The World Biomes Book

 

By: Sofia Martinez

 

TUNDRA

  •  Formed about 10,000 years ago,  the Tundra covers 20% of the Earth's surface

 

BIOTIC FACTORS:

 

  • Plants include:
    • Bearberry 
    • Arctic Moss
    • Diamond- leaf Willows
    • Labrador Tea
  • Animals include: 
    • wolves
    • arctic foxes
    • polar bears
    • bears

 

ABIOTIC FACTORS:

  • summers are 6-10 weeks
    •  temperature never above 45-50 degrees
  • winters are long and cold
    • temperature never above 20 degrees -20- -30 average
  • Precipitation ranges from 6-10 inches annually 
  • primary soil type= Permafrost

 

EFFECT OF HUMAN INTERACTIONS:

 

  • A lot of human affects come from the workers in mines and oil rigs 
  • Pollution from the mines and oil rigs; polluted water, land, and air 
  • Creation towns and roads
  • Alaskan Oil Pipeline
  • Pesticides 

 

 

 

Taiga

  • The Taiga is the largest biome in the world! Stretching from Eurasia and North America

ABIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • Winter is very cold with lots of snow
  • Summer is warm, rainy, and humid 
    • this makes them susceptible to wildfires
  • Temperature Range from -65 degrees through 70 degrees Farenheit 
  • Rainfall ranges from 12-33 inches on average 
  • Soil type= Permafrost 

BIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • Animals Include:
    • Lynx 
    • Wolverines
    • Bobcat
    • Snowshoe rabbits
  • Plants Include: 
    • White Spruce
    • Douglas- Fir
    • Carinou Moss
    • Eastern Red Cedar 

EFFECTS OF HUMAN INTERACTIONS: 

  • Humans mostly impact the taiga through their logging, gas, and oil industries that develop there

 

Grassland

  • Grassland biomes are large, rolling terrains of grasses, flowers, and herbs.

ABIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • There are 2 different types of grasslands and the way they grow:
    • Long Grass: Humid and wet year round
    • Short Grass: hot summer, cold winters 
  • location= middle in interior of continents 
  • stays in a growing and a dormant season 
  • temperature range: 20-70 degrees ferenheit
  • 10-30 in. rain annually 
  • Subtropic. grassland: 25-60 in. rain annually 

BIOTIC FACTORS:

  • Animals Include: 
    • Coyotes
    • Eagles
    • Dung Beetle
    • Praire Chicken
  • Plants Include: 
    • Sunflower 
    • Crazy weed
    • Goldenrods
    • Wild Indigos 

EFFECTS OF HUMAN INTERACTION: 

  • human expansion of homes/development
  • large scale industrial farming 

 

 Deciduous Forest 

  • This biome is found in the eastern half of North America and middle Europe

ABIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • Average annual temp.: 50 degrees ferenheit
  • rainfall reaches 30-60 in. annually 
  • Has 4 different seasons: winter, spring, summer, fall
  • Soil is very fertile (great agricultural region)

BIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • Animals Include: 
    • Mice raccoons
    • Robins
    • Frogs
    • Snakes 
  • Plants Include: 
    • Oak
    • American Beech
    • Carpet Moss
    • Magnolia 

Effects of Human Interaction:

  • human logging

 

EFFECT OF HUMAN INTERACTIONS:

  • Since humans live close to the Chaparral areas, fires are the main concern for the ares
  • Many endangered and sensitive species live in the region 
    • This area also includes two big National Parks; The Los Padres National Parks adn the Channel Island National Park 

 

Chaparral

  • Chaparral Biome is found in a little bit of most continents; west coast of U.S, Western Tip of Australia, Costal Areas of Mediterranean

ABIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • Various types of terrain; flat plains, rocky hills, mountain slopes 
  • temperature ranges from 10°C in winter and a hot dry summer from 40°C
    • summer temperatures can bring common fires and droughts

BIOTIC FACTORS: 

 

  • Animals Include: 
    • Mule deer
    • Alligator lizards
    • honey bees
    • wild boar
  • Plants Include: 
    • poison oak
    • Cacti
    • Yucca
    • Dwarf Eucalyptus trees 

