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Exploring science Magazine first Issue, Dcember

COLEGIO EKIRAY EDUCACI N MONTESSORI FIRST ISSUE DECEMBER 2015
COLEGIO EKIRAY  -EDUCACI  N MONTESSORI FIRST ISSUE, DECEMBER 2015
Table of content LETTER FROM THE EDITORS 2 SCIENCE THROUGH CARTOONS 3 RUTHERFORD S EXPERIMENT BY LAURA CARRE O 3 3 365 SOLUCIONES PARA REDUCIR LA HUELLA DE CARBONO 3 SOL Y SOMBRA 3 EXPLORING ARTICLES 7 THE EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON VEGETATION JULIANA TOVAR 15 10 15 THE EFFECTS OF CHOCOLATE ON THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM BY ISABELLA ACOSTA CELIA NO CELIAC BY AINARA ECHEVERRI VILA PUEDE LA HERENCIA DE GENES ESTAR LIGADA AL G NERO POR JUAN DANIEL CASTRILL N LA POLIPLOIDIA FEN MENO POSITIVO O NEGATIVO POR PAULA SOF A TORRES Y MAR A BARROS 7 7 12 12 13 13 16 16 21 21 COLLABORATIVE WORK IN SCIENCE 24 WORKSHOP 3 PHYSICS THROUGH MIND MAPS AND COLLABORATIVE WORK WORKSHOP 1 AND 2 SCIENCE FAIR 24 25 FREE SCIENCE 26 FIRST ECO PHOTOGRAPHY CONTEST OUR SCIENCE ACTIVITIES 26 28 PRAE PROYECTO AMBIENTAL ESCOLAR 29 PRAE PROYECTO AMBIENTAL ESCOLAR POR MARCELA BERNAL PALACIO Y VANESSA LE N 29 29 P gina 1 de 30
Table of content LETTER FROM THE EDITORS  2  SCIENCE THROUGH CARTOONS  3  RUTHERFORD  S EXPERIMENT BY LAURA CARRE  O  3 3 ...
Biannual Magazine Exploring Science Workshop 3 and 4 Colegio Ekiray Educati n Montessori www colegiomontessori com Letter from the editors Greetings and a warm welcome to our very first issue of Exploring Science Magazine Important dates 10 12 2015 Ekiray Science Fair 26 01 2016 We couldn t be more excited to have made it to this point Please take some time to get to know the layout of our magazine You will notice the six categories of articles Science through Cartoons Exploring Articles Collaborative Work in Science Free Science and PRAE Within each category there are some articles for you to enjoy Environmental education day You can examine the articles and choose which to read first Just as with a paper magazine you may want to sit and read the whole thing at once or come back to this issue several times to digest the articles more slowly and learn from different science topics 04 02 2016 What you will find in the pages of Exploring Science Magazine is a collection of inspired and instructive articles written by students and teachers who work hard to have their work published in this Magazine We are honored to share the work of so many committed and thoughtful students Please read and enjoy what your classmates friends siblings and teachers have to share with you We appreciate your support and are so happy to have you as a reader of Exploring Science Magazine Best Regards Marcela Bernal and Vanessa Le n Editors 02 02 2016 Wetlands international day Free car day Magazine main topics Science through cartoons Learning science while drawing Exploring articles 7 interesting articles about science Collaborative work in science Learning physics through collaborative work Free Science Photography contest PRAE Proyecto Ambiental Escolar P gina 2 de 30
Biannual Magazine  Exploring Science Workshop 3 and 4 Colegio Ekiray  -Educati  n Montessori www.colegiomontessori.com  Le...
Science Through Cartoons Rutherford s Experiment by Laura Carre o 365 soluciones para reducir la huella de carbono Sol y Sombra Deja de depender exclusivamente de la calefacci n o calentadores el ctricos y saca partido del sol y la sombra para mantener tu casa a una temperatura agradable TIps Pinta tu casa de colores claros si vives en un lugar caluroso y oscuros si vives en un lugar fr o Cuando les da el sol las superficies oscuras pueden acumular hasta 40 C m s de calor que las superficies blancas Los exteriores de color oscuro absorben entre un 70 y un 90 de la energ a solar que llega a tu hogar P gina 3 de 30
Science Through Cartoons Rutherford  s Experiment by Laura Carre  o  365 soluciones para reducir la huella de carbono Sol ...
