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Greek Mythology- Olympians

U MYTHOLOGY U  GODS AND GODDESSES IN  GREEK MYTHOLOGY Michelle M. Houle
Copyright    2001 by Michelle M. Houle All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means without th...
CONTENTS Chart of Major Gods and Goddesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4  Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
PREFACE The word myth comes from the Greek word mythos, 1 which means    story    or    speech.    Myth is often the word ...
Preface  in another. On the whole, however, the weather in Greece is warm, with sunny skies and relatively mild winters. T...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  and customs of the people who lived on the mainland of Greece during this period. L...
Preface  Helen, the wife of Menelaus, the king of Sparta. Soon after this event, many major cities on the Greek mainland w...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  Alexander, led military campaigns to build up their empire. At the height of his po...
Preface  have tried to spell words and names so that they sound similar to their Greek equivalents but are also easy to re...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  around 43 B.C. to A.D. 17, was both a prolific writer and an influential figure in ...
Preface  omens, such as the sighting of a certain kind of bird or the appearance of some other natural event. One of the m...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  one another in new ways. Zeus, as the most powerful god, often seemed to be a part ...
1 CREATION
INTRODUCTION Most cultures have myths that help to explain the creation of the universe and the beginning of time. Because...
CREATION Before there was land or sea, people or gods, nothing existed, except Chaos. Chaos was a space of neither order n...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  Gaia   s first three children were monsters, called the Hundred-handed Ones. They w...
Creation  their mother to use as tools and weapons. Unfortunately, Uranus was afraid of these children, too. So, in order ...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  The gods    names were Oceanus, Hyperion, Iapetus, Cronus, Crius, and Coeus. Uranus...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q  A   What existed before the earth was formed   Q  A   Who was Gaia   Q  A   How was Uranus relate...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  Q   Who were Gaia   s third set of children, and what happened to them   A   Gaia  ...
EXPERT COMMENTARY The myths of the gods and goddesses were as important in Greek society as religion itself. Most people w...
2 THE WAR BETWEEN THE TITANS AND THE OLYMPIANS
INTRODUCTION Sometimes real places are named in a myth. Mount Olympus, for example, is a real mountain in the central part...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  mythology, the gods were thought to send humans messages in the form of natural sig...
THE WAR BETWEEN THE TITANS AND THE OLYMPIANS After the death of Uranus, the world was at peace again. Cronus, the king of ...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  give birth, Rhea pretended to have her baby. She took a large stone and wrapped it ...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  glad to see each other in the light of day. Although they were happy to be free, th...
The War Between the Titans and the Olympians  for each of the gods. For Zeus, the leader, the Cyclopes fashioned a special...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  The war between the Titans and the Olympians was terrible. With the help of the Hun...
The War Between the Titans and the Olympians  After these important decisions were made, the other Olympian gods were also...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q  A   Why was Cronus afraid of his children   Q  A   How did Cronus get rid of his children   Q  A ...
The War Between the Titans and the Olympians  Q  A   What happened to Cronus   Q  A   How did Cronus wind up helping his s...
EXPERT COMMENTARY Many words in English can be traced to the Greek language. However, because many Greek words sound alike...
3 PROMETHEUS AND E ARTH   S FIRST INHABITANTS
INTRODUCTION Many of the myths show the gods acting in response to something a human has said or done. However, in their d...
PROMETHEUS AND E ARTH   S FIRST INHABITANTS After the world was created and the gods had fought their wars, the land that ...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  Zeus had chosen these brothers for the project of creating the first people and ani...
Prometheus and Earth   s First Inhabitants  around to the humans, he had run out of ideas. They were left weak and defense...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  new race of creatures about edible plants. With this help, the humans had better ac...
Prometheus and Earth   s First Inhabitants  This was not the only trick Prometheus played on the Olympian gods for the sak...
Prometheus and Earth   s First Inhabitants  intense torture, he endured the punishment for thirty years until Hercules cam...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q   What are the meanings of the names Prometheus and Epimetheus   A   Prometheus means    the one w...
