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AP Chemistry

Mr Raguzin AP Chemistry Dear AP Chemistry Student and Parent Welcome to AP Chemistry I am excited to begin this journey with you For those of you that do not know me my name is Mr Steven Raguzin and I will be your instructor for AP Chemistry for the 2015K2016 school year In case you want to know a little bit about me here s some background information I was born and raised here on Long Island This is my 4th year teaching at St Anthony s I have taught Regents Chemistry Honors Organic Chemistry AP Chemistry and Physics and Honors Physics I graduated from Providence College with a degree in Chemistry and secondary education Overview of Course Expectations 2016 AP Chemistry ExamK Monday May 2nd AP Chemistry is a college level course It is a time consuming and challenging yet extremely rewarding course This course moves at a very fast pace and classroom attendance is a MUST Students will be prepared to do college level work of any type upon completion of this course due to the thought processes used and the discipline work habits required To have success on the AP exam students will need to spend on average five to ten additional hours per week outside of class working on AP Chemistry This time will be spent on homework assignments preKlabs lab reports problem sets etc These statements are not meant to discourage but to point out and state the truth to avoid any misconceptions about the high expectations for this course I will do my very best to provide a college level course experience which not only prepares you for the AP exam but provides a solid foundation in chemistry Summer Assignment Attached to this letter you will find a list of things that students need to review memorize and or practice prior to school starting in September The majority of the material required in this assignment is review material that students should have learned in their first year chemistry class Some parts of the summer assignment are meant to stretch students thinking and resourcefulness This means look it up if you don t know if off the top of your head Students should not panic if they didn t learn it in the first year it is easily mastered Often students may find it beneficial to look it up in the blue Barron s Review Book from their first year course to help grasp any confusing topics This is a challenging problemKsolving course and for some of you a year may have passed since you have had a chemistry course It is imperative that you come to class the first day with some of the chemistry jargon second nature for you due to the pace at which the course progresses Reviewing and committing to memory the topics in this summer assignment is not optional and completing the assignment in a thorough and focused manner will contribute to a student s success in this course and on the AP Chemistry exam I encourage students to speak with those that have completed AP Chemistry about the importance of mastering the material in the course
Mr. Raguzin  AP Chemistry  Dear AP Chemistry Student and Parent,    Welcome to AP Chemistry  I am excited to begin this jo...
Mr Raguzin AP Chemistry I look forward to getting to know each of you We will have fun and we will work hard Students will receive a detailed course syllabus when school resumes in the fall Please feel free to send me an email over the summer if you have any questions or comments I check email frequently during the summer months I also plan on maintaining a classroom website that will be student and parent accessible beginning in September My email address is sraguzin stanthonyshs org I hope you enjoy your summer and I look forward to seeing you in the fall Mr Raguzin
Mr. Raguzin  AP Chemistry    I look forward to getting to know each of you  We will have fun and we will work  hard  Stude...
Mr Raguzin AP Chemistry AP Chemistry Summer Assignment The summer assignment consists of two parts Part A is the summer review material Part B is the material you must have memorized by the first day of school Part A Read and review the Honors Chemistry Year end Review Packet at the end of this letter This is a packet full of information I will NOT be teaching in the AP curriculum because it is material you should know from your firstDyear course I will review it as we go along however it is important that you review the course material on your own Be sure to refer to your blue Barron s Review Book or any other resources you have from your firstDyear course Part B Memorization of material is not typically something that will be encouraged or emphasized in this course This is a problemDsolving course and it is impossible to memorize everything you will be asked to do However memorization of some topics rules is necessary Unlike your Regents course you have a VERY limited reference table in AP See the end of this packet for the reference table you are provided with in this course Master the memorization material listed in this assignment DO whatever it takes to commit this information to memory for instant recall Keep in mind that memorization is most effectively mastered over a long period of time as opposed to cramming that so many students mistakenly attempt While this technique is effective immediately it is not the best way to master the material longDterm as you will be required to know it for the next 10 months Use flashcards acronyms songs rhymes etc Again whatever it takes I will be checking these assignments on the first day of school to verify you have completed them so that you get off to a good start in this class Be prepared for quizzes anytime during the first week on Element names symbols ions strong acids and bases solubility rules and qualitative ion colors
Mr. Raguzin  AP Chemistry   AP Chemistry Summer Assignment    The summer assignment consists of two parts       Part A is ...
Mr Raguzin AP Chemistry Information to Memorize by the 1st Day of School Topic Subject Matter Element Names and Symbols for elements 1 99 Students should be able to locate these elements quickly on the periodic table since the table provided on the exam does not include element names Where Do I Find It Regents Reference Table Not all the element names are listed there so you may need to refer to your AP Chemistry Textbook or online Monatomic Ions know the ones with multiple oxidation states You must know all charges for all elements Regents Reference Table Polyatomic Ions Formulas and Names Yes these ALL must be memorized there is NO Table E AP Chemistry Ion Sheet Attached 7 Strong Acids Strong Bases all others are weak such as NH3 CCBSPIN hydroChloric HCl Chloric Acid HClO3 hydroBromic HBr Sulfuric H2SO4 Perchloric HClO4 hydroIodic HI Nitric HNO3 Group 1 metal hydroxides NaOH KOH etc Heavy Group 2 metal hydroxides Ba OH 2 Sr OH 2 Ca OH 2 only because others are insoluble Solubility Rules Colors of Common Ions AP Chemistry Textbook p 125 Table 4 1 or Solubility Rules Attached AP Chemistry Sheet Attached
Mr. Raguzin  AP Chemistry     Information to Memorize by the 1st Day of School     Topic Subject Matter Element Names and ...
Mr Raguzin AP Chemistry Information to Memorize by the 1st Day of School Solubility Rules 1 All nitrates are soluble 2 Alkali metal Group 1 ions and NH4 ions are soluble 3 Acetates hydrogen carbonate bicarbonate and chlorates are soluble 4 Halides are soluble except with Ag Pb 2 and Hg2 2 5 Most sulfates are soluble except with Pb 2 Ba 2 Hg 2 and Ca 2 6 Most hydroxides OH are insoluble except Ca 2 Ba 2 and Sr 2 7 Sulfides carbonates chromates and phosphates are insoluble Lower number rules supersede Therefore Na2S is soluble
Mr. Raguzin  AP Chemistry     Information to Memorize by the 1st Day of School     Solubility Rules   1. All nitrates are ...