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Exploring Articles The effects of acid rain on vegetation Juliana Tovar 15 10 15 Introduction described the acidic nature of the From the beginning humans have rain surrounding the industrial town used natural resources to make of Manchester U K in a paper their more entitled The air and rain beginning efficient One of the main thing of chemical climatology Since humans need nowadays is energy then scientists have given acid rain Energy a more appropriate name acid lives is simpler normally and crated by burning fossil fuels like coal oil and deposition natural gas when these recourses occurred in zones around industrial are burned they release several areas as dry deposition in which toxic the acids transform into salts in soil and mostly damage the environment but due crated by the transport sector to the high pollution acids also industrialization and urbanization merge into the atmosphere and Singh and Agrawal 2006 can fall to the ground thousands of substances atmosphere they into are Initially this only miles away from the pint of emission Normally when this pollution is Singh and Agrawal 2006 found in the atmosphere we can It is rowdily believed that acid also find acid rain Acid rain is a deposition is the result of the description of several ways pollution washouts of oxides of sulphur falls out of the atmosphere in the nitrogen and other constituents way of acid This includes acid rain and the main producers of these fog hail or snow The first ever pollutants are coal fired power recorded occasion in which the station which produce SO2 sulfur concept of acid rain was used was oxides and vehicles exhausts in 1872 when Robert Angus Smith that produce NO nitrogen P gina 7 de 30
Exploring Articles The effects of acid rain on vegetation Juliana Tovar 15 10 15 Introduction  described the acidic nature...
oxides this mix with other damage buildings fauna flora and chemicals to produce corrosive humans Acid rain Wikipedia N D substances that are washed out Singh and Agrawal 2006 In this article we will analyze the effects this corrosive acids have Sulphur dioxide on vegetation and what can be done with this problem Nitrogen oxide What is acid rain Common or unpolluted rainwater There are two main sources of this has an acidic pH due to the natural type of pollution First is natural carbon dioxide in the atmosphere causes this pollution can come but this pH does not go lower than from a natural environment without 5 7 is important to clarify to the any reader for complete understanding example the principal producer of of the topic that pH measures the acid producing concentration of hydrogen in a atmosphere are volcanic emissions compound or solution When it s as an example we can see the said that pH is lower than seven the Poas volcano in Costa Rica that solution is acidic when is even is has neutral and when is higher than 7 is Caliente crater this opening in the a base So when the atmospheric planet s crust emits steam and human fumaroles intervention gases near in for the Laguna water gets in contact with the primary causatives of this event that are sulphur dioxide SO2 and oxides of nitrogen NO the pH of the rainwater solution goes lower the 5 7 because this solution is so acid it becomes corrosive and can gases with a high acidity marking a pH of 2 this causes the complete P gina 8 de 30
oxides    this  mix  with  other  damage buildings, fauna, flora and  chemicals to produce corrosive  humans  Acid rain   ...
fatality of the nearby vegetation the pH of rainwater in Sweden was and irritates the lings and eyes of the 4 or less Today in the 21 st century inhabitants settlements the main countries with a acid Second we have human causes deposition problem are Canada the main causes of acidic rain are England electric motor Norway Denmark West Germany vehicles The electric generators use The Netherland Austria Switzerland coal as a fossil fuel which the burn Russia Poland and Czechoslovakia this process produces a lot of Southwest China and Japan Singh pollution On the other hand we and Agrawal 2006 have of near generators motor and vehicles Scotland Sweden emissions which aren t very massive in each Effect of acid rain on vegetation individual vehicle but nowadays First we will see the effect of acid with a massive population that deposition in rain forests The effect needs transport the emissions are of acid deposition on higher plants increasing at a dramatic speed is only seen rather in the roots or in Acid rain Wikipedia N D the foliage the main issue is the direct impact in the foliage and consequent absorption in the roots This may cause regressive death of the crown of the tree direct damage in the plant tissue and death of the whole tree This can be The first acid deposition reported seen in 1982 in West Germany when concedes industrial 7 7 of 7 4 million hectares of forests revolution In mid 19th century they were visibly damaged and within a observed year with an the acid deposition 34 of the trees had problem in England then some discoloration issues and major lost of decades later in the late 1960s they leafs By 1984 half of the forest has discovered regional symptoms of disease The solution phenomenon in Scandinavia when for this problem has been a main a P gina 9 de 30
fatality of the nearby vegetation  the pH of rainwater in Sweden was  and irritates the lings and eyes of the  4 or less. ...
