Revolution to Constitution scrapbook 1775-1789

Lilly O’Sullivan D Block Mr. Gallagher
November 30, 2016
Revolution to Constitution Scrapbook
1775-1789
1775- Battle at Lexington and Concord
The Battle at Lexington and Concord, fought on April 19th, 1775, was the first battle that commenced the
American Revolutionary War. Massachusetts minutemen, as they were known, formed a militia and
began to stockpile weapons in the town of Concord, 20 miles from Boston. On the night of April 18, 1775
a secret British force
of 800 troops moved
out of Boston and
marched to Concord
to seize the “Rebel’s”
supplies. King George
referred to the
Americans as
“Rebels” instead of
“Patriots.” However,
the British were not as
smart as they thought
they were. For the
Boston Patriots
discovered their
surprise plan and sent
rider Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Dr. Samuel Prescott to Lexington in order to alert the Patriot
leaders, Samuel Adams and John Hancock that “The British are coming!” The colonial minutemen
quickly began mobilizing to intercept the British. When the British force arrived at Lexington the
morning of April 19, 1775, armed militia were awaiting on the village green. An unknown soldier fired a
shot and the British troops fired a volley into the militia. The British then marched their way to Concord
and destroyed some of the militia’s supplies. Little did they know that when they returned to Boston about
4,000 Patriots gathered along the road to shoot at the British from behind trees and stone walls. What had
seemed to be a British victory turned to an enormous defeat. In the image above the reader can conclude
the hardships and ruthlessness the battle had in order to fight for what each force wanted.
1775- Paul Revere
This picture shows a man, Paul Revere, one of the most famous patriots, who alerted the colonial leaders
of the minutemen with his famous words, “The British are coming, the British are coming!” In the
revolutionary times Revere had sensed his life would be affected if issues with British weren’t
undertaken. With this in mind he joined the Freemasons in order to become involved in the situation at
hand. As his leadership and responsibilities increased within the Freemason organization and British and
Lilly O’Sullivan D Block Mr. Gallagher
November 30, 2016
American tension became worse, he was assigned to
spy on the British soldiers and report their
movement. In addition to the Freemasons, he took on
the role as a courier for the Boston Committee of
Correspondence and Massachusetts Committee of
Safety which led him to be a part of the bold act of
dressing up as indians and dumping tea into the
Boston Harbor; This became known as the Boston
Tea Party. However, his ride on April 18, 1775 is
what Paul Revere is most commemorated for. His
warning to Samuel Adams and John Hancock saved
the colonialists from extreme loss, but instead of
losing he is the reason for the American victory of
the first battle of the Revolutionary War.
1776- Common Sense and Thomas Paine
In 1776 Thomas Paine wrote the pamphlet Common Sense
to
give insight to the colonies about the American Revolution.
The important document expresses the levels of the
Revolution, one being the struggle for power between
American colonists and Great Britain, and the other being the
ideas of people and government. Paine did not write in Greek
or Latin which were the common ways of writing at that
time, so it suggested that anyone could understand this great
conflict between the colonies and Britain (hence the name
“Common Sense”). The pamphlet convinced readers to
support a break between Britain and the American Colonists.
During the Revolution, American citizens developed the idea
of thinking themselves as independent rather than under rule
of a king. Paine used this to his advantage as he persuaded a
break with Britain to gain freedom and independence for the
citizens. Common Sense
sold ½ million copies and deepened
the thought on the Revolution.
Lilly O’Sullivan D Block Mr. Gallagher
November 30, 2016
Thomas Paine not only wrote the famous Common Sense
that
influenced many colonists about the ideas of Revolution, but
wrote about other political topics. The other phamphlets included
The Crisis
, which motivated American Colonists into the
Revolution and used shame toward the king. The Rights of Man
was another piece on a counter response of Edmund Burke
toward the French Revolution. He also expresses hatred towards
enslavement and promotes religion in his Age of Reason
. Thomas
Paine’s writings inspire passion, but had critical views many
people declined. His radical views on slavery and religion also
led a lot of people to destroy his success. His writing influenced
the Revolution a great deal and influenced Americans to make a
change.
1776- The Declaration of Independence
With the Revolutionary War at full swing and American colonists fighting for their rights as subject to the
king, the movement for independence had grown a great deal since 1775. The delegates of the First
Continental Congress turned to a second
meeting known as the Second Continental
Congress and were faced with vote on the issue
of independence. In June 1776, after more than
a year of war, the Congress finally decided to
cut ties with Britain completely. They began
with a committee to prepare a statement of
reasons for the break-off with Britain, known
as The Declaration of Independence. A
five-man committee including Thomas
Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin
was appointed to draft the final statement of the
colonies intentions, however Jefferson was
chosen to take part in most of the draft
statement. Jefferson divided the Declaration
into four parts using his ideas based off
Enlightenment and ideas from earlier political
thinkers, like John Locke: a preamble; a
declaration of rights; a list of complaints
against the king; and a resolution.