 

 

Desert

  • The Desert, in other words; HOT AND DRY! They cover about 1/5 of earth's surface

ABIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • Temperature range: 20-25°C and 43.5-49°C max
    • cold deserts range from -2 to 4°C in winter and 21 to 26°C in summer annually 
  • Very little rainfall, or concentrated areas of rain ranging 15-26cm annually 
  • Vegitation is very rare because of dry soil

BIOTIC FACTORS: 

 

  • Animals Include: 
    • Horned Vipers
    • Jack Rabbits
    • Kangaroo Rats
    • Hawks 
    • Gazelles

Plants Include:

  • Cacti
  • Sagebush
  • Ocotillo
  • Salt Bush
    • Only about 10% of the ground is covered with plants

EFFECT OF HUMAN INTERACTION:

  • Often calls for much tourism because of various rock formations and open space
  • The desert is actually growing because of our increased help with global warming
  • Grazing animals can destroy many desert plants and animals 
  • A Savanna is a rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees, which can e found between tropical rainforest and a desert biome

ABIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • 2 Very different seasons; very dry winter and very wet summer
    • Dry season rain fall= 4in. with temp. of high 70°F
    • Summer holds lots of rain= 15-25 in. 

BIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • Animals Include:
    • Hawks
    • Zebras
    • African Elephants
    • Fork tailed Drongos
  • Plants Include: 
    • lemon grass
    • Acacia Tree 
    • Baobab Tree
    • Rhodes Grass

EFFECT OF HUMAN INTERACTONS: 

  • one of the main concerns with this area is poaching/huting
  • over grazing
  • destruction of land for commercial crops
  • many of the animals in the Savanna are endangered or threatned due to poaching and habitat loss

 

Savanna 

Rainforest

  • The Rainforest is home to tall trees in a region of year-round warmth

BIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • Rain fall ranges 50 to 260in. annually 
  • Temperature: never much higher than 93°F or below 68°F
  • Produces 40% of the earths oxygen 

ABIOTIC FACTORS: 

  • Animals Include: 
    • Parrots 
    • Cougars 
    • Bobcats
    • Monkeys 
  • Plants Include: 
    • Lianas
    • Bananas
    • Rubber Tree
    • Helicionia

HUMAN INTERACTIONS:

  • The release of carbon dioxide affects the growth of trees
  • Deforestation 
  • Logging for firewood, charcoal, materials, commercial agriculture 
  • Mining for gold and other materials 
  • The alpines is home to mountains, skiing, and cold, snow, and wind.  

BITOTIC FACTORS:

  • Mountains with altitudes 10,000ft.+
  • Temperature ranges 10-15°C in summer 
  • climate can change from warm to freezing in one day 
  • high altitude means very little CO2
  • decomposition happens slowly

ABIOTIC FACTORS:

  • Animals Include:
    • Elk
    • Chinchilla
    • Llama
    • Snow Leopard
  • Plants Include:
    • Dwarf Trees
    • Wildflowers 
    • succulents 
    • Lichens

EFFECTS OF HUMAN INTERACTIONS:

  1. Ski Slope developments 
  2. Airborne pollution with acidic rain
  3. Global warming from our combsution affects the melting of the mountain ice/snow

 

Alpine

sources:

Kids Do Ecology [internet]. c2004. Santa Barbra, California: Kids Do Ecology; [cited 2016 Nov 19]. Available from:

http://kids.nceas.ucsb.edu/biomes/alpine.html

 

National Geographics [internet]. c2016. NationalGeographics; [cited 2016 Nov 19]. Available from:

http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats/desert-threats/

 

The Alpine Biomes [internet]. c.2016. [cited 2016 Nov 19]. Available from:

http://w3.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/alpine.htm

 

Nature Works [internet]. c2016. Durham, NH: Nature Works; [cited 2016 Nov 19]. Available from:

http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/nwep8c.htm

 

Blue Planet Biomes [internet]. c2010. [cited 2016 Nov. 19] Available from:

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org