AP Chemistry

Mr.$Raguzin$ AP$Chemistry$ Dear$AP$Chemistry$Student$and$Parent,$ $ Welcome$to$AP$Chemistry!$I$am$excited$to$begin$this$journey$with$you!$For$those$of$ you$that$do$not$know$me,$my$name$is$Mr.$Steven$Raguzin$and$I$will$be$your$ instructor$for$AP$Chemistry$for$the$2015K2016$school$year.$In$case$you$want$to$ know$a$little$bit$about$me,$here’s$some$background$information.$I$was$born$and$ raised$here$on$Long$Island.$This$is$my$4th$year$teaching$at$St.$Anthony’s.$$I$have$ taught$Regents$Chemistry,$Honors$Organic$Chemistry,$AP$Chemistry$and$Physics$ and$Honors$Physics.$I$graduated$from$Providence$College$with$a$degree$in$ Chemistry$and$secondary$education.$$ $ Overview$of$Course$Expectations:$ $ 2016$AP$Chemistry$ExamK$Monday$May$2nd!$AP$Chemistry$is$a$college$level$course." It"is"a"time*consuming"and"challenging,"yet"extremely"rewarding"course."This" course"moves"at"a"very"fast"pace"and"classroom"attendance"is"a"MUST!"Students( will(be(prepared(to(do(college(level(work(of(any(type(upon(completion(of(this(course( due(to(the(thought(processes(used(and(the(discipline/work(habits(required.$To"have" success"on"the"AP"exam,"students"will"need"to"spend"on"average"five"to"ten" additional"hours"per"week"outside"of"class"working"on"AP"Chemistry."This$time$ will$be$spent$on$homework$assignments,$preKlabs,$lab$reports,$problem$sets,$etc.$ These"statements"are"not"meant"to"discourage,"but"to"point"out"and"state"the" truth"to"avoid"any"misconceptions"about"the"high"expectations"for"this"course." I$will$do$my$very$best$to$provide$a$college$level$course/experience$which$not$only$ prepares$you$for$the$AP$exam,$but$provides$a$solid$foundation$in$chemistry.$$ $ Summer$Assignment:$ $ Attached$to$this$letter,$you$will$find$a$list$of$things$that$students$need$to$review,$ memorize$and/or$practice$prior$to$school$starting$in$September.$The(majority(of(the( material(required(in(this(assignment(is(review(material(that(students(should(have( learned(in(their(first(year(chemistry(class.(Some$parts$of$the$summer$assignment$are$ meant$to$stretch$students$thinking$and$resourcefulness$(This$means$look$it$up$if$you$ don’t$know$if$off$the$top$of$your$head$☺)$Students"should"not"panic"if"they"didn’t" learn"it"in"the"first"year*"it"is"easily"mastered.$Often,$students$may$find$it$ beneficial$to$look$it$up$in$the$blue$Barron’s$Review$Book$from$their$first$year$course$ to$help$grasp$any$confusing$topics.$$$ This$is$a$challenging$problemKsolving$course,$and$for$some$of$you,$a$year$may$have$ passed$since$you$have$had$a$chemistry$course.$It$is$imperative$that$you$come$to$ class$the$first$day$with$some$of$the$chemistry$jargon$second$nature$for$you$due$to$ the$pace$at$which$the$course$progresses.$Reviewing$and$committing$to$memory$the$ topics$in$this$summer"assignment"is"not"optional$and$completing$the$assignment$ in$a$thorough$and$focused$manner$will$contribute$to$a$student’s$success$in$this$ course$and$on$the$AP$Chemistry$exam.$I$encourage$students$to$speak$with$those$that$ have$completed$AP$Chemistry$about$the$importance$of$mastering$the$material$in$the$ course.$$
Mr. Raguzin  AP Chemistry  Dear AP Chemistry Student and Parent,    Welcome to AP Chemistry  I am excited to begin this jo...
Mr.$Raguzin$ AP$Chemistry$ $ I$look$forward$to$getting$to$know$each$of$you!$We"will"have"fun"and"we"will"work" hard!$Students$will$receive$a$detailed$course$syllabus$when$school$resumes$in$the$ fall.$Please$feel$free$to$send$me$an$email$over$the$summer$if$you$have$any$questions$ or$comments.$I$check$email$frequently$during$the$summer$months.$I$also$plan$on$ maintaining$a$classroom$website$that$will$be$student$and$parent$accessible$ beginning$in$September.$ $ My$email$address$is:$ $ sraguzin@stanthonyshs.org$ $ I$hope$you$enjoy$your$summer$and$I$look$forward$to$seeing$you$in$the$fall!$ $ Mr. Raguzin$
Mr. Raguzin  AP Chemistry    I look forward to getting to know each of you  We will have fun and we will work  hard  Stude...
Mr.$Raguzin$ AP$Chemistry$ AP$Chemistry$Summer$Assignment$ $ The$summer$assignment$consists$of$two$parts:$ • Part$A$is$the$summer$review$material$ • Part$B$is$the$material$you$must$have$memorized$by$the$first$day$of$school.$ Part$A$$ Read$and$review$the$Honors$Chemistry$Year;end$Review$Packet$at$the$end$of$this$ letter.$This$is$a$packet$full$of$information$I$will$NOT$be$teaching$in$the$AP$curriculum$ because$it$is$material$you$should$know$from$your$firstDyear$course.$I$will$review$it$ as$we$go$along,$however,$it$is$important$that$you$review$the$course$material$on$your$ own.$Be$sure$to$refer$to$your$blue$Barron’s$Review$Book$or$any$other$resources$you$ have$from$your$firstDyear$course.$$ $ Part$B$ • Memorization$of$material$is$not$typically$something$that$will$be$encouraged$ or$emphasized$in$this$course.$This$is$a$problemDsolving$course$and$it$is$ impossible$to$memorize$everything$you$will$be$asked$to$do.$However,$ memorization$of$some$topics/rules$is$necessary.$Unlike$your$Regents$ course,$you$have$a$VERY$limited$reference$table$in$AP!$$(See$the$end$of$ this$packet$for$the$reference$table$you$are$provided$with$in$this$course).$ • Master$the$memorization$material$listed$in$this$assignment!$DO$whatever$it$ takes$to$commit$this$information$to$memory$for$instant$recall.$Keep$in$ mind$that$memorization$is$most$effectively$mastered$over$a$long$period$of$ time,$as$opposed$to$“cramming”$that$so$many$students$mistakenly$attempt.$ While$this$technique$is$effective$immediately,$it$is$not$the$best$way$to$master$ the$material$longDterm,$as$you$will$be$required$to$know$it$for$the$next$10$ months.$Use$flashcards,$acronyms,$songs,$rhymes,$etc.$Again,$whatever$it$ takes!$ $ I$will$be$checking$these$assignments$on$the$first$day$of$school$to$verify$you$have$ completed$them$so$that$you$get$off$to$a$good$start$in$this$class.$Be$prepared$for$ quizzes$anytime$during$the$first$week$on$Element$names/symbols,$ions,$strong$ acids$and$bases,$solubility$rules,$and$qualitative$ion$colors.$ $ $
Mr. Raguzin  AP Chemistry   AP Chemistry Summer Assignment    The summer assignment consists of two parts       Part A is ...
Mr.$Raguzin$ AP$Chemistry$ $ Information$to$Memorize$by$the$1st$Day$of$School!$ $ Topic/Subject Matter Element Names and Symbols for elements #1-99 (Students should be able to locate these elements quickly on the periodic table since the table provided on the exam does not include element names) Where Do I Find It? Regents Reference Table (Not all the element names are listed there, so you may need to refer to your AP Chemistry Textbook or online) Monatomic Ions (& know the ones with multiple oxidation states! You must know all charges for all elements) Regents Reference Table Polyatomic Ions Formulas and Names (Yes, these ALL must be memorized, there is NO Table E!) AP Chemistry Ion Sheet (Attached) 7 Strong Acids • • • • • • • Strong Bases (all others are weak, such as NH3) • • CCBSPIN hydroChloric (HCl) Chloric Acid (HClO3) hydroBromic (HBr) Sulfuric (H2SO4) Perchloric (HClO4) hydroIodic (HI) Nitric (HNO3) Group 1 metal hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, etc.) Heavy Group 2 metal hydroxides (Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 only because others are insoluble) Solubility Rules Colors of Common Ions $ AP Chemistry Textbook p. 125 Table 4.1 (or Solubility Rules Attached) AP Chemistry Sheet Attached
Mr. Raguzin  AP Chemistry     Information to Memorize by the 1st Day of School     Topic Subject Matter Element Names and ...
