The Civil War was the bloodiest war in history between the Union and the Confederacy and it all began over slavery.

 

Civil War

 

by: Remy Mendoza

Strengths

Their strengths consisted of a larger population, more industry, better banking system, more ships, and larger railway network

 

Weaknesses

They had to overtake several hostile states to bring them back to the Union. The Southerners were passionate and supported the war

 

Leaders 

The Union leaders were President Lincoln, George McClellan, William Tecumseh Sherman, Ulysses S. Grant, David Farrugut  

Nicknames

The Yankees, Bluebellies, Unconditional Surrender Grant.

The North

States

The Union states were Oregon, California, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Missouri, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Deleware, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachussets, New York, Vermont, and Maine

 

Strategies

Their strategies were to blockade Southern ports to prevent supplies from reaching the South and to keep them from earning money, gain control of the Mississippi to cut Southern supply lines and to divide the Confederacy, and to take Control of the Confederate capital.

War Aims

Their main war aim was to bring the South back to the Union.

Strengths

Their strengths were fighting in familiar territory, superior military leadership.

 

Leaders

The Confederate leaders were President Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, and Thomas Jackson.

 

 

Weaknesses

Their weaknesses were a smaller population to build up an army, few factories to manufacture weapons and supplies, produced less food, less than half the railways of the North, fewer trains, intense beliefs in states rights.

 The South

Nicknames

Rebels, Confederates, Stonewall Jackson

 

Strategies

Their strategies were to defend the homeland and hold on to as much territory as possible. They  occasionally became offensive.

War Aims

Their main war aim was to win recognition as an independent nation.

States

The Confederate states were Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, North Carolina, Virginia, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, and Georgia

 

 Secession Events and Causes of War

 

Click for Road to Civil

 

War Persentation

Why?

The main reason the Confederates took seige of Fort Sumter was to test Lincoln's vow to hold federal property. They fired first although the Union was unarmed, which started the entire event. 

Major Robert Anderson

Who

The Battle of Fort Sumter involved its commander, Major Robert Anderson from the Union. From the South, Governor Francis Pickens and Confederate President Jefferson Davis were in charge. Union Captian Abner Doubleday witnessed the battle. There were 85 Union soldiers and 500 Confederate soldiers.

Battle of Fort Sumter

When

The Battle of Fort Sumter occured on April 12, 1861. It also began the day after Lincoln's inauguration.

Where

Battle occured at Fort Sumter, the island guarding Charleston Harbor.

Outcome

In the end the Union surrendered to the Confederates. They couldn't get their relief ships to the fort but were able to hold out for 33 hours. There were no casualties on either side.

What Happened

In the beginning, Fort Sumter was low on supplies and under seige by the Confederates. Lincoln then sent in a supply ship that was unarmed. But the Confederates decided to attack anyways, which began the intense battle. Luckily, there were no casualties. 

Why?

The Battle of Bull run was mainly a dispute to initiate the war. It was the start of everything, the beginning of the fighting.

Outcome

In the end, it was a Confederate victory. The Union army had fled, meaning the Rebels had won. The result of the battle cause Lincoln to put General George B. McClellan in charge of the Union Army of the Potomac. There were 450 Union soldiers killed and 387 Confederate soldiers.

Who

The leader of the rebel reinforcements was General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. Major General Irwin McDowell lead the Union. There were 28,450 Union soldiers and 32,230 Confederate soldiers.

"Stonewall" Jackson

 

The First Battle of Bull Run

When

This battle occured July 21, 1861 on a Sunday. It was the first major battle of the Civil War.

 

What Happened

At first residents actually picniced near the battle because both sides expected easy victory. The 30,000 troop Union army attacked the Confederates. At first things looked good for the North, but the Rebels fought back. The Confederates became loud and violent and let out the "Rebel Yell." The Union army was so terrified they retreated, running into citizens.

Where

The battle was at Northern Virginia, five miles from a town called Manassas Junction near a small river called Bull Run.

 

Who

Ulysses S. Grant was the Union commander. He interacted with General Simon B. Buckner of the Confederacy to discuss surrender. General John McClernand and Confederate General Gideon Pillow were also involved. There were 24,531Union soldiers and 16,171 Confederates

 

Why

The main purpose of this battle was to help the Union secure the Tennessee river. Grant's plan was to capture this fort and a few other forts including Fort Henry.

