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2121 1993 Copyright Copyright 2013 2013 2015 2015 8560 8561 560 15 775 15 ISBN ISBN set set 978 960 16 6460 6 978 960 16 6460 6 ISBN ISBN vol vol 1 2 978 960 16 5047 0 978 960 16 5048 7 38 104 37 A TH 210 36 50 000 210 52 05 600 801 100 2665 FAX 310 36 50 069 KENTPIKH EMM M ENAKH 16 106 78 A HNA TH 210 38 31 078 Y OKATA THMA BOPEIA A KOPYT A TEPMA ONTOY EPIOXH B KTEO 570 09 KA OX P E ONIKH T 1213 TH 2310 70 63 54 2310 70 67 15 FAX 2310 70 63 55 Web site http www patakis gr e mail info patakis gr
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5 3 8 9 16 31 1 2 41 4 9 9 1 1 2 9 2 1 2 57 60 67 73 79 91 99 10 1 2 104 106 117 134 11 1 2 142 143 146 151 12 1 2 155 156 157 164 169 179 195 214 226 234 240 259 3
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6992797955 thgarmpis gmail com 5
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A 8 V m H m V S I 1 kg m3 V m V H p F F p S I 1 Pa 1 N m 2 F F p A F pA Atm pat 1Atm 105 Pa 9
            A 8                                                                                                           ...
8 F p gh h Pascal F F F A Pascal pat Pascal h p pat gh 10
               8                                                                                            .             ...
V t t V t S I 1 m3 s 11
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8 t x V A x 1 x 2 t V 1 x 2 t t A1 1 A 2 2 m1 1 t m 2 2 V1 V2 m1 m 2 m V 1 V A x 2 x t 3 2 3 2 3 m1 V1 1 x1 1 1 t 4 m 2 V2 2 x 2 2 2 t 5 m1 m 2 4 m1 m 2 5 1 1 t 2 2 t A1 1 2 2 6 6 1 2 m1 m2 V1 V2 A1 1 2 2 1 2 m1 1 m2 2 m1 m2 12
               8                                                                                                          ...
2 1 A 2 A1 BERNOULLI y1 1 p1 y2 2 p2 I F1 p1A1 F2 p2 A 2 F1 t m s1 m V s2 I II W 1 W W WB 2 W WB m y1 y2 WB m g y2 y1 Vg y2 y1 3 W WF1 WF2 F1 s1 F2 s2 p1A1 s1 p2 A 2 s2 V A1 s1 A 2 s2 W p1 V p2 V W p1 p2 V 4 2 3 4 W p1 p2 V Vg y2 y1 5 1 1 1 1 1 m 22 m 12 V 22 V 12 V 22 12 6 2 2 2 2 2 5 1 1 1 1 6 p1 p2 V Vg y2 y1 V 22 12 p1 p2 gy2 gy1 22 12 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 p1 1 gy1 p2 2 gy2 p gy 2 2 2 Bernoulli Bernoulli 1 p 2 2 gy 13
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8 1 1 2 1 m 2 2 2 2 2 V V m U gy gy gy V V Bernoulli Bernoulli 1 1 1 p1 12 p2 22 p 2 2 2 2 1 2 0 Bernoulli p1 gy1 p2 gy2 p gy Torricelli h Bernoulli 1 1 pE 2 gh pK 2 0 1 yE y1 h yK y2 0 2 2 pE pK pat 2 0 3 4 1 1 2 1 2 pat 0 gh pat 2 0 gh 2gh 2 2 2gh Torricelli H h h A E A K A E A K
               8                             1 1 2 1  m 2                              2                                  ...
Bernoulli F F 0 F F F F F F F S I 1 N s m 2 poise 1 dyn s cm 2 10 1 N s m 2 1 dyn 10 5 N 1 cm 2 10 4 m 2 F R 15
                                              Bernoulli                                                                 . ...
8 m V F p pat 1Atm p kg m3 kg m3 N m2 Pa N m 2 1 tm 105 Pa Pa N m 2 m s m3 s 1 2 2 J m3 gy J m3 N s m 2 m m m 1 V V F F p 2 A A pat 1Atm 105 Pa 3 p gh 4 V A 5 t A1 1 2 2 1 2 6 Bernoulli p1 1 2 1 gy1 p2 22 gy2 7 2 1 2 Torricelli 2gh F 8 9 m V m V F p F F F A p h p A1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 p1 12 gy1 p2 22 gy2 Bernoulli 2 2 y1 y2 0 1 1 Bernoulli p1 12 p2 22 2 2 1 2 0 Bernoulli p1 gy1 p2 gy2 2 R A R 2 4 V Ah R 2 h p 16
               8                                            .                                                             ...
