Region 9 Joni Lemly training for running records

Running Records Joni Lemley Region 9 Education Service Center Elementary ELAR/Social Studies joni.lemley@esc9.net
Running Records Joni Lemley Region 9 Education Service Center Elementary ELAR Social Studies joni.lemley esc9.net
What is a Running Record? O When a student reads out loud and the teacher records every error made….. O less than 100 words of text for students who are reading simple books (K-1 students) O about 100 words of text for students in second grade and below O about 150 – 200 words of text for students in third grade and above
What is a Running Record  O When a student reads out loud and the  teacher records every error made   .. O less than 100 w...
Running Records are taken… O …to guide teaching O …to assess text difficulty O …to capture progress
Running Records are taken    O    to guide teaching O    to assess text difficulty O    to capture progress
An Important Assessment Tool O Allows teacher to identify appropriate reading level O Reveals how well a student is self-monitoring their reading O Identifies which reading strategies a student is using (or not using)
An Important Assessment Tool O Allows teacher to identify appropriate  reading level O Reveals how well a student is self-...
Using Assessment to Guide Teaching O Benchmark assessments completed 2 or 3 times a year is not enough O Allows teachers to make data-based decisions to O guide whole-class instruction (modeled/shared) O guide small group instruction (guided reading) O ensure students are reading appropriately challenging texts during independent reading
Using Assessment to Guide Teaching O Benchmark assessments completed 2 or 3 times  a year is not enough O Allows teachers ...
Taking a Running Record O Teacher chooses a book/passage that child is O O O O familiar with – has read 1 – 2 times before Teacher sits next to child in order to view passage On separate piece of paper (running record form), teacher will mark if the reading is correct or note errors with coding system Teacher should be neutral and silent during reading This time should be as relaxed as sharing a book with a child
Taking a Running Record O Teacher chooses a book passage that child is O O O O  familiar with     has read 1     2 times b...
What to include…. O The observation record should contain all the behaviors the child produces on the task O Including all the comments he makes about what he is doing O This reveals the process by which the child monitors and corrects his reading O When the child encounters something new we can observe how he approaches it and what he learns from the encounter
What to include   . O The observation record should contain all  the behaviors the child produces on the task O Including ...
What Readers Do Decide Check Search Cross check Pause Control directional movement Sound out Repeat Monitor Appeal Speed up Slow down Break words into parts Point Find
What Readers Do Decide  Check  Search  Cross check  Pause  Control directional movement  Sound out  Repeat  Monitor  Appea...
Before you begin…. O You will need the following: O Copy of text O Timer or stopwatch (if assessing fluency) O Running Record form or blank paper O Coding sheet O Pencil O Invite the child to read to you and tell them you will be writing down some things
Before you begin   . O You will need the following  O Copy of text O Timer or stopwatch  if assessing fluency  O Running R...
Running Record Codes 1. Mark every word read correctly with a check (√): Child: √ √ √ Text: Mom is asleep. 2. Record a substitution with the text under it: Child: home ---------Text: house (one error)
Running Record Codes 1. Mark every word read correctly with a check        Child              Text  Mom is asleep. 2. Reco...
Conventions for Recording 3. If a child tries several times to read a word, record all his attempts: Child: here /h--- /home Text: house/ (one error) Child: h-- /ho /home Text: home/ (no error)
Conventions for Recording 3. If a child tries several times to read a word, record all his attempts  Child  here  h---  ho...
Conventions for Recording 4. If a child succeeds in correcting a previous error this is recorded as a self-correction (SC). Note that the examples in 3 did not result in self-corrections. Child: where/when/SC Text: were / / (no error)
Conventions for Recording 4. If a child succeeds in correcting a previous  error this is recorded as a self-correction  SC...
Child’s Reading
Child   s Reading
Conventions for Recording 5. If no response (omission) is given to a word it is recorded with a dash. Insertion of a word is recorded over a dash. No response (omission) Child: -----Text: house Insertion Child: here Text: ----- (in each case, one error)
Conventions for Recording 5. If no response  omission  is given to a word it is recorded with a dash. Insertion of a word ...