Outcome

The result of the battle was a win for the North. The Union secured the Tennessee river. Also it opened a path for Union troops to march into Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama. There were 507 Union casualties and 327 Confederate casualties. 

Ulysses S. Grant

 Battle of Fort Donelson

Where

Fort Donelson is in Cumberland, Tennessee. It was also in the vicinity of the Tennesse river. That is why Grant became a hero for capturing those forts since they helped secure the Tennessee river for the North.

 

What Happened 

At first, General MClernand made an unsuccesful attempt to attck fort Donelson. Then for 3 days Grant got closer to capturing the fort. The Confederates made a hit to the 

Union, but then General Pillow made a mistake allowing the Union to regroup. Then, the Confederrates were forced to surrender since they were surrounded.

 

When

The Battle occured in February 1862. It also happened 10 days after the capture of Fort Henry. 

Why

The event that caused the South to attack in the first place was Lincoln sending naval blockades to Southern ports. This angered the South because it prevented them from getting shipments of coffee, shoes, nails, salt, guns, AND ammunition during the war.

 

Who
This battle involed two ships, the North's Moniter and the South's Merrimack. These were two ironclad ships. There were 1400 Union soldiers and 188 Confederates.

 

Outcome

In the end, neither side won. The two ships were of equal power. But it did inspire both sides to build more metal warships. There were 261 Union deaths and 7 Confederate deaths.

Battle of Hampton Roads

When

These warships collided on March 8-9, 1862. It happened after Lincoln ordered a naval blockade of Southern ports.

 

 

Where

The battle took place at Norfolk, Virginia at a Southern port. It was a battle in the ocean. 

What Happened

The Southerners attacked Union ships near VIrginia with an iron-clad ship formerly known as the Merrimack, and renamed the Virginia. The North's ships could not penetrate the metal exterior so they sent in their own iron-clad ship called the Moniter. They both battled for awhile, but neither ships would sink due to both being so strong.

Outcome

This battle ended in a victory for the North. The Union was now in control of Corinth, Memphis, and Tenessee. The North was close to controlling the Mississippi river. There were 1,754 Union casualties and 1,728 Confederate casualties. 

Why

Union troops first camped out to capture the town and further secure the Tennessee river and the town of Corinth. But the battle started because of a surprise attack from the Confederates. Their purpose was to drive the Union forces back.

 

Who

General Grant was leading the Union forces. Confederate general Johnston was also involved and died in battle. There were 65,085 Union soldiers and 44,968 Confederates.

 

General Johnston

Battle of Shiloh

What Happened

The Union forces camped out at Corinth to attack the next day. But the Confederates launched an attack first. The intense bitter battle went on for 2 days. The first day the Union were pushed back but the next they recovered. They then received reinforcements and beat the Confederates. There was an immense amount of casualties.

 

When

The battle took place on April 6, 1862. It was the battle directly after Grant's capture of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. After the battle the Union gained control of Corinth on May 30, and Memphis and Tennessee on June 6th.

Where

It occured south near the Tennessee river by Corinth, Mississippi. It also took place by the church named Shiloh. 

 

Who

Major General John Pope was  leading the Union forces in this battle after McClellan's defeat. Robert E. Lee and his army joined the Confederatesas well. Stonewall Jackson was in chcarge of the Confederate forces. There were 70,000 Union soldiers and 55,000 Confederate ones.

Why

The reason for the battle was that the Union wanted to capture Richmond, the Confederate capital, after failing to do so once already.

Outcome

It was a victory for the Confederates. They had beaten the Union and secured their capital. Now the sides were in opposite situations from before. The South was very close to Washington D.C., the Union capital. There were 1,716 Union deaths and 1,305 Confederate deaths. 

Major General John Pope

 

Battle of Second Bull Run 

When

The Battle begun August 29, 1862. It was the battle after the Union failed to capture Richmond, Virginia. 

What Happened

General Pope was in Northern Virginia with his troops, the Union was still attempting to capture Richmond. Then Stonewall Jackson marched his troops to attack Pope's supply base. Pope attacked the Confederates and the battle began. The Confederates won and circumstances were changed for both sides.