Mr.$Raguzin$ AP$Chemistry$ $ Information$to$Memorize$by$the$1st$Day$of$School!$ ! Solubility!Rules:! 1. All$nitrates$are$soluble$ 2. Alkali$metal$(Group$1)$ions$and$NH4+$ions$are$soluble$ 3. Acetates,$hydrogen$carbonate$(bicarbonate)$and$ chlorates$are$soluble$ 4. Halides$are$soluble$except$with$Ag+,$Pb+2,$and$Hg2+2$ 5. Most$sulfates$are$soluble,$except$with$Pb+2,$Ba+2,$Hg+2$and$ Ca+2$ 6. Most$hydroxides$(OH)$are$insoluble,$except$Ca+2,$Ba+2$and$ Sr+2$ 7. Sulfides,$carbonates,$chromates,$and$phosphates$are$ insoluble$ ***$Lower$number$rules$supersede***$ Therefore$Na2S$is$soluble$ $
Mr. Raguzin  AP Chemistry     Information to Memorize by the 1st Day of School     Solubility Rules   1. All nitrates are ...
Year End Condensed Honors Chemistry Review Page 1 of 45 Important Notes: This handout is a summary of the concepts. Practice items for all concepts have not been provided in this packet. Additional practice may also be found in the Chemistry EOC Review Practice Handout, Example Problems by Goal prepared for the Foldable Project, website links, and in practice tests provided by your teacher. The majority of this information can be found on the teacher websites. I also recommend reviewing the chapter summaries for any chapters referenced in this handout. For Overall Vocab and Scientists/Atomic Theory review, see the separate handouts devoted to these topics!! **Be sure to practice the NCSCOS Goal 1 Questions Provided by your teacher as separate practice items for Goal 1 are not posted on the NCDPI website!!** The answer is expressed as 190,000 cm3 since 19 cm has only two sig figs. 23.0 cm x 432 cm x 19 cm = 188,784 cm3 Limit and round to the least number of sig figs in any of the values. ! For multiplication or division, the answer can have no more significant figures than are in the measurement with the fewest number of significant figures. Multiplication and Division with Significant Figures Ex. a. 42500 _________ b. 620350 ________ Come to the first real digit and count all remaining digits If the decimal is NOT PRESENT Start at the Atlantic. Unit 1 - Chapters 1 & 2; Laboratory Safety, Laboratory Equipment & Scientific Method, Dimensional Analysis, SI, etc. Significant Figures (Rules in textbook p. 47): If the decimal is PRESENT Start at the Pacific. Come to the first real digit and count all remaining digits Ex. a. 32.02 _________ b. 0.00235 _______ Calculations with Significant Figures Addition or Subtraction with Significant Figures ! When adding or subtracting decimals, the answer must have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point as there are in the measurement having the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point. Limit and round your answer to the least number of decimal places in any of the numbers that make up your answer. 123.25 mL + 46.0 mL + 86.257 mL = 255.507 mL The answer is expressed as 255.5 mL since 46.0 mL has only one decimal place. Dimensional Analysis – Factor Label Method and the Metric System D= m V Page 2 of 45 Be able to solve for any variable! Density Calculations: Know how to do density by volume displacement and how to use Density as a Conversion Factor! density = mass/volume;
Year End Condensed Honors Chemistry Review  Page 1 of 45  Important Notes  This handout is a summary of the concepts. Prac...
Page 4 of 45 Unit 2 - Selected Topics: Chapters 1, 3, & 4: Bohr’s Model, Matter, Atomic Structure Page 3 of 45 Accuracy & Precision 1. Differentiate between a chemical and physical change. physical – does not involve a change in the identity of the material or substance chemical – occurs when one or more substances are converted into different substances 2. Describe the 3 states of matter. Solid – definite shape and volume – particles packed very closely together Liquid – no definite shape; definite volume – particles packed more loosely but still “together” Gas – no definite shape; no definite volume – particles “far apart” 3. How is a pure substance different from a mixture? A pure substance has a fixed composition; every sample has the exact same characteristic properties and every sample has the exact same chemical composition. Element – pure substance of only one kind of atom Compound – substance is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded The four signs of a chemical change are: change in temperature formation of a gas formation of a precipitate (a solid from two solutions) a color change (sometimes☺) Accuracy refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured. examples: baseball pitcher throwing strikes; basketball going in the hoop; lab data is the correct answer Precision refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way. examples: baseball pitcher throwing strikes in the same location or keeps throwing balls in the same location; basketball shots are all net every time or basketball shots are missed by bouncing of the rim in the same location; lab data give the same results over and over (possibly right or wrong) **Questions regarding understanding of precision/accuracy are usually given in the form of interpreting data tables – practice those Goal 1 Questions mentioned above!!** Percentage Error Practicing Measuring Liquid Volume
Page 4 of 45  Unit 2 - Selected Topics  Chapters 1, 3,   4  Bohr   s Model, Matter, Atomic Structure  Page 3 of 45  Accura...
Atomic Theory Development I. Democritus (400B.C.) First used term “atom” II. Dalton’s model (1803) Credited with modern atomic theory 4 major ideas III. Goldstein Discovers Protons (1886) IV. Thomson's model ( 1897) Credited with Discovery of the electron Page 5 of 45 V. Rutherford's model (1911) -“gold foil” experiment -Proposed the atom had a nucleus (mass concentrated in the nucleus) and that an atom is mostly empty space VI. Bohr’s model (1913) - Electrons move in fixed orbits -Bohr’s Model used for wavelength and frequency calculations Model only works for the hydrogen (H) atom VII. Millikan discovers electron charge and Mass of an electron (1909) VIII. Chadwick discovers Neutron (1932) Page 6 of 45 IX. De Broglie (Frenchman) proposes particle wave behavior of Electron also known as particle-wave duality ((1923) X. Schrodinger writes an equation to determine probability of electron location (quantum theory) XI. Electron-cloud model (present) Others: Planck described packets of energy call quanta Einstein described the photoelectric effect and the wave-particle duality of radiation (act as a wave and a particle) – deBroglie also is credited with the latter.
Atomic Theory Development I. Democritus  400B.C.  First used term    atom     II. Dalton   s model  1803  Credited with mo...
Page 7 of 45 Bohr’s Model Summary: Practice!! Page 8 of 45 When to use it: When the problem has wording about e-s jumping from one level to another, e.g., n=4 to n=2. How to use it: Use it to find the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation in nm or m (must use m in calculations!) Atomic Structure Atomic # (z) = # of protons Identifies (ID’s) an element – UNIQUE for each element Elements in order on the periodic table by atomic # Because atoms must be neutral; (z) also = #eMass # - total # of p+ and no Know Relationships between Energy (E), Wavelength (λ), and Frequency (ν): Long Wavelength # Lower Frequency # Lower Energy Short Wavelength # Higher Frequency # Higher Energy c = λυ and E = hυ Unit 3: Chapters 4 & 5: Atomic Structure, Electron Configuration, Periodicity Lewis Dot Diagrams Valence Electrons: Be able to count them from the electron configuration and by looking at the periodic table. p orbital – dumbbell shaped Review & Practice Electron Configuration (Full & Noble Gas) s,p,d,f orbitals – shapes of s & p, how many e-s can each sublevel hold, etc. s orbital – sphere shaped ↓ atomic # ↑ 235 92 U → element symbol mass # (−) = gained e- Ions = Charged Atoms charge occurs from gaining or losing e- (not p+) (+) = lost e- Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass or Isotope = (nuclide) 2 ways to represent isotopes: hyphen notation or nuclear symbol ↓ mass # Uranium-235 ↓ element Isotopes & Average Atomic Mass
Page 7 of 45  Bohr   s Model Summary  Practice    Page 8 of 45  When to use it  When the problem has wording about e-s jum...