Conventions for Recording 6. If the child hesitates and is unable to proceed because he is aware he has made an error and cannot correct it, or because he cannot attempt the next word, he is told the word (T). Child: home / Text: house/ T (one error)
Conventions for Recording 6. If the child hesitates and is unable to proceed because he is aware he has made an error and ...
Conventions for Recording 7. A verbal appeal (A) for help from the child is turned back to the child for further effort by saying “you try it” (Y). Child: ------- / A / here Text: house/ ------ / Y (one error)
Conventions for Recording 7. A verbal appeal  A  for help from the child is turned back to the child for further effort by...
Child’s Reading
Child   s Reading
Conventions for Reading 8. Repetition (R) is used to indicate repetition of a word. It is not counted as an error. Sometimes it is used to confirm a previous attempt. Often it results in self-correction. It is useful to record it as it often indicates how much sorting out the child is doing. Child: Here is the home/ R / SC Text: Here is the house/ / (no error)
Conventions for Reading 8. Repetition  R  is used to indicate repetition of a word. It is not counted as an error. Sometim...
Child’s Reading
Child   s Reading
Conventions for Recording 9. Sometimes the child rereads the text (repetition) and corrects some but not all errors. The following example shows the recording of this behavior. Child: a / SC house / R Text: the / home / (one error, one SC)
Conventions for Recording 9. Sometimes the child rereads the text  repetition  and corrects some but not all errors. The f...
Other behaviors….. O include pausing, sounding out of the letters, and splitting words into parts O Research evidence has shown that teachers’ records of such behaviors are much less reliable and cannot be included in the Count or Analysis scoring
Other behaviors   .. O include pausing, sounding out of the  letters, and splitting words into parts O Research evidence h...
Quantitative Analysis Counts as one error O Substitution O Multiple attempts at a word O Omission O Insertion O “Told” Do not count self-corrections and repetitions.
Quantitative Analysis Counts as one error O Substitution O Multiple attempts at a word O Omission O Insertion O    Told   ...
Additional tips… O Check directional movement from beginning readers O Immediately following a reading and before you begin to analyze the detail of the record, write a few lines on what you just observed, your intuitive summation of the child’s reading, at the end of the record O Comprehension is very dependent upon the difficulty level of the text
Additional tips    O Check directional movement from beginning  readers O Immediately following a reading and before you b...
Scoring errors and self corrections… O Insertions add errors so that a child can have more errors than there are words in a line O A child cannot receive a minus score on a page, the lowest page score is zero O If a line or sentence is omitted, each word is counted as an error O If pages are omitted, they are not counted as errors O the number of words on the omitted pages must be deducted from the Running Words Total before calculation
Scoring errors and self corrections    O Insertions add errors so that a child can have  more errors than there are words ...
Helpful tips… O If the child makes an error (e.g., ‘run’ for ‘ran’) and then substitutes this repeatedly, it counts as an error every time; but substitution of a proper name is counted only the first time O If a child makes two or more errors each word is an error. If he then corrects all these errors each corrected word is a self-correction O When a word is pronounced as 2 words (a-way) this is regarded as an error of pronunciation, not as a reading error O unless what is said is matched to a different word
Helpful tips    O If the child makes an error  e.g.,    run    for    ran      and then substitutes this repeatedly, it co...
Don’t forget…. O The running record is an assessment. O The rule of thumb for wait time is 3 seconds. O If the student doesn’t come up with anything, then you can tell them. O You don’t tell them the right word when they get the word wrong.
Don   t forget   . O The running record is an assessment. O The rule of thumb for wait time is 3 seconds. O If the student...
How often do I take a Running Record? O Once a child’s beginning reading level has been determined through a benchmark system, the teacher will determine how often a Running Record will be taken. O Struggling readers - approximately once every two weeks O Average readers - approximately once a month O Fluent readers - approximately twice per grading period
How often do I take a Running Record  O Once a child   s beginning reading level has  been determined through a benchmark ...