Where

The battle was around Northern Virgina. It was at Pope's supply base in Manassas.  

Outcome

After the battle the Confederates retreated to Virginia, which was a success for the Union. McClellan did not pursue them and destroy them however. Lincoln was angered by this so he replaced him with General Ambrose Burnside. It was also a victory for the Union because the British were planning on aiding the Confederacy if they won, but they lost, so Britain withheld its support. 

Why

The main reason for the battle was that the Confederates were drawing near to the Union capital, and the Union wanted to stop them. The Confederates also planned to make an attack in Maryland to gain support from Britain and France.

 

Who

McClellan was leadin this battle for the Union. Robert E. Lee was the head of the Confederates. There were 87,000 Union soldiers and 45,000 Confederates.

General George B. McClellan

 

The Battle of Antietam

When

This battle happened on September 17, 1862. It was also after Lee's proclamation to urge the Maryland people to join the Confederacy, though this was not the cause of the fight.

What Happened

McClellan's troops discovered Lee's orders and found out their plan and that their army was in 4 parts. But he hesitated yet again, which allowed Lee to gather forces and prepare. It was a bloody battle, which 6,000 Union and Confederate casualties, and 17,000 wounded soldiers. The Confederates then retreated.

Where

The battle took place near Sharpsburg, Maryland along the Antietam Creek. It was near the spot the Union troops found Lee's orders.

 

Outcome (cont.)

The South had lost its oppurtunity to gain help and to be recognized as a separate nation. There were 2,108 Union casualties and 1,546 Confederate casualties.

 

 

Outcome

The result of this battle was a victory for the Confederates. The Union faced gloom after having lost to the Confederates several times. Motivation and passion was low. General Burnside was so ashamed of the loss that he resigned and was replaced by General Joseph Hooker. There were around 13,300 Union deaths and 4,500 Confederate deaths.

Why

This battle was mainly caused because the South was growing incredibly strong and the Union was trying to bring them down and gain some strength. It was a Northern attempt at a comeback. 

 

Who

The Union General in this battle was Ambrose Burnside. The Confederate leader was once again Robert E. Lee. There were 100,007 Union sildiers and 72,497 Confederates.

General Ambrose Burnside

Battle of Fredericksburg

When

The battle occured December 13, 1862. It was during the period of time when things were bad for the North but good for the South. The war was affecting people more negatively, it was a period of dread unlike the passion and excitement at the beginning of the war.

What Happened

The two armies met on the streets and hills of Fredericksburg. The Union could not break the Confederate's strong forces and barriers although they had a larger army and made repeated attacks. It ended with heavy casualties. 

 

Where

The battle took place in the streets of Fredercksburg, Virginia. There was also a major crossing of the Rappahannock river. 

Why

The reason for this battle was that the North was trying to gain a victory and keep the South from gaining any more power. It was another Northern attempt at a comeback to bring them out of their losing streak.

Who

The new General Joseph Hooker was in charge of the rebuilt Union army and lead a campaign against Robert E. Lee, who was once again the Confederate leader. Stonewall Jackson was also involved, but he died in battle. There were 97,382 Union soldiers, and 57,352 Confederates

Outcome

In the end it was a Confederate victory. There were around 1,694 union soldiers killed and 1,724 Confederates killed. The Confederates managed to push the Union back and fought with full force although they had a much smaller army.

 

Battle of Chancellorsville

Joseph Hooker

What Happened

Hooker planned to go against the Confederates but Lee ended up attacking before they could do anything. Lee divided his forces in the assault. Jackson died in battle after being accidentally shot by one of his own men. The North tried their hardest to resist but the South finally pushed through and took the victory.

Where

The battle took place at Chancellorsville, Virginia. In the first dats the battles were in heavy thickets, but on the third day they fought in the nearby woods. 

When

The battle went down at the nd of April and contiued to early May in 1863. May 2nd was the day Stonewall Jackson had died during the battle. 

Outcome

In the end it was a Union victory, after the Norths' losing streak. The fighting had been worth it and the Confederates wer put in a fateful position. This battle was a turning point in the war. There were 806 union soldiers killed and 805 Confederates killed.

