirement. It is recommended that a double wall tank be utilized rather than a diked system. Water accumulating in a dike system can create problems for disposal and also reduce the effective volume of the dike. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
2  Secondary Containment Tanks of 5000 L or less do not require a dike, except in the event of an overfill or loss escape ...
3) AST Handling Inspect the AST for damage to the external shell. If the interstitial space is under vacuum from the factory, ensure the gauge still shows the vacuum reading. Equipment must be suitable to lift and move the AST without dragging. Lift the AST with the lifting lugs which are located on the tank and move tank into position. Never attempt to lift the tank by wrapping the cables around the body of the tank. A proper hoisting device as defined by the Ministry of labour is required. Ensure that the lifting equipment operator and his workers are trained and certified, and have an established set of hand signals for communication. If the AST is dropped or dragged It must be inspected, tested and approved for use! 119
3  AST Handling Inspect the AST for damage to the external shell. If the interstitial space is under vacuum from the facto...
4) Vehicle Impact Protection Where tanks and associated equipment are subject to vehicular movement, or are not otherwise protected by their location, it shall be protected from damage with steel posts, guardrails or reinforced concrete barriers. Posts used for protection shall be:  Spaced not less than 100cm from the tank and/or equipment.  Spaced not more than 135cm (54 in) apart  Buried not less than 90cm (36 in) below grade  Extend at least 75cm (30 in) above grade  Be one of the following:  100 mm (4 in) capped steel pipe;  100 mm (4 in) tubing filled with concrete;  200 mm (8 in) pressure-treated wood, either square or round; or  150 mm (6 in) minimum dimension reinforced concrete CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
4  Vehicle Impact Protection Where tanks and associated equipment are subject to vehicular movement, or are not otherwise ...
5) Venting All above ground storage tanks shall be vented in accordance with the Standard to which it has been certified. Vents for ASTs shall be:  Not less than 2 (6.5 feet) metres above grade level for Class II products.  Not less than 3.5 metres (12 feet) above grade level for Class I products.  Not less than 3 metres (10 feet) from any opening in a building.  Slope a minimum of 1% towards the tank, without sags and traps in which liquid may collect.  Terminate at an elevation of 150 mm (6 in) above the spill containment device (including emergency vents). 6) Openings other than vents Each connection to an AST which liquid can normally flow through shall be provided with an approved external shut-off valve to be located as close as possible to the tank. For all tanks, a method to prevent overfilling the tank must be in place; refer to the “Leak & Spill Prevention Section” for further clarification. 121
5  Venting All above ground storage tanks shall be vented in accordance with the Standard to which it has been certified. ...
7) Testing of Tanks Single wall tanks, or secondarily contained tanks, may require testing prior to installation. There are two standard testing procedures: a) Air Pressure/Soap test: A single wall tank is commonly tested by pressurizing to the production test pressure listed in the standard to which the tank has been built. The maximum test pressure can vary between 10.5KPa (1.5 psi) and 35KPa (5psi) depending on the type and size of the tank. A soap solution is applied to the weld areas of the tank. Test should be applied for a minimum of 2 hours. Cylindrical Tank Diameter, mm (in) 0 to 1750 (0 to 68.9) 1751 to 3000 3001 to 44000 (68.94 to (118.15 to 118.1) 1,732.28) Minimum Test Pressure, kPa 30 (4.3psi) 20 (3psi) 10 (1.5psi) Maximum Test Pressure, kPa 35 (5psi) 30 (4.3psi) 20 (3psi) Keep away from tank top and fittings when pressurizing the tank. Do not leave pressurized tank unattended. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
7  Testing of Tanks Single wall tanks, or secondarily contained tanks, may require testing prior to installation. There ar...
The pressure test equipment that would be required is:  A gauge with a minimum 50mm face with graduation not more than .7KPa (.10psi) or a digital gauge.  A pressure relief valve set to open at a maximum of 35 KPa (5psi)  A pressure regulator set at the maximum test pressure  A positive shut off valve located as close to the tank as possible Double wall vacuum monitored tanks need not be tested provided that the vacuum gauges indicate a negative pressure greater than 12 inch Hg. Pressure Relief valve Shut off valve Pressure Regulator Pressure Gauge Air Supply Single Wall Tank 123
The pressure test equipment that would be required is       A gauge with a minimum 50mm face with graduation not more than...
b) Testing the secondary containment without vacuum monitor: The primary tank and secondary containment are to be tested prior to being put into service. Test Equipment:  Two pressure gauge, preferably digital; with a max pressure rang of 70 kPa (10 psi) and a read out .05 kPA ( a digital manometer is an excellent choice.)  Two positive shut off valves  A pressure relief valve; max 35 kPa (5 psi)  An assortment of fitting and plugs CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
b  Testing the secondary containment without vacuum monitor  The primary tank and secondary containment are to be tested p...
