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The First Delaware Volunteers at Cold Harbor June 3 7 1864 an excerpt from They Fought for the Union A History of the First Delaware Volunteers in the Army of the Potomac by Jeffrey R Biggs Reproduction or transmission of all or part of the content of this site in any medium by electronic means or otherwise without the written permission of the owner is prohibited BY JUNE 1 THE TWO ANTOGONISTS converged on a sleepy unassuming Virginia crossroads named Cold Harbor Barely ten miles east of Richmond the name itself suggested its own commonness To the east lay Old Cold Harbor its ancient name steeped in some long forgotten lore of wanderers searching for a warm place to sleep A mile to the west was the more accommodating sounding New Cold Harbor A night march on June 1 brought the 1st Delaware and Smyth s brigade to the crossroads After three days of constant skirmishing and picket duty behind the hastily built trench along the Totopotomoy Creek the men were near exhaustion as they marched in the oppressive heat choking dust and pitch darkness Constant fits and starts of the short march led to the usual sniping at the generals Compounding the derision was that one of Grant s aides took a wrong turn leaving the column helplessly lost in the darkness the only direction given by smiling slaves who pointed to the crossroads dis yar is Cold Harbor boss One of the Ohioans grumbled that Grant or any other man ought to begin to be made to feel that they were human and absolutely needed rest
The First Delaware Volunteers at Cold Harbor, June 3     7, 1864 an excerpt from They Fought for the Union  A  History of ...
Cold Harbor the name would later send shivers down the spines of many in the Federal army U S Grant would face the same predicament confronted by George Meade at Mine Run seven months before The hard calculation of attacking a well entrenched Confederate foe on its heels and fighting for its existence It would later weigh heavy on the mind of the architect as much as the soldiers who fought it I have always regretted that the last assault at Cold Harbor was ever made wrote Grant years later as he was facing his own mortality At Cold Harbor no advantage was gained to compensate for the heavy loss we sustained It would be the last massive army wide charge on a fortified position ordered by Grant the final exhibit on the futility of such charges i While the march to Cold Harbor was not a long one and not particularly remembered in other soldier s accounts for its harshness for the worn out 2nd Corps soldiers it was remembered as one of the toughest Some of the men parched and suffering from heat exhaustion could go no farther and requested to be laid in the shade and be left to their fate Winfield Hancock admitted as much to army headquarters there was a good deal of straggling owing to the extreme fatigue of the men and the dusty road For his part the general suffered along with his men His Gettysburg injury still not fully healed Hancock rode in an ambulance without a coat or vest and propped up by pillow Sensing that his men had reached their endurance he ordered frequent halts Boys Strike out and see if you can find water the general was heard to call out from the ambulance It is too bad We will move on farther and try again A New Yorker in Smyth s command recalled that once a pool of water was discovered the boys pitched in only to find a green substance as thick as sole leather Not deterred the boys plunged headlong to quench their burning thirst and were tenaciously thankful for the brackish fluid regardless of bugs tadpoles and wrigglers ii For his part William Seville chose not describe in detail the march to Cold Harbor merely describing the march to Cold Harbor began at midnight of June 1 a short distance to the front and next afternoon the march was continued to Cold Harbor which was reached just before dark the brigade taking its position in the general line of battle under steady fire of small arms Smyth stated in his after action report that his command arrived precisely at 2 20 p m on June 2 and was immediately deployed in line of battle and by order of General Gibbon advanced to a vacated line of rifle pits where it took severe fire from the enemy s skirmishers who were concealed in rifle pits within short range of my right It took the better part of the day for Hancock s divisions to get into a position that would extend the Federal line towards the left and along high ground overlooking the Chickahominy River the last major obstacle to Richmond iii Although Grant wanted a general assault on the Confederate position on June 2 with the drained condition of the troops and the 2nd Corps in particular the decision was made to postpone the grand assault until the following morning In view of the want of preparation for an attack this evening Grant wrote and the heat and want of energy among the men from moving during the night I think it is advisable to postpone the assault until early tomorrow morning Grant ordered the men to get a good night s rest as they were going to need it The morning attack was ordered to begin at 4 30 a m iv The shifting and maneuvering of the armies were complete Hancock s 2nd Corps covered the sector of the battlefield south of the Cold Harbor Road which connected Old and New Cold Harbor John Gibbon s division held the right of Hancock s position and extended in a southeastwards direction for nearly threequarters of a mile its left passing beyond Dispatch Station Road The 1st Delaware the regiment now reduced to its Gettysburg strength of approximately 200 men was positioned on the division s left astride Dispatch Station Road To the regiment s right stood the 10th New York sturdy and familiar soldiers fighting alongside the Delawareans as far back as General French s command To the left was the 14th Indiana a veteran regiment whose enlistments were to expire in three days General Barlow s division extended the line toward the high ground around Turkey Hill overlooking the Chickahominy River General Birney s division was held a quarter mile behind in reserve To the right or north of Hancock s line the Federal position was extended over two
Cold Harbor - the name would later send shivers down the spines of many in the Federal army. U.S. Grant would face the sam...