1 P AS C AL 1 2 3 4 pA p p F pA gh A 5 m pA p p pA p pA pat p pA pat gh pA p gh pA Mg gh A 6 pA 0 p 1gh1 p 1gd1 pE 1gd1 2 gh2 pZ 1gd1 2 gd 2 2 pA M m g A gh 7 pA p p pE pZ pat pat 1gh1 pat 1gd1 pat 1gd1 2 gh2 pat 1gd1 2 gd 2 p gh h 17
                                               .                                             .1                           ...
8 3 1 2 h1 2 h2 1 p pat 1g h1 d p pat 1gh1 1gd 1 p pat 2 gh2 1gd 2 1 2 pat 1gh1 1gd pat 2 gh2 1gd 1 gh1 2 gh2 3 h1 2 h2 1 4 pA p 3 pA pat 1gh1 p pat 2 gh2 pat 1gh1 pA p pE pZ pE pat pZ pat 2 gh pE pz U V 998 kg m 3 18 4 cm d 1 56 cm g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa V 998 kg m 18 4 cm 0 184 m d 1 56 cm 0 0156 m g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa pA 3 p pat g h pat g gh 1 p pat g d gh 2 1 2 pat g gh pat g d gh g g d d 0 184 998 kg m3 920 kg m3 0 1996 d 1 pA pat g pA 105 998 10 0 184 Pa pA 101 836 32 Pa 2 pA p p pat g d 105 920 10 0 1996 Pa 101 836 32 Pa pA p 101 836 32 Pa 18
               8      .3                                                                                                  ...
4 U 13 600 kg m 3 h 20 cm g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa 13 600 kg m 2 h 20 cm 0 2 m g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa p p pA 1 pA p 2 p pat gh 105 13 600 10 0 2 Pa 127 200 Pa p 127 200 Pa 3 1 2 3 p 127 200 Pa 5 h F F p F p gh F h F1 p gh1 F2 p gh2 F3 pE gh3 h3 h2 h1 F3 F2 F1 p F F pA F pA ghA F F m B V m 1 V hA 2 B mg 3 V 1 3 m F pA ghA 2 gV mg B V F B F B 19
                .4                                                                                                        ...
8 r 0 1 m 0 4 m 1 000 kg m3 10 6 m2 g 10 m s2 3 14 r 0 1 m 0 4 m 1 000 kg m3 g 10 m s2 3 14 F p p g 1 A r 2 2 1 F pA 2 g r 2 1000 10 0 4 3 14 0 01 N 125 6 N F 125 6 N 10 6 m 2 F p gr 3 F p gr 1 000 10 0 1 10 6 10 3 F 10 3 N 6 F1 A 1 F2 A2 d1 A 2 d2 A1 WF1 WF2 F1d1 F2d2 F1 d1 F2 d 2 F2 F1 d2 d1 2 1 F1 A1 F p1 1 1 Pascal A1 A 2 F F2 p2 2 2 Pascal A2 1 F1 F F A p1 p2 2 2 1 1 3 A1 A2 F2 A2 B F2 d1 d 2 V d A V A1d1 A 2d 2 1 2 4 d2 A1 WF1 F1d1 WF F d 3 A1 A 2 1 1 1 4 1 WF1 WF2 WF2 F2d 2 WF2 F2 d 2 A 2 A1 20
               8                                                                                              r   0,1 m,  ...
m 1 000 kg F1 m d2 0 1 m F1 F2 R1 R 2 5R1 g 10 m s2 m 1 000 kg R 2 5R1 g 10 m s 2 F1 F1 A1 R12 1 F p1 1 2 A1 Pascal A2 R22 3 F2 p2 F2 A2 4 Pascal p1 p2 2 4 F1 F F A 2 1 1 A1 A2 F2 A2 1 3 F1 R12 F1 R12 F 1 1 1 F1 F 5 2 2 25 25 2 F2 F2 F2 R 2 25R1 F2 B mg 10 000 N 5 F1 1 10 000 N F1 400 N 25 d 2 0 1 m d1 d1 d 2 V V A1d1 A 2d 2 R12d1 R 22d 2 R12d1 25R12d 2 d1 25d 2 d1 2 5 m WF1 WF2 WF1 F1d1 400 2 5 J 1 000 J WF1 1 000 J WF2 F2d 2 10 000 0 1 J 1 000 J WF2 1 000 J 21
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8 B 7 1 2 A1 1 2 2 m1 1 m 2 2 m1 m2 V1 V2 1 h 10 m 2 m s 2 5 m h d1 10 m 1 2 m s d 2 2 5 m 2 10 d 1 2 1 1 2 2 d1h 1 d 2 h 2 d1 1 d 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 m s 2 8 m s 2 5 d2 2 h1 2 m 1 0 8 m s 2 4 m s h1 2 m 1 0 8 m s 2 4 m s h2 d 0 8 1 2 1 1 2 2 dh1 1 dh2 2 h1 1 h2 2 h2 h1 1 h2 2 m h2 0 4 m 4 2 3 1 44 10 3 m3 s 12 cm 1 4 1 44 10 m s 3 3 12 cm 12 2 10 m 2 4 4 1 44 10 3 m s 0 4 m s 2 4 122 10 4 1 1 0 4 m s A 2 A 2 4 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 4 1 2 1 6 m s 4 22