Year End Condensed Honors Chemistry Review Page 1 of 45 Important Notes This handout is a summary of the concepts Practice items for all concepts have not been provided in this packet Additional practice may also be found in the Chemistry EOC Review Practice Handout Example Problems by Goal prepared for the Foldable Project website links and in practice tests provided by your teacher The majority of this information can be found on the teacher websites I also recommend reviewing the chapter summaries for any chapters referenced in this handout For Overall Vocab and Scientists Atomic Theory review see the separate handouts devoted to these topics Be sure to practice the NCSCOS Goal 1 Questions Provided by your teacher as separate practice items for Goal 1 are not posted on the NCDPI website The answer is expressed as 190 000 cm3 since 19 cm has only two sig figs 23 0 cm x 432 cm x 19 cm 188 784 cm3 Limit and round to the least number of sig figs in any of the values For multiplication or division the answer can have no more significant figures than are in the measurement with the fewest number of significant figures Multiplication and Division with Significant Figures Ex a 42500 _________ b 620350 ________ Come to the first real digit and count all remaining digits If the decimal is NOT PRESENT Start at the Atlantic Unit 1 Chapters 1 2 Laboratory Safety Laboratory Equipment Scientific Method Dimensional Analysis SI etc Significant Figures Rules in textbook p 47 If the decimal is PRESENT Start at the Pacific Come to the first real digit and count all remaining digits Ex a 32 02 _________ b 0 00235 _______ Calculations with Significant Figures Addition or Subtraction with Significant Figures When adding or subtracting decimals the answer must have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point as there are in the measurement having the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point Limit and round your answer to the least number of decimal places in any of the numbers that make up your answer 123 25 mL 46 0 mL 86 257 mL 255 507 mL The answer is expressed as 255 5 mL since 46 0 mL has only one decimal place Dimensional Analysis Factor Label Method and the Metric System D m V Page 2 of 45 Be able to solve for any variable Density Calculations Know how to do density by volume displacement and how to use Density as a Conversion Factor density mass volume
Year End Condensed Honors Chemistry Review  Page 1 of 45  Important Notes  This handout is a summary of the concepts. Prac...
Page 4 of 45 Unit 2 Selected Topics Chapters 1 3 4 Bohr s Model Matter Atomic Structure Page 3 of 45 Accuracy Precision 1 Differentiate between a chemical and physical change physical does not involve a change in the identity of the material or substance chemical occurs when one or more substances are converted into different substances 2 Describe the 3 states of matter Solid definite shape and volume particles packed very closely together Liquid no definite shape definite volume particles packed more loosely but still together Gas no definite shape no definite volume particles far apart 3 How is a pure substance different from a mixture A pure substance has a fixed composition every sample has the exact same characteristic properties and every sample has the exact same chemical composition Element pure substance of only one kind of atom Compound substance is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded The four signs of a chemical change are change in temperature formation of a gas formation of a precipitate a solid from two solutions a color change sometimes Accuracy refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured examples baseball pitcher throwing strikes basketball going in the hoop lab data is the correct answer Precision refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way examples baseball pitcher throwing strikes in the same location or keeps throwing balls in the same location basketball shots are all net every time or basketball shots are missed by bouncing of the rim in the same location lab data give the same results over and over possibly right or wrong Questions regarding understanding of precision accuracy are usually given in the form of interpreting data tables practice those Goal 1 Questions mentioned above Percentage Error Practicing Measuring Liquid Volume
Page 4 of 45  Unit 2 - Selected Topics  Chapters 1, 3,   4  Bohr   s Model, Matter, Atomic Structure  Page 3 of 45  Accura...
Atomic Theory Development I Democritus 400B C First used term atom II Dalton s model 1803 Credited with modern atomic theory 4 major ideas III Goldstein Discovers Protons 1886 IV Thomson s model 1897 Credited with Discovery of the electron Page 5 of 45 V Rutherford s model 1911 gold foil experiment Proposed the atom had a nucleus mass concentrated in the nucleus and that an atom is mostly empty space VI Bohr s model 1913 Electrons move in fixed orbits Bohr s Model used for wavelength and frequency calculations Model only works for the hydrogen H atom VII Millikan discovers electron charge and Mass of an electron 1909 VIII Chadwick discovers Neutron 1932 Page 6 of 45 IX De Broglie Frenchman proposes particle wave behavior of Electron also known as particle wave duality 1923 X Schrodinger writes an equation to determine probability of electron location quantum theory XI Electron cloud model present Others Planck described packets of energy call quanta Einstein described the photoelectric effect and the wave particle duality of radiation act as a wave and a particle deBroglie also is credited with the latter
Atomic Theory Development I. Democritus  400B.C.  First used term    atom     II. Dalton   s model  1803  Credited with mo...
Page 7 of 45 Bohr s Model Summary Practice Page 8 of 45 When to use it When the problem has wording about e s jumping from one level to another e g n 4 to n 2 How to use it Use it to find the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation in nm or m must use m in calculations Atomic Structure Atomic z of protons Identifies ID s an element UNIQUE for each element Elements in order on the periodic table by atomic Because atoms must be neutral z also eMass total of p and no Know Relationships between Energy E Wavelength and Frequency Long Wavelength Lower Frequency Lower Energy Short Wavelength Higher Frequency Higher Energy c and E h Unit 3 Chapters 4 5 Atomic Structure Electron Configuration Periodicity Lewis Dot Diagrams Valence Electrons Be able to count them from the electron configuration and by looking at the periodic table p orbital dumbbell shaped Review Practice Electron Configuration Full Noble Gas s p d f orbitals shapes of s p how many e s can each sublevel hold etc s orbital sphere shaped atomic 235 92 U element symbol mass gained e Ions Charged Atoms charge occurs from gaining or losing e not p lost e Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass or Isotope nuclide 2 ways to represent isotopes hyphen notation or nuclear symbol mass Uranium 235 element Isotopes Average Atomic Mass
Page 7 of 45  Bohr   s Model Summary  Practice    Page 8 of 45  When to use it  When the problem has wording about e-s jum...
Periodic Trends Properties Practice Page 9 of 45 Groups of the Periodic Table Unit 4 Chapter 7 Nomenclature Common Polyatomic Ions most common listed from NCSCOS Acetate C2H3O2 1Ammonium NH4 1 Carbonate CO32Nitrate NO31Sulfate SO42 HCl HNO3 HC2H3O2 or CH3COOH H2SO4 Use reference tables for all others Common Acids Hydrochloric Acid Nitric Acid Acetic Acid Sulfuric Acid Practice Naming Formula Writing Page 10 of 45 Be sure to notice if the compound is an acid is ionic or is molecular before naming
Periodic Trends   Properties     Practice   Page 9 of 45  Groups of the Periodic Table  Unit 4 - Chapter 7     Nomenclatur...
Page 11 of 45 Unit 5 Chapters 3 7 The Mole Math with Chemical Formulas Avogadro s Number Calculation of Molar Mass from atomic masses on the periodic table Page 12 of 45 Mole Conversions of All Types particle types atoms molecules formula units ions g to mol mol to g particles to mol mol to particles g to particles particles to g Practice Mole Conversion Problems
Page 11 of 45  Unit 5 - Chapters 3   7     The Mole     Math with Chemical Formulas Avogadro   s Number  Calculation of Mo...
Percent Composition X 100 Page 13 of 45 element in the compound Percent composition is the percent by mass of each element in a compound Percent composition is the same regardless of the size of the sample Percent Composition Calculations comp mass of element molar mass of cpd Empirical Formulas Empirical Formula Simplest Formula Assume 100 sample change to grams for each element to mass Find moles from the grams of each element mass to mol Find the smallest whole ratio by dividing by the smallest number of moles divide by small If necessary multiply to get rid of fractions multiply to whole To find the empirical formula from data 1 2 3 4 where X Molecular mass Empirical mass CH3 empirical Molecular Formula Actual Formula Molecular Formulas Example C2H6 molecular MF EF x Molarity is the term used for moles dissolved in solution Moles in Solution Molarity Symbol for Molarity M moles solute mol liter solution L Definition moles of solute per liter of solution Formula M Be able to calculate Molarity or grams of solute needed Two Nonmetals Polar unequal sharing partial charge Nonpolar equal sharing no charge Two Metals Metal Nonmetal Type s of Atoms involved High melting point Water soluble Crystalline Aquesous solutions conduct a current Water CO2 NH3 NaCl MgO CaS Page 14 of 45 Force Low melting point Brittle Nonconductors Copper wire Iron bar Bond Types Table Sharing of electrons Attraction between ions opposite charges attract transfer of electrons Good conductors Malleable Ductile Examples Sharing of electrons between all atoms Properties Unit 6 Chapter 6 Bonding Molecular Structures Bond Type IONIC transfer of electrons COVALENT Sharing of electrons METALLIC Free flow of Electrons Be able to use electronegativity values to determine bond type see foldable
Percent Composition  X 100   Page 13 of 45      element in the compound    Percent composition is the percent by mass of e...
