This is about before 9/11, during 9/11, and after 9/11

September 11, 2001 -- Forever Remember

The History of the World Trade Center.

On September 11th, 2001, 4 hijacked planes were crashed into the United States of America. 19 Terrorists from a group called Al-Qaeda hijacked planes from all over the country and crashed two of them into the World Trade Center, one into the Pentagon, and a fourth was brought down by the passengers who battled the terrorists into a field in Pennsylvania. Osama bin Laden was the leader of Al-Qaeda at the time.

On September 11th, 2001, 4 hijacked planes were crashed into the United States of America. 19 Terrorists from a group called Al-Qaeda hijacked planes from all over the country and crashed two of them into the World Trade Center, one into the Pentagon, and a fourth was brought down by the passengers who battled the terrorists into a field in Pennsylvania. Osama bin Laden was the leader of Al-Qaeda at the time.

Left: This was the layout of the World Trade Center.

Right: The World Trade Center was first introduced in the World Fair.


The World Trade Center began as an idea in the 1939 New York World's Fair. At the fair, there was an exhibit called the World Trade Center that envisioned the concept of “World Peace Through Trade.” Even though a New York Agency researched the benefits of a World Trade Center in New York. The plans were later dropped.  It was not until 1959, that people in the Port Authority decided to build a $250 Million complex. It was to develop lower manhattan. The plan turned out costing $900 Million in the end.
 

The architect Minoru Yamasaki designed a seven building complex that had  two 110 floor towers. These towers were different from New York Skyscrapers because they had no central columns which gave the people in the building an Open Floor Plan. Instead, they placed steel columns in the outer wall of the buildings. Construction then commenced in 1967.

 

Passing the empire state buildings height was in Minoru Yamasaki's design.

Once construction began, the safety of the buildings were an important discussion. The owner of the Empire State Building predicted that a commercial jet would collide into the towers. The buildings were also being made to surpass the Empire State Building’s height.

 

An issue that the constructions workers faced was that Manhattan was all landfill. They had to dig down 70 feet to reach bedrock. All the dirt and water was replaced with slurry which is water mixed with clay. Concrete was later poured into the slurry.

 

The landfill from the World Trade Center was used to build Battery Park City.

Once the buildings were finished, they were the tallest buildings in the world at 1368' The Sears Tower, which opened in 1973, topped them at 1450' less than a year after they opened. The buildings were made to withstand crashes of Boeing 707’s. These planes were the biggest at the time. 

 

This is a comparison of Sears tower to the World Trade Center.

Different Materials that were used to build the Twin Towers.

The Towers were made with 200,000 steel pieces, 3,000 miles of wire, 425,000 cubic yards of concrete, 40,000 doors, 43,600 windows, and 6 acres of marble. In Al-Qaeda’s first attack in 1993, they exploded a bomb in the garage of the north tower. This was equal to 2200 lbs of TNT.

American Airlines flight 11, which had departed from Boston en route to Los Angeles, smashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center. When this occurred, many people thought that it was an accident. In the south tower, people were being told to stay in their offices. About one minute before the second plane hit the south tower, people got the order to evacuate.

 

This was the impact zone of World Trade Center 1.

8:46AM

 

United Airlines flight 175, taking off from Boston heading towards Los Angeles, crashed into the south tower of the World Trade Center. Many people thought that they needed to go up in the building rather than down for air to wait for the fire to be put out. This is the building that collapsed first because the plane hit the corner of the building which took down more support instead of the side. Helicopters were not able to land on either tower's roof.

 

This was the scene in New York as the second plane hit the World Trade Center.

9:03AM

At 9:59AM the South Tower collapsed. It went from being the tallest building in the city to a pile of ashes. At 10:28AM the North Tower came down. It stood up longer than the South Tower because the South Tower was hit at the corner which damaged more support to the building.

 

The New York skyline after the buildings collapsed.

United Airlines flight 93 collided with the west facade of the Pentagon. This was the only crash in which there had been no seismic activity detected. After 20 minutes, a small section of the pentagon collapsed. There are no photos that show that a plane crashed into the building.

 

This is the Flight Status for Flight 93.

9:37AM

American Airlines flight 77, departing from Washington D.C. en route to Los Angeles, was brought down in an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. The passengers on the plane took control of the plane and took it down. Many people were able to call people on their cell phones from the air to say goodbye. The plane was also shot down by military jets.