Prometheus and Earth   s First Inhabitants  Q   How did Prometheus help make humans capable of surviving in the new world ...
EXPERT COMMENTARY Zeus   s method of punishing Prometheus for helping the humans seems excessively cruel to our modern sen...
4 PANDORA
INTRODUCTION In ancient Athenian society, women lived very difficult lives. They had no economic or political independence...
Pandora  the tale. Despite her own good intentions, the first female causes much grief and pain for mankind. The story of ...
PANDORA Zeus was furious. Prometheus had tricked him, and the king of the gods wanted revenge. He also wanted to remind th...
Pandora  After Hephaestus had put the finishing touches on the first human woman, the gods showered her with many gifts, i...
Pandora  When Pandora opened the box and discovered what was hidden inside its beautiful exterior, she knew at once that Z...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q  A   Why did Zeus want revenge against the humans   Q  A   Who was Pandora and how was she created...
EXPERT COMMENTARY In the story of Pandora, human curiosity is a key ingredient. Pandora   s box has come to represent the ...
5 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE
INTRODUCTION Demeter, the daughter of the Titans Cronus and Rhea, was one of the first Olympian gods. After the war betwee...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  thought to give the earth richness in the form of crops  at the same time, he was r...
DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE Demeter and Zeus had a daughter named Persephone. With two powerful gods as parents, it is not surp...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  bleak world of the dead where nothing ever grew. Although he was king of the gods, ...
Demeter and Persephone  either. Hades understood Zeus   s intention. He realized that Zeus was encouraging him to mary Per...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  an amusing and relaxing day. After a little while, Persephone wandered away from he...
Demeter and Persephone  lofty perch in the sky, so Demeter begged him for information about her daughter   s disappearance...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  in being a nurse to their baby brother, Demophoon. Demeter gladly accepted this off...
Demeter and Persephone  of her son   s remarkable growth. One night she did not go to bed. Instead, she hid, hoping to see...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  Zeus feared that Demeter   s mourning was becoming destructive. He begged her to en...
Demeter and Persephone  daughter if she had eaten anything during her stay in the Underworld. Persephone replied,    Mothe...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q  A   What was Demeter   s role as a goddess   Q  A   Who was Hades   Q   Why did Zeus refuse to gi...
Demeter and Persephone  Q   What compromise did Zeus make for Demeter and Persephone, and why did he make it   A   Instead...
EXPERT COMMENTARY The story of Demeter and Persephone is often considered to be the basis for many other myths, including ...
6 DIONYSUS AND HIS FOLLOWERS
INTRODUCTION Although Athens may have been the most important, ancient Greece had many other cities that were significant ...
Dionysus and His Followers  the recitation of poetry, and the theatrical forms of comedy and tragedy that we know today de...
DIONYSUS AND HIS FOLLOWERS Semele   s father was Cadmus, king of Thebes. She lived a happy and luxurious life in the palac...
Dionysus and His Followers  decided to reveal his true identity to Semele. Although she was shocked, the princess believed...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  be able to look at him without dying, and he did not want to hurt her. But the god ...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  wore clothes made from the skins of animals, and they usually had flowers or leaves...
Dionysus and His Followers  flattening both the palace and the prison to the ground. Many Thebans came to realize that thi...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  Still in a trance, Pentheus begged Dionysus to help him find a disguise so that the...
Dionysus and His Followers  When the marchers reached the grounds of the palace ruins, Agave called out to her father, Cad...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q  A   Who were Dionysus   s parents   Q  A   How did Dionysus   s mother, Semele, die   Q  A   How ...
EXPERT COMMENTARY Dionysus was often thought to be a late addition to the Greek pantheon, or set of gods. As was true in t...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  The worship of Dionysus is also connected to the birth and development of Western t...
7 BAUCIS AND PHILEMON
INTRODUCTION Greece has always had a close and tumultuous relationship with its neighbors to the east. In the ancient worl...