miles with Wright s 6th Corps followed by the newly arrived troops of Smith s 18th Corps General Burnside s Corps held the right of the line as it curved eastwards to protect the right flank John Gibbon s division had borne a disproportionate number of casualties in the first month of fighting in this new kind of campaign At the outset of the campaign the division claimed 6 800 officers and enlisted men By the time the two armies converged on the Cold Harbor crossroads the division s Brigadier Thomas Smyth and staff circa 1865 Delaware Historical Society aggregate loss was half that number On the morning of June 3 the exhausted soldiers were positioned in two lines The first line was held by Smyth s brigade on the left with the New York troops under Brigadier General Robert Tyler on the right In close support was the second line of infantry formed with Owen s brigade on the left and McKeen s brigade on the right v On the evening of June 2 the position of the two armies was eerily similar to that held at Gettysburg The Federal lines took on the shape of the fishhook its right curled inwards the Confederate command now consolidated but dug in for defense held the exterior lines spread thin to envelop the Federal lines Shadowing the Federal position to the north was the Confederate 2nd Corps commanded by Jubal Early who replaced the ailing Richard Ewell on May 27 In the center of Lee s line was the 1st Corps commanded by Richard Anderson Extending the Confederate line south were the troops of A P Hill s 3rd Corps along with the reinforcements of Hoke s and Breckinridges s divisions Any vague similarities between the battlefields of Gettysburg and Cold Harbor ended with the positions of the two enemies Grant eager to break the Lee s army and to avoid a lengthy siege of Richmond was determined to attack Lee where he stood Unlike at Gettysburg Lee s army had no notion of attacking waiting instead along high ground awaiting the attack that was sure to come in the morning The hours before the attack on the Confederate works would prove restless ones for the exhausted Delaware regiment For those soldiers fortunate enough a cool bath on the North Anna River nearly a week ago was the last opportunity to clean the mud and dust from the near constant campaigning For others the last bath may have been before crossing the Rapidan River a month ago The endurance of human capacity for battle was nearing its limit Two major pitched battles one skirmish lasting the better part of two days miles of marching and countermarching had placed the Delaware regiment at Cold Harbor The trenches filling with rainwater mud nearly ankle deep gunpowder residue caked on the face and beneath the nails the regiment spent the evening huddled beneath the dirt earthworks any glance above them could prove fatal Both armies were entrenched recalled Thomas Murphey and no man of either army dared to show his head above the breastworks the firing over the breastworks was continuous vi
miles with Wright   s 6th Corps followed by the newly arrived troops of Smith   s 18th Corps. General Burnside   s Corps h...