topic being intensely researched in find better and cleaner energy both Europe and North America resources due that most of the Singh and Agrawal 2006 energy we use nowadays comes Secondly we will analyze the effect from plants that burn coal as a fossil on crop plants When we say crop fuel Other alternatives could be plant small solar wind and hydraulic energy massive After finding sustainable energy we vegetation talk about planted in quantities for human consumption recourse we can reduce vehicle emissions by distributing electric cars which Another are immediate eco friendly action that must be taken is restoring the damaged areas with a constant There have been several researches about this topic and most of them confirm that when crop plants are exposed to rainwater with a pH lower than 3 0 they notably lose leaf area and the CO2 fixation decreases this is very dangerous because potentially plants could die due to their restriction of CO2 fixation Singh and Agrawal 2006 treatment and special care But by far the most important thing that must be done in individuals taking action in their everyday life for example turning off lights and other appliances that are not being used purchase energy efficient appliances use a vehicle with no NO nitrogen oxide emissions or use it less and most importantly be well informed Reducing acid rain EPA What can be done The first thing that needs to be done N D to have awareness of the situation and realize that this problem affects our environment and human health and it must be our duty to comprehend and solve this issue Next thing that can be done is to P gina 10 de 30
topic, being intensely researched in  find better and cleaner energy  both Europe and North America  resources, due that m...
Conclusion Secondly as individuals we must Acid rain problem is happening right face the problem by being well now as a result of the generalized informed about the consequences use of artifacts which depend on of our consumption habits and fossil consequently make daily changes in our lives This produce acid emission that affect may help this problem that is negatively fauna humans and as destroying ecosystems and life in we could see vegetation which is general energy and slowly decaying in certain parts of the planet Certainly the main References causes of this problem lye in the way Singh A Agrawal M 2006 Acid rain humans produce energy These and its ecological consequences common practices consequently have had a major destruction of the impact in environment Finally we saw that in the face of Journal of environmental biology Wikipeidia N D Acid rain Retrieved from https en wikipedia org wiki Acid_rain Natural_phenomena this global problem action has to Environmental Protection Agency be taken in a small and a large N D Reducing acid rain Retrived scale from in order to reduce the problem to the minimum Primarily http www3 epa gov acidrain reduci in ng index html clean governments public policies around the world regarding clean industrial production These policies must demand that industries follow certain rules about emissions National Geographic N D Acid Rain Retrived from http environment nationalgeographi c com environment globalwarming acid rain overview P gina 11 de 30
Conclusion  Secondly as individuals, we must  Acid rain problem is happening right  face the problem by being well  now as...
The effects of chocolate on the endocrine system By Isabella Acosta When you finally understand how chocolate can affect you you can strategically enjoy it for hormonal benefits The benefits of chocolate come from the cocoa this is why dark chocolate is much more helpful than milk chocolate1 Dark chocolate contains at least 50 percent cocoa and has less sugar than other forms of chocolate White chocolate is the worst it does not even have any cocoa in it It has cocoa butter and that is a completely different thing When chocolate is consumed in moderation it can help improve your hormone health plus chocolate can help lower your stress levels Chocolate contains some compounds that can react with your body to help limit the excretion of stress hormones Chocolate also has benefits for heart health Dark chocolate has flavonoids which can improve blood flow and lessen buildup of bad cholesterol Chocolate is also proven to help boost your mood really It contains phenyl ethylamine a mood elevator that makes your pulse race slightly and raises blood glucose levels Furthermore it contains anandamides and chemicals that trigger the release of endorphins all of which helps people feel happier Almost everybody experiences chocolate cravings and chocolate cravings can be hormonal One of the things that can cause them is the temporary boost in mood it gives you The person wants the happy feeling to continue after it wears off so obviously they want to eat more chocolate Women in particular may notice their cravings for chocolate increase when they are menstruating Out of control hormone levels can be a cause of cravings for chocolate A recommended serving of chocolate is two small squares of dark chocolate per day or one ounce That may be enough to stop your cravings and allow yourself to enjoy the benefits of the chocolate In addition you will not be consuming too much of the sugar and fat included inside of this tasty treat More research is still being conducted on chocolate so hopefully maybe in the near future we will be able to find even more benefits in eating chocolate Taken from http usercontent2 hubimg com 5584767_f260 jpg 1 So what should you do if you have a chocolate craving Do not be afraid to indulge yourself a little Taken from Cerebro de Pan de David Perlmutter P gina 12 de 30
The effects of chocolate on the endocrine system By Isabella Acosta When you finally understand how chocolate can affect y...