TESTING PROCEDURES Continued through to page 127 including diagram on page 126 Install test piping and temporarily plug, cap or seal off remaining opening, including emergency vent of the secondary containment. Do not attach piping from valve V2 to the secondary at this time (see step 5). 1. Close valves V1, V2 and V3 2. Connect regulated air supply to test piping. Caution: Test regulator to see that pressure is properly set before proceeding 3. Slowly open Valve V1 to pressurize the primary tank, as per previous table. When the test pressure is reached (G1) close the Valve V1 and disconnect the air supply Do not apply pressure to the interstitial space between the walls of a double wall tank without air pressure in the primary. Damage to the tank may result. Keep away from tank top and fittings when pressurizing tank. 125
TESTING PROCEDURES Continued through to page 127 including diagram on page 126 Install test piping and temporarily plug, c...
Valve (V3) Gauge (G2) CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Gauge (G1) Air Supply Valve (V1) Pressure Relief valve Pressure Regulator Double wall Tank without vacuum monitor Valve (V2) TESTING PROCEDURES con’t Version 3-2011
Valve  V3   Gauge  G2   CPCA Recommended Practices     Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association  Gauge  G1   Air Supply  ...
TESTING PROCEDURES con’t 4. Soap test the test piping, fittings, valves and gauges to make sure it does not leak in the closed position 5. Install the remainder of piping from the valve to the secondary tank and install pressure gauge in the secondary G2 6. Open valve V2 between the primary and the secondary, the pressures should equalize. Soap test the secondary and all of the fittings on the primary and the secondary 7. Close valve V2 and open valve V3 to bleed the pressure off the secondary containment. Then close valve V3 8. The pressure in the secondary containment must then be monitored (G2), any rise in pressure in the secondary containment that has a corresponding drop in pressure in the primary tank (G1) indicates a leak in the primary tank. Depending on the size of the tank and the size of the leak this test may take a long period of time to complete, 12 hours would not be extraordinary 127
TESTING PROCEDURES con   t  4. Soap test the test piping, fittings, valves and gauges to make sure it does not leak in the...
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ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANK REMOVAL TABLE OF CONTENTS VAPOUR MANAGEMENT ................................. 132 Tank Purging Procedures ................................... 133 WASTE MANAGEMENT ................................... 137 AST REMOVAL ................................................. 138 SCRAPPING TANKS ......................................... 142 131
ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANK REMOVAL TABLE OF CONTENTS  VAPOUR MANAGEMENT ................................. 132 Tank Purging P...
1) VAPOUR MANAGEMENT An empty used petroleum tank with vapours is more dangerous than a full one. Liquid fuels themselves do not explode; it is their vapours that do. An accidental impact from a piece of equipment could cause a spark which may ignite the vapours, thus turning the tank into a bomb. Tank entry, if required to remove residual sludge, is a very dangerous procedure. Tanks that contain hydrocarbon residues are explosive. All sources of ignition must be controlled and the tank’s interior must be made inert. Tanks should only be entered by trained and properly equipped personnel, and tanks should not be entered without positive ventilation and standby personnel. Petroleum vapours are heavier than air and will “linger” in the tank. The tank should be made safe by using one of the following methods. In all methods, the tank atmosphere should be checked to ensure that vapours have been satisfactorily purged from the tank. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
1  VAPOUR MANAGEMENT An empty used petroleum tank with vapours is more dangerous than a full one. Liquid fuels themselves ...
VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Tank Purging Procedures Dry Ice method; 1 kg per 500 litres or 1.7 lbs per 100 usg of tank storage capacity. The dry ice should be crushed and distributed, as much as possible, evenly over the greatest possible area of the tank’s interior. As the dry ice vaporizes, generating carbon dioxide, the flammable vapours will be purged from the tank. Therefore, observe all safety precautions regarding flammable vapours. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is an alternative to dry ice by introducing Liquid Carbon Dioxide, which is available in siphon cylinders. This is done by extending a hose from a cylinder filled with compressed carbon dioxide to the AST, and then releasing the carbon dioxide directly into the bottom of the tank. Care must be exercised to prevent build-up of any static charge. All components must be bonded and the gas introduced slowly to reduce static. You should use one cylinder of carbon dioxide per 320 cubic feet of tank or three cylinders of carbon dioxide per 5,500 gallon tank. Once the tank has been purged, the tank interior should be tested with an oxygen analyzer. The oxygen analyzer will give a reading of % oxygen per volume. For a safe condition, the reading should be less than 7% (note: that the LEL reading on the combustible analyzer is not accurate when O2 is less than 15%). Positive ventilation using an air eductor is another method of purging flammable vapours from a tank. Once the tank has been purged, the tank interior should be tested with a combustion analyzer. After turning off the air, wait 15 minutes to allow vapours to settle, test from top to bottom of the AST for LEL levels of less than 10%. 133
VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Tank Purging Procedures Dry Ice method  1 kg per 500 litres or 1.7 lbs per 100 usg of tank storage capac...