The 1st Delaware and 108th New York deployed on the skirmish line in the late afternoon of June 2 the assignment was not one of pride for the men as it had been at Fredericksburg but an acknowledgment of their veteran status and experience in such matters Rain began later which added to the notion that hard work was ahead Thomas Smyth commented in his diary I deployed the First Del and 108 N Y as skirmishers and a brisk engagement followed and kept up all night A general attack was ordered for 5 o clock but the rain coming down in torrents it was postponed vii The plan of attack for the June 3 assault was such a simple one that Grant was criticized for its lack of ingenuity No reconnaissance was made to locate any weak points in the Confederate lines no single point of concentration assigned The Federal left would begin the attack along a three corps front From left to right the corps under the command of Hancock Wright and Smith would lurch forward at dawn The corps commanders were left to their own limited views of the battlefield for the best point of approach The only guidance was that the attack was to being precisely at 4 30 a m viii The dead space between the lines varied widely the soldiers of Smyth s brigade would face less than a half mile of ground before reaching the Confederate entrenchments Opposite the Delaware regiment stood Virginians under the command of Major General John C Breckenridge the former presidential candidate who won a resounding victory in Delaware during the 1860 election but that seemed eons ago to the exhausted Delaware troops A single signal gun would be the sign that the ball had started Thomas Smyth s command with the 1st Delaware situated one regiment from the left flank covered a quarter mile of space Precise numbers are difficult to determine but Smyth s command was likely in the range of 2 000 men the 1st Delaware numbering approximately 200 Similar to the charge on the Mule Shoe at Spotsylvania a mist followed the night s light rain enveloping the battlefield in a thick fog The nature and extent of the Rebel s earthworks remained hidden in the shroud of dampness The Confederates lay ahead on a ragged string of low hills and uneven ridges The Rebel s earthworks now under construction for a day s work were extensive taking advantage of every ravine every clump of trees and path of brambles A war correspondent stated I have never seen such extensive works they are intricate zig zagged lines within lines lines protecting flanks of lines lines built to enfilade an opposing line It would be these earthworks that the Delawareans were being tasked to take The outcome was as pre ordained as any of the Civil War ix The men moved in mass at first dawn It must have been a glorious sight as twenty thousand men stood at attention in the mist facing an enemy unseen Officers sent their horses back with orderlies bugle calls pierced the dampness of the fog freshly arrived heavy artillery units were assumed the role of infantry for the first time The attack of John Gibbon s division on Friday morning June 3 1864 had little if any real chance of success The veterans among Smyth s soldiers knowledgeable in the futility of such things guaranteed that the attempt would be an honest one just glorious enough to retain one s honor but not pressed enough to suggest foolishness At daylight another of the famous battles of the great Rebellion was fought wrote William Seville 20 years after the battle The Rebels were advantageously posted and strongly intrenched At half past four in the morning of the 3rd of June the army moved to a general assault Holding the left of General Gibbon s line the soldiers of the 1st Delaware were temporarily at an advantage a forest in Smyth s front covered the approach to the Confederate works The New York soldiers on the right of Gibbon s line including the recent additions from the 8th New York Heavy Artillery 1 600 strong were not as lucky By 5 00 a m the New Yorkers trained in the use of the huge heavy artillery guns had lost more than 500 men in the infantry assault across the open ground x Along the front of the 1st Delaware the light woods were defended by Confederate skirmishers and sharpshooters behind crude breastworks made of felled trees While the skirmish line fell back in the face of
The 1st Delaware and 108th New York deployed on the skirmish line in the late afternoon of June 2  the assignment was not ...
the Union assault 300 prisoners and one set of colors were captured and hauled behind Federal lines One soldier in the attack recalled that the men hurried forward drove in the skirmishers and sharpshooters of the enemy captured their rifle pits came within a few rods of the Confederate earthworks The capture of the skirmisher s breastworks was the only positive episode of the attack The wood line barely 100 yards in depth afforded little cover as the Delaware men emerged from the other side to face the daunting site of the Confederate defenses The irony was that Colonel Smyth s men the victors at Gettysburg and defenders against the ill advised infantry charge would this day eleven months later be on the opposite side of victory xi The lack of a proper reconnaissance of the ground would add to the futility of the charge A swamp forming from the confluence of two creeks would prove nearly impassable for a line of infantry to pass The two lead brigades lost contact with one another Smyth s command veered left of the morass while Tyler s brigade pivoted right The supporting troops in the second wave of the attack too were forced to veer left and right Seville complained that Owen s brigade was formed about fifty yards in our rear with instructions to charge right into the Rebel s Chaplain Thomas G Murphy 1st Delaware works Owen s brigade changed its direction to the left of our Delaware Public Archives line and the assault failed The swamp about 200 yards in advance of the