Celia No celiac BY Ainara Echeverri vila To have things clear from the beginning I think I should explain briefly what gluten is it is the general name for the different proteins that can be found in wheat rye barley and triticale Wheat can be found in bread soups pasta cereals sauces salad dressings baked goods etc Barley can be found in malt soups malt vinegar beer or food coloring Rye can be found in cereals and rye bread and beer Triticale is a hybrid of wheat Triticum and rye Secale and can be found in cereals breads and pasta Now you know what it is and where it can be found If you need a no gluten diet you should take this into account But gluten as many other things has its dark side Gluten is considered a potential neurotoxin according to the Gluten Free Society It causes neurological damage before gastrointestinal symptoms like upset stomach appear There are many diseases related to sensibility to gluten some are autoimmune some are allergies and some others are innate However in this article I want to focus on one specific disease that may affect the nervous system celiac Celiac disease is a very common autoimmune disease or condition in which the person has an unfavorable reaction to gluten it is not an allergy or intolerance to gluten It is autoimmune because the immune system fails and attacks its own organs and tissues and in this case it affects the gastrointestinal tract because it swells The inflammation can cause the villi small finger like structures that help the small intestine absorb nutrients to be shortened and eventually flattened out When this happens cause intestinal damage which leads to the symptoms listed below Symptoms Some of the gastrointestinal symptoms that can appear after eating foods containing gluten are Diarrhea caused by bad absorption of nutrients Flatulence Abdominal pain Weight loss Constant tiredness caused by malnutrition not getting enough nutrients from food2 Children not growing at the expected rate3 Gastrointestinal tract inflammation Inflammation can increase the risk of developing certain cancers such as small intestine or esophagus cancer In addition the bad absorption of nutrients can cause several different problems in many organs of the affected person anemia caused by iron deficiency vitamin deficiencies osteoporosis itchy skin rashes joint pain chronic fatigue infertility and recurrent miscarriages among others However what is going on with the nervous system Why is it affected by gluten Well some neurological problems have been associated with the disease These include migraines depression ADHD Attention 2 2 http www nhs uk conditions Coeliac disease Pages Introduction aspx P gina 13 de 30
Celia  No, celiac  BY  Ainara Echeverri   vila To have things clear from the beginning, I think I should explain briefly w...
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and epilepsy It s important to take into account that people affected by this disease can have one or many of the listed health problems but may not have gastrointestinal symptoms or they might just not have celiac disease at all but another disease because all symptoms are unspecific they occur in various diseases Treatment Celiac disease is still under investigation because its causes and cures and not clear So far there is no cure for this disease although a gluten free diet could help control symptoms and prevent long term consequences of the disease It is important though that even if you have no apparent symptoms you should change your diet to prevent future health problems and serious complications Most people are more likely to be affected by gluten because of genetics and mostly if their ancestors are from northern Europe although the inheritance pattern is unknown The majority of people that could possibly inherit the disorder are at major risk of getting sick because they all have a light intolerance to gluten in their genes In order to treat patients with celiac disease doctor must take into account that celiac disease not only affects the small intestine and the immune system it can also affect the nervous system Celiac disease can be symptomatic or silent If it is symptomatic it will show evident symptoms that can serve as a diagnosis but if it is silent there will be no symptoms Silent celiac disease can stay undiagnosed for several years and people who are affected by it have immune proteins antibodies in their blood as well as inflammatory damage in the small intestine which can be detected with a biopsy Complications If the disease is not treated on time it can cause several problems in the body Some long term complications are osteoporosis anemia and vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency anemia In addition if the disease is not treated it can cause serious damage in the brain by causing problems in its functioning because the immune system can start attacking it too since the celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder Less common but more serious complications include those that affect pregnancy such as a low birth weight baby or miscarriage In addition if the disease advances to an uncontrollable point it can cause bowel cancer Diagnosis In the vast majority of the cases the disease is not diagnosed as soon as it happens but between 6 to 10 years later Also many other cases are undiagnosed or the celiac disease is confused with another disease like irritable bowel syndrome IBS In the UK about one of every 100 people are diagnosed with the disease and reported cases are two times higher in women than in men The disease can be developed at any age although the symptoms may appear during early childhood between 8 12 months old or later adulthood between 40 60 years old During early childhood a correct diagnosis may take several years to be made P gina 14 de 30
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder , and epilepsy. It   s important to take into account that people affected by this disease ...
To diagnose celiac disease a two stage process is required first a blood test is taken to identify people with the disease and then a biopsy takes place in order to confirm the diagnosis The blood test looks for antibodies related to celiac disease If there are antibodies in the person s bloodstream they must be referred to a biopsy However it is important to know that it is possible to have the disease but not have antibodies present in the bloodstream If this occurs you get a negative blood test but if you have recurrent disease like symptoms you should be referred to a biopsy too The biopsy will reveal signs of celiac disease after the tube takes samples of your small intestine s lining The samples will be examined under a microscope to get an accurate diagnosis If you are diagnosed with celiac disease you might have to get another blood test to check your vitamins minerals and iron levels in order to determine if you have developed anemia because of the difficulty in absorbing nutrients If you have itchy skin rash you will have a skin biopsy to confirm it If you are diagnosed with the disease you must take other exams to determine how far the disease has advanced in your body and how have you been affected Always remember to go to the doctor to check for any disease or infection in your body so it can be diagnosed and treated on time To conclude I d like to say that gluten is not the bad guy all the time but you do need to be careful with the food you consume and how it can affect your body and your systems like the immune digestive or nervous References https celiac org live glutenfree glutenfreediet what is gluten http www nhs uk Conditions coeliacdisease Pages Introduction aspx http www drschaerinstitute com smartedit documents downlo ad att147020_es pdf http ghr nlm nih gov condition celiacdisease P gina 15 de 30
To diagnose celiac disease, a two-stage process is required  first, a blood test is taken to identify people with the dise...
