Islam 

Hinduism 

The Five Most Prominate World Religions

Judaism 

Christianity

Buddism 

History- The religion originated in the Indus River Valley some 6,000 years ago. 

Basic Tenets-  

  • Hinduism is a polytheistic religion.
  • The goal of a Hindu is to acheive the status of Brahman, the highest level of the religion´s caste system.
  • Hindu try to achieve all of the three; samsara, maksha, and dhrama. 

 

  • The religion recoganizes thirty-three million gods, but deems three gods the main worship. 
  • The Hindu ṕeople believe in reincarnation which is related to their longing for Brahman-hood. 

Hinduism

 

Symbols- 

  • Om (pictured on front)- used to symbolize the universe and ultimate reality and the sound used to start meditation. 
  • Swastika- Sign of luck and fortune, the four directions symbolize the Vedas. 
  • Lotus- Representation of creation and symbolizes the three main religious gods. 

Practices- 

  • Formal greetings 
  • Fire Worship
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Diwali (Festival of Lights) 

Important Texts- 

  • Four Vedas (hymns, that are not written but correctly memorized)
  • Epics (Lord Rama) 

History- Siddhartha Gautama was trapped in his palace on account of his father´s longing for him to become a powerful ruler. Gautama excaped, after discovering old age, disease, and suffering, to become a holy man. Near death he discovered the Middle Path and sat under a tree to achieve enlightenment. 

Basic Tenets- 

  • Buddhists long for the achievement of Nirvana, the escape from the world. 
  • They attempt samsara and moksha, like Hindus
  • They believe in the effection of karma, but do not relate the idea to a caste system. 
  • Dharma is their established rules, those including their Middle Way, the Four Noble Truths, and the Eight Fold Path. 

Buddhism 

Important Texts- 

  • Four Vedas
  • Mahayana Sutrus- Broad genre of Buddhist scripture

Symbols- 

  • Dharma Wheel (pictured on front)- A representation of Buddha and his Eight Fold Path (the eight spokes)
  • The Eternal Knot- The idea that everything is connected, more so religion, secular affairs, wisdom, and compassion. 
  • The Begging Bowl- A symbol of a monk´s choosen life and one of the most important symbols. 

Practices- 

  • Meditation
  • Fasting 

Basic Tenents- 

  • Monotheism
  • Worship of God, Yahweh
  • Sabbath Day- Friday evening through Saturday night, dedicated to Yahweh
  • World Peace and the coming of the Messiah
  • Resurection 

Judaism 

History- The religion can be traced back to Ur, an ancient Mesopotamian city. Its orgin is based on the covenent of God that was bestoyed upon Abraham by he himself. 

Practices-  

  • If one drops the Holy Torah, they must fast for forty days and nights. 
  • Circumcision
  • Jews strive for a life of meaning, purpose, and dignity.
  • Jews do not write or say the name of their God, Yahweh.
  • Mikvah, a ritual bath for jewish men and women to prepare for Holydays.

Symbols

  •  The Star of David (pictured on the front)- Began as a symbol of the religion as early as the seventeenth century, with precedents dating back to the 14th and 16th centries. 
  • The Kippa or hech cap- Worn by the Orthedox Jewish men to cover their heads and both by men and women in times of prayer. 
  • Chai- Commonly found as a form of jewlery, the Hebrew word, living, created by the combination of two Hebrew letters. 

Holy Text-

    The Torah, which is a smaller section of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh. 

Basic Tenets- 

 

  • Jihad- The struggle to defend faith
  • Women lack rights
  • Sunnie- do not recoganixe being the prophets successor
  • Shia- give to Allah

History- The Islamic faith arose in Mecca. Muhammad, who was visted by Jibreel, was deemed a the prohret of Allah. Muhammah wished to establish this monotheisic faith, beinging Hijarh, the flight to Yathrib, which was renamed Medina, the city of prophet. He and his people later returned to Mecca, destroyed the Kaaba, a representation of the many gods, and dedicated it to Allah. 

Islam 

Practices- 

  •  Muslims strive to obey the Five Pillars of their religion.
  • In obidence with the Five Pillars, Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan, declare their faith, prilgrim to Mecca, engage in obligatory giving and compulsory prayer.
  • Muslim women wear birkas
  • Muslims recite prayer five times a day in the direction of Mecca.                                                                             

 

 

 

 

 

 

Important Texts- 

 

  • The Qur´an- written only in Arabic to perserve its content

Symbols- 

 

  •  The Star and Cresent- (pictured on the front) Prominate symbol of Islamic flags, believed to have originated in the Ottoman Empire and to symbolize cultural diffusion. 
  • Rub el Hizb- Appears at the end of chapters in the Qur´an or Hizb. 

History- Christianity orginginated in Isreal, but upon its creation quickly spread to the Roman Empire. Christianity derived from Judaism, on account of the crucifixion and rising of Jesus Christ. Jesus formed his group of diciples, or followers, delieverd his covenent, and rose into the Heaven as the messiah. 

Christianity 

Basic Tenents- 

 

  • Monotheism 
  • Jesus´s covenent 
  • Resurrection, both Jesus´s three days after his crucifixion and Christian´s accending Heaven upon death. 
  • The Nicene Creed, declaration of basic beliefs

Symbols- 

 

  • Ichthus (pictured on the front)- In greek, the name of this symbol translateds to; ¨Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior¨, and early representation of He himself. 
  • The Latin Cross- A basic symbol of the religion itself. 
  • Bread and Wine- The body and blood of Christ, ingested during Christian Communion. 
  • Star of David- More so a symbol of Judaism, but associated with the birth of the Christian Savior, Jesus Christ. 

Practices- 

  • Communion
  • Baptism 
  • Prayer
  • Circumcision

Important Texts- 

  • The Holy Bible