enemy s works funneled the men into virtual killing fields The fire at this instant was murderous recalled a soldier of the 10th New York as he emerged from the safety of the trees the men of the brigade falling as thick as forest leaves xii Losses among the Federal soldiers began to mount as clumps of soldiers tried to charge out of the relative safety of the trees Ingenuity and quick thinking ruled the day companies of men squads of soldiers clawed their way desperately taking advantage of whatever was found on the ground Chaplain Murphey tells of the Delaware soldiers digging holes in the earth and in defiance tossing the dirt in desperation towards the Confederates In Fredericksburg like style a Connecticut soldier to the right of the Delaware regiment took cover behind a dead Confederate sharpshooter while using a tin pan to throw up earth to cover the bodies to serve as protection xiii The space between the clearing of the trees and the Confederate works approximately 150 yards proved to be daunting for even the hardened veterans of Smyth s brigade to make There would be no spirited charge with bayonets gleaming in the sun no heroic rescue of the fallen colors A stoicism can be sensed in the Delawarean s description of the charge Thomas Smyth acknowledged the same in the privacy of his own thoughts in his diary entry for June 3 We advanced to the enemy s guns and earthworks but not being supported we had to fall back a short distance where we erected a line of works Even Seville who had a knack for romanticizing even the most brutal of attacks seemed to have passed on this one Through a most destructive fire of artillery and musketry we reached within seventy five yards of the Rebel fortifications he recalled in his regimental history our men held the position they had gained however and gradually intrenched themselves While the early morning charge was half hearted and short lived the fighting and dying around the Cold Harbor crossroads had just begun Barely 100 yards separated the exterior breastworks captured by 2nd
the Union assault, 300 prisoners and one set of colors were captured and hauled behind Federal lines. One soldier in the a...
Corps and the more extensive earthworks still defended stoutly by Lee s troops To hold firm on the limited ground held Smyth s men erected crude breastworks and improved on those taken from the Confederate skirmishers The brigade was reinforced with a heavy artillery unit from Massachusetts and Federal sharpshooters skilled in the precise art of picking off careless Confederate soldiers When the command arrived at 60 to 100 yards from the enemy s works the ranks had become so thinned and the fire from the enemy s artillery and musketry so destructive that the men were compelled to halt and seek such shelter as presented itself wrote Smyth In this position the command soon erected a rude breast work xiv Reports of the fighting from the front became muddled to the high command of the Army of the Potomac Quickly drawn reports became unclear accounts from trenches misinterpreted With the first assault beaten back General Hancock reported to Lieutenant Ben Draper 1st Delaware The army headquarters at 6 30 a m Colonel Smyth of General Milford DE native was killed at Cold Harbor June Gibbon s command is making another attempt to carry the 3 1864 Delaware Public Archives enemy s works in his front General Barlow s line supports him No such charge was made Fifteen minutes later Hancock reported a more realistic assessment Gibbon is making temporary intrenchments to try and hold his advanced position the enemy s line was carried in one or two points but not held The testiness was clear in the dashed communications with General Meade who remained at his headquarters northeast of Old Cold Harbor No orders have been sent you suspending or rescinding the original order to attack reminded General Meade I desire every effort be made to carry the enemy s works At 8 25 a m Hancock was more precise I did not mean by Colonel Smyth of General Gibbon s division that General Gibbon had not already assaulted He had done so at the hour appointed Colonel Smyth has not yet made the second assault the important assault was made at the hour ordered 4 30 a m By 10 30 a m the most honest assessment yet As yet I do not get much encouragement from commanders to hope for a successful issue to an attack xv The combat on the front evolved to trench warfare the likes that would have been familiar to soldiers 50 years later fighting in Europe Chaplain Thomas Murphey safely ensconced in the rear and tending to the wounded of the 1st Delaware heard tales of the hellish conditions at the front Most of the time the 1st Delaware lay in the entrenchments within a few rods of the enemy s works They dug holes in the ground and threw the earth up towards the Rebels for protection In these they cooked their coffee and slept During the whole time there was not a day of quiet nor even one hour day or night without the sharp crack of the musket Mortar shells and hand grenades were freely used along some parts of the line and everywhere from right to left the missiles of death were falling Stretcher carriers and ambulances were kept busy bringing in the wounded to the hospitals xvi Seville s history of the regiment accounts for six soldiers killed outright during the battle and two others who died later of wounds Fox s Regimental Losses in the American Civil War is in agreement One of the favorite officers of the Delaware regiment Lt Benjamin Draper was killed instantly at 10 a m on June 3 while delivering orders in the trenches It was said the native of Milford seemed to know no fear and performed his duty in the most exposed positions and hottest fights apparently without thought of danger to himself Major William
Corps and the more extensive earthworks still defended stoutly by Lee   s troops. To hold firm on the limited ground held,...