VSEPR Molecular Geometry Page 15 of 45 0 Lone Pairs of e s on Central Atom 1 Atoms Bonded to Central Atom 2 0 Type of Molecule AByEz 3 0 2 4 1 AB2 Molecular Shape Linear 3 2 AB2E AB3 AB4 AB3E AB2E2 2 Bent Trigonal Planar Tetrahedral Trigonal Pyramidal Bent Be able to draw the Lewis Dot Structures for the 7 diatomic molecules and know the of bonds in each I2 Br2 Cl2 F2 O2 N2 H2 LEWIS STRUCTURE Element Symbol nuclei and inner shell electrons Dashes shared electron pairs in covalent bond Dots unshared electrons Be able to draw Lewis Structure for molecules and determine bond molecule polarity VSEPR Theory be able to predict molecular shape valence shell electron pair repulsion Way to predict molecular geometry shape There is a repulsion between valence e pairs Unit 7 Chapter 8 Chemical Equations BALANCING EQUATIONS 4 steps 1 Start with a word equation 2 Convert to a formula equation don t forget the diatomic molecules 3 Balance with coefficients balance each atom one at a time balance polyatomic ions on each side of the equation as one unit balance H and O last they often appear in more than one compound 4 Check if coefficients are not the lowest possible reduce down Page 16 of 45 REACTION TYPES Be able to Use Reference Tables the equation types and subtypes are in there You must be able to predict products and write balanced chemical equations 1 Synthesis or composition 2 or more substances combine to form 1 new substance A X AX 2 Decomposition A single substance produces 2 or more simpler substances AX A X 3 Single Displacement Replacement 1 element replaces a similar element in a cmpd A BX AX B Hint In reactions write water as HOH 4 Double Displacement Replacement The ions of 2 cmpds switch places to form 2 new cmpds AX BY AY BX 5 Combustion When a substance combines with oxygen releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat Often combustions involve a hydrocarbon cmpd containing C and H CxHy O2 CO2 H2O
VSEPR   Molecular Geometry  Page 15 of 45  0  Lone Pairs of e-s on Central Atom  1  Atoms Bonded to Central Atom  2  0  Ty...
Unit 8 Chapter 9 Stoichiometry g to g mol to g Page 17 of 45 You must be able to do stoichiometric calculations by using the mol ratios from a balanced chemical equation mol to mol g to mol 3 2 1 4 Page 18 of 45 PARTICLES WANTED MASS Wanted MOLES WANTED VOLUME Wanted Mole Roadmap 5 Mole Ratio from Balanced Equation PARTICLES GIVEN MASS Given MOLES GIVEN VOLUME Given Limiting Reagent Reactant LR Controls the amt of product formed Completely consumed in the rxn runs out first Example People on plane 300 people 250 seats Seats are the limiting factor Limiting Reagent Problems Do mass mass g to g calc for all reactants Whichever reactant produces the least is the Limiting Reagent LR actual yield theoretical yield X 100 Excess Reactant ER To find the amount of excess reactant leftover after a rxn Do two mass mass g to g problems to find LR Use LR to calculate excess reactant used Subtract excess reactant used from original amt of excess reactant leftover excess reactant Percent Yield yield theoretical yield maximum amt of product what you should have gotten from mass mass g to g problem actual yield actual amt of product what you got from lab result or given in a problem
Unit 8 Chapter 9     Stoichiometry  g to g   mol to g   Page 17 of 45  You must be able to do stoichiometric calculations ...
Unit 9 Chapters 10 12 Kinetic Molecular Theory KMT I Unit Vocabulary Page 19 of 45 Absolute Zero no molecular movement at this temperature 0 K 2730C Amorphous non crystalline substance such as glass that appears to be solid but is a super cooled liquid Anhydrous without water Barometer a manometer used to measure atmospheric pressure Capillary Action the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid Condensation change in state from a gas to a liquid Deposition change in state directly from a gas to a solid Diffusion mixing of 2 or more gases Effusion movement of a gas through a small opening Evaporation change in state from a liquid to gas Fluids gases and liquids flow Ideal gas imaginary gas that fits all the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory Kelvin SI unit of temperature Kinetic Theory group of ideas explaining the interaction of matter and energy due to particle motion Melting change in state from a solid to a liquid Molar heat of fusion heat needed to melt one mole a substance at its melting pt Molar heat of vaporization Heat needed to vaporize one mole of a substance at its boiling pt Plasma high energy state of matter composed of ions that are knocked apart by collisions Pressure the number and speed of collisions on a wall of a container States of Matter solid liquid gas and plasma are the four states of matter STP standard temperature and pressure Sublimation change in state directly from a solid to a gas Surface tension the apparent skin on surface due to forces holding a liquid together Triple point all three major states of matter are in equilibrium at this temperature and pressure Vapor gaseous state for substances that are normally a liquid or a solid at room temperature Viscosity resistance of liquids to flow Volatile a liquid that evaporates readily II KMT Fundamental Concepts 1 Collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastic collisions Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that are far apart relative to their size What is an ideal gas an ideal gas is an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory What is the kinetic molecular theory a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion What are the five assumptions of the KMT 2 There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles 3 Gas Particles are in continuous rapid random motion They therefore possess kinetic energy which is energy of motion 5 The average kinetic energy of gas particles depends on the temperature of the gas 4 Page 20 of 45 Explain the properties of expansion fluidity low density and compressibility 1 expansion gases completely fill any container in which they are enclosed and they take its shape 2 fluidity gas particles glide easily past one another because the attractive forces are insignificant because liquids and gases flow they are referred to as fluids 3 low density gases are about 1 1000 as dense as the same substance in the liquid or solid state 4 compressibility volume of a given sample of gas can be greatly decreased because the particles which are initially very far apart can be forced closer together compressed Three Phases of Matter STP Standard temperature and Pressure 00 C 273K and 1 atm Pressure conversions all of these values are equal to each other and any two can be set up as a ratio to be used in a factor label problem This info is also in the reference tables 1 atm 760 torr 760 mm Hg 101 3 kPa 1 01 x 105 Pa Molar Heat of Fusion Molar Heat of Vaporization Problem Examples covered in Unit 14
Unit 9 - Chapters 10   12     Kinetic Molecular Theory  KMT  I. Unit Vocabulary  Page 19 of 45  Absolute Zero- no molecula...