               8    B.                                       .7                                                           ...
4 10 2 m3 s 10 1 cm 1 0 45 m g 10 m s2 10 2 m3 s 10 1 cm 10 10 2 m 10 1 m g 10 m s2 1 A1 2 1 4 10 2 2 2 m 2 10 m 2 A 10 m2 1 4 4 4 1 1 1 10 2 m s 1 4 m s 1 10 2 4 2 1 A 2 A1 h 0 45 m A2 1 1 2 1 2 h 0 45 m 1 1 2 2 2 1 K WB 2 12 2gh 2 1 A 2 2 1 1 m 22 m 12 mgh 22 12 2gh 22 12 2gh 2 2 42 2 10 0 45 m s 2 5 m s 10 2 4 2 10 2 2 m m 2 10 3 m 2 A 2 2 10 3 m2 5 4 5 A 2 1 1 2 2 2 10 2 2 2 m A 2 2 10 3 m2 2 5 23
              4.                                                                                             10 2 m3  s.  ...
8 8 B ERNO UL LI p1 1 2 1 gy1 p2 22 gy2 2 1 2 T y1 1 p1 y2 2 p2 1 h 5 m 2Atm 10 m s 1 82 Atm 103 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa h 5 m p1 2Atm 2 105 Pa 1 10 m s p2 1 82Atm 1 82 105 Pa 103 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa 2 1 2 1 2 ernoulli p1 1 gy1 p2 gy2 1 2 2 2 y1 0 y2 h 1 1 1 1 1 p1 12 0 p2 22 gh 2 105 103 102 1 82 105 103 22 103 10 5 2 2 2 2 200 000 50 000 182 000 500 22 50 000 500 22 18 000 22 36 m 2 s2 2 6 m s A 1 A2 6 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 10 2 1 2 2 5 2 5Atm 3Atm h 103 kg m2 g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa p1 5Atm 5 105 Pa g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa h 1 2 1 2 Bernoulli p1 gy1 p2 gy2 1 2 1 2 2 y1 0 y2 h A1 A2 A 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 1 1 p1 12 0 p2 12 gh p1 p2 gh 4 1 2 2 p1 p2 5 105 3 105 2 105 gh p1 p2 h h m m 20 m h 20 m 3 g 10 10 104 24 p2 3Atm 3 105 Pa 103 kg m3
               8      .8                                               B ERNO UL LI p1    1 2 1       gy1   p2     22    g...
4 Bernoulli p1 p2 gh p2 p1 h p p1 p2 gh h 3 1 18 cm2 2 6 cm2 1 4 m s 2 103 kg m 3 g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa A1 18 cm 2 A 2 6 cm 2 1 4 m s 103 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa 2 18 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 4 m s 2 12 m s 6 2 p1 1 2 1 2 1 gy1 p2 gy2 1 2 2 2 y1 y2 0 p pat 1Atm 105 Pa 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 p1 12 p2 22 p1 p2 22 12 p1 105 103 122 103 42 Pa 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 100 000 72 000 8 000 Pa 164 000 Pa 1 64 10 Pa p1 1 64 10 Pa Bernoulli p1 4 20 m s p F A 100 m2 1 2 kg m 3 1Atm 105 Pa 20 m s 0 1 2 kg m 1Atm 10 Pa p 0 1 2 1 2 Bernoulli pB gy1 p gy2 1 2 2 y1 y2 0 1 1 1 1 1 pB 2 0 p 0 0 p p 2 p 2 p 1 2 202 Pa p 240 Pa 2 2 2 2 A 100 m 2 F p F F A p F 100 240 N F 24 000 N pB p pat 1Atm 105 Pa p p p p p p pB 100 000 240 Pa pB 99 760 Pa 3 5 25
                                                  4                                                                       ...