Puede la herencia de genes estar ligada al g nero Por Juan Daniel Castrill n Los seres humanos tenemos un total de 46 cromosomas organizados en 23 pares 22 de ellos son som ticos o autosomas y los dos restantes son llamados cromosomas sexuales llamados X y Y estos dos cromosomas definen el sexo de un individuo si estos son X y X ser mujer y en caso de que sea X y Y el individuo ser hombre Es importante afirmar que el sexo del individuo es definido por el espermatozoide es decir un cromosoma X es dado por la mujer m s los espermatozoides son los que cargan el otro cromosoma X o el cromosoma Y como podemos observar en el siguiente cuadro de Punnett Por otra parte tambi n debemos afirmar es que los cromosomas X y Y tienen un segmento llamado homologo es decir que poseen los mismos genes y un sector heterologo donde los genes no se comparten En el sector diferente se encuentran genes en el cromosoma X que no se encuentran en el Y Estos genes pueden ser igualmente dominantes o recesivos En primer lugar est n los genes recesivos estos son las m s comunes enfermedades como la hemofilia La hemofilia es una enfermedad gen tica recesiva que impide la buena coagulaci n de la sangre Y el daltonismo dificultad para distinguir los colores Estos dos genes se encuentran en el cromosoma X mas no en el Y lo que impone diferentes reglas del juego en la gen tica En estos casos se encuentra que los hombres poseen aproximadamente 16 veces m s estos rasgos o enfermedades ligados al cromosoma X que las mujeres En primer lugar est n las mujeres estas poseen dos cromosomas x y por lo tanto ellas pueden ser portadoras y no mostrarlo en los siguientes ejemplos trabajare con d para daltonismo y N para persona normal en caso de que una mujer sea portadora su genotipo ser Xd XN En caso de que sea normal este ser a XN XN y en caso de que posea la enfermedad la mujer tendr a Xd Xd M s en caso de los hombres hay menos posibilidades este puede tener la enfermedad o no tenerla ya que por la falta de un segundo cromosoma X no hay P gina 16 de 30
  Puede la herencia de genes estar ligada al g  nero  Por Juan Daniel Castrill  n Los seres humanos tenemos un total de 46...
forma de que haya un gen dominante que impida portar pero no mostrar la enfermedad Los hombres con la enfermedad tendr an un genotipo Xd Y y los que no lo tienen tienen el genotipo de la siguiente manera XN Y El tercero es entre madre portadora y padre normal A continuaci n mostrar unos cruces para comprender este tema mejor En primer lugar el cruce entre padre normal y madre normal Como vemos el 50 de las hijas ser portadora y el resto ser normal y en caso de los hombres el 50 ser normal y el resto ser enfermo Ahora ser entre padre dalt nico y madre portadora Como podemos ver el 100 de los hijos son normales El segundo cruce es entre madre normal y padre dalt nico Aqu tenemos que el 50 de las mujeres tendr la enfermedad el otro 50 ser portadora y los hombres la mitad ser enfermo y la otra ser normal En caso de que la madre sea dalt nica y el padre tambi n este ser a el resultado En este caso el 100 de las mujeres ser portadora y el 100 de los varones no tendr n la enfermedad P gina 17 de 30
forma de que haya un gen dominante que impida portar, pero no mostrar la enfermedad. Los hombres con la enfermedad tendr  ...