Periodic Trends & Properties – Practice! Page 9 of 45 Groups of the Periodic Table Unit 4 - Chapter 7 – Nomenclature Common Polyatomic Ions (most common listed from NCSCOS) Acetate C2H3O2 1Ammonium NH4 1+ Carbonate CO32Nitrate NO31Sulfate SO42- HCl HNO3 HC2H3O2 or CH3COOH H2SO4 Use reference tables for all others!! Common Acids Hydrochloric Acid Nitric Acid Acetic Acid Sulfuric Acid Practice Naming & Formula Writing!!! Page 10 of 45 **Be sure to notice if the compound is an acid, is ionic or is molecular before naming**
Periodic Trends   Properties     Practice   Page 9 of 45  Groups of the Periodic Table  Unit 4 - Chapter 7     Nomenclatur...
Page 11 of 45 Unit 5 - Chapters 3 & 7 – The Mole – Math with Chemical Formulas Avogadro’s Number Calculation of Molar Mass from atomic masses on the periodic table Page 12 of 45 Mole Conversions of All Types: (particle types: atoms, molecules, formula units, ions) g to mol mol to g particles to mol mol to particles g to particles particles to g Practice Mole Conversion Problems!
Page 11 of 45  Unit 5 - Chapters 3   7     The Mole     Math with Chemical Formulas Avogadro   s Number  Calculation of Mo...
Percent Composition X 100% Page 13 of 45 = % element in the compound ! Percent composition is the percent by mass of each element in a compound. ! Percent composition is the same, regardless of the size of the sample. Percent Composition Calculations % comp = mass of element molar mass of cpd Empirical Formulas ! Empirical Formula = Simplest Formula Assume 100% sample; change % to grams for each element (% to mass) Find moles from the grams of each element (mass to mol) Find the smallest whole # ratio by dividing by the smallest number of moles (divide by small) If necessary, multiply to get rid of fractions. (multiply to whole!) To find the empirical formula from data: 1. 2. 3. 4. where X = Molecular mass Empirical mass CH3 empirical ! Molecular Formula = Actual Formula Molecular Formulas Example: C2H6 molecular MF = (EF)x ! Molarity is the term used for moles dissolved in solution Moles in Solution (Molarity) ! Symbol for Molarity = M moles solute (mol) liter solution (L) ! Definition – moles of solute per liter of solution ! Formula M= **Be able to calculate Molarity or grams of solute needed.** Two Nonmetals Polar = unequal sharing = partial charge Nonpolar = equal sharing = no charge Two Metals Metal & Nonmetal Type(s) of Atoms involved High melting point Water soluble Crystalline Aquesous solutions conduct a current Water CO2 NH3 NaCl MgO CaS Page 14 of 45 Force Low melting point Brittle Nonconductors Copper wire Iron bar Bond Types Table Sharing of electrons Attraction between ions, opposite charges attract; transfer of electrons Good conductors Malleable Ductile Examples Sharing of electrons between all atoms Properties Unit 6 - Chapter 6 – Bonding & Molecular Structures Bond Type IONIC transfer of electrons COVALENT Sharing of electrons METALLIC Free flow of Electrons **Be able to use electronegativity values to determine bond type – see foldable! **
Percent Composition  X 100   Page 13 of 45      element in the compound    Percent composition is the percent by mass of e...
VSEPR & Molecular Geometry Page 15 of 45 0 Lone Pairs of e-s on Central Atom 1 Atoms Bonded to Central Atom 2 0 Type of Molecule AByEz 3 0 2 4 1 AB2 Molecular Shape Linear 3 2 AB2E AB3 AB4 AB3E AB2E2 2 Bent Trigonal Planar Tetrahedral Trigonal Pyramidal Bent Be able to draw the Lewis Dot Structures for the 7 diatomic molecules and know the # of bonds in each! (I2, Br2, Cl2, F2, O2, N2, H2) LEWIS STRUCTURE: Element Symbol = nuclei and inner-shell electrons Dashes = shared electron pairs in covalent bond Dots = unshared electrons Be able to draw Lewis Structure for molecules and determine bond & molecule polarity. VSEPR Theory – be able to predict molecular shape valence-shell, electron pair repulsion Way to predict molecular geometry (shape) There is a repulsion between valence e- pairs Unit 7 - Chapter 8 – Chemical Equations BALANCING EQUATIONS: 4 steps: 1. Start with a word equation 2. Convert to a formula equation (don’t forget the diatomic molecules!) 3. Balance with coefficients: balance each atom one at a time balance polyatomic ions on each side of the equation as one unit balance H and O last (they often appear in more than one compound) 4. Check; if coefficients are not the lowest possible; reduce down. Page 16 of 45 REACTION TYPES – Be able to Use Reference Tables – the equation types and subtypes are in there! You must be able to predict products and write balanced chemical equations. 1. Synthesis: (or composition): 2 or more substances combine to form 1 new substance A + X # AX 2. Decomposition: A single substance produces 2 or more simpler substances AX # A + X 3. Single Displacement (Replacement): 1 element replaces a similar element in a cmpd A + BX # AX + B Hint: In reactions write water as HOH. 4. Double Displacement (Replacement): The ions of 2 cmpds switch places to form 2 new cmpds. AX + BY # AY + BX 5. Combustion: When a substance combines with oxygen releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat. Often combustions involve a hydrocarbon : cmpd containing C and H CxHy + O2 # CO2 + H2O
VSEPR   Molecular Geometry  Page 15 of 45  0  Lone Pairs of e-s on Central Atom  1  Atoms Bonded to Central Atom  2  0  Ty...
Unit 8 Chapter 9 – Stoichiometry g to g: mol to g: Page 17 of 45 You must be able to do stoichiometric calculations by using the mol ratios from a balanced chemical equation! mol to mol: g to mol: 3. 2. 1. 4. Page 18 of 45 PARTICLES WANTED MASS Wanted MOLES WANTED VOLUME Wanted Mole Roadmap 5. Mole Ratio from Balanced Equation PARTICLES GIVEN MASS Given MOLES GIVEN VOLUME Given Limiting Reagent (Reactant) – (LR) Controls the amt. of product formed Completely consumed in the rxn. “runs out” first Example: People on plane # 300 people; 250 seats **Seats are the limiting factor** Limiting Reagent Problems Do mass – mass (g to g) calc. for all reactants. Whichever reactant produces the least is the Limiting Reagent (LR) actual yield theoretical yield X 100% Excess Reactant (ER) To find the amount of excess reactant leftover after a rxn: Do two mass-mass (g to g) problems to find LR Use LR to calculate excess reactant used. Subtract excess reactant used from original amt. of excess reactant = leftover excess reactant Percent Yield % yield = theoretical yield: $ maximum amt. of product (what you should “have gotten”) $ from mass-mass (g to g) problem actual yield: $ actual amt. of product (what you “got”) $ from lab result; or given in a problem
Unit 8 Chapter 9     Stoichiometry  g to g   mol to g   Page 17 of 45  You must be able to do stoichiometric calculations ...