Phase Diagrams for Water Carbon Dioxide Page 21 of 45 phase diagram a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist triple point the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid liquid and vapor of substance can coexist at equilibrium critical point indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance critical temperature the temperature above which a substance cannot exist in the liquid state critical pressure the lowest pressure at which a substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature NOTE Solid H2O is less dense than the liquid indicated by the negative slope of the equilibrium line between the solid and liquid phases The opposite is true for CO2 notice the positive slope of this same equilibrium line 150 100 50 0 50 0 150 100 50 0 50 0 100 200 300 Heat lost time q in kJ for 100 g H2O COOLING CURVE FOR WATER EXOTHERMIC 100 200 300 Heat added time q in kJ for 100 g H2O HEATING CURVE FOR WATER ENDOTHERMIC Heating Cooling Curves See Unit 14 for Calculations along each step of the curve Temperature C Temperature C Page 22 of 45 400 400
Phase Diagrams for Water   Carbon Dioxide   Page 21 of 45  phase diagram     a graph of pressure versus temperature that s...
Page 23 of 45 Vapor Pressure Curves Page 24 of 45 A liquid will boil when its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure Unit 10 Chapters 10 11 Gases Gas Laws and Gas Stoichiometry Stoichiometry Roadmap including gases
Page 23 of 45  Vapor Pressure Curves   Page 24 of 45  A liquid will boil when its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressu...
Page 25 of 45 Gas Laws Summary Table Definitions P pressure n of moles V volume R gas constant 0 0821 L atm mol K this is the most common one T temperature in Kelvin always for gas laws molar volume 1 mol 22 4 L or 22 4L 1 mol of any gas at STP STP standard temperature 00C or 273 K K 0C 273 standard pressure 1 atm 760 mm Hg 760 torr 101 3 kPa M Molar Mass on EOC packet M is molarity it is italicized Highlighted Info Given in NCDPI EOC Reference Tables Version 1 February 22 2009 Dilute Concentrated Unit 11 Chapters 13 14 Solutions and Colligative Properties From the Chemistry Reference Tables Packet Solute what is being dissolved Solvent dissolving medium often water Solutions solute and solvent together Page 26 of 45 Molarity M A way to measure solution concentration It s the most common chemistry concentration unit M moles solute liters of solution
Page 25 of 45 Gas Laws Summary Table Definitions  P   pressure n     of moles V   volume R   gas constant  0.0821 L   atm ...
Making a Molar Solution Molarity is the term used for moles dissolved in solution Molarity Calculations also in Unit 5 Symbol for Molarity M moles solute mol liter solution L Definition moles of solute per liter of solution Formula M Be able to calculate Molarity or grams of solute needed Page 27 of 45 Molarity By Dilution Calculations Making a Molal Solution m moles of solute Kg of solvent Page 28 of 45 Molality m another way to measure solution concentration it is independent of temperature volume can change with temperature so M can be affected by changes in temperature Net Ionic Equations Steps for writing a net ionic equation 1 Write a balanced equation 2 Use your solubility rules to determine solubility and break soluble compounds into ions with charges Leave insoluble compounds together without any charges 3 Cancel out spectator ions if everything cancels write no net reaction 4 Write the final equation include state symbols 1 sodium hydroxide zinc II nitrate sodium nitrate zinc II hydroxide
Making a Molar Solution    Molarity is the term used for moles dissolved in solution  Molarity Calculations  also in Unit ...
Page 29 of 45 The 3 Colligative properties A Vapor pressure lowering B Freezing point depression and Boiling Pt Elevation Page 30 of 45
Page 29 of 45  The 3 Colligative properties  A. Vapor pressure lowering   B. Freezing point depression and Boiling Pt. Ele...
Page 31 of 45 Unit 12 Chapter 15 Acids Bases Conjugate Acid Base Pairs COMMON ACIDS TO BE MEMORIZED Hydrochloric Acid HCl Nitric Acid HNO3 Acetic Acid HC2H3O2 or CH3COOH Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 Bronsted Lowry Acids Bases Page 32 of 45
Page 31 of 45  Unit 12 - Chapter 15     Acids   Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs  COMMON ACIDS TO BE MEMORIZED  Hydrochlori...
Kw OH H 1 X 10 14 H 10 pH pH pOH 14 Be able to Use These Six Equations In Reference Tables Unit 13 Chapter 16 pH Titrations pH log H OH 10 pOH and 1 X 10 7 M OH 1 When H OH 1 the solution is acidic acidic When OH 1 H the solution is basic b as i c weak 7 base base pH is an easier way to express concentration remember acid acid weak strong Because H OH in water neutral solution remember the brackets stand for concentration in molarity 1 X 10 7 M H same as H3O Pure H2O has pOH log OH 0 strong 14 Page 33 of 45 Titration Curve for the Titration of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base Write the Balanced Equation M mol L Page 34 of 45 Base Data M mol L V mL Acid Data V mL start with the side that has the MOST data Mole Ratio Mole Conversion from given to unknown Calculate Molarity or Volume of Unknown Using Titration Data to Determine Molarity Use the 4 following steps 1 Use balanced equation you may have to write it yourself for the neutralization reaction to determine the ratio of moles of acid to base 2 Determine the moles of standard solution acid or base used during the titration 3 Determine the moles of solute of unknown solution used during the titration 4 Determine the molarity or the volume of the unknown solution Be able to use data from buret readings to find the volume of titrant used in titration calculations
Kw    OH-  H     1 X 10-14  H     10-pH  pH   pOH   14  Be able to Use These Six Equations     In Reference Tables   Unit ...
Unit 14 Chapter 17 Thermochemistry Reaction Rates Entropy Enthalpy Heat Energy Remember heat is one form of energy and the terms are often used interchangeably Page 35 of 45 Heat q or Q is the energy E transferred due to the difference in temp T Unit J joule or cal calorie 1 calorie cal 4 184 J Food calories are actually kilocalories 1 food calorie 1000 chemical calories Example How many calories are in a potato with 686000 J of energy Copy Work Specific Heat c or cp the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 0C one degree Celsius or 1 K one kelvin because the sizes of the degree divisions on both scales are equal Specific heat is usually measured under constant pressure conditions the subscript p Cp is used as a reminder Specific heat is a constant for a substance You must notice the state of matter s l g when selecting the correct constant value from the specific heat from the reference packet Q mCp T EOC packet Use when there is a change in Temperature For water l c 4 18 J g0C given in packet Also given for ice and steam where q m T C specific heat q heat gained or lost in J m mass in g T change in temperature IMPORTANT T Tf Ti in 0C or K Equation can be rearranged to Cp q mHf for freezing melting To calculate the heat required for changes of state at constant temperature use and and Hf 334J g all of this is in the packet q mHv for boiling condensing for water Hv 2 260 J g Heating Cooling Curves C o Temp Q m TCp solid Q mHf Q m TCp liquid Q mHv Q m TCp gas Legend for Calculations 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 Time min 3 Using your Reference Tables list the values for the following variables Cp solid Cp liquid Cp gas Hf 4 Page 36 of 45 5
Unit 14 Chapter 17     Thermochemistry, Reaction Rates, Entropy, Enthalpy Heat Energy     Remember heat is one form of ene...