F Smith commented that Lt Draper was killed last Sunday June 3rd We lost a brave and gallant soldier one that cannot be replaced Draper enlisted as a corporal in the three month regiment on April 18 1861 In August 1861 Draper re enlisted as a sergeant While on recruiting duties in the fall of 1862 Draper rushed back to his regiment to participate in the regiment s first battle at Antietam Promoted to sergeant major in February 1863 Draper received his commission as lieutenant a month later Draper was in command of Company C at Gettysburg Later in the role as the adjutant Draper was hand picked by Thomas Smyth to be a staff officer While delivering orders to the front line Draper was killed instantly likely by a sharpshooter who got a bead on the officer rushing to the front His body brought back to brigade headquarters Thomas Smyth was said to have wept when his lifeless body was brought back to his headquarters xvii The following day of June 4 another long term member of the regiment met his fate although Robert Thomas had less of a stellar army career as Ben Draper At the age of 18 Robert Thomas enlisted in the original three month regiment Although a private in the 1st Delaware at the time of his death Robert Thomas Company B was twice reduced in the ranks on account of alcohol use In October 1861 while still at Camp Andrews in New Castle the then Corporal Thomas was detailed to search for a deserter and overstayed the time appointed for his return and when he did return he and his charge were found intoxicated In December 1862 Thomas was found guilty of drunkenness and disorderly conduct that garnered another demotion Thomas was struck in the head after 24 hours in the trenches the Delaware private sustained a fractured skull This man was admitted June 7th in an insensible condition the treating physician noted the frontal bone was badly fractured the cerebrum was very much softened Robert Thomas remained in the same comatose condition for several more days finally succumbing to his head wound on June 12 xviii THE RAIN HAD ENDED but the digging continued The Federal attackers did not pull back to their original positions rather they took cover while taking advantage of the tools on hand a bayonet a scabbard tin plates were improvised as digging tools A staff officer making his way to the left of the Union lines commented on the crude conditions he saw along Gibbon s lines It was a curious site Something like an Indian family camped half underground Here was the breastwork behind which were dug a number of little cellars about two feet deep and over these were pitched small tents By June 5 the dead bodies from the charge still laid in the hot Virginia sun baking for two days No efforts were made to resolve the gruesome sight until Hancock had seen enough Hancock requested that Meade begin negotiating a temporary battlefield truce Can arrangements be made by which the wounded in the front can be removed I understand the men wounded on the 3d are still lying there The battlefield truce lasted for two hours between 6 p m and 8 p m June 7 In his diary entry for that day Thomas Smyth penned at 6 o clock a flag of truce to bury the dead all now quiet not a shot fired along the lines an agreement made by the men of the two armies to hold their fire It accomplished little except the opportunity to bury the dead Some officers like Lt Draper were shipped home the enlisted men received a more hardscrabble burial in the Virginia mud Although frowned against the truce allowed the enemies some time to mingle With the presidential election five months away a Rebel wanted to know who the next president would be I am in favor of Old Abe a Yankee returned He s a damned abolitionist called back the Rebel Still in command of the 1st Delaware Major William F Smith stood in awe of the macabre scene before him For the first time in four days the Delawarean could lift his head above the trenches to view the scene of a former battlefield turned briefly into a quarrelsome political shouting match Smith wrote as much to his mother the next day while hunkered down We are still lying in front of the Rebels only one hundred yards from them digging entrenchments every day and getting closer and closer we will soon be into their works Yesterday there was a flag of truce sent out from
F. Smith commented that    Lt. Draper was killed last Sunday, June 3rd. We lost a brave and gallant soldier, one that cann...