Reading A-Z Assessment Schedule Developmental Level Reading Level Schedule Early Emergent Readers Levels aa - C Every 2 to 4 weeks Emergent Readers Levels D – J Every 4 to 6 weeks Early Fluent Readers Levels K – P Every 6 to 8 weeks Fluent Readers Levels Q – Z Every 8 to 10 weeks Students who are not progressing at the expected rate should be assessed even more frequently than the Assessment Schedule suggests.
Reading A-Z Assessment Schedule Developmental Level  Reading Level  Schedule  Early Emergent Readers  Levels aa - C  Every...
The Value in Running Records O Seeing progress over time O Compare the running records you have taken on a child O Have they changed? O Are they making the same mistakes?
The Value in Running Records O Seeing progress over time  O Compare the running records you have taken  on a child O Have ...
After Oral Reading O There are several ways to determine if students are understanding what they have read: O Comprehension Strategies O Retelling O Questioning strategies
After Oral Reading O There are several ways to determine if  students are understanding what they have read  O Comprehensi...
Comprehension Strategies O Have a conversation with the child about material read O Observe child as he responds to the text both verbally and nonverbally O Observe child’s behavior for evidence of using cues while reading
Comprehension Strategies O Have a conversation with the child about  material read O Observe child as he responds to the t...
Retelling Strategies O Knowledge of the gist of the story and main idea O Events accurately reported O Degree to which the: O Sequence matches text O Reader uses phrases or words from text O Reader uses his own words or phrases O Presence of structures of beginning, middle, end O Use of precise vocabulary O Presence of elements such as characters and setting O Use of detail
Retelling Strategies O Knowledge of the gist of the story and main idea O Events accurately reported O Degree to which the...
Questioning Strategies O Want it to be more like discussion and O O O O conversation Require children to make inferences Invite personal responses to material Make connections between text and other experiences they have read Model how to reflect on and explore text
Questioning Strategies O Want it to be more like discussion and O O O O  conversation Require children to make inferences ...
Questioning Strategies Before the child reads the story to you, you will need to be familiar with the story: O Make notes of important ideas in story O Make notes of connections that you can make O Share these with the students O Invite students to talk about what the text made them think about O Encourage students to ask questions about anything they did not understand
Questioning Strategies Before the child reads the story to you, you will need to be familiar with the story  O Make notes ...
Scoring the Running Record
Scoring the Running Record
Accuracy Rate O Total words read (omit title) – total errors O Divide by total words read O Multiply by 100 O Equals the accuracy rate O Example: total words = 99, errors = 8 O 99 - 8 = 91 O 91 ÷ 99 = 0.919 O 0.919 x 100 = 91.9% or 92% accuracy rate
Accuracy Rate O Total words read  omit title      total errors O Divide by total words read O Multiply by 100 O Equals the...
Accuracy Rate O Lets the teacher know whether she/he is selecting the right books. O The point is whether the teacher… has selected a text in a range that provides opportunities for effective processing. O The breakdown of these categories is: O Independent reading: O Instructional reading: O Frustration reading: 95 – 100% 90 – 94% 89% and below
Accuracy Rate O Lets the teacher know whether she he is  selecting the right books.  O The point is whether the teacher   ...
Accuracy Guidelines O Students should be reading with more than 90% accuracy. O Helps the teacher group children effectively. O Lets the teacher know whether the book introduction and other kinds of support he offered during first reading were effective.
Accuracy Guidelines O Students should be reading with more than  90  accuracy. O Helps the teacher group children effectiv...
Starting Point for Instruction
Starting Point for Instruction
Let’s figure the Accuracy Rate for - Too Many Puppies O Total words read = 110 O Total errors made = 14 O 110 – 14 = 96 O 96 ÷ 110 = 0.872 O 0.872 x 100 = 87.2% or 87% accuracy rate
Let   s figure the Accuracy Rate for  - Too Many Puppies O Total words read   110 O Total errors made   14 O 110     14   ...