 

 

10:07AM 

This is an American Airlines Plane.

Right after the north tower was hit, first responders were dispatched to help. the Police Department's emergency bunker in WTC 7 was evacuated. It was moved to a burger king that was out of harms way. FDNY members were going into the buildings to try to get people out. Unfortunately, the ones on higher floors did not get back down.

 

The NYPD Command Center was moved to Burger King.

5 hijackers stayed in a hotel right outside the entrance to the NSA.

It took the FDNY 100 days to extinguish all the fires at ground zero. Only 291 of the 1113 missing bodies were found. 5 of the hijackers stayed in a hotel in Washington D.C. that was right outside of the National Security Agency. The twin towers took 4 years to build and less than 10 seconds to come down.

 

 

On 9/11, 2,996 people were killed. 343 firefighters died. It was the deadliest day for the Fire Department of New York. Soon after the attacks, Al-Qaeda leader Osama-bin-Laden released a video taking responsibility for the terrible acts. 

 

This is what Osama bin Laden like.

Immediately after the events of September 11th, the FAA placed a 3 day flight ban. During the ban, scientists were able to take advantage of the flightless skies by testing the atmosphere's air pressure with no planes in the air. Cleanup of ground zero was not finished until may 2002. In October of 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan to begin the war against Al-Qaeda. This was the start of the US war on terror.

 

 

This is the tool that is used to mesure air pressure. It is called a barometer.

After 9/11, The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the NYPD Counter-Terrorism unit were created. The DHS is the Goverment Agency that was setup to be in charge of public security. The NYPD Counter-Terrorism unit is New York's equivalent to protect against terrorism. The terrorism unit is usually working at NYC events with large numbers of people. They are also at important places.
 

The emblem of the New York Police Department.

For that day, the New York Stock Exchange didn’t open and would not be open for 17 days. This was because the cell communications were damaged. The Stock Market almost crashed because people were afraid to purchase stock, not knowing the extent of the terrorist attacks. The Stock Exchange is a place where people can buy stock (or parts) of companies. The savings of many American's including retirement plans are effected by the NYSE. The Stock Market usually does well in good times and not so well in bad times.

 

Without the Stock Exchange, it would effect the whole financial sytem. That is millions of people's savings that invest in the stock market.

The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) was created  after the events on 9/11. The TSA's role is to oversee and tighten airport security, to avoid future incidents like 9/11. Security is much more controlled than with the original Federal Aviation Administration. People have been stopped by the TSA for reasons such as carrying a firearm or having a large toothpaste tube that may contain potential bombs.

The above is the logo of the TSA.


The North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) declared “The attacks on the United States were attacks on all the membering nations.” The world came together to oppose terrorism. People nationwide came to New York following 9/11 to help by providing support. Thousands of letters of came in from around the world.

Nato is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was created in 1949. It consists of 28 member countries from Europe and North America.

Construction for the new One World Trade Center started in 2006. It would be the tallest building in the western hemisphere. One World Trade Center is 1776’ tall which symbolizes the Declaration of Independence. The steel from the original World Trade Center was used all over the world.

 

This is what One World Trade Center was supposed to look like. This was made before the building was finished.

In Conclusion, September 11th was a tragic day for the United States and the world. These attacks were the biggest on American soil in history. The World Trade Center was symbolic in that it was destroyed and many lives were lost. Then, the world came together to support one another and survive these attacks. The United States moved forward by creating agencies to better protect it's citezins. New York survived and built a new World Trade Center taller and stronger than the original. "The attacks of September 11th were intended to break our spirit. Instead we have emerged stronger and more unified" were Mayor Giuliani's words about 9/11. The world will stand together against terrorism.

Appendix A

9:03AM:

8:41AM:

8:46AM:

9:37AM:

10:07AM:

8:14AM:

8:20AM:

7:59AM:

Flight 93 takes off from New Jersey

Flight 11 Crashed into the North Tower

Flight 175 Crashed into the South Tower

Flight 77 Crashed into the Pentagon

Flight 93 gets taken down in Shanksville Pennsylvania

Flight 11 takes off from Boston

Flight 175 takes off from Boston

Flight 77 takes off from Virginia

Appendix B