Unit 9 - Chapters 10 & 12 – Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) I. Unit Vocabulary Page 19 of 45 Absolute Zero- no molecular movement at this temperature (0 K, -2730C) Amorphous- non-crystalline substance such as glass that appears to be solid but is a super cooled liquid Anhydrous - without water Barometer- a manometer used to measure atmospheric pressure Capillary Action - the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid Condensation- change in state from a gas to a liquid Deposition – change in state directly from a gas to a solid Diffusion – mixing of 2 or more gases Effusion – movement of a gas through a small opening Evaporation- change in state from a liquid to gas Fluids – gases and liquids, flow Ideal gas – imaginary gas that fits all the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory Kelvin – SI unit of temperature Kinetic Theory- group of ideas explaining the interaction of matter and energy due to particle motion Melting – change in state from a solid to a liquid Molar heat of fusion – heat needed to melt one mole a substance at its melting pt Molar heat of vaporization – Heat needed to vaporize one mole of a substance at its boiling pt. Plasma- high energy state of matter composed of ions that are knocked apart by collisions Pressure - the number and speed of collisions on a wall of a container States of Matter- solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are the four states of matter STP – standard temperature and pressure Sublimation -change in state directly from a solid to a gas Surface tension- the apparent skin on surface due to forces holding a liquid together Triple point – all three major states of matter are in equilibrium at this temperature and pressure Vapor- gaseous state for substances that are normally a liquid or a solid at room temperature Viscosity- resistance of liquids to flow Volatile – a liquid that evaporates readily II. KMT – Fundamental Concepts 1. Collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastic collisions. Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that are far apart relative to their size. What is an ideal gas? ~an ideal gas is an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory What is the kinetic-molecular theory? ~a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion What are the five assumptions of the KMT? 2. There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles. 3. Gas Particles are in continuous, rapid, random motion. They therefore possess kinetic energy, which is energy of motion. 5. The average kinetic energy of gas particles depends on the temperature of the gas. 4. Page 20 of 45 Explain the properties of expansion, fluidity, low density and compressibility. 1. expansion - gases completely fill any container in which they are enclosed, and they take its shape. 2. fluidity - gas particles glide easily past one another because the attractive forces are insignificant; because liquids and gases flow, they are referred to as fluids. 3. low density – gases are about 1/1000 as dense as the same substance in the liquid or solid state. 4. compressibility – volume of a given sample of gas can be greatly decreased because the particles which are initially very far apart can be forced closer together (compressed). Three Phases of Matter STP: Standard temperature and Pressure; 00 C(273K) and 1 atm Pressure conversions (all of these values are equal to each other and any two can be set-up as a ratio to be used in a factor label problem! This info is also in the reference tables!!) 1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.3 kPa = 1.01 x 105 Pa Molar Heat of Fusion & Molar Heat of Vaporization Problem Examples (covered in Unit 14):
Unit 9 - Chapters 10   12     Kinetic Molecular Theory  KMT  I. Unit Vocabulary  Page 19 of 45  Absolute Zero- no molecula...
Phase Diagrams for Water & Carbon Dioxide: Page 21 of 45 phase diagram – a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist triple point – the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of substance can coexist at equilibrium critical point – indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance critical temperature – the temperature above which a substance cannot exist in the liquid state critical pressure – the lowest pressure at which a substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature NOTE: Solid H2O is less dense than the liquid indicated by the negative slope of the equilibrium line between the solid and liquid phases. The opposite is true for CO2 (notice the positive slope of this same equilibrium line. 150 100 50 0 -50 0 150 100 50 0 -50 0 100 200 300 Heat lost, time -∆ q ( in kJ, for 100 g H2O) —→ COOLING CURVE FOR WATER EXOTHERMIC 100 200 300 Heat added, time ∆ q ( in kJ, for 100 g H2O) —→ HEATING CURVE FOR WATER ENDOTHERMIC Heating & Cooling Curves **See Unit 14 for Calculations along each step of the curve** Temperature (° C) Temperature (° C) Page 22 of 45 400 400
Phase Diagrams for Water   Carbon Dioxide   Page 21 of 45  phase diagram     a graph of pressure versus temperature that s...
Page 23 of 45 Vapor Pressure Curves: Page 24 of 45 A liquid will boil when its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure. Unit 10 - Chapters 10 & 11 – Gases, Gas Laws, and Gas Stoichiometry Stoichiometry Roadmap including gases…….
Page 23 of 45  Vapor Pressure Curves   Page 24 of 45  A liquid will boil when its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressu...
Page 25 of 45 Gas Laws Summary Table Definitions: P = pressure n = # of moles V = volume R = gas constant (0.0821 L•atm/mol•K); this is the most common one T = temperature (in Kelvin always for gas laws!) molar volume: 1 mol/22.4 L or 22.4L/1 mol of any gas at STP STP: standard temperature = 00C or 273 K K = 0C + 273 standard pressure = 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 101.3 kPa M = Molar Mass (on EOC packet M is molarity – it is italicized!!) **Highlighted Info Given in NCDPI EOC Reference Tables** Version 1: February 22, 2009 Dilute = ? Concentrated = ? Unit 11 - Chapters 13 & 14 – Solutions and Colligative Properties From the Chemistry Reference Tables Packet: Solute = what is being dissolved Solvent = dissolving medium (often water) Solutions = solute and solvent together Page 26 of 45 Molarity - M A way to measure solution concentration. It’s the most common chemistry concentration unit. M = moles solute liters of solution
Page 25 of 45 Gas Laws Summary Table Definitions  P   pressure n     of moles V   volume R   gas constant  0.0821 L   atm ...
Making a Molar Solution ! Molarity is the term used for moles dissolved in solution Molarity Calculations (also in Unit 5): ! Symbol for Molarity = M moles solute (mol) liter solution (L) ! Definition – moles of solute per liter of solution ! Formula M= **Be able to calculate Molarity or grams of solute needed.** Page 27 of 45 Molarity By Dilution Calculations: Making a Molal Solution m = moles of solute Kg of solvent Page 28 of 45 Molality = m - another way to measure solution concentration; it is independent of temperature (volume can change with temperature, so M can be affected by changes in temperature) Net Ionic Equations: Steps for writing a net ionic equation 1. Write a balanced equation. 2. Use your solubility rules to determine solubility and break soluble compounds into ions (with charges!). Leave insoluble compounds together without any charges! 3. Cancel out spectator ions – if everything cancels write no net reaction. 4. Write the final equation – include state symbols! 1. sodium hydroxide + zinc (II) nitrate # sodium nitrate + zinc (II) hydroxide
Making a Molar Solution    Molarity is the term used for moles dissolved in solution  Molarity Calculations  also in Unit ...
Page 29 of 45 The 3 Colligative properties: A. Vapor pressure lowering= B. Freezing point depression and Boiling Pt. Elevation: Page 30 of 45
Page 29 of 45  The 3 Colligative properties  A. Vapor pressure lowering   B. Freezing point depression and Boiling Pt. Ele...
Page 31 of 45 Unit 12 - Chapter 15 – Acids & Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs COMMON ACIDS TO BE MEMORIZED! Hydrochloric Acid HCl Nitric Acid HNO3 Acetic Acid HC2H3O2 or CH3COOH Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 Bronsted-Lowry Acids & Bases Page 32 of 45
Page 31 of 45  Unit 12 - Chapter 15     Acids   Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs  COMMON ACIDS TO BE MEMORIZED  Hydrochlori...
Kw = [OH-][H+] = 1 X 10-14 [H+] = 10-pH pH + pOH = 14 Be able to Use These Six Equations – In Reference Tables: Unit 13 - Chapter 16 – pH & Titrations pH = -log[H+] [OH-] = 10-pOH and 1 X 10-7 M OH-1 When [H+] > [OH-1]; the solution is acidic acidic When [OH-1] > [H+]; the solution is basic b as i c }{ weak 7 (base) (base) pH is an easier way to express concentration; remember: (acid) (acid) weak strong Because [H+]=[OH-] in water = neutral solution (remember the brackets stand for concentration in molarity) 1 X 10-7 M H+ (same as H3O+) Pure H2O has: pOH = -log[OH-] 0 { strong 14 } Page 33 of 45 Titration Curve for the Titration of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base Write the Balanced Equation M (mol/L)= Page 34 of 45 Base Data M (mol/L) = V (mL) = Acid Data V (mL) = (start with the side that has the MOST data) Mole Ratio Mole Conversion from “given” to “unknown” Calculate Molarity or Volume of Unknown: Using Titration Data to Determine Molarity Use the 4 following steps: 1) Use balanced equation (you may have to write it yourself!) for the neutralization reaction to determine the ratio of moles of acid to base. 2) Determine the moles of standard solution (acid or base) used during the titration. 3) Determine the moles of solute of unknown solution used during the titration. 4) Determine the molarity (or the volume) of the unknown solution. **Be able to use data from buret readings to find the volume of titrant used in titration calculations!**
Kw    OH-  H     1 X 10-14  H     10-pH  pH   pOH   14  Be able to Use These Six Equations     In Reference Tables   Unit ...