The image above shows The Declaration of Independence and all the signatures of the delegates below
the final draft statement.
Lilly O’Sullivan D Block Mr. Gallagher
November 30, 2016
1)Jefferson explains the purpose of the Declaration in the preamble
(introduction):
“When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands
which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and
equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the
opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.”
- Thomas Jefferson
2)Jefferson drew heavily on English philosopher John Locke’s writings in the second section of a
declaration of rights
where he explains the political ideas the document is based off of. Locke wrote
about natural rights- rights that belong to all for the simple fact they are human- and how people have the
right to revolt and replace a government with new one if a government fails to live up to the standards of
the citizens. Likewise, Jefferson explained that the government extracts the citizens from the government
and citizens have the right to abolish the it. Thomas jefferson also took Enlightenment philosopher Baron
de Montesquieu's argument of natural rights that cannot be taken away, “unalienable rights.”
3)The third section-Complaints
- was a long list of wrongs the colonists believe the king committed. The
colonists were tired of the selfish decisions made by the English king and ministers and in the government
based on rule of law, officials have to make decisions on the law, not the personal wishes the government
was making.
4)The Declaration of Independence is concluded with a Resolution
section where he summarizes the right
the United Colonies have to be free.
1776- Abigail Adams and “Remember the Ladies”
As John Adams became an important leader to the Revolution, his wife Abigail Adams did not hesitate to
express her opinions. Although John Adams was an important tribute, Abigail still remained shut off from
public argument for the simple fact that she was a women. While John was in Philadelphia attending the
Continental Congress Abigail sent him letters. In this particular letter below she intended to put forth the
idea “Remember the Ladies” where she argued about the status of women in American society during the
Revolution. She applied the ideas men were using against Britain to make citizens rethink the rights
between men and women. Abagail also issued slavery and how it should be addressed to the Congress.
Although John Adams did not follow through on his wife’s questioning, the ideas Abigail Adams raised
on the issue was part of the Revolution begun by men.
“Remember the Ladies”
I long to hear that you have declared an independency. And, by the way, in the new code of laws which I
suppose it will be necessary for you to make, I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and
favorable to them than your ancestors.Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husband.
Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we
are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice
or representation.That your sex are naturally tyrannical is a truth so thoroughly established as to admit of no
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November 30, 2016
dispute; but such of you as wish to be happy willingly give up -- the harsh tide of master for the more tender
and endearing one of friend. Why, then, not put it out of the power of the vicious and the lawless to use us
with cruelty and indignity with impunity? Men of sense in all ages abhor those customs which treat us only as
the (servants) of your sex; regard us then as being placed by Providence under your protection, and in imitation
of the Supreme Being make use of that power only for our happiness.
- Abigail Adams, March 31, 1776
1777- Battle of Saratoga
The Battle of Saratoga, fought in 1777, was a turning point for the American forces. On September 19,
1777 the first battle of Saratoga took place where British General John Burgoyne, the leader of the British
forces, battled a costly victory over the American forces, led by Benedict Arnold and Horatio Gates.
Burgoyne decided to attack the American forces again, weaker than before, on October 7, 1777 at Bemis
Heights. General Burgoyne earned the nickname “Gentleman Johnny” for his love of leisure and his
tendency to throw parties in between battles. The American forces caught his regiment off guard and won
the decisive victory in Saratoga. British forces were forced to retreat. Ten days later, on October 17, 1777,
5,895 British and Hessian troops surrendered their arms. This led the American Victory to prove to the
French government that they can enter the war as allies, bringing a major foreign power to the Americans.
This image shows the surrender of General Burgoyne and the rest of the British forces at Bemis Heights.
Notice the American flags swaging high up in the air as the British flags are beginning to be put down.
Lilly O’Sullivan D Block Mr. Gallagher
November 30, 2016
George Washington
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lXnfitSoYw
General George Washington was the leader of the American forces. Washington was born on February
22, 1732 and raised in colonial Virginia by his father who worked as a prosperous planter. When he was a
young man he worked as a surveyor and shortly after fought in the French and Indian War (1754-63).
During the Revolutionary war he served as the commander in chief of the Continental Army, besieging
the British as he led colonial forces to great victories against the British, becoming a national hero.
George Washington employed a clever winning strategy which led him to some of the biggest victories in
the Revolutionary War, The Battle of Trenton in 1776 and Yorktown 1781. Washington knew the secret
to winning the war: although the British took territory, as long as the Americans kept fighting, they were
able to make the sacrifices necessary for victory. Him and his army suffered through the cold at Valley
Forge and financial struggles. Washington’s greatest decision was how he surrendered to Congress, so it
could confirm the civilian control of the military in the United States.
1779- The War in the South
This image portrays the especially
vicious southern phase of the Revolution.
In 1779, the focus of war shifted to the
south where the British hoped to draw in
Loyalists. The British was successful as
the wars in the south became brutal with
the Americans fighting against the
Americans, because Loyalists did much
of the fighting for the British. The battles
of the south led to British General
Cornwallis’ set up camp at Yorktown,
one of one the most influential battles of
the Revolutionary War.