Error Rate O Total words read (minus title) divided by total errors O Example: total words = 99, errors = 8 O 99 ÷ 8 = 12.38 or 12 O The ratio is expressed as 1:12 O Which means that for each error made, the student read approximately 12 words correctly
Error Rate O Total words read  minus title  divided by  total errors O Example  total words   99, errors   8 O 99    8   1...
Error Rate O Independent Reading Level: 1:20 – 1:25 O Instructional Reading Level: 1:10 – 1:20 O Frustration Reading Level: 1.3 – 1:9
Error Rate O Independent Reading Level  1 20     1 25 O Instructional Reading Level  1 10     1 20 O Frustration Reading L...
Let’s figure the Error Rate for –O Total Toowords Many Puppies read = 110 O Total errors made = 14 O 110 ÷ 14 = 7.85 or 8 O The ratio is expressed as 1:8 O For every error made, the student read approximately 8 words correctly
Let   s figure the Error Rate for    O Total Toowords Many Puppies read   110 O Total errors made   14 O 110    14   7.85 ...
Self-correction Rate O Number of errors plus number of self-corrections O Divide by the number of self-corrections O Example: errors = 8, self-corrections = 3 O 8 + 3 = 11 O 11 ÷ 3 = 3.666 or 4 O The self-correction rate is expressed as 1:4 O This means that the student corrects approximately 1 out of every 4 errors.
Self-correction Rate O Number of errors plus number of self-corrections O Divide by the number of self-corrections O Examp...
Self-correction Rate O Excellent: 1:1 – 1:2 O Good: 1:3 – 1:5 O Needs strategies to self-correct: 1:5 or more
Self-correction Rate O Excellent  1 1     1 2 O Good  1 3     1 5 O Needs strategies to self-correct  1 5 or more
Let’s figure the Self-correction rate for – Too Many Puppies O Number of errors = 14 O Number of self-corrections = 2 O 14 + 2 = 16 O 16 ÷ 2 = 8 O The self-correction rate is expressed as 1:8, which means the student corrects approximately 1 out of every 8 errors.
Let   s figure the Self-correction rate for     Too Many Puppies O Number of errors   14 O Number of self-corrections   2 ...
Miscue Analysis Allows you to run a targeted and differentiated program: O Identify particular difficulties that a student might be having. (Assessment for Learning) O Aid in the creation of homogeneous guided reading groups. (Differentiation instruction) O Monitor the progress of a student. O Allow different student to move at different speeds. (Differentiated growth) O Provides assessment and evaluation data for reporting purposes.
Miscue Analysis Allows you to run a targeted and differentiated program  O Identify particular difficulties that a student...
Prior Knowledge Text Story Sense •Meaning Illustrations • Semantic Cue System • Does it make sense? Print Conventions: - Directionality - Words/spaces - Letters - Punctuation - Beginnings / endings Analogies •Structure • Syntactic Cue System • Does it sound right? •Visual • Graphophonic Cue System • Does it look right? Natural Language Knowledge of English Grammatical patterns and language structures Sounds & symbols Three Reading Cueing Systems
Prior Knowledge  Text  Story Sense     Meaning  Illustrations      Semantic Cue System     Does it make sense  Print Conve...
MSV Cueing Systems -- Meaning (M) O Readers use meaning to predict the message of text. O The teacher thinks about whether the child’s attempt makes sense up to the point of error. O Ask yourself: “Does it make sense?” “Did the message influence the error?”
MSV Cueing Systems -- Meaning  M  O Readers use meaning to predict the message of  text. O The teacher thinks about whethe...
Meaning Cues O The meaning or general context of the total story/sentence is reflected in the substitution if meaning cues are operating. Text: I like to see horses at the farm. Child: I like to see ponies at the farm. .
Meaning Cues O The meaning or general context of the total  story sentence is reflected in the substitution if meaning cue...