Todos los hijos ser n enfermos Y el ltimo caso es entre madre dalt nica y padre normal Mas aqu tambi n est el caso de primero madre heterocigoto y padre sano donde un hijo y una hija ser n enfermos Tambi n est el caso de madre heterocigoto y padre enfermo donde todas las hijas ser n enfermas y solo la mitad de los hijos tendr la enfermedad Todas las hijas ser n portadoras y los hijos todos dalt nicos Aqu podemos encontrar un patr n lo primero es que los hombres nunca heredaran la enfermedad del padre ya que este no dar el cromosoma X que posee la enfermedad Otro caso es madre sana y padre enfermo este dar a como resultado la mitad de las hijas enfermas En este caso los genes no se pueden heredar de padre a hijo var n Un ejemplo de estos genes es la incontinencia pigmentaria se forman ampollas en la piel de los reci n nacidos y luego se vuelven verrugas luego aparecen remolinos marrones sobre la piel M s en el cromosoma X tambi n hay rasgos dominantes aunque estos no son tan abundantes en estos genes solo es necesario tener una copia para mostrarlo en el fenotipo Las mujeres que tengan un cromosoma afectado y el otro no igualmente se ver n afectadas Aqu si una mujer es homocigota dominante y el padre es enfermo toda la descendencia tendr la enfermedad m s si la mujer es homocigota recesiva y el padre no posee la enfermedad toda la descendencia ser sana Aunque hay tambi n genes ligados al cromosoma Y estos genes solamente ser n mostrados por los hombres Y su herencia ser solamente de padre a hijo Ejemplos de este son la ictiosis escamas en la piel y la hipertricosis auricular exceso de vello en las orejas Los cromosomas influyen en mucho m s que el sexo Estos tambi n influyen en diferentes rasgos y tienen diferentes comportamientos que los dem s genes ya que los dos genes sexuales no son autosomas y no todo lo comparten los dos X y Y P gina 18 de 30
Todos los hijos ser  n enfermos. Y el   ltimo caso es entre madre dalt  nica y padre normal   Mas aqu   tambi  n est   el ...
Para finalizar el escrito quiero poner un test de daltonismo el test funciona de la siguiente manera en las siguientes im genes podr n ver una serie de n meros Lo que har n ser anotar en una hoja aparte los n meros que ven al final ver n las respuestas Si tienen la mayor a como lo ve un dalt nico muy seguramente padeces la enfermedad aunque para m s informaci n podr s ir al oftalm logo P gina 19 de 30
Para finalizar el escrito quiero poner un test de daltonismo, el test funciona de la siguiente manera, en las siguientes i...
Imagen 1 Imagen 2 Imagen 3 Imagen 4 No dalt nico 45 6 8 5 dalt nico Nada Nada Nada 5 Tambi n esta est otro test que da informaci n m s completa para hacerlo puedes ir a el siguiente link Bibliograf a http www profesorenlinea cl Ciencias Here ncia_ligada_sexo html http blogbiologia blogspot com co 2013 03 herencia ligada al sexo html http es slideshare net arielavalos7 exposici on de genetica herencia ligada al sexo http biologia cubaeduca cu index php op tion com_content view article id 5228 3A herencia ligada al sexo http modoeficaz com eres daltonicocompruebalo con el test daltonismo P gina 20 de 30
Imagen 1 Imagen 2 Imagen 3 Imagen 4  No dalt  nico 45 6 8 5  dalt  nico Nada Nada Nada 5  Tambi  n esta est   otro test, q...
La Poliploidia fen meno positivo o negativo Por Paula Sof a Torres y Mar a Barros C lulas con m s de dos cromosomas en una pareja de cromosomas se conocen como poliploides usualmente cuando pensamos en un n mero mayor de cromosomas al usual asociamos esto con mutaciones negativas y s ndromes como el Down y el Edwards Sin embargo la poliploidia no siempre es un factor negativo En la naturaleza se ve la poliplodia en las plantas angiospermas 30 de estas plantas tienen c lulas poliploides las cuales se deben a la latitud geogr fica de la planta La poliploidia en plantas angiospermas causa el efecto giga este efecto hace que la especia aumente en tama o Se ha logrado inducir artificialmente la poliploidia para hacer que ciertas plantas crezcan m s para satisfacer las necesidades de los humanos como en la agricultura y para tener h bridos Tambi n se ha inducido artificialmente la poliploidia a animales como la trucha para que sea m s grande En los humanos la poliploidia generalmente se hace presente en desordenes gen ticos como el s ndrome de Down que es cuando el cromosoma 21 tiene 3 cromosomas en vez de 2 y el s ndrome de Edwards en el cual el cromosoma 18 tiene un cromosoma adicional Pero la poliploidia en humanos no solo se presenta como un desorden gen tico en a os pasados Andrew Duncan de la Universidad de Ciencias y Salud de Oreg n descubri que las c lulas del h gado tienen la capacidad de cambiar de n mero de cromosomas f cilmente Por la diversidad de gen tica que tiene el h gado este rgano es capaz de regenerar sus tejidos ante una lesi n r pidamente Pero por qu existen mutaciones que cambian un par normal de cromosomas por un cromosoma poliploide Cuando se replica el ADN de dos gametos para generar el ADN del hijo el proceso es muy preciso pero aun as no es perfecto Sin embargo errores en la producci n del nuevo ADN se pueden producir en cualquier parte de la estructura del ADN estos errores son los que producen mutaciones que llevan a la creaci n de poliploides Estas irregularidades se producen en la profase de la meiosis cuando los cromosomas se unen en la parte de sinapsis para formas t tradas pero no se separan en la anafase I lo que causa que una c lula est compuesta por todo el complemento cromos mico y la otra por ninguno En la segunda divisi n meiotica la c lula que produjo todo el complemento cromos mico produce gametos diploides y al unirse con la otra c lula forman un cigoto triploide que se considera poliploide Casi todos los tipos de anomal as num ricas se eliminan durante la vida prenatal por lo que las nicas que se identifican con frecuencia en el nacido vivo son las que afectan lo autosomas peque os o los cromosomas sexuales En el ltimo decenio se han llevado a cabo diversos estudios en los que se emplearon polimorfismos de DNA para investigar el origen de distintas anomal as cromos micas Las secuencias supernumerarias cromos micas son explicadas en casi el 50 de los casos por la no disyunci n paterna existe una variabilidad P gina 21 de 30
La Poliploidia    fen  meno positivo o negativo  Por  Paula Sof  a Torres y Mar  a Barros C  lulas con m  s de dos cromoso...