1781- Battle of Yorktown
The Battle of Yorktown was the
final battle of the Revolutionary
War and shortly after the British
began peace negotiations to settle
with the American colonists. It all
started in early fall 1781 to the
north when George Washington
saw the opportunity to defeat the
Lilly O’Sullivan D Block Mr. Gallagher
November 30, 2016
British forces once and for all. Washington quickly moved the new army, French forces sided with the
Continental Army in New York, south while the French fleet set a blockade off the Virginia coast for the
incoming british troops. The British fleet arrived in early September and the French fleet defeated them.
Days later, Washington and French General Comte de Rochambeau began their final attack on October
14, 1781. British General Lord Cornwallis now faced two armies much bigger than his and his escape
route from the Peninsula was blocked. While the battle proceeded on, the French fleet stopped the British
from being reinforced or escaping by sea. Realizing an escape was impossible, Cornwallis and his army
of 9,000 troops surrendered to Washington on October 19, 1781. The image above shows the Americans
storming the British redoubt, cutting down the barrier ready to attack!
1783- Treaty of Paris
The Treaty of Paris of 1783 was the recognition of American
Independence and the result as well as mark of the Revolutionary
War. The representatives of the United States, Great Britain, Spain,
and France signed the Treaty of Paris to signify America as a free
nation and agreement of the boundaries of the new republic. The
Continental Congress had originally named a five-person committee
to handle the negotiations: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay,
Thomas Jefferson, and Henry Laurens. However, only Franklin,
Adams and Jay attended because Jefferson has travel complications
while Lauren was captured by the British. During the negotiations the
U.S delegation privately meeted with the British because of their
distrust towards the French. The Treaty of Paris contained these
major proclamations:
1. “Great Britain recognized the Independence of the United
States.
2. The Northern border between the United States and British
Canada was set from New England to the Mississippi River, primarily
along the Great Lakes.
3. The Mississippi River was established as the boundary
between the new United States and Spanish territory to the West.
Navigation on the river was to be forever open to the American and
British citizens.
4. Florida, which Britain had gained from the Spanish after the French and Indian War, was returned
to Spain. The border between Florida and the United States was set.
5. Great Britain agreed to withdraw its remaining troops from United States territory.
6. Congress pledged to recommend to the states that the rights and property of American loyalists be
restored and that no future action be taken against them. Persecution of loyalists continued after
the war, however.” (These proclamations have been taken directly from the book)
September, 1783 was the final treaty signing by all three nations including Spain.
The image above is the original Treaty of Paris in it’s cursive script.
Lilly O’Sullivan D Block Mr. Gallagher
November 30, 2016
1787- Constitution of the United States
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uihNc_tdGbk
The United States Constitution has governed the united States for more than 200 years thanks to the
historic meeting known as the Constitutional Convention. At First the Constitutional Convention had an
unsuccessful first meeting but decided to call another in Philadelphia in the beginning of May 1787. The
meeting drew 55 delegates from all states, besides Rhode Island who chose not to attend, to devise a plan
for a stronger federal government that included three branches: executive; legislative; and judicial, with
the addition of system checks to ensure no branch got more power than the other. Within three months in
the humid State House, the final draft of the United States Constitution was approved on September 17,
1787 to embody the fundamental laws and principles by which the United States is governed.
1789- Bill of Rights
In September 1789, the first Congress of the United
States, especially James Madison, proposed to the state
legislative twelve amendments to the U.S Constitution.
However, the first two amendments were not ratified
which concerned a number of constituents for each
Representative and the compensation of Congressmen.
Articles three through twelve became the ten amendments
known as The Bill of Rights that were designed to protect
the basic rights of U.S citizens: freedom of speech; press;
assembly, exercise of religion; right to fair legal
procedure and bear arms; and powers not delegated to the
federal government were reserved for the people.
The image to the left shows the Bill of Rights including
the 10 ratified amendments.
Lilly O’Sullivan D Block Mr. Gallagher
November 30, 2016
Bibliography
http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/battles-of-lexington-and-concord
http://www.biography.com/people/paul-revere-9456172
http://www.ushistory.org/paine/
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/thomas-paine-publishes-common-sense
http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/declaration-of-independence
http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/
http://www.history.com/topics/first-ladies/abigail-adams
http://www.thelizlibrary.org/suffrage/abigail.htm
http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/battle-of-saratoga
=chrome&ie=UTF-8&safe=active&ssui=on
http://www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/the-revolutionary-war/
http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/george-washington
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/washington-crosses-the-delaware
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lXnfitSoYw
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timelin
e/amrev/south/
http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/siege-of-yorktown
http://www.history.com/topics/constitution
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uihNc_tdGbk
http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/treaty-of
-paris
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/treaty-of-paris-signed
https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/billofrights.html
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/bill-of-rights-passes-congress
*I also used many pages of the US History book as a reference*