8 9 V ENTO URI 1 2gh 2 A1 A 1 2 Ventouri A1 A 2 h pB p1 pat gh1 p p2 pat gh2 p1 p2 pat gh1 pat gh2 g h1 h2 gh p1 p2 gh 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 Bernoulli p1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 gy1 p2 22 gy2 3 2 2 y1 y2 0 3 p1 p1 p2 gh 1 2 1 p2 22 2 1 2 1 12 2 1 2 1 2 22 1 2 1 2 gh p1 1 2 1 2 1 p2 12 12 2 2 2 1 2 12 1 2 1 2 2 2gh 1 2 12 1 2 1 12 1 2 2 A12 1 A 22 2gh 2 A1 A 1 2 A1 3A 2 h 0 1 m 1 2gh 26 2 A1 A 1 2 g 10 m s2 1 2 10 0 1 m s 32 1 2 m s 0 5 m s 1 0 5 m s 8
               8      .9                                 V ENTO URI  1    2gh 2    A1      A      1 2                     ...
10 TO RRI C EL LI 2gh 14 Torricelli Smax h h gh 2gh 45 2 d B Torricelli 2g h d 1 d x y 1 2 x x t 2 y gt 3 y gt 4 2 x S y d x S S 2 S t t 5 5 1 1 S2 1 gS2 S2 y d d gt 2 d g 2 d d S2 4hd 4d 2 4d 2 4hd S 2 0 6 4 2 2 4g h d 4 h d d 0 4h Smax h 7 2 4 4S2 0 16h2 16S2 0 16S2 16h2 S h 2 6 S Smax h 4d 2 4hd h2 0 2d h 0 2d h 0 2d h d 1 5 8 h 2g h 2 7 t h 9 gh 2 2y t 9 11 h g 2g h 2 10 3 gh gh 10 2gh gh y g h 8 2 9 h y g gh 11 2gh 27
                .10                                TO RRI C EL LI                                            .            ...
8 1 m h d 8 2 8 1 1 2 2 W m m mgd W K B 2 2 9 2 2 2 gh gh 2gh 2 Bernoulli Bernoulli 1 2 1 2 p gy1 p gy2 12 2 2 h y1 d 8 y2 0 Bernoulli 2 p p pat 13 13 9 1 h 1 12 pat 2 g pat 2 0 2 2 gh 2 2 2 2 2gh 2gh 9 11 y gh 45 Torricelli 2g h h1 1 h1 x S t 2 y h1 2 1 S 3 2h1 S 2 h1 h h1 g 2g h h1 1 2 gt t 2 4 S 2 h2 h h2 5 2 h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h S SA 1 1 4 5 2 h1 h h1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 h h1 h2 6 h h1 d 7 6 7 h2 d E AB ZH S1 S5 E S2 S4 E S3 Smax 28 2h1 g 3
               8                                                             1                                            ...
1 h 1 25 m 2 cm2 5 L g 10 m s2 h 1 25 m A 2 cm 2 2 10 4 m 2 V 5 L 5 10 3 m3 g 10 m s2 t Torricelli 14 2 10 1 25 m s 5 m s 1 1 2 A V t 2gh 2 V V 5 10 3 t t s t 5 s t A 2 10 4 5 2 h 1 8 m 10 cm2 4 10 3 m3 s h g 10 m s2 h 1 8 m A 10 cm 2 10 10 4 m 2 10 3 m 2 4 10 3 m3 s g 10 m s2 Torricelli 2gh 2 10 1 8 m s 6 m s 6 m s 6 10 3 m3 s 4 10 3 m3 s h 4 10 3 m s 4 m s 10 3 42 2 m 0 8 m h 0 8 m 2gh 2 2gh h 2g 2 10 29
                                 1.                                                                                       ...
8 11 h T W P 1 m 2 mgh 2 1 2 gh A 2 W P 1 Bernoulli 1 2 1 2 pB gy1 p gy2 1 2 2 0 y1 0 y2 h 1 1 1 2 1 pB 0 0 p 2 gh pB p 2 gh p gh 2 2 2 2 m W pV 2 1 2 1 m 2 m 1 1 2 2 2 gh V 2 V V gh V 2 m mgh W 2 m mgh F F A p P F 3 2 1 F 2 gh A 3 2 1 P 2 gh A 2 2 m W K W WB 1 1 m 2 0 W mgh W m 2 mgh 4 2 2 m 2 mgh 2 m W 4 2 P 5 P gh P t t 2 t V A 6 t 5 30 V m t t 7 V t 6 m 7 t 2 1 P gh P 2 gh A 2 2
               8       . 11                                                                                               ...