Purging a UST using a forced air system Oklahoma Corporation Commission Petroleum Storage Tank Division UST Removal Guidebook July 2004 © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011 CPCA Recommended Practices
Purging a UST using a forced air system Oklahoma Corporation Commission Petroleum Storage Tank Division UST Removal Guideb...
135 Purging a UST using an eductor type air mover Oklahoma Corporation Commission Petroleum Storage Tank Division UST Removal Guidebook July 2004
135  Purging a UST using an eductor type air mover Oklahoma Corporation Commission Petroleum Storage Tank Division UST Rem...
VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Toxic and flammable vapours may be released from several sources during tank removal:  During transfer of fuel from the tank;  During disconnection and draining of piping;  During purging/inerting operation;  From exposure of contaminated soil it is possible that some spillage may have occurred from filling or some piping may run underground and some contaminated soil may exist The supervisor should initiate the following actions to reduce vapour exposure:         Minimize the number of people on site during the operation which may release vapours Determine from prior studies if contaminated soils may cause vapour issues Plan timely removal of contaminated soil from the site. This will involve ensuring that the required regulation protocols have been observed such as soils analysis and Regulation 558/Leachate testing. Remove all liquid and sludge from the tanks prior to purging/inerting Purge/inert the tank prior to hoisting Purge/inert the tank during off hours and/or during windy weather Monitor downwind for build-up of flammable vapours Communicate vapour issues, primarily odours, with local authorities and neighbours. This will reduce or eliminate delays caused by complaints from neighbours. Take vapour readings when purging the tank and record the readings. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
VAPOUR MANAGEMENT Toxic and flammable vapours may be released from several sources during tank removal       During transf...
2) WASTE MANAGEMENT Ideally there will have been prior studies of the soil conditions on the site. If the environmental reports have indicated that contamination exist, the required regulatory protocols should be in place such as that impacted soil and water can be removed from the site. If soil conditions are unknown arrangements must be in place to carry out the necessary testing to permit proper disposal. A) Residual Fuel and Sludge  Ensure selected hauler has appropriate M.O.E. Certificate of Authorization (C of A) for a waste management system (transportation)  Dip tank prior to removal and record volume  Ensure that transport vehicle has sufficient capacity  Ground transport vehicle and bond to tank  Ensure the vacuum truck vent discharges downwind of the motor air intake  Remove drop tube from tank  Ensure the metal end of the vacuum truck hose is bonded or the hose has an internal conductivity wire  Pump or vacuum out residual fuel  Dip tank after pumping and record any residual  Record total volume removed 137
2  WASTE MANAGEMENT Ideally there will have been prior studies of the soil conditions on the site. If the environmental re...
B) Contaminated Soil  Determine if soil testing has been carried out and determined whether contaminated soil will be encountered  If contaminated soil is confirmed, have disposal arrangements been made. This has the potential to cause delays and create site security issues:  Some questions to be answered:  quantity for disposal  have Leachate tests (Regulation 558) been carried out?  environmental consultant in place  excavation  loading  trucking  Sampling  Backfilling requirements AST REMOVAL A crucial aspect of tank removal is to disconnect any energy source that may be present. Impressed current cathodic protection should be disconnected 24 hours prior to purging/inerting. Drain and disconnect piping, using an approved grounded container to capture and contain the fuel. Test area above the tank for petroleum vapours. Vapour levels above 10% LEL (1400 ppm) should be considered hazardous. The area should be ventilated and/or the use of respirators is required. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
B  Contaminated Soil      Determine if soil testing has been carried out and determined whether contaminated soil will be ...
Note: chemical masks with the appropriate cartridges should only be used when the petroleum vapour level is less than 500 ppm (3.5% LEL). Regular and/or continuous monitoring of petroleum vapours during the entire tank removal process is recommended. Using non-sparking tools, open tank top connections in at least two locations as far apart as possible Ensure bonding and grounding of the pump or vacuum truck, lines and AST is in place.  remove residual liquid and sludge using pumps and/or vacuum truck as appropriate depending on quantities and tank orientation Inert the tank using solid or liquid Carbon Dioxide (solid is called dry ice, while liquid is available in siphon cylinders) or purge the tank using an air eductor. Test the tank for vapours  If inerting with CO2, test for O2 levels of less than 5%. Note; the LEL reading on the combustible analyzer is not accurate when O2 is less than 15%.  If LEL testing is required, use a Draeger type tester with a hydrocarbon cartridge.  If purging with air, turn off the air moving device then, after 15 minutes to allow vapours to settle, test from the top to the bottom of the UST for LEL levels of less than 10%. 139
Note  chemical masks with the appropriate cartridges should only be used when the petroleum vapour level is less than 500 ...
