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Kinetisense Concussion Baseline System

Accurate, Objective, Efficient

     

 

 

 

     Concussion is now one of the most widely discussed issues today in sport.  Recent research is indicating that many athletes will sustain one or more concussions over the course of a playing career (1).  In his research Powell claims that “the repetitive trauma that is sustained by these individuals can have severe long term consequences to these athletes…Athletes who return to competitive activity too early after injury are potentially more vulnerable to injury recurrence, the consequences of which can be catastrophic.

 

     In response to these concerns, quantitative assessment tools which detect physical and cognitive impairment have become increasingly important in sports medicine(1)”.  It is estimated that there are over 300,000 sports related concussions that occur each year in the United States alone (2).  A study by Gessel et. al postulates that “the rate of sport-related concussion is anticipated to rise as sports involvement increases at the collegiate and high school levels (3)”.

Concussion

 

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The Problem

Concussion

 

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    There are a variety of assessment protocols that have been developed as a sideline assessment tool to give insight if an individual is suspected to be concussed and whether they are safe to return to play.  Many of these assessments, such as the SCAT 3 and BESS, incorporate balance and postural sway as a means of determining brain injury and whether the individual is fit to return to play (4,5).  Balance, posture and sway testing has been validated for identifying neurologic impairment after concussion through many published studies (6).  

 

     Many of the current sideline concussion analysis protocols such as the SCAT3 and BESS use postural sway in the analysis of baseline and subsequent assessment in concussed individuals.  These tests have their limitations in that they are analyzed visually with reduced interexaminer reliability and lack objectivity (7).  These tests do not allow for the accurate assessment of human biomechanics in all 3 planes and no objective data is produced in regards to quantifying postural sway..

The Problem

Concussion

 

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     Proper concussion analysis requires an efficient, affordable tool that provides objective motion analysis. There is a need for acquiring reproducible data for baseline testing and follow-up assessments that can be administered by clinicians, trainers coaches etc. Current assessment protocols can lack interexaminer reliability and the ability to capture objective, and comparative data.

The Problem

 

 

     Recent validation of the Microsoft Kinect camera compared to gold standard force plate and Vicon camera systems has created the opportunity to develop an accurate, inexpensive method of collecting balance and posture data (8,9). Kinetisense has been validated in an unpublished third party univeristy study to be more accurate than conventional joint ROM analysis tools such as the goniometer and inclinometer and of similar accuracy to the Vicon system.

 

     The proprietary algorithms of Kinetisense increase the tracking accuracy of motion capture by up to 30% over that of the Microsoft Kinect SDK, allowing for accurate joint analysis, posture analysis and sway analysis in the frontal, sagittal and transverse views. Camera speed is 30 frames per second and is processed in real time, significantly improved over Kinect V1 (15-30 fps).  Kinetisense has been designed to provide an affordable means of acquiring 3-D joint, posture and sway analysis.  

 

     The Kinetisense software provides real-time analysis and easy to understand reporting for motion capture in all planes.  The real-time representation of human motion data and the increased inter and intra-examiner reliability in assessment separates Kinetisense from other analysis tools.  The 3D capture of joint and body position replaces the need for wearable sensors that are both timely and difficult to place on the body.  Wearable sensor placement is often not reproducible between sessions, thus affecting the reliability of assessment.

 

 

The Solution

 

     The accuracy, ease of use and objectivity of the Kinetisense system makes it an ideal tool for the clinical and sideline assessment of sport concussion.  The Kinetisense system allows for a means of efficiently acquiring baseline posture and sway data that can be compared with analysis of a potentially concussed individual.  The Kinetisense software will provide immediate data on the following:

 

  1. Baseline postural sway of the 1-leg balance test (eyes closed) in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes.
  2. Baseline postural sway of the tandem balance test in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes.
  3. Storage of the baseline data in the HIPAA compliant Microsoft Azure Cloud system.
  4. Acquisition of follow-up postural sway in the event of a specific concussion, both within a clinical setting and at the sideline of competition.
  5. A “play or no play” recommendation based on the deviations of sway of the respective tests as compared to baseline.
  6. Monitoring improvements in postural sway over the course of concussion rehabilitation, giving the practitioner insight on the different phases of treatment and when the individual is fit to return to play.
  7. Posture analysis (frontal and sagittal), deviations in posture are common after sustaining a mTBI (minor traumatic brain injury).

 

 

 

The Solution

 

     The Microsoft Kinect camera and associated sdk has been validated as a tool for postural and balance assessment in peer reviewed scientific literature (8,9).  It has shown reliability in measurement and inter-reliability in assessment and re-assessment.  A study by Yeung et. al compared the accuracy in postural sway between the Vicon system, force plate and the Kinect SDK for four different balance assessments including [1] Standing eyes open, [2] Standing eyes closed,  [3] Standing eyes open on foam, and [4] Standing eyes closed on foam.  

 

     The results of this test found that the Kinect SDK was comparable in accuracy to both the Vicon system and force plate analysis of body sway in all 4 of the positions listed above.  According to this study “Overall, Kinect is a cost-effective alternative to a motion capture and force plate system for clinical assessment of TBCM sway (8)”.

 

     “To conclude, this study compared three TBCM sway assessment tools: a Kinect system, a motion capture system, and a force plate. The Kinect system demonstrated comparable intra-session reliability and accuracy in TBCM sway measurements to the motion capture system and the force plate.  The Kinect and Vicon systems demonstrated comparable reliability (in terms of ICC2,1 and CV) and were sensitive to different tasks (EOn, EOf, ECn, ECf) (8).” 

 

     A study by Clark et.al found that the Kinect SDK provides “the ability to differentiate postural control strategies using an inexpensive, portable and widely available system could provide clinical and research benefits in a variety of patient populations.  Our results suggest that the Microsoft Kinect provides anatomical landmark displacement and trunk angle data which possesses excellent concurrent validity when compared to data obtained from a 3D camera-based motion analysis system (9).”

 

 

 

"The 6-Minute Assessment" 

The Kinetisense Concussion Baseline System is the most advanced assessment tool of it's kind.  This system utilizes the infrared camera, sonar-like camera and High definition image capture to objectively analyze human balance.  

 

This system incorporates the Microsoft Kinect V2 camera, allowing for portability and accuracy in the analysis of human motion.

 

Balance has been clinically validated as a marker for the analysis of concussion.  Until now, most baseline concussion baselining and assessment has been done visually.  The visual analysis of balance is very subjective, ultimately placing the athlete at risk.

 

The proprietary algorithms of the Kinetisense system automatically score the sway of the head, shoulder, hips and knees.  This allows for an easy and accurate comparison of data and provides valuable insight to the severity of an mTBI (minor traumatic brain injury).

 

The Kinetisense Concussion baseline system is a valuable component of the concussion baseline assessment and provides information for the coach, medical staff, parents, and athlete on when it is safe to return to play.