considerable en el estadio de la meiosis en el que origina esta En la especie humana el n mero diploide normal de cromosomas es de 46 que consisten en 22 pares de cromosomas autos micos y un par de cromosomas sexuales No es chocante que las duplicaciones de los cromosomas tengan implicaciones profundas en la expresi n g nica normal y sucedan anomal as fisiol gicas graves Es posible tener preparaciones cromos micas de cualquier tejido que se divida r pidamente deteniendo las c lulas en la metafase Sin embargo en la pr ctica solo se emplea un peque o n mero de tejidos para los an lisis cromos micos amniocitos o vellosidades El an lisis de los dem s tejidos precisa cultivos m s prolongados A finales de la d cada de 1980 se introdujeron los m todos de FISH este m todo es parecido a otros de hibridaci n DNA DNA Como las sondas para colorear cromosomas concretos se cuenta con una variedad de sondas para la hibridaci n por fluorescencia las sondas de repetici n y sondas de copia Estas reconocen las secuencias ampliadas de DNA presentes en los cromosomas El uso de FISH se ha extendido en los an lisis de amniocentesis estos estudios se efect an con l quido amni tico sin cultivar Otro campo en el que se utiliza es en la citogen tica oncol gica Adem s de los an lisis FISH en metafase e interface se ha desarrollado un repertorio de t cnicas m s potentes par algunos tipos espec ficos de an lisis tales como FISH multicolor la FISH sobre extensiones de fibra de cromatina para esta en particular es una t cnica en la que se estiran de manera mec nica los cromosomas Para poder entender la causa de las anomal as cromos micas resulta esencial revisar los movimientos de los cromosomas durante la divisi n celular Cuando la c lula empieza la mitosis cada uno de los 46 cromosomas se alinea en la placa metafasica con los centr meros orientados hacia los polos apuestos Durante la anafase se separan los cromatidas y cada c lula hija tiene tambi n 46 cromosomas P gina 22 de 30
considerable en el estadio de la meiosis en el que origina esta. En la especie humana el n  mero diploide normal de cromos...
La evidencia sugiere dos razones que explican esta variaci n 1 algunos cromosomas son m s propensos a separarse de forma an mala 2 la capacidad de desarrollo var a entre las distintas enfermedades tris micas La poliploidia como se ha demostrado en el texto es causada por diferentes variables Es importante saber cu ndo puede ser algo negativo y cuando puede ser algo positivo Cada d a hay m s descubrimientos sobre este fen meno de la naturaleza que nos ayudan a saber m s sobre el tema Referencias Al menos 10 25 de todos los embarazos supone concepciones cromos micamente anormales Los errores durante la meiosis con son sumamente frecuentes Las anomal as m s comunes son num ricas y consisten en fetos con cromosomas adiciones o faltantes Estas alteraciones cromos micas estructurales son mucho menos frecuentes La m s com n es la trisom a que es alrededor del 25 de los abortos espont neos y el 0 3 en bebes reci n nacidos http biogeneticaimaroca blogspot com co 2009 12 poliploi dia html http pendientedemigracion ucm es info genetica grupod mutacionescro mutacio nescrosomicas htm poliploidia http www monografias com trabajos7 g ecro gecro shtml http phenomena nationalgeographic co m 2010 09 23 the livers genetic conveyor HARRISON principios de medicina interna Volumen 1 P gina 23 de 30
La evidencia sugiere dos razones que explican esta variaci  n. 1  algunos cromosomas son m  s propensos a separarse de for...