Unit 14 Chapter 17 – Thermochemistry, Reaction Rates, Entropy, Enthalpy Heat/Energy – Remember heat is one form of energy and the terms are often used interchangeably. Page 35 of 45 Heat (q or Q) is the energy (E) transferred due to the difference in temp. (T). Unit = J (joule) or cal (calorie) 1 calorie (cal) = 4.184 J Food calories are actually kilocalories # 1 food calorie = 1000 “chemical” calories Example: How many calories are in a potato with 686000 J of energy? (Copy Work!) Specific Heat (c or cp): the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 0C (one degree Celsius) or 1 K (one kelvin) – because the sizes of the degree divisions on both scales are equal. **Specific heat is usually measured under constant pressure conditions – the subscript p (Cp) – is used as a reminder. Specific heat is a constant for a substance. You must notice the state of matter (s,l,g) when selecting the correct constant value from the specific heat from the reference packet. Q = mCp∆T (EOC packet) Use when there is a change in Temperature For water (l), c = 4.18 J/g0C - given in packet! Also given for ice and steam! where q m ∆T C= specific heat q = heat gained or lost in J m = mass in g ∆T = change in temperature; IMPORTANT: ∆T = Tf - Ti, in 0C or K Equation can be rearranged to Cp = q = mHf for freezing/melting To calculate the heat required for changes of state (at constant temperature), use and and Hf = 334J/g (all of this is in the packet!) q = mHv for boiling/condensing for water: Hv = 2,260 J/g Heating/Cooling Curves C o Temp Q = m∆TCp(solid) Q = mHf Q = m∆TCp(liquid) Q = mHv Q = m∆TCp(gas) Legend for Calculations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 2 Time (min) 3 Using your Reference Tables, list the values for the following variables: Cp(solid) Cp(liquid) Cp(gas) Hf 4 Page 36 of 45 5
Unit 14 Chapter 17     Thermochemistry, Reaction Rates, Entropy, Enthalpy Heat Energy     Remember heat is one form of ene...
Phase Diagrams – See Unit 9 Reaction rate depends on five things: 1. nature of reactants 2. surface area 3. temperature 4. concentration 5. presence of a catalyst Energy Diagrams http://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/chem30_05/graphics/2_graphics/exo.gif http://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/chem30_05/graphics/2_graphics/endo.gif Red dashed line demonstrates the reduction of the activation energy through the use of a catalyst. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/chemistry/chemicalreactions/2energychangesrev3.shtml Page 37 of 45 Unit 15 Chapter 18 – Equilibrium, LeChatelier’s Principle, K Chemical Equilibrium Page 38 of 45 Reversible reaction : Use %# Chemical equilibrium: state of balance in which the rates of opposing rxns are exactly equal Dynamic state: reactions are continually happening Example: students changing rooms reactions are equal & at equilibrium!! reverse reaction favored, more reactants forward reaction favored, more products K = [products]coefficients [reactants]coefficients Equilibrium constant: K or Keq or Kc Why use K? K=1 K< 1 K> 1 Very Important: K includes only gases and aqueous solutions; liquids and solids do not have a concentration Acids, Bases, and Salts Weak acid: ionizes (breaks down) partially Ka = acid ionization or dissociation constant Weak base: slightly dissociate just like a weak acid Kb = hydrolysis constant Kw = dissociation constant for water = [OH-1][H+] Buffer: solution that can resist changes in pH, usually made up of a weak acid or base and a salt of the weak acid or base. A system at equilibrium will shift to adjust to changes to stay at equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s Principle Conditions: 1. Concentration: A. Increase/add # shifts away (to consume excess) B. Decrease/Remove # shifts towards (to replace) 2. Pressure: A. Increase # shifts to side with less gaseous moles B. Decrease # shifts to side with more gaseous moles 3. Temperature: – depends on if rxn is exothermic or endothermic Temperature is the Only condition that changes the value of K
Phase Diagrams     See Unit 9  Reaction rate depends on five things  1. nature of reactants 2. surface area 3. temperature...
Page 39 of 45 Page 40 of 45
Page 39 of 45  Page 40 of 45
Ksp – Solubility Constant Expression Units – g/L or M Page 41 of 45 Solubility: the amount of substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature. Units = ? Remember, salts ionize (break down) in water. When a solution is saturated, it is said to be at equilibrium # A saturated solution of salt and water is at equilibrium. Unit 16 Chapters 19 & 22 – Redox Rxns, Electrochemistry & Nuclear Chemistry Electrochemistry: Students should be able to: • Determine oxidation number of each element in a REDOX reaction, including peroxides. • Determine elements oxidized and reduced. • Write half reactions indicating gain or loss of electrons and identify the reaction as either reduction or oxidation. Students should be aware of some practical applications of oxidation/reduction reactions. Some examples include: simple wet cell, dry cell, bleaching, and electroplating. Oxidation Numbers: Summary of Rules for Oxidation Numbers: ' Rule 1: Atoms in a pure element have an oxidation number of zero. ' Rule 2: The more electronegative element in a binary compound is assigned the number equal to the negative charge it would have as an anion. The less-electronegative atom is assigned the number equal to the positive charge it would have as a cation. ' Rule 3: Fluorine has an oxidation number of -1 in all of its compounds because it is the most electronegative element. ' Rule 4: Oxygen has an oxidation number of -2 in almost all compounds. Exceptions: Peroxides, such as H2O2, in which its oxidation # is -1 When oxygen is in compounds with halogens, such as OF2, its oxidation # is +2. ' Rule 5: Hydrogen has an oxidation # of +1 in all compounds that are more electronegative than it; it has an oxidation # of -1 in compounds with metals. ' Rule 6: The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a neutral compound is zero. ' Rule 7: The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a polyatomic ion is equal to the charge of the ion. ' Rule 8: Rules 1-7 apply to covalently bonded atoms; however, oxidation numbers can also be assigned to atoms in ionic compounds. Oxidation & Reduction Notes – Chapter 19 Page 42 of 45 oxidation-reduction reactions: reactions which involve changes in oxidation states due to an exchange of e-s. Also called redox reactions. oxidation: reaction where atoms or ions become more positive (less negative) by losing e-s. 2NaCl(s) example: 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) → ↓ ↓ oxidation # 0 +1 (oxidation # is more positive due to loss of 1e-. Na has been oxidized.) 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) → ↓ 0 H2 O 2NaCl(s) ↓ -1 → +1 +4 -2 reduction: reaction where atoms or ions become more negative (less positive) by gaining e-s. example: oxidation # + -2 This is not a redox reaction! This is not a redox reaction! This is not a redox reaction! H2SO3 (ox# is more negative due to gain of 1e-. Cl2 has been reduced.) Use OIL RIG to Remember!! Oxidation Involves Loss of e- (= more positive “+”) Reduction Involves Gain of e- (= more negative “-“) Oxidation & Reduction always occur together. Key Points: e-s lost & gained must be equal. SO2 -2 +1 If oxidation #’s do not change, it is NOT a redox reactiion!! re d o x re a c t o n example: +4 The compound or element on the reactant side containing the oxidized element is the reducing agent (it causes reduction). The compound or element on the reactant side containing the reduced element is the oxidizing agent (it causes oxidation).
Ksp     Solubility Constant Expression  Units     g L or M  Page 41 of 45  Solubility  the amount of substance required to...
Nuclear: Page 43 of 45 A student should be able to: • Use the symbols for and distinguish between alpha ( 24He), and beta ( -10e) nuclear particles, and gamma (γ) radiation include relative mass). • Use shorthand notation of particles involved in nuclear equations to balance and solve for unknowns. Example: The neutron is represented as (01n) . • Discuss the penetrating ability of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. • Conceptually describe nuclear decay, including: o Decay as a random event, independent of other energy influences o Using symbols to represent simple balanced decay equations o Half-life (including simple calculations) Contrast fission and fusion. • Nuclear Decay Mass largest mass Shielding/Penetrating ability stopped by a sheet of paper Cite illustrations of the uses of nuclear energy, including, but not limited to: electricity, Carbon-14 dating, and radioisotopes for medicine (tracers, ionizing radiation, gamma sterilization, etc). Types of decay: Name Symbol 4 2 He Alpha α (Helium nucleus) stopped by thin metal 00 γ γ (energy, not written in the equation) relatively small mass stopped by thick concrete stopped by thick lead or Concrete relatively small mass 10 n n (neutron) no mass; energy 0-1 e β (electron emission) Gamma Beta Neutron Nuclear equations: Must be balanced on both sides by mass and atomic number! HALF-LIFE Half-life, t1/2 is the time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay. # of half-lives given amount of time Radioactive dating uses knowledge of half-lives to approximate the age of an object. Radioactive dating includes using Carbon -14 to date organic material. 1half-life = Time of half life Half-life calculations: Use ratio’s to solve: Must remember what a half-life means – ½ of the original amount decays Time amount Original 100 % 1 half-life 50 % 25 % 2ne half-life 3rd half-life 12.5 % 6.25 % 4th half-life Page 44 of 45
Nuclear   Page 43 of 45  A student should be able to      Use the symbols for and distinguish between alpha   24He , and b...