Phase Diagrams See Unit 9 Reaction rate depends on five things 1 nature of reactants 2 surface area 3 temperature 4 concentration 5 presence of a catalyst Energy Diagrams http www saskschools ca curr_content chem30_05 graphics 2_graphics exo gif http www saskschools ca curr_content chem30_05 graphics 2_graphics endo gif Red dashed line demonstrates the reduction of the activation energy through the use of a catalyst http www bbc co uk schools gcsebitesize chemistry chemicalreactions 2energychangesrev3 shtml Page 37 of 45 Unit 15 Chapter 18 Equilibrium LeChatelier s Principle K Chemical Equilibrium Page 38 of 45 Reversible reaction Use Chemical equilibrium state of balance in which the rates of opposing rxns are exactly equal Dynamic state reactions are continually happening Example students changing rooms reactions are equal at equilibrium reverse reaction favored more reactants forward reaction favored more products K products coefficients reactants coefficients Equilibrium constant K or Keq or Kc Why use K K 1 K 1 K 1 Very Important K includes only gases and aqueous solutions liquids and solids do not have a concentration Acids Bases and Salts Weak acid ionizes breaks down partially Ka acid ionization or dissociation constant Weak base slightly dissociate just like a weak acid Kb hydrolysis constant Kw dissociation constant for water OH 1 H Buffer solution that can resist changes in pH usually made up of a weak acid or base and a salt of the weak acid or base A system at equilibrium will shift to adjust to changes to stay at equilibrium Le Chatelier s Principle Conditions 1 Concentration A Increase add shifts away to consume excess B Decrease Remove shifts towards to replace 2 Pressure A Increase shifts to side with less gaseous moles B Decrease shifts to side with more gaseous moles 3 Temperature depends on if rxn is exothermic or endothermic Temperature is the Only condition that changes the value of K
Phase Diagrams     See Unit 9  Reaction rate depends on five things  1. nature of reactants 2. surface area 3. temperature...
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Page 39 of 45  Page 40 of 45
Ksp Solubility Constant Expression Units g L or M Page 41 of 45 Solubility the amount of substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature Units Remember salts ionize break down in water When a solution is saturated it is said to be at equilibrium A saturated solution of salt and water is at equilibrium Unit 16 Chapters 19 22 Redox Rxns Electrochemistry Nuclear Chemistry Electrochemistry Students should be able to Determine oxidation number of each element in a REDOX reaction including peroxides Determine elements oxidized and reduced Write half reactions indicating gain or loss of electrons and identify the reaction as either reduction or oxidation Students should be aware of some practical applications of oxidation reduction reactions Some examples include simple wet cell dry cell bleaching and electroplating Oxidation Numbers Summary of Rules for Oxidation Numbers Rule 1 Atoms in a pure element have an oxidation number of zero Rule 2 The more electronegative element in a binary compound is assigned the number equal to the negative charge it would have as an anion The less electronegative atom is assigned the number equal to the positive charge it would have as a cation Rule 3 Fluorine has an oxidation number of 1 in all of its compounds because it is the most electronegative element Rule 4 Oxygen has an oxidation number of 2 in almost all compounds Exceptions Peroxides such as H2O2 in which its oxidation is 1 When oxygen is in compounds with halogens such as OF2 its oxidation is 2 Rule 5 Hydrogen has an oxidation of 1 in all compounds that are more electronegative than it it has an oxidation of 1 in compounds with metals Rule 6 The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a neutral compound is zero Rule 7 The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a polyatomic ion is equal to the charge of the ion Rule 8 Rules 1 7 apply to covalently bonded atoms however oxidation numbers can also be assigned to atoms in ionic compounds Oxidation Reduction Notes Chapter 19 Page 42 of 45 oxidation reduction reactions reactions which involve changes in oxidation states due to an exchange of e s Also called redox reactions oxidation reaction where atoms or ions become more positive less negative by losing e s 2NaCl s example 2Na s Cl2 g oxidation 0 1 oxidation is more positive due to loss of 1e Na has been oxidized 2Na s Cl2 g 0 H2 O 2NaCl s 1 1 4 2 reduction reaction where atoms or ions become more negative less positive by gaining e s example oxidation 2 This is not a redox reaction This is not a redox reaction This is not a redox reaction H2SO3 ox is more negative due to gain of 1e Cl2 has been reduced Use OIL RIG to Remember Oxidation Involves Loss of e more positive Reduction Involves Gain of e more negative Oxidation Reduction always occur together Key Points e s lost gained must be equal SO2 2 1 If oxidation s do not change it is NOT a redox reactiion re d o x re a c t o n example 4 The compound or element on the reactant side containing the oxidized element is the reducing agent it causes reduction The compound or element on the reactant side containing the reduced element is the oxidizing agent it causes oxidation
Ksp     Solubility Constant Expression  Units     g L or M  Page 41 of 45  Solubility  the amount of substance required to...
Nuclear Page 43 of 45 A student should be able to Use the symbols for and distinguish between alpha 24He and beta 10e nuclear particles and gamma radiation include relative mass Use shorthand notation of particles involved in nuclear equations to balance and solve for unknowns Example The neutron is represented as 01n Discuss the penetrating ability of alpha beta and gamma radiation Conceptually describe nuclear decay including o Decay as a random event independent of other energy influences o Using symbols to represent simple balanced decay equations o Half life including simple calculations Contrast fission and fusion Nuclear Decay Mass largest mass Shielding Penetrating ability stopped by a sheet of paper Cite illustrations of the uses of nuclear energy including but not limited to electricity Carbon 14 dating and radioisotopes for medicine tracers ionizing radiation gamma sterilization etc Types of decay Name Symbol 4 2 He Alpha Helium nucleus stopped by thin metal 00 energy not written in the equation relatively small mass stopped by thick concrete stopped by thick lead or Concrete relatively small mass 10 n n neutron no mass energy 0 1 e electron emission Gamma Beta Neutron Nuclear equations Must be balanced on both sides by mass and atomic number HALF LIFE Half life t1 2 is the time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay of half lives given amount of time Radioactive dating uses knowledge of half lives to approximate the age of an object Radioactive dating includes using Carbon 14 to date organic material 1half life Time of half life Half life calculations Use ratio s to solve Must remember what a half life means of the original amount decays Time amount Original 100 1 half life 50 25 2ne half life 3rd half life 12 5 6 25 4th half life Page 44 of 45
Nuclear   Page 43 of 45  A student should be able to      Use the symbols for and distinguish between alpha   24He , and b...
Fission Fusion Page 45 of 45
Fission   Fusion   Page 45 of 45
C THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT ALBANY NY 12234 Reference Tables for Physical Setting CHEMISTRY 2011 Edition Table A Standard Temperature and Pressure Name Value Unit Table D Selected Units Symbol Name Quantity Table B Physical Constants for Water Heat of Fusion 334 J g Heat of Vaporization 2260 J g Specific Heat Capacity of H2O 4 18 J g K Table C Selected Prefixes Factor Prefix Symbol 103 kilo k 10 1 decicentimillimicronanopico kelvin temperature mole amount of substance J joule energy work quantity of heat s second time min minute time h hour time d day time year time liter volume parts per million concentration M molarity solution concentration u atomic mass unit atomic mass n 10 12 pressure 10 9 pascal m 10 6 Pa c 10 3 mass d 10 2 gram ppm kelvin degree Celsius g L 273 K 0 C length y Standard Temperature kilopascal atmosphere meter mol 101 3 kPa 1 atm m K Standard Pressure p Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition 1
C  THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK     THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT     ALBANY, NY 12234  Reference Tables for P...
