5 of the most extreme place in the world.






Introduction...................................................................       3


Krubera Cave.................................................................       4


Death Valley.................................................................         8


Angel Falls...................................................................         12


San Pedro Sula.............................................................        15


Tristan Da Cunha.........................................................         19


Conclusion....................................................................         23


Works Cited..................................................................         24





       D id you know that there is a waterfall more than 10 times higher than the Niagara? Or that the deepest cave in the world is deeper than 6 Eiffel Towers stacked on top of each other? This book is about some of the most extreme locations on earth. Some of these places are faraway islands, while others have scorching hot deserts or violent gangs. Most of the areas in this book are uncommonly known of. But whether you've heard of them or not, here are some of the world's most extreme places.



Squeezing through tight spaces, snorkeling in freezing cold pools of water, marveling at the hanging stalagmites and gazing at beautiful scenery. This is what is like in Krubera Cave, the deepest cave in the world.



           This remarkable cave is located in the great limestone mountain called Arabika Massif, which is in the country Georgia.


         Some people prefer to call it Voronja (Voronya) Cave, named after the Russian word for crow, vorona. One member of a team that has explored the cave says it, "was like climbing an inverted Mount Everest" due to Krubera's depth and Mount Everest's height. Conditions there are so unpredictable that some teams of explorers have brung over 5 tons of gear!




    Arabika Massif is a limestone mountain that holds Krubera Cave. It is in the country Georgia and has a great size.

      In the past, the cave has been researched, then forgotton, then explored and the cycle keeps going. With each time they went inside, they found that the cave was deeper than they had thought before. Even after reaching this great depth, there is still a huge chance that the cave could go even deeper.


    If you ever decide to visit this cave, you might want to know that as you get deeper, the number of spiders, scorpions, beetles and even shrimps increase. Krubera Cave is also home to more than 12 species of anthropods of several groups, which were mentioned earlier. Along with all these anthropods, the deepest terrestrial animal ever found on earth, was discovered 6,500 feet below the cave entrance.



    The deepest known terrestrial animal was found in Krubera Cave, more than 6,000 feet undergound.

        There is a cave system in there as well. In the system there is a branch that could allow the cave to reach depths further underground. Sadly, this branch has a subterranean (underground) waterfall that floods it with chilly waters. 

       The mission to explore Krubera Cave, and other extremely deep caves, is called "Call of the Abyss" and is organized by the Ukranian Speleological Association. The project mostly took place in 2013 but was done in other years as well. It involves individual cavers and scientists from Ukraine, Turkey, Britain, Russia, France and more. The main goal of the entire project which was officially founded in 2000, was to discover, explore and study Krubera Cave. In my opinion, this goal was greatly acheived.

           Krubera Cave is about 2,197 meters deep, making it the only known cave deeper than 2,000 meters.The cave is so far underground, that it takes around 27 days just to reach the bottom. But although the cave is that deep, it is no comparison to one of the cave systems, which reaches a length of  16,058 meters. One of the questions asked often is, "How did a cave reach this depth?" Well, there is a chance that it is this deep because it may have been connected with the Black Sea in it's past.




          One of the most intruiging facts about Krubera Cave is that it is no where close to being the lowest point on the planet. In fact, it's more than 2,200 meters above sea level. This is because the cave is located in Arabika Massif. 





            The future for Krubera Cave may hold more research and exploration, but for now, the extreme depth and the outstanding features makes it wonderful enough to earn the title of the deepest cave on earth.







          One of the most intruiging facts about Krubera Cave is that it is no where close to being the lowest point on the planet. In fact, it's more than 2,200 meters above sea level. This is because the cave is located in a high mountain, Arabika Massif. 









         The pools of water in Krubera Cave are ice cold at temperatures of 33 degrees fahrenheit. The air temperature is pretty similar, reaching about 30 to 40 degrees fahrenheit.


  Welcome to Death Valley! Death Valley is both an incredible national park and one of the most intense places on earth, with many records being held there.These records include being the driest and lowest place in North America and the one it is most commonly known for, being the hottest place on earth.