Confirm visually that all residuals have been removed Ensure that the lifting equipment  has adequate lifting capacity  can reach the tank  is on a stable base In general, excavators and backhoes are not stable enough to lift, rotate and move ASTs and should not be used. Attach rigging to the tank including tag/guidelines  workers must wear a safety harness and life line when on top of the AST to install rigging Ensure that  all non-essential personnel vacate the area and essential workers are clear and handling the tag lines  ensure the lift equipment operator and his assistant are trained in the hand signals required to execute the lift Lift, do not drag, the AST  ideally the tank should be placed directly onto the transport vehicle but may be placed on the ground adjacent to the work area and wooden blocks used to prevent rolling until the vehicle arrives CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
Confirm visually that all residuals have been removed Ensure that the lifting equipment     has adequate lifting capacity ...
Inspect the transport vehicle,  hold-downs should be fabric, not wire or chain, check for tears etc,  the vehicle must be properly licensed  the vehicle should have a 20-BC fire extinguisher on board  ensure that transportation documents are completed Once the tank is out of service  confirm that it is empty or amount of product remaining  note the tank identification if readable (ULC#, Serial # and Manufacturer) and record in the job file or note that the tank had no tag or the tag was illegible  remove any remaining vehicle protection, such as, post and barricades Transportation documentation must as a minimum include a load reconciliation report and may require shipment as dangerous goods if high petroleum vapour readings persist. Always assume that an AST is hazardous even though it is empty, previously purged or inerted and previously tested. Flammable vapours will continue to accumulate from the AST wall and remaining sludge. 141
Inspect the transport vehicle,      hold-downs should be fabric, not wire or chain, check for tears etc,       the vehicle...
SCRAPPING OF TANKS Vapour test all tanks prior to working on them  Record vapour test unit used, date, time and tank information (Job # and Contents) If air purging was used, test for combustibles,  When the vapour test reads less than 500ppm Hydrocarbon Vapours, the tank may be scrapped. Note: tanks registering below 500ppm may ignite but will not explode. The Lower Explosive Limit of gasoline vapours (100% LEL on a combustibles analyzer) is generally accepted to be 14000ppm.  When the vapour test reads more than 500ppm Hydrocarbons Vapours,  The tank must be purged with air, or  Inerted with either solid CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) dry ice or liquid from a siphon cylinder. A 113 cu ft CO 2 cylinder will purge the equivalent of a 750 gallon (3400 litre) tank  Retest the tank vapours and repeat until a safe level is achieved CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
SCRAPPING OF TANKS Vapour test all tanks prior to working on them      Record vapour test unit used, date, time and tank i...
SCRAPPING OF TANKS If inerting with CO2 was used, test for O2 level,  When the O2 level is less than 5%. The tank may be scrapped. Note: the LEL readings on the combustibles analyzer will not be correct – 15% O2 is required for the analyzer to operate accurately.  When the O2 level is more than 5%, the tank must be inerted again.  Retest the tank atmosphere and repeat The tank should be cut immediately after purging/inerting. Otherwise the purging/inerting procedure must be repeated. Flood all tanks with CO2 prior to cutting. A minimum of ten seconds of discharge from a CO2 siphon cylinder is required. This will flood any tank up to 10,000 gallons Properly cover, store or dispose of all material cleaned from tanks and all cleaning materials. Open top drums and pails must be labeled and have lids which are secured. Vapour test the tank prior to loading for transport to a scrap metal dealer for recycle. At all times safety requirements must be observed  hard hat  safety glasses or goggles  safety boots  gloves  sleeved shirts  fire extinguisher of at least 20 BC rating 143
SCRAPPING OF TANKS If inerting with CO2 was used, test for O2 level,      When the O2 level is less than 5 . The tank may ...
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CONFINED SPACE REQUIREMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS BACKGROUND & DEFINITION .......................... 148 ASSESSMENT ..................................................... 149 ATMOSPHERIC TESTING .................................. 150 CONFINED SPACE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS ................................................ 152 RETAIL SITES ..................................................... 154 MAINTENANCE ................................................... 156 WRITTEN PLANS, PERMITS/ & RESCUE PLANS .............................................. 158 SUMMARY ........................................................... 159 ENCLOSED SPACE/ DECISION MAKING FLOWCHART .................... 160 147
CONFINED SPACE REQUIREMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS BACKGROUND   DEFINITION .......................... 148 ASSESSMENT .............