Who

The Union commander was ulysses S. Grant. The Confederate Commander was John C. Pemberton. There were 77,000 Union soldiers and 33,000 Confederate soldiers. 

 

Why

The Rebels had control of the Mississippi river and prevented the Union from capturing the town of Vicksburg. So the union needed to destroy this part of the Confederate army to gain control of the town and to keep the Confederates in check. Before the battle the Union had been trying to defeat the Confederate fortress on this river.

John C. Pemberton

Assault on Vicksburg

What Happened

The Union had made attacks on Champion hill and Big Black Bridge and won. This left the Confederates to rely on Vicksburg. The two sides collided in intense battle and caused so many casualties that Grant decided to lay siege to the town to capture it. there 47 days of gruesome battle until the Union finally pulled through and Pemberton's Confederate forces surrrendered. 

 

When

The Batttle occured May 18-July 4, 1863. This was the battle right befor the Battle of Gettysburg, both important events in the war. The campaign that set the battle in motion was intoduced in April that year.

Where

The Battle took place at Vicksburg, Mississippi. It was on a high bluff above the Mississippi river.

Outcome

The battle resulted in a union victory. Lee was ashamed and felt he caused their loss. Later, because of this battle, Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg Adress at dedicating ceremony.

Who

The Union leader for this battle was General george Meade. The Confederate leader was once again Robert E. Lee. The total union soldiers in the battle was 93,921 and the Confederate soldiers were 71,699. But at the start of the 3 day battle, the North had less soldiers. 

 

Why

The battle was due to a confederate campaign against the Union. The purpose was to bring the fighting away from Virgina, which had already been quite destroyed from former battles. Lee brought the battle to Gettysburg whe nhe found out Meade and his Army of the Potomac were there. 

Robert E. Lee

Battle of Gettysburg

What Happened

The armies met near the town and the North became outnumbered after the South received reinforcements, so they retreated to Cemetery Ridge. On the second day the South surrounde the Northern army and launched violent attacks on all sides, but the North stood strong. Then, on the third day, Lee had General George Pickett launch "Pickett's Charge" against the Union but they were shot down and it cost them the battle.

 

When 

The battle occured from July 1-3, 1863. Right before the battle union General Hooker was replaced by general Meade. 

Where

It took place in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The first day was foght near the town, the next day was fought in hills South of Gettysburg, and the third was fought on Culp's Hill and East Cemetary hill.

 

Terms of Surrender

The terms of surrender weren't as cruel as expected. They weren't cruel at all. The Confederates only had to lay down their weapons and then they were free to go home. they were also allowed to take their horses with them if they needed them. Grant even went to the extent to send 3 days worth of food to Lee's troops. 

 

Aftermath

After the surrender, the remaining confederate forces surrendered. Confederate President Jefferson Davis was also captured. But before the war ended, President Lincoln was assasinated on April 14, 1865.

Background

General Ulysses S. Grant had captured the town of Petersburg and broken the Confederate lines on April 2, 1865. Richmond, the Confederate also was attacked and Confederate officers and citizens set most of it on fire so it couldn't be taken by the Union. There was still one last small Confederate force lead by Lee that was quickly stopped by the Northerners. Lee was forced to surrender to Grant in the Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. The war was finally over.

Surrender at Appomattox and Terms of Surrender

Battles

Robert E. Lee participated in the Battle of Second Bull Run, the Battle of Antietam, the Battle of Fredericksburg, the Battle of Chancellorsville, the Battle of Gettysburg, and the final battle and suurender at Appomattox.

Accomplishments

Lee is knownas a Southern war hero for many reasons. At the Battle of Second Bull Run, he completely turned around the war and put the Confederacy ahead of the Union. He even got their army extremely close to Washington D.C. He also lead Confederate soldiers to victory at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. Although Robert E. Lee had many victories at the last battle of the war he surrendered after realizing he coulld not win. 

 

Important Person of the War:

 

Robert E. Lee

 

Background

He was born January 19, 1807. At the beginning of the war he lead his own home forces and then later became a high standing general. He was known as a Southern hero in the war.