Fission: Fusion: Page 45 of 45
Fission   Fusion   Page 45 of 45
C THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • ALBANY, NY 12234 Reference Tables for Physical Setting/CHEMISTRY 2011 Edition Table A Standard Temperature and Pressure Name Value Unit Table D Selected Units Symbol Name Quantity Table B Physical Constants for Water Heat of Fusion 334 J/g Heat of Vaporization 2260 J/g Specific Heat Capacity of H2O(ᐍ) 4.18 J/g•K Table C Selected Prefixes Factor Prefix Symbol 103 kilo- k 10 –1 decicentimillimicronanopico- kelvin temperature mole amount of substance J joule energy, work, quantity of heat s second time min minute time h hour time d day time year time liter volume parts per million concentration M molarity solution concentration u atomic mass unit atomic mass n 10 –12 pressure µ 10 –9 pascal m 10 –6 Pa c 10 –3 mass d 10 –2 gram ppm kelvin degree Celsius g L 273 K 0°C length y Standard Temperature kilopascal atmosphere meter mol 101.3 kPa 1 atm m K Standard Pressure p Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition 1
C  THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK     THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT     ALBANY, NY 12234  Reference Tables for P...
Table E Selected Polyatomic Ions Formula Name Formula Name H3O+ hydronium CrO42– chromate Hg22+ mercury(I) Cr2O72– dichromate NH4+ ammonium MnO4– permanganate C2H3O2– CH3COO– acetate NO2– nitrite CN– nitrate cyanide NO3– O22– peroxide OH– hydroxide PO43– phosphate } 2– CO3 carbonate – HCO3 hydrogen carbonate C2O42– oxalate SCN– thiocyanate ClO– hypochlorite SO32– sulfite ClO2– chlorite SO42– sulfate ClO3– chlorate HSO4– hydrogen sulfate ClO4– perchlorate S2O32– thiosulfate Table F Solubility Guidelines for Aqueous Solutions Ions That Form Soluble Compounds Exceptions Ions That Form Insoluble Compounds* (CO32–) Exceptions Group 1 ions (Li+, Na+, etc.) carbonate ammonium (NH4+) chromate (CrO42–) acetate (C2H3O2– or CH3COO–) when combined with Group 1 ions, Ca2+, Mg2+, or ammonium (NH4+) phosphate (PO43–) hydrogen carbonate (HCO3–) when combined with Group 1 ions or ammonium (NH4+) sulfide (S2–) chlorate (ClO3–) when combined with Group 1 ions or ammonium (NH4+) hydroxide (OH–) when combined with Group 1 ions, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr 2+, or ammonium (NH4+) nitrate (NO3–) halides (Cl–, Br–, I–) when combined with Ag+, Pb2+, or Hg22+ sulfates (SO42–) when combined with Ag+, Ca2+, Sr 2+, Ba2+, or Pb2+ Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition when combined with Group 1 ions or ammonium (NH4+) *compounds having very low solubility in H2O 2
Table E Selected Polyatomic Ions Formula  Name  Formula  Name  H3O   hydronium  CrO42     chromate  Hg22   mercury I   Cr2...
Table G Solubility Curves at Standard Pressure 150. KI 140. NaNO3 130. KNO3 120. 110. Solubility (g solute/100. g H2O) 100. 90. 80. NH4Cl 70. HCl 60. KCl 50. 40. NaCl 30. KClO3 20. NH3 SO2 10. 0 0 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. 100. Temperature (°C) Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition 3
Table G Solubility Curves at Standard Pressure 150.  KI  140.  NaNO3  130.  KNO3  120. 110.  Solubility  g solute 100. g H...
Table H Vapor Pressure of Four Liquids 200. propanone ethanol water Vapor Pressure (kPa) 150. ethanoic acid 101.3 kPa 100. 50. 0 0 25 Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition 50. 75 100. 125 4
Table H Vapor Pressure of Four Liquids 200.  propanone ethanol water  Vapor Pressure  kPa   150.  ethanoic acid 101.3 kPa ...
Table I Heats of Reaction at 101.3 kPa and 298 K Reaction CH4(g) + 2O2(g) ∆H (kJ)* CO2(g) + 2H2O(ᐍ) C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(ᐍ) –890.4 Table J Activity Series** Most Active Metals Li Nonmetals Most Active F2 –2219.2 Rb Cl2 2C8H18(ᐍ) + 25O2(g) 16CO2(g) + 18H2O(ᐍ) –10943 K Br2 2CH3OH(ᐍ) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 4H2O(ᐍ) –1452 Cs I2 C2H5OH(ᐍ) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(ᐍ) –1367 Ba C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(ᐍ) –2804 Sr –566.0 Ca –393.5 Na –3351 Mg +182.6 Al 2CO(g) + O2(g) 2CO2(g) C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) 4Al(s) + 3O2(g) 2Al2O3(s) N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) N2(g) + 2O2(g) 2NO2(g) +66.4 Ti 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(g) –483.6 Mn 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(ᐍ) –571.6 Zn N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) –91.8 Cr 2C(s) + 3H2(g) C2H6(g) –84.0 Fe 2C(s) + 2H2(g) C2H4(g) +52.4 Co +227.4 Ni +53.0 Sn K+(aq) + NO3–(aq) +34.89 Pb Na+(aq) + OH–(aq) –44.51 H2 +14.78 Cu +25.69 Ag 2C(s) + H2(g) C2H2(g) H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) H2O KNO3(s) NaOH(s) H2O NH4Cl(s) H2O NH4NO3(s) NaCl(s) LiBr(s) H2O H2O +(aq) NH4 H2O + Cl–(aq) NH4+(aq) + NO3–(aq) Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq) Li+(aq) H+(aq) + OH–(aq) + Br–(aq) H2O(ᐍ) +3.88 –48.83 –55.8 *The ∆H values are based on molar quantities represented in the equations. A minus sign indicates an exothermic reaction. Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition Least Active Au Least Active **Activity Series is based on the hydrogen standard. H2 is not a metal. 5
Table I Heats of Reaction at 101.3 kPa and 298 K Reaction CH4 g    2O2 g      H  kJ    CO2 g    2H2O       C3H8 g    5O2 g...
Table K Common Acids Formula Table N Selected Radioisotopes Name Nuclide HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid HNO2(aq) nitrous acid HNO3(aq) nitric acid H2SO3(aq) sulfurous acid H2SO4(aq) sulfuric acid H3PO4(aq) phosphoric acid H2CO3(aq) or CO2(aq) carbonic acid Half-Life Decay Mode Nuclide Name Formula β– carbon-14 37Ca 182 ms β+ calcium-37 60Co 5.271 y β– cobalt-60 137Cs 30.2 y β– cesium-137 53Fe 8.51 min β+ iron-53 220Fr 27.4 s α 12.31 y β– hydrogen-3 8.021 d β– iodine-131 37K 1.23 s β+ potassium-37 12.36 h β– potassium-42 10.73 y β– krypton-85 7.13 s β– nitrogen-16 19Ne 17.22 s β+ neon-19 32P 14.28 d β– phosphorus-32 131I 16N NaOH(aq) sodium hydroxide KOH(aq) potassium hydroxide Ca(OH)2(aq) calcium hydroxide NH3(aq) aqueous ammonia Table M Common Acid–Base Indicators Indicator 5715 y 85Kr Name Approximate pH Range for Color Change gold-198 42K Table L Common Bases β– 14C ethanoic acid (acetic acid) 2.695 d 3H CH3COOH(aq) or HC2H3O2(aq) 198Au Color Change methyl orange 3.1–4.4 red to yellow bromthymol blue 6.0–7.6 8–9 239Pu 2.410 × 104 y α plutonium-239 226Ra 1599 y α radium-226 222Rn 3.823 d α radon-222 90Sr 29.1 y β– strontium-90 99Tc 2.13 × 105 y β– technetium-99 232Th 1.40 × 1010 y α thorium-232 233U 1.592 × 105 y α uranium-233 235U 7.04 × 108 y α uranium-235 238U 4.47 × 109 y α uranium-238 Source: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st ed., 2010–2011, CRC Press yellow to blue phenolphthalein francium-220 colorless to pink litmus 4.5–8.3 red to blue bromcresol green 3.8–5.4 yellow to blue thymol blue 8.0–9.6 yellow to blue Source: The Merck Index, 14th ed., 2006, Merck Publishing Group Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition 6
Table K Common Acids Formula  Table N Selected Radioisotopes  Name  Nuclide  HCl aq   hydrochloric acid  HNO2 aq   nitrous...