      Summer temperatures may reach 120 degrees fahrenheit during day and about 90 degrees during night. This makes it no suprise that the popular visiting time is winter. One day in July 1913, Death Valley's temperature was so high, it went up to 134 degrees! It must have been like an oven! In comparison to this, the regular temperature in  New York is around 68 to 85 in July. 



         The park stretches to a lenght of about 140 miles long and (despite it's name) is home to a variety of wildlife. There are 51 species of mammals, 307 species of birds and 36 species of reptiles. These reptiles include many snakes, so watch where you're walking! Along with all these animals, there are more than 1,000 plant species such as cacti and many wildflowers. Death Valley is also kind to the animals that inhabit it, as the use of weapons or hunting is illegal.




     Don't forget your telescope! The night sky of Death Valley has a beautiful view and is dotted with stars. Many camp out just to gaze up at the sky. 


          If the nature of Death Valley isn't amazing enough, there are many spectacular activities to take part in such as star gazing, and the dark sky makes this a great activity. Some more activities include hiking, camping, birdwatching, site seeing and biking. It also has amazing historical sites. Some examples of these are Scotty's Castle, Furnace Creek Inn and Keane Wonder Mine. Along with all these wonderful site-seeing areas, there are also salt flats, springs and something called Devil's Hole. Devil's Hole is basically a basically a 40 acre hole filled with water. Heres a fun fact: some scenes in the original Star Wars Trilogy were filmed in Death Valley!


       If you thought the air temperature was hot, it's no comparison to the ground temperature. In July of 1972, it reached a whopping 201 degrees fahrenhite! As some videos have proven, Death Valley's temperatures are sometimes hot enough to fry an egg on the ground, just by sun power!




        Badwater Basin is the lowest place in all of North America. It is also 282 feet below sea level and open to visitors from everwhere.



     As mentioned earlier, Death Valley also holds many other records. One of these is the lowest point in North America and is called Badwater Basin, located 282 feet below sea level. The entire park is also the driest place in North America and the largest national park in the Lower 48. The Lower 48 is all 50 of the states in America, except for Alaska and Hawaii. To prove the point of Death Valley's dryness, The National Weather Service states that the average rainfall there is just 2.36 inches. If this isnt enough records already, its also the 6th largest park in the U.S.




             Although the lower levels of Death Valley are broiling hot, the park is surrounded by two mountain ranges, which have much cooler temperatures. The names of these ranges are Amargosa Range and the Panamint Rang.


     Death Valley wasn't always a national park. In fact, it only became one in 1994. Before it was a national park, Death Valley was classified as a national monument. This was done in 1933 by President Herbert Hoover.



             Though the amount of animals is substantial, it turns out humans have been quite fond of Death Valley as well. There are many ghost towns located there, that once contained thousands of people. After the gold rush ended, the civilization

vanished, leaving behind empty towns. Also, the Timbisha Shoshone, a Native American tribe, have inhabited Death Valley for the past 1,000 years. 



       "Lowest golf course" isn't a very well known title to claim, but it's taken by Furnace Creek Golf Course in Death Valley. This course is 214 feet below sea level, only 68 feet above the Badwater basin. So if you ever decide to go to Death Valley, don't forget to bring your golf clubs!

 So whether you visit for the marvelous scenery or perhaps to experience first-hand the many records set by Death Valley, it is sure to be a trip you will never forget.




      A house from a ghost town in Death Valley's remains. The harsh weather may have affected it, causing it to turn to the remnants of a home. These towns sprouted up when the Gold Rush started but were  soon abandoned.


               Have you ever been to Niagara Falls and went, “Woah, that’s one tall waterfall”? Well, probably not but there's a waterfall even taller than the Niagara and its name is Angel Falls. Angel falls is the highest waterfall in the world and is also called Salto Angel. 


                This waterfall can be found in a place called Canaima National Park in Venuzuala. When you reach Canaima National Park, you are welcome to take a boat ride to Angel Falls from there, but there is an option to fly there by helicopter. The falls tumble into Devils Canyon and are a tributary to the Carrao River, which is part of Venezuala's Orinoco River system. 