1 1 000 kg m3 900 kg m3 d1 20 cm d2 30 cm 1 cm2 A 400 cm2 264 N 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 1 000 kg m3 p 900 kg m3 d1 20 cm 0 2 m d 2 30 cm 0 3 m 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 1 p pat gd1 105 900 10 0 2 Pa 101 800 Pa p 101 800 Pa p 1 p pat gd1 gd 2 105 900 10 0 2 1 000 10 0 3 Pa 104 800 Pa p 104 800 Pa 1 cm 2 10 4 m 2 F1 5 p 101 800 Pa p pat 1Atm 100 000 Pa p1 p pE 1 800 Pa F1 F1 p1 1 800 10 4 0 18 F1 0 18 N A 400 cm 2 4 10 2 m 2 F2 5 p 104 800 Pa pZ pat 1Atm 100 000 Pa p2 p p 4 800 Pa F2 F2 p2 A 4 800 4 10 2 N 192 N F2 192 N F 264 V d p F V Ad 1 F 264 F F 264 F 264 F p p p Pa p 6 600 Pa A 4 10 2 p p p p p pZ p 6 600 100 000 Pa p 106 600 Pa p pat g d d1 gd 2 106 600 100 000 900 10 d 0 2 1 000 10 0 3 106 600 104 800 9 000d 9 000d 1 800 d 0 2 m 1 V 4 10 2 0 2 m3 V 8 10 3 m3 31
                                                          1.                                                              ...
8 2 A1 1 cm2 A 2 10 cm2 k 1 000 N m 0 1 m 1 g 10 m s2 A1 1 cm 2 A 2 10 cm 2 k 1 000 N m g 10 m s2 6 0 1 m m 0 1 m F1 F1 B mg 1 F p1 1 2 A1 Pascal F F2 p2 2 3 A2 2 F2 F1 A1 F1 1 F1 Pascal p1 p2 3 F2 10F1 4 10 A1 A2 F2 A2 F2 F k F2 F k 5 4 1 5 k 10mg m k 1 000 0 1 m kg m 1 kg 10g 10 10 d d 2 0 1 m d1 d 2 V 10 A V A1d1 A 2d 2 d1 d 2 2 d1 0 1 m d1 1 m 1 A1 d d1 d 2 d 1 1 m WF1 F 1 1 WF1 WF U k 2 1 000 0 12 J 5 J WF1 5 J 2 2 WF1 WF2 WF1 F1d1 WF2 F2d 2 32
               8    2.                                                                                                    ...
3 H 2 m h 10 cm2 2 m s h 2 tm 1 000 kg m 3 g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa 204 14 3 240 15 5 H 2m A 10 cm 10 m 3 2 204 14 3 2 m s 2 1 000 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa 240 15 5 h 10 2 10 3 m3 s Bernoulli 1 2 1 2 pZ gy1 p gy2 1 2 Z 2 pZ p pat 2 0 3 y1 h y2 0 1 2 3 1 2 2 22 0 h h m h 0 2 m 2 2g 2 10 pat 0 gh pat S 10 d H h 1 8 m x S t 4 2d 1 2 gt t t 0 6 s g 2 4 S 2 0 6 m S 1 2 m y d p Z 2Atm 2 105 Pa 10 Bernoulli 1 1 pZ 2 gy1 p 2 gy2 5 2 Z 2 p Z 2Atm 2 105 Pa p 1 tm 105 Pa Z 0 y1 h y2 0 1 5 p Z 0 gh p 2 0 2 1 200 000 1 000 10 0 2 100 000 1 000 2 204 m s 14 3 m s 2 S t S 14 3 0 6 m s S 8 58 m S S 8 58 1 2 m 7 38 m 7 38 m 33
              3.                                                                                                          ...
8 Bernoulli 1 1 2 p 2 gy1 pE gy2 6 2 2 E y1 d 1 8 m y2 0 p pE pat 7 7 1 1 6 pat 2 gd pat 2 0 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 gd E 2gd 2 2gd 2 2 204 2 10 1 8 m s 240 m s 15 5 m s Bernoulli 4 0 6 cm 10 m 0 2 cm 9 m s i F1 F2 ii W V 10 3 m3 1 000 kg m3 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 3 14 r1 0 6 cm 6 10 3 m g 10 m s2 r2 0 2 cm 2 10 3 m h 10 m 2 9 m s 1 000 kg m3 1Atm 105 Pa 3 14 1 7 A1 r12 1 A2 r22 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 r12 1 3 14 6 10 3 113 04 10 6 m3 s 113 04 10 6 m3 s 34 2 r 1 r12 1 r22 2 1 2 2 1 9 m s 1 1 m s 3 r1 1 m s 2 3