Table O Symbols Used in Nuclear Chemistry Name Notation alpha particle 4 He 2 beta particle 0 –1 e Symbol or 4 α 2 α 0 or –1β β– gamma radiation 0γ 0 γ neutron 1 0n n 1H 1 1 or 1p p 0 +1e 0 or +1β β+ proton positron Table P Organic Prefixes Prefix Number of Carbon Atoms meth- 1 eth- 2 prop- 3 but- 4 pent- 5 hex- 6 hept- 7 oct- 8 non- 9 dec- 10 Table Q Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons Name alkanes Examples General Formula Name CnH2n+2 ethane Structural Formula H H H C C H H H alkenes CnH2n ethene H H C C H alkynes CnH2n–2 ethyne H H C C H Note: n = number of carbon atoms Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition 7
Table O Symbols Used in Nuclear Chemistry Name  Notation  alpha particle  4 He 2  beta particle  0    1 e  Symbol  or 4   ...
Table R Organic Functional Groups Class of Compound Functional Group General Formula halide (halocarbon) F (fluoro-) Cl (chloro-) Br (bromo-) I (iodo-) R X (X represents any halogen) alcohol OH R OH CH3CH2CH2OH 1-propanol ether O R O R′ CH3OCH2CH3 methyl ethyl ether O O aldehyde C H Example CH3CHClCH3 2-chloropropane O CH3CH2C H propanal R C H O O ketone organic acid ester amine amide O C R C R′ CH3CCH2CH2CH3 2-pentanone O O O C OH R R C O R′ N R N R′′ O O R′ C NH O O O C O CH3CH2C OH propanoic acid C OH R C NH R′ CH3CH2COCH3 methyl propanoate CH3CH2CH2NH2 1-propanamine O CH3CH2C NH2 propanamide Note: R represents a bonded atom or group of atoms. Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition 8
Table R Organic Functional Groups Class of Compound  Functional Group  General Formula  halide  halocarbon   F  fluoro-  C...
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 P eriod 9 1 +1 –1 2 Be K +2 44.9559 3 Sr +1 137.33 2-8-18-8-2 38 +1 87.62 20 2-8-8-2 Y +2 138.9055 2-8-18-9-2 39 +2 88.9059 2-8-9-2 Ca 21Sc +1 40.08 2-8-2 +2 +2 Fr Zr V Ta Rf 2-8-13-2 +4 101.07 +6 +7 2-8-14-2 +2 55.845 +3 +4 +7 8 74 W Pr +4 231.036 59 +3 140.908 +4 90 91 Th Pa 232.038 58 Ce 140.116 (266) -18-32-12-2 2-8-18-15-1 Co +3 102.906 2-8-15-2 27 +2 58.9332 +3 9 Ni +3 106.42 2-8-16-2 28 +2 58.693 +3 10 +2 107.868 +4 +1 112.41 2-8-18-2 +1 65.409 +2 12 77 Ir 78 U 2-8-18-18-2 +3 (244) +4 +5 +6 +3 (243) +4 +5 +6 +2 151.964 +3 +3 (247) +4 +5 +6 +2 157.25 +3 (280) 79 -18-32-18-1 +3 (247) +3 158.925 (285) -18-32-18-2 +1 200.59 +3 Au 80Hg 2-8-18-18-1 +2 196.967 +4 Np 94Pu 95 Cm 97Bk Am 96 93 +3 (237) +4 +5 +6 +3 150.36 (281) -18-32-17-1 Pt 2-8-18-18 +3 195.08 +4 Source: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st ed., 2010–2011, CRC Press 13 In Tl 14 Si Sn Pb 98 Cf +3 (251) +4 2-5 P N 16 S 83 +3 (258) +3 168.934 (292) -18-32-18-6 84 Po 2-8-18-18-6 +3 (209) +5 2-7 Cl F Br l 18 18 Ar Kr +2 174.9668 +3 (294) -18-32-18-8 (222) 2-8-18-18-8 Xe 54 –1 131.29 +1 +5 +7 2-8-18-8 36 –1 83.798 +1 +5 2-8-8 –1 39.948 +1 +5 +7 2-8 10 Ne –1 20.180 At 86Rn +2 (259) +3 +3 173.04 (?) 85 -18-32-18-7 +2 (210) +4 2-8-18-18-7 53 –2 126.904 +4 +6 2-8-18-7 35 –2 79.904 +4 +6 2-8-7 17 –2 35.453 +4 +6 9 17 –2 18.9984 Lr 103 +2 (262) +3 Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu +3 (257) 68 +3 167.259 (288) -18-32-18-5 Bi 2-8-18-18-5 +2 208.980 +4 –3 127.60 +3 +5 2-8-18-6 –3 78.96 +3 +5 2-8-6 16 O –3 15.9994 –2 –1 +1 +2 +3 +4 8 +5 2-6 –3 32.065 +3 +5 Group Sb 52Te 51 +2 121.760 +4 2-8-18-5 +2 74.9216 +4 2-8-5 15 –4 30.97376 +2 +4 7 –4 14.0067 +2 +4 15 Es 100 101 102 Fm Md No 99 +3 (252) +3 164.930 (289) -18-32-18-4 82 +1 207.2 +3 2-8-18-18-4 50 +3 118.71 2-8-18-4 +3 72.64 2-8-4 Dy 67Ho 66 +3 162.500 (284) -18-32-18-3 81 +1 204.383 +2 2-8-18-18-3 49 +2 114.818 2-8-18-3 +2 69.723 2-8-3 2-4 C +3 28.0855 6 +3 12.011 14 2 2 He 18 4.00260 0 0 +2 +4 +6 0 +2 0 0 0 +3 +3 Mt 110 111 112 113** 114 115 116 117 118 Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo 109 (276) -18-32-15-2 **The systematic names and symbols for elements of atomic numbers 113 and above will be used until the approval of trivial names by IUPAC. 92 +4 238.029 +5 +3 (145) (277) -18-32-14-2 2-8-18-16-1 +3 192.217 +4 Al B 26.98154 2-3 5 10.81 13 Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 29 2-8-18-1 +2 63.546 +3 11 Note: Numbers in parentheses are mass numbers of the most stable or common isotope. Relative atomic masses are based on 12 C = 12 (exact) Selected Oxidation States Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 60 +3 144.24 (272) -18-32-13-2 75 +4 190.23 +6 +7 Re 76Os 2-8-18-13-2 +6 186.207 Sg Bh Hs Db 106 107 108 105 +4 (262) 73 2-8-18-13-1 +5 183.84 +6 (98) *denotes the presence of (2-8-) for elements 72 and above 104 +3 (261) 72 -18-32-11-2 Hf 2-8-18-12-1 +4 180.948 +3 95.94 +5 2-8-13-1 +2 54.9380 +3 +6 7 Group –4 +2 +4 Cr 25Mn 26Fe 24 +2 51.996 +3 +4 +5 6 2-4 6 C 12.011 Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 41 +4 92.9064 2-8-11-2 23 +2 50.9415 +3 +4 5 *18-32-10-2 +3 178.49 2-8-18-10-2 40 +3 91.224 -18-32-18-9-2 Ra 89Ac 88 -18-32-18-8-2 Ti 2-8-10-2 22 Atomic Number Symbol Atomic Mass Electron Configuration KEY 4 +3 47.867 2-8-18-18-9-2 +2 (227) 2-8-18-18-8-2 +1 (226) -18-32-18-8-1 87 (223) 55 2-8-18-18-8-1 Cs 56Ba 57La 132.905 2-8-18-8-1 37 Rb 85.4678 2-8-8-1 19 39.0983 11 2-8-1 Na 12Mg +1 24.305 2-2 4 +1 9.01218 Group Li 22.98977 2-1 3 1 H 6.941 1 1 1.00794 Periodic Table of the Elements
Reference Tables for Physical Setting  Chemistry     2011 Edition  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  P eriod  9  1   1    1  2  Be  K  ...