MSV Cueing Systems -- Structure (S) O Readers use grammar and knowledge of how language goes together to identify words O Refers to the way language works O Readers who use this cueing system would choose a noun to replace a noun, instead of choosing a verb to replace a noun, because it would sound right to them. O Ask yourself: “Does it sound right?” “Did the structure of the sentence up to the error influence the response?
MSV Cueing Systems -- Structure  S  O Readers use grammar and knowledge of how language  goes together to identify words  ...
Structure Cues O The structure of the text (up to and including the substitution) should make an acceptable English language construction. O Would it sound right to say it that way? O Would it create an acceptable English language construction? Text: I like to see horses at the farm. Child: I like to fly horses at the farm.
Structure Cues O The structure of the text  up to and including the  substitution  should make an acceptable English langu...
MSV Cueing Systems -- Visual (V) O Readers use their knowledge of visual features of words and letters and connect these features to their knowledge of the way words and letters sound when spoken. Includes the way the letters and words look. O Ask yourself: “Does it look right?” “Did visual information – letter, cluster, or word – influence any part of the response?
MSV Cueing Systems -- Visual  V  O Readers use their knowledge of visual features  of words and letters and connect these ...
Visual Cues O The visual cues in the text are what the letters and words look like. O Does the substitution (error) look like the word in the text? O Some letters/words have very little differences. They have high visual similarity. O Examples: h/n/r, b/d/p, saw/was, but/put
Visual Cues O The visual cues in the text are what the letters and  words look like. O Does the substitution  error  look ...
Visual Cues Text: I like to see horses at the farm. Child: I like to see here’s at the farm.
Visual Cues Text  I like to see horses at the farm. Child  I like to see here   s at the farm.
Looking at the errors Ask yourself – What led the child to do (or say) that? O For every error ask yourself at least three questions: M – Did the meaning or the messages of the text influence the error? S – Did the structure (syntax) of the sentence up to the error influence the response? V – Did visual information from the print influence any part of the error?
Looking at the errors Ask yourself     What led the child to do  or say  that  O For every error ask yourself at least thr...
When an error is made… O Write the letters MSV in the error column O Circle the letters if… O the child’s error showed that the child could have used O …meaning, structure, or visual information from the sentence so far
When an error is made    O Write the letters MSV in the error column O Circle the letters if    O the child   s error show...
Scan the running record to answer two other questions: 1. 2. Did the child’s oral language produce the error, with no influence from the print? Was the child clearly getting some phonemic information from the printed letters? What makes you suspect this?
Scan the running record to answer two other questions  1. 2.  Did the child   s oral language produce the error, with no i...
Let’s practice…. Text A: I like to see chickens at the farm. I like to see cows at the farm. I like to see pigs at the farm. Text: I like to see horses at the farm. Child: I like to see houses at the farm. What cueing systems were used? M or S or V
Let   s practice   . Text A  I like to see chickens at the farm. I like to see cows at the farm. I like to see pigs at the...
Let’s try one more…. Text B: I went to see grandfather at the farm. He lives in a big house. There is a red barn behind the house. Text: I like to see horses at the farm. Child: I like to see houses at the farm. What cueing systems were used? M or S or V
Let   s try one more   . Text B  I went to see grandfather at the farm. He lives in a big house. There is a red barn behin...
Self-Corrections (SC) O Reader’s ability to notice mismatches, search for further information, and make another attempt that accomplishes a precise fit with the information already known. Text: I like to see horses at the farm. Child: I like to see horses at the fair/farm.
Self-Corrections  SC  O Reader   s ability to notice mismatches,  search for further information, and make another attempt...
Looking at the self-corrections O Readers make errors and without any prompting, work on the text and self-correct the errors. O It is as if they had a feeling that something was not quite right. O Write the letters MSV in the self-correction column. O Record whether the extra information was meaning, structure or visual information.
Looking at the self-corrections O Readers make errors and without any  prompting, work on the text and self-correct the er...