               8                                                              Bernoulli                            ,   ,  ...
p1 8 Bernoulli 1 2 1 2 gy1 p2 gy2 3 p1 2 1 2 2 p p2 pat 1Atm 105 Pa y1 0 y2 h 4 1 1 1 1 3 p1 12 0 p2 22 gh p1 p2 22 12 gh 2 2 2 2 1 1 p1 100 000 1 000 92 1 000 12 1 000 10 10 Pa 2 2 4 p1 240 000 Pa 2 4 105 Pa 2 4Atm i F1 F2 Bernoulli 13 F1 p1A1 o F2 p2 A 2 F1 p1A1 p1 r12 2 4 105 3 14 6 10 3 F1 27 1296 N F2 p2 A 2 p2 r22 105 3 14 2 10 3 F2 1 256 N 2 2 N 27 1296 N N 1 256 N ii V 10 3 m3 W Bernoulli 13 t m s1 m V s2 W W WF1 WF2 F1 s1 F2 s2 p1A1 s1 p2 A 2 s2 W p1 A1 s1 p2 A2 s2 5 V A1 s1 A2 s2 6 5 6 W p1 V p2 V W p1 p2 V W 2 4 105 105 10 3 J W 1 4 102 J 140 J V B U t B 1 2 1 1 1 000 12 J m3 500 J m3 2 2 1 2 K 500 J m3 V B 2 1 gy1 0 y1 0 U gy1 0 V B 35
                  p1       .8                                                       Bernoulli                            ,...
8 5 0 2 m3 s 1 Atm H 20 m h 15 m 103 kg m 3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa 0 2 m3 s H 20 m p1 1 Atm 103 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa 1 7 1 3 0 H 20 m 1 1 K WB m 32 m 12 mgH 2 2 1 2 0 m 1 mgH 1 2gH 1 2 10 20 m s 1 20 m s 2 1 7 1 1 1 0 2 2 A1 m A1 10 2 m2 1 20 h 15 m A 2 p2 8 1 2 h 15 m 1 1 K WB m 22 m 12 mgh 22 12 2gh 2 2 2 12 2gh 1 2 202 2 10 15 m s 2 10 m s 0 2 2 A 2 2 A 2 A2 m A 2 0 02 m2 2 10 1 1 2 gy1 p2 2 gy2 2 2 1 2 2 y1 0 y2 h Bernoulli p1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 p2 22 gh 100 000 1 000 202 p2 1 000 102 1 000 10 15 2 1 2 2 2 p2 100 000 Pa p2 1 Atm 2 p1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 p2 22 gh p1 12 p2 12 2gh gh 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 p1 1 p2 1 gh gh p1 p2 p2 1 Atm 2 2 2 p1 p p 1 Atm 36
               8    5.                                                                                                    ...
6 0 1 m2 m 5 4 kg 20 m s p F 2 1 2 kg m 3 g 10 m s2 0 1 m 2 m 5 4 kg 1 20 m s 1 2 kg m3 g 10 m s2 p 8 0 p patm Bernoulli 1 1 2 gy1 p 2 gy2 1 p 2 2 y1 y2 0 1 1 1 1 p 12 0 p 0 0 p p 12 p 12 2 2 2 1 2 p 1 2 20 Pa p 240 Pa 2 F 5 p F F A p F 0 1 240 N F 24 N 2 1 2 2 2 2 F 0 F w A p mg p A 1 2 mg 2 2 2 2mg 2 A 2 2 5 4 10 m s 2 30 m s 0 1 1 2 7 1 kg m 3 120 m s 100 m s p 50 m2 g 10 m s2 1 kg m 3 120 m s 100 m s g 10 m s2 p 8 Bernoulli 1 1 pB 2 gy1 p 2 gy2 1 2 2 y1 y2 0 1 1 1 1 1 pB 2 p 2 p pB 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 37
              6.                                                                                    0,1 m2 ,          m   ...
8 Bernoulli 1 1 p pB 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 p p p 3 p pB 2 2 pB 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 p p 1 120 100 Pa p 2 200 Pa 2 2 50 m 2 m 5 p F F A p F 2 200 50 N F 110 000 N F F 0 F w F mg m m 11 000 kg g 8 U 24 m s 800 kg m3 1 2 kg m 3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa 1 24 m s 800 kg m3 1 2 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa h 8 2 0 p2 patm Bernoulli 1 1 p1 12 gy1 p2 2 gy2 1 2 2 2 y1 y2 0 1 1 1 p1 12 0 patm 0 0 p1 2 patm 2 2 2 1 p pE p1 gh patm 3 2 1 1 2 3 p1 12 p1 gh 12 gh h 1 2 2 2 g 1 2 242 h m h 0 0432 m h 4 32 cm 2 800 10 h p p 3 p patm p1 gh h g 38