Table E Selected Polyatomic Ions Formula Name Formula Name H3O hydronium CrO42 chromate Hg22 mercury I Cr2O72 dichromate NH4 ammonium MnO4 permanganate C2H3O2 CH3COO acetate NO2 nitrite CN nitrate cyanide NO3 O22 peroxide OH hydroxide PO43 phosphate 2 CO3 carbonate HCO3 hydrogen carbonate C2O42 oxalate SCN thiocyanate ClO hypochlorite SO32 sulfite ClO2 chlorite SO42 sulfate ClO3 chlorate HSO4 hydrogen sulfate ClO4 perchlorate S2O32 thiosulfate Table F Solubility Guidelines for Aqueous Solutions Ions That Form Soluble Compounds Exceptions Ions That Form Insoluble Compounds CO32 Exceptions Group 1 ions Li Na etc carbonate ammonium NH4 chromate CrO42 acetate C2H3O2 or CH3COO when combined with Group 1 ions Ca2 Mg2 or ammonium NH4 phosphate PO43 hydrogen carbonate HCO3 when combined with Group 1 ions or ammonium NH4 sulfide S2 chlorate ClO3 when combined with Group 1 ions or ammonium NH4 hydroxide OH when combined with Group 1 ions Ca2 Ba2 Sr 2 or ammonium NH4 nitrate NO3 halides Cl Br I when combined with Ag Pb2 or Hg22 sulfates SO42 when combined with Ag Ca2 Sr 2 Ba2 or Pb2 Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition when combined with Group 1 ions or ammonium NH4 compounds having very low solubility in H2O 2
Table E Selected Polyatomic Ions Formula  Name  Formula  Name  H3O   hydronium  CrO42     chromate  Hg22   mercury I   Cr2...
Table G Solubility Curves at Standard Pressure 150 KI 140 NaNO3 130 KNO3 120 110 Solubility g solute 100 g H2O 100 90 80 NH4Cl 70 HCl 60 KCl 50 40 NaCl 30 KClO3 20 NH3 SO2 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature C Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition 3
Table G Solubility Curves at Standard Pressure 150.  KI  140.  NaNO3  130.  KNO3  120. 110.  Solubility  g solute 100. g H...
Table H Vapor Pressure of Four Liquids 200 propanone ethanol water Vapor Pressure kPa 150 ethanoic acid 101 3 kPa 100 50 0 0 25 Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition 50 75 100 125 4
Table H Vapor Pressure of Four Liquids 200.  propanone ethanol water  Vapor Pressure  kPa   150.  ethanoic acid 101.3 kPa ...
Table I Heats of Reaction at 101 3 kPa and 298 K Reaction CH4 g 2O2 g H kJ CO2 g 2H2O C3H8 g 5O2 g 3CO2 g 4H2O 890 4 Table J Activity Series Most Active Metals Li Nonmetals Most Active F2 2219 2 Rb Cl2 2C8H18 25O2 g 16CO2 g 18H2O 10943 K Br2 2CH3OH 3O2 g 2CO2 g 4H2O 1452 Cs I2 C2H5OH 3O2 g 2CO2 g 3H2O 1367 Ba C6H12O6 s 6O2 g 6CO2 g 6H2O 2804 Sr 566 0 Ca 393 5 Na 3351 Mg 182 6 Al 2CO g O2 g 2CO2 g C s O2 g CO2 g 4Al s 3O2 g 2Al2O3 s N2 g O2 g 2NO g N2 g 2O2 g 2NO2 g 66 4 Ti 2H2 g O2 g 2H2O g 483 6 Mn 2H2 g O2 g 2H2O 571 6 Zn N2 g 3H2 g 2NH3 g 91 8 Cr 2C s 3H2 g C2H6 g 84 0 Fe 2C s 2H2 g C2H4 g 52 4 Co 227 4 Ni 53 0 Sn K aq NO3 aq 34 89 Pb Na aq OH aq 44 51 H2 14 78 Cu 25 69 Ag 2C s H2 g C2H2 g H2 g I2 g 2HI g H2O KNO3 s NaOH s H2O NH4Cl s H2O NH4NO3 s NaCl s LiBr s H2O H2O aq NH4 H2O Cl aq NH4 aq NO3 aq Na aq Cl aq Li aq H aq OH aq Br aq H2O 3 88 48 83 55 8 The H values are based on molar quantities represented in the equations A minus sign indicates an exothermic reaction Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition Least Active Au Least Active Activity Series is based on the hydrogen standard H2 is not a metal 5
Table I Heats of Reaction at 101.3 kPa and 298 K Reaction CH4 g    2O2 g      H  kJ    CO2 g    2H2O       C3H8 g    5O2 g...
Table K Common Acids Formula Table N Selected Radioisotopes Name Nuclide HCl aq hydrochloric acid HNO2 aq nitrous acid HNO3 aq nitric acid H2SO3 aq sulfurous acid H2SO4 aq sulfuric acid H3PO4 aq phosphoric acid H2CO3 aq or CO2 aq carbonic acid Half Life Decay Mode Nuclide Name Formula carbon 14 37Ca 182 ms calcium 37 60Co 5 271 y cobalt 60 137Cs 30 2 y cesium 137 53Fe 8 51 min iron 53 220Fr 27 4 s 12 31 y hydrogen 3 8 021 d iodine 131 37K 1 23 s potassium 37 12 36 h potassium 42 10 73 y krypton 85 7 13 s nitrogen 16 19Ne 17 22 s neon 19 32P 14 28 d phosphorus 32 131I 16N NaOH aq sodium hydroxide KOH aq potassium hydroxide Ca OH 2 aq calcium hydroxide NH3 aq aqueous ammonia Table M Common Acid Base Indicators Indicator 5715 y 85Kr Name Approximate pH Range for Color Change gold 198 42K Table L Common Bases 14C ethanoic acid acetic acid 2 695 d 3H CH3COOH aq or HC2H3O2 aq 198Au Color Change methyl orange 3 1 4 4 red to yellow bromthymol blue 6 0 7 6 8 9 239Pu 2 410 104 y plutonium 239 226Ra 1599 y radium 226 222Rn 3 823 d radon 222 90Sr 29 1 y strontium 90 99Tc 2 13 105 y technetium 99 232Th 1 40 1010 y thorium 232 233U 1 592 105 y uranium 233 235U 7 04 108 y uranium 235 238U 4 47 109 y uranium 238 Source CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 91st ed 2010 2011 CRC Press yellow to blue phenolphthalein francium 220 colorless to pink litmus 4 5 8 3 red to blue bromcresol green 3 8 5 4 yellow to blue thymol blue 8 0 9 6 yellow to blue Source The Merck Index 14th ed 2006 Merck Publishing Group Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition 6
Table K Common Acids Formula  Table N Selected Radioisotopes  Name  Nuclide  HCl aq   hydrochloric acid  HNO2 aq   nitrous...