Understanding the Reading Process O Look at the overall pattern of responses circled. O In a written summary, analyze the errors and self-corrections. O To explain the error, consider the behavior up to the point of error. O To explain a self-correction, consider what might have led the child to spontaneously correct the error. O The sources of information used and neglected will be useful to guide your teaching.
Understanding the Reading Process O Look at the overall pattern of responses circled. O In a written summary, analyze the ...
You are probably asking this… O Now that I have taken a Running Record and analyzed the errors, how do I use this information to guide my instruction? O Look for patterns in responses O Don’t spend a lot of time trying to figure out each error, searching for the “right” analysis O The idea is to reflect on the child’s behavior, make your best hypothesis, and then look at data through the whole reading and over time
You are probably asking this    O Now that I have taken a Running Record  and analyzed the errors, how do I use this infor...
What you are looking for…. is an indication of the kinds of strategies the child is using. O Errors provide a window through which the teacher can observe successful use of information while reading O The teacher can observe whether the child is actively relating one source of information to another – called cross-checking – child is checking one cue against another
What you are looking for   . is an indication of the kinds of strategies the child is using. O Errors provide a window thr...
Running Records can show us… O What strategies are used for solving O O O O unknown words If the student is monitoring or self-checking If there is a high number of appeals with no attempt, or few attempts, to problem-solve If the student is re-reading to check, confirm and maintain meaning If the student is re-reading to search for further information and problem solve
Running Records can show us    O What strategies are used for solving O O O O  unknown words If the student is monitoring ...
O If there is a high self-correction rate O The rates of fluency and phrasing O The comprehension or understanding, as evidenced by: O The student engaging with the text by making little comments or personalizes the text. O The student being able to retell the story. O The student using punctuation, expression and intonation.
O If there is a high self-correction rate O The rates of fluency and phrasing O The comprehension or understanding, as  ev...
Analyzing Running Records O What kind of information does the child O O O O seem to be using at the point of error? Is the child actively soring and relating cues? What led to self-correction of an error? Is self-correction at the point of error or does the child go back in the text and repeat? What evidence is there that the child is searching for information?
Analyzing Running Records O What kind of information does the child O O O O  seem to be using at the point of error  Is th...
O Does the child stop and wait for help or try something? O How accurate is the reading? Is the text right for the child? O How phrased and fluent is the reading? How did the reading sound?
O Does the child stop and wait for help or try  something  O How accurate is the reading  Is the text right for the child ...
Questions to think about… O Does the reader check information sources against one another? O Does the reader use several sources of cues in an integrated way or rely on only one kind of information? O Does the reader know when cues do not match? O Does the reader stop at unknown words without actively searching?
Questions to think about    O Does the reader check information sources  against one another  O Does the reader use severa...
More questions….. O Does the reader repeat what he has read as if to O O O O confirm his reading so far? Does the reader reread to search for more information from the sentence or text? Does the reader make meaningful attempts before appealing to the teacher for help? Does the reader read with phrasing and fluency? Does the reader make comments or respond in ways that indicate comprehension of the story?
More questions   .. O Does the reader repeat what he has read as if to O O O O  confirm his reading so far  Does the reade...
Informing our Teaching Determine if students are: O Reading fluently or word-by-word reading O Resorting to using single phonemes to sound out words O Not attending to meaning O Ignoring first-letter cues or only using first-letter cues and not attending to detail in words O Not self-correcting errors O Re-reading O Problem-solving
Informing our Teaching Determine if students are  O Reading fluently or word-by-word reading O Resorting to using single p...
Resources O Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G. S. (1996). Guided reading: good first teaching for all children, (1st ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. O Clay, M. M. (2002). An observation survey of early literacy achievement, (2nd ed.). Auckland: Heinemann Education. O Clay, M. M. (2000). Running Records for Classroom Teachers, O Brewster, P. (1997). Too many puppies, New York, NY: Scholastic. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Resources O Fountas, I. C.   Pinnell, G. S.  1996 . Guided  reading  good first teaching for all children,  1st ed. . Port...