               8                                                              Bernoulli                            ,      ...
9 1 20 m s h 103 kg m 3 1 2 kg m 3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa 1 20 m s 10 kg m 3 3 1 2 kg m 3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa p1 8 2 0 p2 patm Bernoulli 1 1 2 gy1 p2 2 gy2 1 p1 2 1 2 2 y1 y2 0 1 1 12 0 pat 0 0 p1 patm 12 2 2 1 p1 100 000 1 2 202 Pa p1 99 760 Pa 2 1 p1 p1 99 760 Pa patm 100 000 Pa p patm p1 240 Pa h 8 0 0 pB p1 99 760 Pa pE patm 105 Pa 1 1 2 gy1 patm 2 gy2 2 2 2 y1 h y2 0 p p1 2 p1 0 gh pat 0 0 gh patm p1 h atm g 240 h m h 0 024 m h 2 4 cm 103 10 Bernoulli p1 39
              9.                                                                                .                         ...
8 10 0 01 m2 h1 0 55 m h2 0 45 m h1 h2 h1 103 kg m 3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa 0 01 m 2 h1 0 55 m h2 0 45 m 103 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa 7 8 Bernoulli 1 1 pA 2 gy1 p 2 gy2 1 2 2 pA p pat 2 0 3 y1 h2 y2 0 2 1 1 1 3 pat 0 gh2 pat 2 0 gh2 2 2 2 2gh2 2 10 0 45 m s 3 m s 0 01 3 m3 s 0 03 m3 s p 7 8 1 2 A 2gh2 4 3 m s Bernoulli 1 1 pA 2 gy1 p 2 gy2 5 2 2 0 6 y1 0 y2 h1 2 4 1 1 5 6 pat 0 0 p 2 gh1 p pat 2gh2 gh1 2 2 p at g h1 h2 6 p 100 000 1 000 10 0 55 0 45 Pa p 90 000 Pa p 9 104 Pa h1 max p 0 h1 h2 40 6 pat g h1 h2 0 g h1 h2 pat 100 000 pat p p h1 at h2 h1 max at h2 h1 max 0 45 m h1 max 9 55 m g g g 1 000 10
               8    10.                                                                                                   ...
8 1 8 1 1 8 1 2 8 1 3 p pat gh 8 1 7 p h 8 1 8 8 1 9 8 1 4 8 1 5 p 8 1 6 8 1 10 41
                             8                      1                      8.1.1.                                         ...
8 8 1 11 8 1 12 8 1 13 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 A1 1 2 2 8 1 14 8 1 15 m1 A1 t m 2 A 2 m1 m 2 m1 m 2 m1 m 2 m1 m 2 8 1 16 42 8 1 17 8 1 18 Bernoulli 8 1 19 H Bernoulli p 2 gy 1 p gy2 2 1 p 2 gy 2 1 p gy2 2 8 1 20 8 1 21 Bernoulli
               8    8.1.11.                                                                                               ...
8 1 22 Bernoulli Bernoulli 8 1 23 Bernoulli 8 1 24 Bernoulli 8 1 25 pat pat 8 1 26 pat pat 8 1 27 8 1 28 F 0 43
              8.1.22.                                                                                                     ...
8 8 1 29 F F 8 1 30 F F F A F A F A F 8 1 31 F A 8 1 32 R 8 1 33 2 8 2 1 h p p p p p p p p p p p p 8 2 2 44 F F F F F F F F F F F F 8 2 3 U 1 2
               8    8.1.29.                                                                                               ...
h1 1 h2 2 h1 2 h2 1 h1 2 h 2 12 1 22 h2 h2 2 1 8 2 4 U 1 1 000 kg m3 2 800 kg m3 h 5 cm 1 cm 2 cm 4 cm 5 cm 8 2 5 h 3 m R 10 d 5 cm 20 cm 10 cm 15 cm 8 2 8 d1 d 2 WF1 WF2 WF1 WF1 A A 1 2 WF2 A2 WF2 A1 WF1 WF1 1
                   h1     1 h2  2       h1     2 h2  1  h1  2 h  2   12     1   22 h2 h2  2  1                            ...
8 8 2 12 1 4 m s 1 9 cm 2 2 6 m s 6 cm 2 12 cm 2 3 cm 2 27 cm 2 8 2 13 1 2 cm 20 2 0 2 cm 1 0 5 m s 1 m s 2 m s 2 5 m s 5 m s 8 2 14 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 2 4 1 2 4 1 1 2 1 4 2 1 2 2 4 1 8 2 15 10 m3 s 8 64 107 m3 100 120 150 200 8 2 17 m3 s 6 m3 s 6 m3 s 8 m3 s 8 m3 s 8 2 18 8 2 19 8 2 20 8 2 21 8 2 16 4 m s g 10 m s2 0 4 m 0 8 m 1 m 1 2 m 46 h 1 2h 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
               8    8.2.12.                                                                      1   4 m s.               ...