Table O Symbols Used in Nuclear Chemistry Name Notation alpha particle 4 He 2 beta particle 0 1 e Symbol or 4 2 0 or 1 gamma radiation 0 0 neutron 1 0n n 1H 1 1 or 1p p 0 1e 0 or 1 proton positron Table P Organic Prefixes Prefix Number of Carbon Atoms meth 1 eth 2 prop 3 but 4 pent 5 hex 6 hept 7 oct 8 non 9 dec 10 Table Q Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons Name alkanes Examples General Formula Name CnH2n 2 ethane Structural Formula H H H C C H H H alkenes CnH2n ethene H H C C H alkynes CnH2n 2 ethyne H H C C H Note n number of carbon atoms Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition 7
Table O Symbols Used in Nuclear Chemistry Name  Notation  alpha particle  4 He 2  beta particle  0    1 e  Symbol  or 4   ...
Table R Organic Functional Groups Class of Compound Functional Group General Formula halide halocarbon F fluoro Cl chloro Br bromo I iodo R X X represents any halogen alcohol OH R OH CH3CH2CH2OH 1 propanol ether O R O R CH3OCH2CH3 methyl ethyl ether O O aldehyde C H Example CH3CHClCH3 2 chloropropane O CH3CH2C H propanal R C H O O ketone organic acid ester amine amide O C R C R CH3CCH2CH2CH3 2 pentanone O O O C OH R R C O R N R N R O O R C NH O O O C O CH3CH2C OH propanoic acid C OH R C NH R CH3CH2COCH3 methyl propanoate CH3CH2CH2NH2 1 propanamine O CH3CH2C NH2 propanamide Note R represents a bonded atom or group of atoms Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition 8
Table R Organic Functional Groups Class of Compound  Functional Group  General Formula  halide  halocarbon   F  fluoro-  C...
Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 P eriod 9 1 1 1 2 Be K 2 44 9559 3 Sr 1 137 33 2 8 18 8 2 38 1 87 62 20 2 8 8 2 Y 2 138 9055 2 8 18 9 2 39 2 88 9059 2 8 9 2 Ca 21Sc 1 40 08 2 8 2 2 2 Fr Zr V Ta Rf 2 8 13 2 4 101 07 6 7 2 8 14 2 2 55 845 3 4 7 8 74 W Pr 4 231 036 59 3 140 908 4 90 91 Th Pa 232 038 58 Ce 140 116 266 18 32 12 2 2 8 18 15 1 Co 3 102 906 2 8 15 2 27 2 58 9332 3 9 Ni 3 106 42 2 8 16 2 28 2 58 693 3 10 2 107 868 4 1 112 41 2 8 18 2 1 65 409 2 12 77 Ir 78 U 2 8 18 18 2 3 244 4 5 6 3 243 4 5 6 2 151 964 3 3 247 4 5 6 2 157 25 3 280 79 18 32 18 1 3 247 3 158 925 285 18 32 18 2 1 200 59 3 Au 80Hg 2 8 18 18 1 2 196 967 4 Np 94Pu 95 Cm 97Bk Am 96 93 3 237 4 5 6 3 150 36 281 18 32 17 1 Pt 2 8 18 18 3 195 08 4 Source CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 91st ed 2010 2011 CRC Press 13 In Tl 14 Si Sn Pb 98 Cf 3 251 4 2 5 P N 16 S 83 3 258 3 168 934 292 18 32 18 6 84 Po 2 8 18 18 6 3 209 5 2 7 Cl F Br l 18 18 Ar Kr 2 174 9668 3 294 18 32 18 8 222 2 8 18 18 8 Xe 54 1 131 29 1 5 7 2 8 18 8 36 1 83 798 1 5 2 8 8 1 39 948 1 5 7 2 8 10 Ne 1 20 180 At 86Rn 2 259 3 3 173 04 85 18 32 18 7 2 210 4 2 8 18 18 7 53 2 126 904 4 6 2 8 18 7 35 2 79 904 4 6 2 8 7 17 2 35 453 4 6 9 17 2 18 9984 Lr 103 2 262 3 Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu 3 257 68 3 167 259 288 18 32 18 5 Bi 2 8 18 18 5 2 208 980 4 3 127 60 3 5 2 8 18 6 3 78 96 3 5 2 8 6 16 O 3 15 9994 2 1 1 2 3 4 8 5 2 6 3 32 065 3 5 Group Sb 52Te 51 2 121 760 4 2 8 18 5 2 74 9216 4 2 8 5 15 4 30 97376 2 4 7 4 14 0067 2 4 15 Es 100 101 102 Fm Md No 99 3 252 3 164 930 289 18 32 18 4 82 1 207 2 3 2 8 18 18 4 50 3 118 71 2 8 18 4 3 72 64 2 8 4 Dy 67Ho 66 3 162 500 284 18 32 18 3 81 1 204 383 2 2 8 18 18 3 49 2 114 818 2 8 18 3 2 69 723 2 8 3 2 4 C 3 28 0855 6 3 12 011 14 2 2 He 18 4 00260 0 0 2 4 6 0 2 0 0 0 3 3 Mt 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo 109 276 18 32 15 2 The systematic names and symbols for elements of atomic numbers 113 and above will be used until the approval of trivial names by IUPAC 92 4 238 029 5 3 145 277 18 32 14 2 2 8 18 16 1 3 192 217 4 Al B 26 98154 2 3 5 10 81 13 Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 29 2 8 18 1 2 63 546 3 11 Note Numbers in parentheses are mass numbers of the most stable or common isotope Relative atomic masses are based on 12 C 12 exact Selected Oxidation States Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 60 3 144 24 272 18 32 13 2 75 4 190 23 6 7 Re 76Os 2 8 18 13 2 6 186 207 Sg Bh Hs Db 106 107 108 105 4 262 73 2 8 18 13 1 5 183 84 6 98 denotes the presence of 2 8 for elements 72 and above 104 3 261 72 18 32 11 2 Hf 2 8 18 12 1 4 180 948 3 95 94 5 2 8 13 1 2 54 9380 3 6 7 Group 4 2 4 Cr 25Mn 26Fe 24 2 51 996 3 4 5 6 2 4 6 C 12 011 Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 41 4 92 9064 2 8 11 2 23 2 50 9415 3 4 5 18 32 10 2 3 178 49 2 8 18 10 2 40 3 91 224 18 32 18 9 2 Ra 89Ac 88 18 32 18 8 2 Ti 2 8 10 2 22 Atomic Number Symbol Atomic Mass Electron Configuration KEY 4 3 47 867 2 8 18 18 9 2 2 227 2 8 18 18 8 2 1 226 18 32 18 8 1 87 223 55 2 8 18 18 8 1 Cs 56Ba 57La 132 905 2 8 18 8 1 37 Rb 85 4678 2 8 8 1 19 39 0983 11 2 8 1 Na 12Mg 1 24 305 2 2 4 1 9 01218 Group Li 22 98977 2 1 3 1 H 6 941 1 1 1 00794 Periodic Table of the Elements
Reference Tables for Physical Setting  Chemistry     2011 Edition  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  P eriod  9  1   1    1  2  Be  K  ...
Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition 10 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Atomic Symbol Number 1086 1402 1314 1681 2081 1312 2372 520 900 801 First Ionization Energy kJ mol krypton rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium gallium germanium arsenic gray selenium gray bromine iron cobalt nickel copper zinc scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese 1351 403 549 600 640 579 762 944 941 1140 762 760 737 745 906 633 659 651 653 717 sulfur monoclinic 1000 chlorine 1251 argon 1521 potassium 419 calcium 590 sodium 496 magnesium 738 aluminum 578 silicon 787 phosphorus white 1012 carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon hydrogen helium lithium beryllium boron Name 0 8 1 0 1 2 1 3 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 6 3 0 1 8 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 7 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 6 2 6 3 2 0 8 1 0 0 9 1 3 1 6 1 9 2 2 2 6 3 0 3 4 4 0 2 2 1 0 1 6 2 0 Electronegativity 116 312 1050 1795 2128 303 1211 1090 494 266 1811 1768 1728 1358 693 1814 1941 2183 2180 1519 388 172 84 337 1115 371 923 933 1687 317 63 54 53 24 14 454 1560 2348 Melting Point K Table S Properties of Selected Elements 120 961 1655 3618 4682 2477 3106 958 332 3134 3200 3186 2835 1180 3109 3560 3680 2944 2334 718 239 87 1032 1757 1156 1363 2792 3538 554 77 90 85 27 20 4 1615 2744 4273 Boiling Point K 0 003425 1 53 2 64 4 47 6 52 5 91 5 3234 5 75 4 809 3 1028 7 87 8 86 8 90 8 96 7 134 2 99 4 506 6 0 7 15 7 3 2 00 0 002898 0 001633 0 89 1 54 0 97 1 74 2 70 2 3296 1 823 0 001145 0 001308 0 001553 0 000825 0 000082 0 000164 0 534 1 85 2 34 Density g cm3 116 215 190 176 164 123 120 120 118 117 124 118 117 122 120 159 148 144 130 129 104 100 101 200 174 160 140 124 114 109 75 71 64 60 62 32 37 130 99 84 Atomic Radius pm
Reference Tables for Physical Setting  Chemistry     2011 Edition  10  H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca ...
Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition 11 Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 radon francium radium actinium thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine osmium iridium platinum gold mercury hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium barium lanthanum 0 9 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 7 2 6 0 8 2 2 1 9 1 7 1 8 2 0 1 6 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 1000 1193 904 723 387 161 302 1828 1235 594 430 505 2750 2896 2430 2606 2237 Melting Point K 1037 393 509 499 589 716 703 812 814 865 864 890 1007 659 728 759 756 0 7 0 9 1 1 1 8 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 9 1 3 1 5 1 7 1 9 202 300 969 1323 577 600 544 527 575 3306 2719 2041 1337 234 2506 3290 3695 3458 Elements 58 71 have been omitted 503 538 831 869 1008 1170 376 804 731 868 558 709 652 684 702 710 720 Electronegativity Elements 90 and above have been omitted antimony gray tellurium iodine xenon cesium palladium silver cadmium indium tin white niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium Name First Ionization Energy kJ mol 211 3471 1746 2022 1837 1235 5285 4701 4098 3129 630 4876 5731 5828 5869 2170 3737 1860 1261 457 165 944 3236 2435 1040 2345 2875 5017 4912 4538 4423 3968 Boiling Point K Source CRC Handbook for Chemistry and Physics 91st ed 2010 2011 CRC Press boiling point at standard pressure density of solids and liquids at room temperature and density of gases at 298 K and 101 3 kPa no data available Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh 41 42 43 44 45 Atomic Symbol Number 0 009074 5 10 11 8 11 3 9 79 9 20 22 587 22 562 21 5 19 3 13 5336 13 3 16 4 19 3 20 8 3 62 6 15 6 68 6 232 4 933 0 005366 1 873 12 0 10 5 8 69 7 31 7 287 8 57 10 2 11 12 1 12 4 Density g cm3 146 242 211 201 144 145 150 142 148 136 132 130 130 132 164 158 150 141 206 194 140 137 136 136 238 130 136 140 142 140 156 146 138 136 134 Atomic Radius pm
Reference Tables for Physical Setting  Chemistry     2011 Edition  11  Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir...
Table T Important Formulas and Equations d density m mass V volume m V Density d Mole Calculations number of moles Percent Error error Percent Composition composition by mass given mass gram formula mass measured value accepted value 100 accepted value parts per million mass of part 100 mass of whole mass of solute 1 000 000 mass of solution Concentration moles of solute liter of solution molarity Combined Gas Law P1V1 T1 P2V2 T2 Titration MAVA MBVB Heat q mC T q mHf q mHv Temperature K C 273 P pressure V volume T temperature MA molarity of H MB molarity of OH VA volume of acid VB volume of base q heat Hf heat of fusion m mass Hv heat of vaporization C specific heat capacity T change in temperature K kelvin C degree Celsius DET 609 ADU Reference Tables for Physical Setting Chemistry 2011 Edition 12
Table T Important Formulas and Equations d   density m   mass V   volume  m V  Density  d   Mole Calculations  number of m...
Adrian Dingle s Chemistry Pages 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 All rights reserved These materials may NOT be copied or redistributed in any way except for individual class instruction Revised August 2007 Qualitative Testing Factoid Sheet This is NOT an exhaustive list but it does cover a LOT of what might commonly come up on a typical AP exam Flame Test Colors Ion Li Sr2 Ca2 Na K Ba2 Cu2 Flame color Red various shades Yellow Orange Lilac Green Blue green Transition metal ion colors 1 2 3 4 5 Sc Violet Colorless Blue 7 Colorless Ti 6 V Violet Green Cr Blue Green Mn Pale pink Fe Pale green Yellow Brown Co Pink Orange Yellow Ni Green Cu Colorless Zn yellow Yellow CrO42 Brown Orange Cr2O72 Dark Green Purple Blue Colorless Common Precipitate colors WHITE BLUE AgCl Many Copper II ppt s BaSO4 PbCl2 Many nontransition metal hydroxides Many nontransition metal carbonates Many nontransition metal sulfates YELLOW AgI BLACK GREEN RED BROWN Many Sulfides Many Fe II ppt s Many Fe III ppt s PbI2 C www adriandingleschemistrypages com apfactoidcolors doc Page 1 of 2
   Adrian Dingle   s Chemistry Pages 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008. All rights reserved. These materials may NOT be copied ...
Adrian Dingle s Chemistry Pages 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 All rights reserved These materials may NOT be copied or redistributed in any way except for individual class instruction Revised August 2007 Common Tests for gases Gas Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Ammonia Test Squeaky pop with lighted splint Re lights glowing splint Turns limewater milky Pungent odor turns red litmus paper blue gives dense white fumes in contact with conc HCl fumes Common tests for cations and anions Ion Carbonate and Hydrogen carbonate Sulfate Chloride Bromide Iodide Ammonium Test Release CO2 gas with acids White ppt of BaSO4 with barium ions White ppt of AgCl with silver ions Cream ppt of AgBr with silver ions Yellow ppt of AgI with silver ions NH3 released with hydroxide ions Color Changes in REDOX reactions MnO4 aq Cr2O72 aq Mn2 aq Dark Purple Pale Pink Cr3 aq Orange Green Acid Base Indicator Color changes ACID BASE Methyl orange Red Yellow Methyl red Red Yellow Litmus Red Blue Universal Red Blue Purple Phenolphthalein Colorless Pink Miscellaneous other color data HALOGENS Fluorine gas pale yellow green Chlorine gas green Bromine liquid orange brown Iodine solid dark purple NO2 gas orange brown C www adriandingleschemistrypages com apfactoidcolors doc Page 2 of 2
   Adrian Dingle   s Chemistry Pages 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008. All rights reserved. These materials may NOT be copied ...