Collaborative Work in Science Workshop 3 Physics through mind maps and collaborative work Workshop 3B Physics and its Effect in daily life Workshop 3A Physics and its Effect in daily life Students of each class from workshop 3 engaged in learning what physics is working as a whole team They got the opportunity for discussing debating issues making shared decisions and designing a poster that demonstrates all their learning by working together As teachers we d love our students participating as a collaborative group P gina 24 de 30
Collaborative Work in Science Workshop 3  Physics through mind maps and collaborative work  Workshop 3B  Physics and its E...
Workshop 3C Physics and its Effect in daily life Workshop 1 and 2 Science Fair Students of each class from workshop 1 and 2 engaged in learning science through experimentation They got the opportunity for discussing making shared decisions and designing different experiments and models that demonstrates a deeper learning in their science topics As teachers we d love our students participating as a collaborative group Here are some models and experiments of our workshop 2 students P gina 25 de 30
Workshop 3C  Physics and its Effect in daily life Workshop 1 and 2  Science Fair Students of each class from workshop 1 an...
Free science First ECO Photography contest On November the 20th The First ECO Photography Contest was awarded The main topic for this challenge was urban and paramo biodiversity The winners were Category Workshop 1 and 2 Winner Tom s Hern ndez Workshop 2 T tulo El cucarr n florero Descripci n La tom porque me pareci linda pero no me di cuenta de que ten a un cucarr n y despu s lo v y por eso se llama as P gina 26 de 30
Free science First ECO-Photography contest On November the 20th, The First ECO-Photography Contest was awarded. The main t...
Category Guides First Place Gabriel Moreno Piano Guide Suzuki Second Place Andr s Cubides P E Guide P gina 27 de 30
Category  Guides First Place  Gabriel Moreno Piano Guide, Suzuki  Second Place  Andr  s Cubides P.E Guide  P  gina 27 de 3...
Our science activities Living and enjoying science Workshop 1 and 2 P gina 28 de 30
Our science activities Living and enjoying science Workshop 1 and 2  P  gina 28 de 30
Workshop 3 PRAE Proyecto Ambiental Escolar PRAE PROYECTO AMBIENTAL ESCOLAR Por Marcela Bernal Palacio y Vanessa Le n Los problemas ambientales actuales est n llevando a nuestro planeta a un deterioro inminente con consecuencias a gran escala esta situaci n hace necesario emprender acciones que permitan buscar soluciones a los problemas ambientales y tomar conciencia de la necesidad de conocer y cuidar el entorno en pro del desarrollo sostenible y el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida Esto lleva a los colegios hacer un nfasis en la educaci n ambiental con el fin de acercar a la comunidad educativa a su entorno de manera que nos apropiemos de nuestro ecosistema y de esta manera podamos trabajar en la protecci n y mejoramiento del mismo ECOSSORI propone que el Colegio utilice su entorno para que la comunidad aprenda a valorar los recursos naturales Para ello se utiliza el entorno escolar como un lugar en donde se viven y establecen relaciones directas y abiertas con el ambiente propiciando espacios de investigaci n y trabajo pedag gico con el uso de diferentes estrategias que fomentan la conciencia ambiental llevando al estudiante a reconocerse en cada aspecto de la flor de la paz P gina 29 de 30
Workshop 3  PRAE  Proyecto Ambiental Escolar PRAE PROYECTO AMBIENTAL ESCOLAR Por  Marcela Bernal Palacio y Vanessa Le  n L...
El dise o de este proyecto como estrategia educativa se fundamenta en actividades pr cticas participativas y de contacto con el ambiente orientadas a la comunidad para que esta sea protagonista de las relaciones y factores que alimentan su aprendizaje y crecimiento a partir de elementos reales de la vida natural cultural y social conforme con la filosof a de la instituci n que busca que los estudiantes aprendan las habilidades necesarias para ser ciudadanos responsables productivos independiente y conscientes de su planeta y su entorno Lo que se busca es promover procesos pedag gicos interdisciplinarios cuyo fin sea reflexionar cr ticamente las formas de ver razonar e interpretar el entorno y las maneras de relacionarse con l Igualmente propicia espacios de trabajo para aproximarse al conocimiento de los diferentes componentes del medio ambiente a trav s de actividades que faciliten la comprensi n y valoraci n del impacto de las relaciones entre el ser humano su desarrollo su cultura y los procesos naturales y sobre todo alentando a un cambio de valores actitudes y h bitos que permitan la implementaci n del desarrollo sostenible Photograph by Marcela Bernal Palacio El Tablazo de Subachoque 2014 P gina 30 de 30
El dise  o de este proyecto como estrategia educativa, se fundamenta en actividades pr  cticas, participativas y de contac...