BACKGROUND FOR CONFINED SPACE REQUIREMENTS Based on Regulations, CPCA and POST has adopted the definition of a Confined Space as; A fully or partially enclosed space, a) that is not both designed and constructed for continuous human occupancy, and b) in which atmospheric hazards may occur because of its construction, location or contents or because of the work that is done in it. NOTE: In Quebec, hazards in the enclosed space are not limited to atmospheric hazards. Before any entry into a confined space can occur, the regulation requires the employer to; a) develop a written program to cover projects with confined space entry b) conduct hazard assessments of each confined space c) prepare specific plans for each confined space entry d) prepare permits for entry e) conduct plan specific training f) prepare emergency response procedures A Restricted Space is defined by CPCA and POST as; A fully or partially enclosed space that does not meet all the criteria for a Confined Space because; a) there are no atmospheric hazards present, and b) atmospheric hazards can not be created by the work being done in it. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
BACKGROUND FOR CONFINED SPACE REQUIREMENTS Based on Regulations, CPCA and POST has adopted the definition of a Confined Sp...
ASSESSMENT OF THE SPACE Before any work starts, an assessment of the fully or partially enclosed space must be done to determine if it falls under the confined space definition.     Is it a space that is confining in any way i.e. a pit or underground vault; an excavation; an underground oil/water separator; an STP sump: a sewer manhole; a crawl space; a false ceiling or duct? Is it built with the expectation that humans will not continuously work in the space? Does it contain, or can it develop a hazardous atmosphere; for example,  are there vapours from gasoline, diesel, CO, nitrogen, sewer gas (methane), rotting vegetation (H2S), etc. or a potential for them to occur? Can the work being done develop a hazardous atmosphere; for example,  draining product from a line or opening a fitting can generate flammable or toxic vapours  solvent cleaning, epoxy bonding, etc.  a combustion engine driven pump, compressor or concrete cutting power saw can generate CO in the exhaust  welding and similar activity can generate toxic fumes  vapours created by these actions can create an Oxygen deficiency. When performing the assessment, all the elements of the definition must be present for the space to be considered as a “confined space”. A fully or partially enclosed space can be limiting and difficult to work in but if no atmospheric hazards can occur it falls outside the definition of a confined space and should be considered a “restricted space”. 149
ASSESSMENT OF THE SPACE Before any work starts, an assessment of the fully or partially enclosed space must be done to det...
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING In both confined and restricted spaces, atmospheric testing must done to ensure conditions do not change during the work. Before entering any space not designed for human occupancy, the air quality must be tested. This is done using instruments specifically designed to measure at least vol% O2 and vol% LEL. For added safety, the instrument should also measure CO and H2S, which are deadly toxics that have been known to be present in service station areas. A specific site may require testing for other contaminants based on prior use or other documents provided. Enclosed spaces must be monitored continuously using the air quality meter to ensure the vol% O2 ideally remains at 20.8 - 20.9 vol%, LEL readings are below 5 vol% and there is no CO and H2S present. If conditions change, a restricted space could become a confined space. NOTE: 1 The air quality testing meter requires a minimum reading of 15% O2 for the LEL cell to work accurately. 2 The acceptable vol% O2 range is from 19.5 vol% (the lowest level that humans can breath without affecting body functions) and 23.0 vol% (above this level very little energy is required to start a fire) CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING In both confined and restricted spaces, atmospheric testing must done to ensure conditions do not chan...
Users must be trained on the use of the meters There are a number of manufacturers of air testing meters such as BW Technologies and MSA. The meter alone is not sufficient.     The user must have been trained to use the meter The operating manual must be available Calibration gas must be available for the daily bump test and monthly field calibration The meter must be returned to the manufacturer or a qualified service company for a yearly factory calibration or as required by the manufacturer Examples of meters and calibration accessories 151
Users must be trained on the use of the meters  There are a number of manufacturers of air testing meters such as BW Techn...
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS Once a fully or partially enclosed space has been assessed and determined to meet the criteria for a confined space, a defined series of steps must be taken. 1) Written program For each confined space, a qualified person must write an overall procedure to ensure the proper analyses, controls and emergency response measures are in place to make the confined space safe for the worker to enter and do his tasks. 2) Hazard Assessment (JSA) An assessment of the hazards presented by the confined space must be generated by a competent person. Hazards include; physical (ease of entry/exit, slipping, falling, fire, heat stress), ergonomic (lifting, bending, repetitive motion), chemical (toxics, asphyxiation), biological (bacteria), environm ental (contamination). 3) Confined Space Entry Plan A procedure for the entry into a specific confined space to do defined work must be written and will include;  a daily permit system  requirements for atmospheric testing  PPE requirements both for work and emergency rescue  duties of the outside attendant CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS Once a fully or partially enclosed space has been assessed and determined to meet the cr...