BAUCIS AND PHILEMON Baucis and Philemon lived in Phrygia, a part of Asia Minor. They had been married for many years, and ...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  and asked,    How can anyone travel in such an inhospitable country where everyone ...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology     We do not have much, my Philemon and I, but we are happy to share whatever we ha...
Baucis and Philemon  their own   had disappeared under the waters of a huge flood. Now, only the tips of the highest rooft...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  goodbye before they both turned into trees, their trunks touching and their leaves ...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q   How was one supposed to treat a guest in ancient Greece   A   It was customary to treat guests o...
EXPERT COMMENTARY The story of Baucis and Philemon includes a devastating flood, a symbolic event that appears in the crea...
8 ECHO AND NARCISSUS
INTRODUCTION Many myths rely on the metamorphosis, or transformation, of a character in order to explain the existence or ...
ECHO AND NARCISSUS Echo was a beautiful mountain nymph who was a favorite friend of Artemis, the goddess of the hunt and a...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  her sisters    warning, Echo struck up a friendly conversation with the goddess, tr...
Echo and Narcissus  he was, and he never understood why he received so much attention from those around him. In fact, that...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  that there was no person living beneath the surface of the water and that he was ac...
Echo and Narcissus  thought he saw in the water, just as Echo had fallen in love with him. Day after day, the youth and th...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  understand that it was he who was withering away. From her hiding place, Echo could...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q  A   What type of goddess was Echo   Q  A   Why did Hera punish Echo   Q  A   What was Echo   s pu...
EXPERT COMMENTARY At the end of this story, both characters change, or metamorphose, into different aspects of nature. Ech...
9 HELIUS AND PHAETHON
INTRODUCTION Many Greek myths illustrate the trials and errors of human existence. Often characters are punished for faili...
HELIUS AND PHAETHON Helius was the god of the sun. He ruled no particular area on the earth   s surface because he had not...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  Phaethon was so obsessed with this shocking news that he bragged about his importan...
Helius and Phaethon  recognized him as his son right away. The god told Phaethon that, indeed, he was his father, just as ...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  upon the River Styx. Thus, Helius was forced to allow the boy his wish, and he told...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  back toward earth, dragging their frightened driver behind them. The horses swooped...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q  A   Who were Phaethon   s parents   Q   Why did Phaethon want proof that Helius was his father   ...
EXPERT COMMENTARY Barry B. Powell suggests that Ovid   s version of the story has some very strong moral lessons. Powell w...
GLOSSARY ambrosia   A drink, ointment, or perfume used by the gods. Demeter used such an ointment to anoint Demophoon, the...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  narcissism   Self-love. nymph   A minor goddess or divinity of nature. The nymphs w...
CHAPTER NOTES Preface 1. Liddell   Scott, Greek-English Lexicon  Oxford, England  Clarendon Press, 1948 . All further defi...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  2. Ibid., p. 115. 3. Mark P O. Morford and Robert J. Lenardon, Classical . Mytholog...
Chapter Notes  Chapter 9. Helius and Phaethon 1. Barry B. Powell, Classical Myth 2nd ed.  Upper Saddle River, N. J.  Prent...
FURTHER READING Barber, Antonia. Apollo   Daphne  Masterpieces of Greek Mythology. New York  Oxford University Press, 1998...
INTERNET A DDRESSES The Ancient City of Athens  http   www.indiana.edu  kglowack athens   A photo tour of archeological si...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Greek Mythology  http   www.cultures.com greek_reso...
INDEX A  E  Aegean Sea, 27 Aeschylus, 13, 50 Africa, 7, 110,116, 117 Agave, 76, 78, 82   86 Alexander, 12 alphabet, 11, 12...
Gods and Goddesses in Greek Mythology  Island of the Dead, 34, 37 Ithaca, 13  Phrygia, 90   92, 96, 97 playwrights, 13, 77...