            Angel Falls is named after Jimmie Angel (James Crawford Angel), a pilot from Missouri. He first saw the waterfall in 1933 while looking for the "Golden City". In 1937, he returned to the falls with his family. The plane he used to get there ended up crashing top of Tepui Mountain, which is where the waterfalls drops from. Not only did he get out of the crashed plane, but he and his family managed to walk 11 miles to civilization. What makes this even more interesting is that the plane that Jimmie crashed, El Rio Caroni, is open for public viewing in the Aeronautics museum of Maracay. 



          Although it may look like a simple, yet high, waterfall from afar, Angel Falls has many series of canyons, tunnels and caves. Ever heard of the movie "Up" by Disney? The fictional waterfall, Paradise Falls, which the main characters visit is actually based off of Angel Falls!


              People travel from everywhere to experience the magic of the falls, and it's beauty. Visitors are encouraged to swim in the pools formed by the falling water, but only if the flow of the falls is gentle. Many tourists come as it has been known to be the number one tourist spot in all of Venezuala. Visitors in the past have said that Angel Falls is "a unique and breathtaking site". Most people prefer to visit in the months between May and November because the fall's water is evaporating during December through April. Also, in the rainy season, the falls seems to make its own weather! Some people say that they can feel the mist settling on their skin at this time of year. 

           The long waterfall is about 3,000 feet tall, with a base which is about 500 feet wide. The size makes it two times taller than the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. So the falls are definitely  sky-high. Along with being the highest waterfall in the world,  Salto Angel is also one of the most isolated waterfalls in the world, with the nearest road being 110 miles away.  


          Over all, Angel Falls is a grand waterfall with dazzling scenery and a towering height that makes it one of the most extreme places on earth. 


      Although the falls can be breathtaking, some people have taken their last breaths there. Some of the best base jumpers in the world have jumped from Angel Falls and have been injuired or in some cases killed. 


      Base jumping is an extreme sport and is terribly dangerous. Base jumping from Angel Falls could cause serious injuries.


       Here's a place you don't want to visit: San Pedro Sula, also known as the worlds most violent city outside of a warzone. 


    After you've read the previous sentence and you would still like to visit, you might want to know that its been called the "murder capital of the world" since 2011.


    San Pedro is a town in Honduras with around 150 homicides per 100,00 inhabitants,to put that in perspective, New York's homicide rate is 4 per 100,000 inhabitants. 

San Pedro Sula


      If you're thinking to yourself, "well if there is so many people dieing, why don't we do something about it?" The reason why is that there are about 36,000 gang members. These members try to get children to join their gangs early, otherwise they'll kill them. Also, there are only three times more gang members than police officers. If that isn't bad enough, only 10% or less of the murders are actually investigated.




Its not an uncommon site in San Pedro Sula to see police men everywhere, carrying guns, and ready to catch gang members.

      It's also no surprise that tourism in San Pedro is basically nonexistent. Most people visit there strictly for business and spend their time in the hotels. People are recommended to not go out after 6 PM.



       The country that San Pedro is located in, Honduras, isn't any better, with an average of one person killed each hour, or about 20 each day. In 2012, more than 1200 people were killed. And in 2013, it was the most violent country in the world (outside of a war zone). People are told that the safest time to drive is in the early morning, while the gangs are still asleep.


       San Pedro's laws allow civilians to own up to five personal guns. Although that's good for defending yourself in such a dangerous city, statistics have proven thats it's not so good after all. This is because 82.4% of homicides are by firearms, compared to 60% in the US. At shops and restaurants, armed guards protect the business. Unfortunately, the small shops don't have the luxury of security and gangs come to collect money from them on a monthly or sometimes even weekly basis. If they do not pay, someone in their family will end up dead.


     Although the recommended time to drive is early morning, there is a huge amounts of cars. 15 ATMs there are drive-through only and most fast foods places offer a drive through window as well. One man who has visited San Pedro says, "I walked around for a total of nine hours in a span of two days and I barely saw anyone walk beside me, it was packed with cars". Restaurants in San Pedro are mostly fast food. There are chain restaurants like McDonalds, Burger King, Pizza Hut and more. There are also some chain restaurants from Honduras and Central America such as Taco Inn and Pollo Campero. Local or family owned restaurants are rare, and can only be found deep in the center of San Pedro.