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS 4) Training Workers must be trained in all elements of the confined space entry plan. They will have;  reviewed the overall program and hazard assessment  been trained in the permit system, entry and emergency procedure  been trained in the use of the specified PPE  be competent to perform the work 5) Emergency Procedure A written emergency procedure for the specific confined space entry must be on hand. An adequate number of people, trained in the emergency response plan and with the appropriate PPE shall be in the vicinity to execute a rescue. One person on the rescue team must be trained in first aid and CPR 6) Record Keeping For Confined Space Entry projects, all records must be kept for 1 year or for two of the most recent entries. The adequate number of people for your rescue team will vary for each situation. When in doubt, conduct a job observation. Consider the job and sequence of steps that will be taken to rescue the worker. 153
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS 4  Training Workers must be trained in all elements of the confined space entry plan. Th...
RETAIL SITE CONFINED SPACES CPCA personnel, working with a consultant (Pinchin Environmental), have reviewed both the construction and maintenance activities on a typical retail site. They have determined the following to be the major work areas which either are always, or under certain circumstances are considered to be, confined spaces. 1) New to Industry, raze and rebuild or tank replacement projects In general, during construction of these types of projects, with no product other than tank ballast in the system, there are no work areas that meet the confined space definition in the petroleum equipment area. Always test the quality of the atmosphere in the excavation or sump before entering and test continuously, or at frequent intervals, during the work. Tamping and compacting the first lift Spreading pea stone Before entering any excavation, ensure the sidewalls are sloped adequately and there are means of exiting in case of emergency. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
RETAIL SITE CONFINED SPACES CPCA personnel, working with a consultant  Pinchin Environmental , have reviewed both the cons...
1.1 SUMPS Initial installation of sumps is not considered to be a confined space entry 1.2 SEWERS & STORM DRAINS When work is being done to tie in new sanitary sewers or storm drains, the hazard analysis must be done before work starts. If atmospheric hazards are found, the overall plan and all the required elements for a confined space entry and permit system must be written. 155
1.1  SUMPS  Initial installation of sumps is not considered to be a confined space entry  1.2  SEWERS   STORM DRAINS  When...
2) MAINTENANCE OR MAJOR WORK ON AN OPERATING SITE Always test the quality of the atmosphere in the sump, pit or any other space before entering. 2.1 Sumps Before a detailed assessment is done at a specific site for a specific task, an STP pump chamber (sump) is initially to be considered a confined space. If a sump is assessed to meet the criteria of a confined space, the tripod, winch and harness setup would be the same for an STP chamber (sump) entry as for this manhole entry. The stand-by, rescue person is always required. If the sump is considered a restricted space, the JSA will determine the critical task procedures to follow for the work. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
2   MAINTENANCE OR MAJOR WORK ON AN OPERATING SITE  Always test the quality of the atmosphere in the sump, pit or any othe...
2.2 Car Wash Pits Car wash reclaim tanks/pits may not meet all the definitions of a confined space until work such as power saw cutting is to be done. A detailed assessment has to be done for the specific enclosed space to determine if it is classified as „confined‟ or „restricted‟. NOTE: always isolate the pit by plugging all entry lines from the car wash and the exit line to the sewer to ensure no fluids or gases can enter the pit. Area is marked off by caution tape, air blower is ensuring a safe atmosphere in the pit, fire extinguishers on stand-by Note the brackets on the side wall temporarily installed for the tripod. Even if the entry is not under confined space rules, the tripod and harness may be required for fall protection. 157
2.2  Car Wash Pits  Car wash reclaim tanks pits may not meet all the definitions of a confined space until work such as po...
2.3 Other Types of Spaces Crawl spaces under buildings – would be considered a confined space if atmospheric hazards were present and a restricted space if no atmospheric hazards were present. Tank excavations – are considered restricted spaces when the proper slope of the side walls is in place. There must be continuous air quality testing to ensure no atmospheric hazards occur; for example, from contaminated soil. Ladders are required for entry and exit. Other spaces – when any type of bodily entry is required to perform work in spaces not meant for human occupancy, conduct an assessment as part of the daily work permit. If the assessment shows the space meets the confined space criteria, develop the confined space program and write all the elements required. Otherwise, consider it as a restricted space. WRITTEN PLANS, PERMITS AND RESCUE PLANS POST (Petroleum Oriented Safety Training) has developed checklists for Confined Space Entry Plan/ Permit and Rescue Procedures. These documents can be obtained from POST and are to be used to develop the hazard assessment, confined space entry plan and emergency rescue plan for the specific confined space to be entered. For confined space and other safety related documents visit the POST website at www.POSTtraining.ca CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
2.3  Other Types of Spaces  Crawl spaces under buildings     would be considered a confined space if atmospheric hazards w...
OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY When starting any project at a retail service station site, whether it is a new development, a raze and rebuild or routine maintenance, the requirement to assess all enclosed or partially enclosed spaces for the confined space criteria is the highest priority. The following flow chart is meant only as a guide to your decision making. Always err on the side of caution. Confined space accidents, injuries and deaths continue to occur each year. Protect your workers and your company reputation by being diligent around potential and proven confined spaces. Use the POST documentation to assist in your site assessment and hazard analysis and to develop your site specific confined space entry plan, entry permit and emergency rescue procedure. Protect your workers and your company reputation by being diligent around potential and proven confined spaces 159
OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY When starting any project at a retail service station site, whether it is a new development, a raze a...
Enclosed Space Decision Making Flow Chart ** All documents must be kept for one year or for two of the most recent entries *** For these questions consider enclosed spaces such as:  STP sumps  Tank Excavations  Manholes  Car Wash Pits  Crawl spaces under buildings  Undocumented spaces For all enclosed spaces test atmospheric quality continuously, or on a frequent basis. Measure and record O2, LEL, H2S and CO with a calibrated instrument used by a competent person. CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
Enclosed Space Decision Making Flow Chart     All documents must be kept for one year or for two of the most recent entrie...
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PETROLEUM ORIENTED SAFETY TRAINING TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT POST ...................................................... 164 BEHAVIOUR BASED SAFETY ........................... 165 ONLINE ORIENTATION ...................................... 166 POST DOCUMENTS ........................................... 167 163
PETROLEUM ORIENTED SAFETY TRAINING TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT POST ...................................................... 164...
ABOUT POST Petroleum Oriented Safety Training (POST) is a safety orientation program which many oil companies require as the minimum acceptable safety training to access their sites. While the program is relevant to both construction and maintenance work, specific requirements for these sectors are covered where applicable. It is the belief that everyone learn the requirements for all sectors to have a better understanding of each others roles and responsibilities when working on a petroleum site. The course focuses on the following core elements to enhance safety:  Behaviour toward safety to prevent incidents  Proper personal protective equipment (PPE)  Required safety documentation for petroleum sites POST is not intended to replace the basic requirements of the various occupational health and safety acts that exist in your jurisdiction, but rather it is to describe in summary the basic minimums required of contractors. The following major oil companies support the use of POST orientation and documentation:  Imperial Oil  Shell Canada  Suncor Energy Products CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
ABOUT POST Petroleum Oriented Safety Training  POST  is a safety orientation program which many oil companies require as t...
BEHAVIOUR BASED SAFETY (BBS) To create an environment where we have better control of our actions or behaviour, behaviour-based safety tools were developed. Behaviour based safety tools encourage workers to do effective risk analysis before launching into an activity. They are premised on the belief that a low risk tolerance and a mind engaged on the task will eliminate all incidents. Both conditions, a low risk tolerance and a mind engaged in the task, need to be discussed to better understand both management’s and the worker’s role in preventing incidents. BBS - The Concept     Safety needs to be a core belief Safety cannot be a priority as priorities are negotiable Behaviour Based Safety is as simple as “Stop & Think” It is all “head and heart” Simple tools have been developed to assist the worker in safe work execution by all    Last Minute Risk Assessment (LMRA) Job Safety Analysis (JSA) Critical Procedure Checklists Tools for evaluating worker understanding of BBS are also utilized   Last Minute Risk Assessment Testing Planned Job Observations (PJO) 165
BEHAVIOUR BASED SAFETY  BBS  To create an environment where we have better control of our actions or behaviour, behaviour-...
ONLINE ORIENTATION Our online orientation course covers the following topics. Examples are provided for all documentation.  Concepts and Terms  Terms used in POST  Preventing Incidents  Safety tools  Risk Management  Worker orientation guide  Process flowcharts for workers, supervisors and owners  Certificates and Permits  Restricted and Confined Space Requirements  Job Safety Analysis (JSA)  Examples of JSA and Critical Procedures  Planned Job Observations (PJO)  Last Minute Risk Assessment (LMRA)  Concept and examples  Hazard Identification  Routine Maintenance Requirements  Work area barricading  Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
ONLINE ORIENTATION Our online orientation course covers the following topics. Examples are provided for all documentation....