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition 10 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Atomic Symbol Number 1086 1402 1314 1681 2081 1312 2372 520. 900. 801 First Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) krypton rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium gallium germanium arsenic (gray) selenium (gray) bromine iron cobalt nickel copper zinc scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese 1351 403 549 600. 640. 579 762 944 941 1140. 762 760. 737 745 906 633 659 651 653 717 sulfur (monoclinic) 1000. chlorine 1251 argon 1521 potassium 419 calcium 590. sodium 496 magnesium 738 aluminum 578 silicon 787 phosphorus (white) 1012 carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon hydrogen helium lithium beryllium boron Name — 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.6 3.0 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.6 2.6 3.2 — 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 4.0 — 2.2 — 1.0 1.6 2.0 Electronegativity 116 312 1050. 1795 2128 303 1211 1090. 494 266 1811 1768 1728 1358 693 1814 1941 2183 2180. 1519 388 172 84 337 1115 371 923 933 1687 317 — 63 54 53 24 14 — 454 1560. 2348 Melting Point (K) Table S Properties of Selected Elements 120. 961 1655 3618 4682 2477 3106 — 958 332 3134 3200. 3186 2835 1180. 3109 3560. 3680. 2944 2334 718 239 87 1032 1757 1156 1363 2792 3538 554 — 77 90. 85 27 20. 4 1615 2744 4273 Boiling* Point (K) 0.003425 1.53 2.64 4.47 6.52 5.91 5.3234 5.75 4.809 3.1028 7.87 8.86 8.90 8.96 7.134 2.99 4.506 6.0 7.15 7.3 2.00 0.002898 0.001633 0.89 1.54 0.97 1.74 2.70 2.3296 1.823 . — 0.001145 0.001308 0.001553 0.000825 0.000082 0.000164 0.534 1.85 2.34 Density** (g/cm3) 116 215 190. 176 164 123 120. 120. 118 117 124 118 117 122 120. 159 148 144 130. 129 104 100. 101 200. 174 160. 140. 124 114 109 75 71 64 60. 62 32 37 130. 99 84 Atomic Radius (pm)
Reference Tables for Physical Setting  Chemistry     2011 Edition  10  H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca ...
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition 11 Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 radon francium radium actinium thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine osmium iridium platinum gold mercury hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium barium lanthanum 0.9 1.1 2.1 2.1 2.7 2.6 0.8 2.2 1.9 1.7 1.8 2.0 1.6 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 1000. 1193 904 723 387 161 302 1828 1235 594 430. 505 2750. 2896 2430. 2606 2237 Melting Point (K) 1037 393 509 499 589 716 703 812 — 814 865 864 890. 1007 659 728 759 756 — 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.4 1.9 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 202 300. 969 1323 577 600. 544 527 575 3306 2719 2041 1337 234 2506 3290. 3695 3458 Elements 58–71 have been omitted. 503 538 831 869 1008 1170. 376 804 731 868 558 709 652 684 702 710. 720. Electronegativity Elements 90 and above have been omitted. antimony (gray) tellurium iodine xenon cesium palladium silver cadmium indium tin (white) niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium Name First Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 211 — — 3471 1746 2022 1837 1235 — 5285 4701 4098 3129 630. 4876 5731 5828 5869 2170. 3737 1860. 1261 457 165 944 3236 2435 1040. 2345 2875 5017 4912 4538 4423 3968 Boiling* Point (K) Source: CRC Handbook for Chemistry and Physics, 91st ed., 2010–2011, CRC Press *boiling point at standard pressure ** density of solids and liquids at room temperature and density of gases at 298 K and 101.3 kPa — no data available Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh 41 42 43 44 45 Atomic Symbol Number 0.009074 — 5 10. 11.8 11.3 9.79 9.20 — 22.587 22.562 21.5 19.3 13.5336 13.3 16.4 19.3 20.8 3.62 6.15 6.68 6.232 4.933 0.005366 1.873 12.0 10.5 8.69 7.31 7.287 8.57 10.2 11 12.1 12.4 Density** (g/cm3) 146 242 211 201 144 145 150. 142 148 136 132 130. 130. 132 164 158 150. 141 206 194 140. 137 136 136 238 130. 136 140. 142 140. 156 146 138 136 134 Atomic Radius (pm)
Reference Tables for Physical Setting  Chemistry     2011 Edition  11  Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir...
Table T Important Formulas and Equations d = density m = mass V = volume m V Density d= Mole Calculations number of moles = Percent Error % error = Percent Composition % composition by mass = given mass gram-formula mass measured value – accepted value × 100 accepted value parts per million = mass of part × 100 mass of whole mass of solute × 1 000 000 mass of solution Concentration moles of solute liter of solution molarity = Combined Gas Law P1V1 T1 = P2V2 T2 Titration MAVA = MBVB Heat q = mC∆T q = mHf q = mHv Temperature K = °C + 273 P = pressure V = volume T = temperature MA = molarity of H+ MB = molarity of OH– VA = volume of acid VB = volume of base q = heat Hf = heat of fusion m = mass Hv = heat of vaporization C = specific heat capacity ∆T = change in temperature K = kelvin °C = degree Celsius DET 609 ADU Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition 12
Table T Important Formulas and Equations d   density m   mass V   volume  m V  Density  d   Mole Calculations  number of m...
© Adrian Dingle’s Chemistry Pages 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008. All rights reserved. These materials may NOT be copied or redistributed in any way, except for individual class instruction. Revised August 2007 Qualitative Testing Factoid Sheet This is NOT an exhaustive list, but it does cover a LOT of what might commonly come up on a typical AP exam. Flame Test Colors Ion Li+, Sr2+, Ca2+ Na+ + K Ba2+ Cu2+ Flame color Red (various shades) Yellow/Orange Lilac Green Blue-green Transition metal ion colors +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 Sc Violet Colorless Blue +7 Colorless Ti +6 V Violet Green Cr Blue Green Mn Pale pink Fe Pale green Yellow/Brown Co Pink Orange/Yellow Ni Green Cu Colorless Zn yellow Yellow (CrO42-) Brown Orange (Cr2O72-) Dark Green Purple Blue Colorless Common Precipitate colors WHITE BLUE AgCl Many Copper (II) ppt’s. BaSO4 PbCl2 Many nontransition metal hydroxides Many nontransition metal carbonates Many nontransition metal sulfates YELLOW AgI BLACK GREEN RED/BROWN Many Sulfides Many Fe(II) ppt’s. Many Fe(III) ppt’s. PbI2 C:\www.adriandingleschemistrypages.com\apfactoidcolors.doc Page 1 of 2
   Adrian Dingle   s Chemistry Pages 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008. All rights reserved. These materials may NOT be copied ...
© Adrian Dingle’s Chemistry Pages 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008. All rights reserved. These materials may NOT be copied or redistributed in any way, except for individual class instruction. Revised August 2007 Common Tests for gases Gas Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Ammonia Test Squeaky pop with lighted splint Re-lights glowing splint Turns limewater milky Pungent odor, turns red litmus paper blue, gives dense white fumes in contact with conc. HCl fumes Common tests for cations and anions Ion Carbonate and Hydrogen carbonate Sulfate Chloride Bromide Iodide Ammonium Test Release CO2 gas with acids White ppt. of BaSO4 with barium ions White ppt. of AgCl with silver ions Cream ppt. of AgBr with silver ions Yellow ppt. of AgI with silver ions NH3 released with hydroxide ions Color Changes in REDOX reactions MnO4-(aq) Cr2O72-(aq) Mn2+(aq) (Dark Purple) (Pale Pink) Cr3+(aq) (Orange) (Green) Acid/Base Indicator Color changes ACID BASE Methyl orange Red Yellow Methyl red Red Yellow Litmus Red Blue Universal Red Blue/Purple Phenolphthalein Colorless Pink Miscellaneous other “color data” HALOGENS: Fluorine gas – pale yellow/green, Chlorine gas – green, Bromine liquid – orange/brown, Iodine solid – dark purple NO2 gas – orange/brown C:\www.adriandingleschemistrypages.com\apfactoidcolors.doc Page 2 of 2
   Adrian Dingle   s Chemistry Pages 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008. All rights reserved. These materials may NOT be copied ...