Importance

Robert E. Lee was one of the biggest threats to the Union. He won many battles for the South, and in more than one situation put the North between a rock and a hard place. It is important for us to know about him and his time in the war, so we can understand the obstacles thte Union went through to win the war.

Accomplishments

Ulysses S. Grant lead the Union army to several victories. At the Battle of Fort Donelson he lead the Union army to victory and secured the Tennessee river. He also lead the victories at Fort Donelson and Vivksburg, which was a turning point in the war.The battle of Fort Donelson was where he earned the nickname "Unconditional Surrender Grant." And at the final battle of the war he got the South to surrender at Appomattox.  

 

 

 

Important Person of the War:

 

Ulysses S. Grant

Battles

Ulysses S. Grant participated in the Battle of Fort Donelson, the battle of Shiloh, the Battle of Vicksburg, and the final battle and surrender at Appomattox.

Background

He was born April 27, 1822. He was the son of a tanner and businessman. He was mediocre in military school and actually planned to resign from the military after 4 years. He actually did resign later because of a drinking problem. He kept moving up and eventually became a general who saw the war differently, which helped him win battles for the Union.

 

Importance

Ulysses S. Grant was an outstanding general in the Civil War for the Union. In his past he did not do well in the military but in the Civil War he turned around and helped the Union to victory. His many accomplishments earned him a new reputation in the military. His view on what was important in the war was different than other generals, which helped him win so many battles. Ulysses S. Grant is an important figure that we should remeber.

African Americans in the War

The lives of African Americans were altered when Lincoln declared the Emancipation Proclamation. This meant African Americans could join the Union army. Most African Americans fled the South to aid the North, and the South lost most of its population. However Southerners couldn't use African Americans as soldiers for fear of a slave rebellion. African Americans continued to help the North and many fought and died for the civil rights cause.

 

Children

Children's lives were also changed during the war. Young boys enlisted in the war and were taught at young ages why the war needed to be won. Kids on the homefront were forced to grow up faster than they should, and faced many trials and tribulations. Kids had to take up jobs, and some had to drop out of school. Those still in school learned a lot about patriotism. Children were also forced to witness violent battles in their own towns, and most families were thrown into poverty. Amidst all of this, they still found entertainment in war-based shows and books. 

 

Life During the Civil War

Lives of Soldiers

Soldiers definitely faced hard times at war. They missed their families and had to deal with fear, sickness, uncomfortable circumstances, and boredom. The excitement to volunteer for war on both sides quickly faded as time went on. In the camps they lived in there were some good times, but they also had to handle repetitive drills, bad food, and unpleasant weather conditions. Soldiers saw horrific sights, loss of life, and extreme conditions when supplies and food were low. Many deserted, and those who stayed were forever changed. The economy was also bad, causing soldiers to leave from worry for their families.

Women

Women had to take on many new responsibilities during war. They became teachers, office workers, and farmers. Women had to stay strong as their husbands and sons fought and died, as well as doing things to help their soldiers. Some women even served as spies and many were nurses during war. Women had to take care of families and maintain their towns while still supporting those in war, so they had to be strong no matter what. Many women faced adversities during war because of this.

Economy

After the war the South was left in a crippling economic situation. Most of the towns and transportation had been destroyed. Since during the war Southern ports were blocked, they could not get supplies. Most families were living in poverty and had no homes. The North had devastations as well but the South was in worse condition since the war had been so costly.

The End

The bloodiest war in history was now over. Many cities, bridges, and transportation were destroyed. There were around 600,000 deaths. This war left thousands of families in the North and South in shambles. It would take a lot for America to rebuild and rejoin in peaceful unity. This war would be remembered for centuries as a reminder of how hate can tear a nation apart, and how we cannot let this happen ever again.

Results of the War

Feeling

After the war there were still bitter feelings coming from the South. Although the war had ended and they were now officially back in the Union, Southerners still harbored some hate for Northerners which continued to future generations. There were still conflicting ideas from the North and South.

 

3) Social Studies Text: The

 

American Journey to World War I

 

1) http://www.civilwar.org/?referrer=https://www.google.com/

 

- Civil War Trust

 

2) http://www.history.com/ -

 

History Website

 

Resources