POST - Documents  Worker Orientation Guide       Project Clearance Certificate Daily Safe Work Permit Daily & Weekly Safety Meeting Weekly Safety Meeting Job Safety Analysis (JSA) Near Miss Hazard Evaluation Report Observation/Evaluation Documents   Planned Job Observation (PJO) JSA Quality Assessment Evaluation Confined Space Documents     Atmospheric Testing Log Confined Space Entry Permit Recommended Confined Space Rescue Procedures Confined Space Checklist Routine Maintenance  Maintenance Safe Work Permit Checklists         Critical Lift Checklist Drilling & Borehole Excavations Checklist Electrical/Mechanical Isolation Checklist Excavation & Trench Entry Checklist Heavy Equipment Checklist Hot Work Checklist Integrity of Critical Systems Checklist Work at Heights Checklist Forms and Documents available at www.POSTtraining.ca 167
POST - Documents      Worker Orientation Guide                           Project Clearance Certificate Daily Safe Work Per...
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AEPQ - Association des Entrepreneurs Pétroliers du Québec Inc. API – American Petroleum Institute Approved – Acceptable to regulatory Authority APSSCA - Alberta Petroleum Storage System Contractors Association AST – Aboveground Storage Tank, which means a storage tank installed above grade level ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials. BCPCA- British Columbia Petroleum Contractors Association Cathodic Protection – Is a method used to protect metal structures from corrosion CCME - Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment Class I Product – Means a product having a flash point less than 37.8 C, by ASTM D93, and includes automotive gasoline Class II Product – Means a product having a flash point at or above 37.8 C and below 60 C, by ASTM D93, and includes diesel fuel and fuel oil 171
AEPQ - Association des Entrepreneurs P  troliers du Qu  bec Inc. API     American Petroleum Institute Approved     Accepta...
Class III Product – Means a product having a flash point at or above 60 C, by ASTM D93, and includes heavy fuel oil CO2 – Carbon Dioxide; a colorless, tasteless gas, about 1.5 times as heavy as air. Under normal condition, it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. In its solid state, it is called dry ice CPPI – Canadian Petroleum Products Institute CPCA - Canadian Petroleum Contractors Association CSA – Canadian Standards Association cUL – Underwriters Laboratories DOT – Department of Transport FRP – Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic Gravel – An unconsolidated mixture of small stones, pebbles, and sand H2S – Hydrogen Sulfide; is a colorless toxic/flammable gas Inert gas – is any gas that is not reactive under normal conditions Interstitial – is the space between the two walls of a double wall tank or double wall pipe system KPA – Kilopascal; a unit of pressure, 1 KPA = 0.145 PSI CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
Class III Product     Means a product having a flash point at or above 60 C, by ASTM D93, and includes heavy fuel oil CO2 ...
Leak Detection – A device or method that is capable of detecting leaks in tanks and/or piping LEL – Lower Explosive Limit; a concentration of explosive gases often given in terms of percent of LEL (% LEL) LFHC – Liquid Fuels Handling Code (Ontario) MOE – Ministry of Environment MPCA - Manitoba Petroleum Contractors Association NACE – National Association of Corrosion Engineers NFC - National Fire Code O2 – Oxygen; Oxygen is one of the two major components of air OPCA - Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Pea Stone – Washed pea sized stone for drainage PM - Petroleum Mechanic Qualification certification required in most provinces for any work performed on petroleum systems. For more information visit www.CPCAonline.com POST - Petroleum Oriented Safety Training; An industry specific program that outlines the required safety documentation for petroleum sites and focuses on behaviour towards safety and proper personal protective equipment. The program is available online at www.POSTtraining.ca 173
Leak Detection     A device or method that is capable of detecting leaks in tanks and or piping LEL     Lower Explosive Li...
PSI – Pound per Square Inch; a unit of pressure, 1 PSI = 6.895 KPA Sand – is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. Sand is a naturally occurring, finely divided rock, comprising particles or granules ranging in size from 0.0625 to 2 millimetres SRPCA - Saskatchewan Retail Petroleum Construction Association STP – Submersible Turbine Pump Top Soil – Undisturbed top layer of soil; is made up of decomposing plants (organic matter) ULC – Underwriters Laboratories of Canada UST – Underground Storage Tank; a tank installed with any portion below grade level CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
PSI     Pound per Square Inch  a unit of pressure, 1 PSI   6.895 KPA Sand     is a granular material made up of fine rock ...
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To order additional copies  Visit our online store at www.opcaonline.org  Subscribe to    The Canadian Petroleum Contracto...
CPCA Recommended Practices © Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association Version 3-2011
CPCA Recommended Practices    Ontario Petroleum Contractors Association  Version 3-2011