8 2 22 8 2 25 10 m s 1 2 kg m3 1 tm 105 Pa A p 20 Pa 30 Pa 40 Pa 60 Pa F 50 m 2 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 8 2 26 8 2 23 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 1 2 3 p1 p2 p3 p2 p1 p3 p2 p1 p3 h1 h2 h3 h2 h1 h3 h2 h1 h3 1 2 p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 8 2 27 8 2 24 3Atm 2Atm 103 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1Atm 105 Pa h 5 m 10 m 15 m 20 m h1 h2 h1 h2 h1 h2 47
              8.2.22.                                          8.2.25.                                                    ...
8 8 2 28 A1 1 F1 1 2 F2 F2 2F1 F2 4F1 F2 8F1 F2 16F1 A 8 3 1 100 m 1 m 0 6 m 1 020 kg m3 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 8 3 2 20 cm 1 000 kg m 2 920 kg m3 d1 10 cm d 2 20 cm g 10 m s2 8 3 3 1 000 kg m3 800 kg m3 d1 30 cm d 2 103 400 Pa d 2 F1 2 cm 2 F2 34 N 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 8 3 4 4 cm 2 d1 0 1 m 2 d 1 000 kg m 3 g 10 m s2 8 3 5 U 1 000 kg m3 900 kg m3 d 0 1 m 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 48
               8    8.2.28.                                                                             A1                ...
20 8 3 6 h 10 m R cm 1 030 kg m3 g 10 m s2 8 3 7 U 13 600 kg m3 p 154 400 Pa h 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 8 3 8 m 2 000 kg F1 m d 2 0 01 m F1 F2 R1 R 2 8R1 g 10 m s2 8 3 9 A1 A 2 5A1 k m 2 kg 0 1 m k 1 g 10 m s2 8 3 10 1 1 4 m s 10 cm 2 5 cm 8 3 11 1 44 10 3 m3 s 1 0 4 m s 1 0 192 m g 10 m s2 49
              20  8.3.6.                                                                 h   10 m                         ...
8 8 3 12 3Atm 8 m s 2 84Atm A1 10 cm 2 A 2 20 cm 2 h F1 F2 1 000 kg m3 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 8 3 13 1 82Atm 6 m s 10 m s 5 cm 2 h 5 m W V 10 3 m3 1 000 kg m3 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 8 3 14 8 10 3 m3 s A 10 3 m 2 4 tm 3 tm h W m 1 kg 1 000 kg m3 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 8 3 15 48 10 4 m3 s A1 12 cm 2 A 2 2 2Atm 1 2 2 1 000 kg m3 1Atm 105 Pa 50
               8    8.3.12.                                                                                               ...
8 3 16 30 m s p F A 100 m 2 1 2 kg m3 1Atm 105 Pa g 10 m s2 8 3 17 2 4 10 3 m3 s A1 A 2 1 2 2 1 26Atm 1 2Atm 1 2 1 2 1 000 kg m3 1Atm 105 Pa 8 3 18 Ventouri A1 A 2 A1 2A 2 h 0 15 m h 1 1 000 kg m3 g 10 m s2 8 3 19 h 0 8 m 3 cm 2 4 8 L g 10 m s2 8 3 20 h 0 8 m A 20 cm 2 6 10 3 m3 s h A1 1 5 m 2 g 10 m s2 8 3 21 h 1 8 m 10 cm 2 8 10 3 m3 s 3 2 m g 10 m s2 51
              8.3.16.                                                             ,                                       ...
8 8 3 22 H 1 25 m h 0 45 m 20 cm 2 g 10 m s2 8 3 23 h 0 9 m d d Smax g 10 m s2 8 3 24 H 5 m 1 Atm 0 04 m 2 h 1 8 m 103 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa 8 3 25 0 2 m 2 10 m s p F 1 2 kg m3 g 10 m s2 8 3 26 0 8 kg m3 100 m s 80 m s p 60 m 2 g 10 m s2 8 3 27 U 18 m s 900 kg m3 1 2 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa 52
               8    8.3.22.                                                                                               ...
8 3 28 1 25 m s h 103 kg m3 1 2 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa 8 3 29 0 02 m 2 4 m s 8 104 Pa h2 h1 h1 h2 h1 103 kg m3 g 10 m s2 1 Atm 105 Pa 8 3 30 A 40 cm 2 h 10 m 4 m s 500 kg 500 kg 1 000 kg m3 g 10 m s2 53
              8.3.28.                                                                                .                    ...