       Many residents say that for tourists, San Pedro is only dangerous at night and it was normal to see people everywhere, on foot or in the car, but there is still police force there, just in case. 



This is how San Pedro looks like in the daytime. As you can see, there is a McDonalds and lots of car traffic. That's how it normaly looks like at day, although night is a lot more eerie.


       Although San Pedro is really dangerous at night, during the day one man reported seeing street vendors selling juice and another person selling puppies! There were also many churches and a few museums.


       Altogether, San Pedro Sula may be an unsafe area to go to during nightfall. In daylight though, it is full of interesting people and places, all with intriguing stories.



     Have you ever dreamt of a magical land far away? This is about Tristan Da Cunha, it may not be magical, but it sure is far away. Tristan Da Cunha is the world's most remote inhabited place. It is a British oversea territory and is part of a chain of four main islands. Not only is Tristan distant, but it doesn't have many people either, having a population of only 301 people.




        Due to its location next to the ocean, Tristan's main source of income is their lobster factories, so don't go there if you're not a fan of seafood!



  Lobsters impact the economy of Tristan Da Cunha. If something bad were to happen to the lobsters, Tristan's economy would suffer.


      If Tristan Da Cunha still doesn't seem that interesting to you yet, you should know, that each citizen has had one of only eight surnames used on the entire island. The surnames are Glass, Green, Hagan, Lavarello, Patterson, Repetto, Rogers and Swain. Another fun fact about Tristan is that they have only one doctor in the whole island! Dr. Gerard Bulger is the only qualified doctor on Tristan Da Cunha. Staying on the topic of health, health care is free there, but serious injuries might not be provided for.





      Tristan Da Cunha is a volcanic island. In 1961, there was a volcanic eruption in Tristan. The eruption destroyed the island's crayfish factory. Also, the demand for crayfish in the US has been declining. This is setting back the island's economy greatly. Even worse, a fire in February 2008 destroyed the fishing factory and two power generators. This caused even more problems in Tristan's economy due to the fact that fishing has a prominent role there.




      Tristan isn't that alone. In fact, it is a part of an island chain. The rest of the islands in the chain are less known. This is because Tristan is the largest island out of them and because the others don't have any people. The island's capital is Edinburgh of the Seven Seas. It was named in honor of a visit to the islands by Queen Victoria's son, Prince Alfred, in 1867. Prince Alfred was the Duke of Edinburgh.


       The island has only one school, called St. Mary's School. With having only one school, Tristan also only has one police officer named Conrad Glass, and three special constables. Conrad Glass has also written a book about his experiences called "Rock Hopper Copper”. This book was the first to be written by a Tristan islander. These are a few tourist activities if you ever want to visit: fishing, golfing, hiking and even boat trips to the other islands in the chain.



     The flag of Tristan Da Cunha became what it is not so long ago. In 2002, the flag of Tristan da Cunha was adopted. Before 2002, Tristan used the flag of Saint Helena for official purposes. Tristan isn't very big either, with a size of just about 80 square miles. In comparison, New York City is 469 square miles and Hawaii is 4028 square miles.



     Tristan used Saint Helana's flag for quite some time, until they finally decided to get their own. As you can see, the crayfish on their flag shows what a strong fishing economy they have! 




        During World War II, the Royal Navy based a secret weather and radio station on Tristan, a smart move due to its distance from other islands, which provided some security and safety. Tristan is closest to St. Helena (1500 miles away), South Africa (10750 miles away) and South America (2088 miles away). The only way to go there is by a seven day boat trip from Cape Town, South Africa.
















      All in all, Tristan Da Cunha, the most distant island on earth, is a place with few people, a great fishing economy and fascinating features.


        It's clear to see that these are some of the most fascinating places in the world. The stunning features and suprising facts about them are sure to amaze. We must not forget about these areas, or one day, they won't be there anymore. Hopefully in the future, we'll explore them further and who knows? Maybe we'll discover something even better.