A war time depiction from Harper s Weekly of the Battle of Cold Harbor the Rebels to bury the dead and it was a grand sight to see the two armies standing upon the earthworks confronting each other at only about fifty yards apart In fact some of our men were in the Rebel works xix The confrontation at Cold Harbor now clearly settled in the favor of Lee it was time once again for maneuvering With the Confederate right protected by the swampy ground of the Chickahominy and the vital Federal supply line exposed by a move to Lee s left Grant determined once again to maneuver the army to avoid another frontal assault that would yield similar results This time the point of concentration would be Petersburg a vital rail center 25 miles below the Confederate capital The two main roads connecting Richmond to the rest of the Confederacy and five rail lines converged on Petersburg Control of the transportation hub would place Richmond in a virtual stranglehold while it would only strengthen Union forces as Grant s and Butler s forces joined south of the James River The campaign to defeat Lee s army in the field ended when the armies maneuvered towards Petersburg a new campaign began against the supply network feeding the Confederate army The 1st Delaware Veteran Volunteers had suffered mightily in the Overland campaign While precise casualty numbers are difficult to determine the losses in the six week campaign were stunning The most reliable source are the regiment s consolidated morning reports On April 30 1864 the regiment had been reinforced to a strength of 548 men on paper with 19 commissioned officers and 324 enlisted men reporting as present and ready for duty Those not present were either sick on leave or some other detached service The increase in the rolls included the new bounty soldiers swept up from the August 1863 Smyrna draft and any other raw recruits Given the activity of campaigning in the weeks following the April roll call the next date where a morning report was taken was July 9 which was well after the regiment had established a permanent base at Petersburg On that day after the major battles of the Overland campaign only thirteen commissioned officers and 138 enlisted men reported present and ready to shoulder a rifle in the 1st Delaware a 57 percent
A war-time depiction from Harper   s Weekly of the Battle of Cold Harbor.  the Rebels to bury the dead and it was a grand ...
reduction mainly due to battlefield casualties sickness with the occasional desertions Companies E G and H all had less than ten men in each company the largest company Company F having 25 enlisted men John Gibbon s losses were unusually high during the Overland campaign Culling through his diary 20 years later Gibbon was still rankled by the heavy burden carried by his men He stated his division s killed wounded and missing through June 1864 was 7 970 a staggering rate of 72 percent or ten percent of the overall army s casualties Compounding the loss according to Gibbon at least was that those lost represented the very best officers and the very bravest men of the division The division was essentially wrecked The glory of the division wrote the now aged general was in the past and the renown in the future it could not hope xx Although unknown to the men at the time the Petersburg campaign and the breakthrough the following spring would prove the least deadly for the Delaware regiment While the work ahead would continue to be trying to the men the number of casualties would be reduced dramatically If an original member of the regiment or later recruit managed to survive until reaching Petersburg in the middle of June 1864 his chances of ever again seeing the Brandywine River the family farm in Dover or the Union Hotel in Georgetown were pretty high After the Battle of Cold Harbor barely a dozen soldiers would be killed in battle For those soldiers who chose not to re enlist as a Veteran Volunteer the clock was marching ahead until the three year commitment was reached in October 1864 For the other soldiers who re enlisted the future was unknown but hope springs eternal in soldiers The Civil War was ending in a whimper and not a bang Grant Personal Memoirs pg 444 445 Kepler Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry pg 178 Longacre To Gettysburg and Beyond pg 214 215 Haines Twelfth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers pg 66 OR 36 3 pg 440 441 481 iii Seville 1st Delaware Regiment pg 113 Washburne 108th Regiment New York Volunteers pg 68 OR 36 1 452 Rhea Cold Harbor pg 280 281 iv OR 36 1 478 v Rhea Cold Harbor pg 13 vi Murphey 1st Delaware Regiment pg 166 vii Thomas Smyth diary entry June 2 1864 Delaware Public Archives viii Grant Personal Memoirs pg 44 ix Catton Catton s Civil War pg 553 Page Letters of a War Correspondent pg 96 x Seville 1st Delaware Regiment pg 114 xiKepler Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry pg 179 OR 36 3 530 xii Cowtan The National Zouaves pg 282 Seville 1st Delaware Regiment pg 114 xiii Murphey 1st Delaware Regiment pg 168 Page Fourteenth Regiment C V Infantry pg 264 xiv OR 36 1 pg 452 3 530 xv OR 36 3 pg 530 532 xvi Murphey 1st Delaware Regiment pg 168 xvii Murphey Ibid pg 168 Seville 1st Delaware Regiment pg 114 William F Smith to his mother June 5 1864 USMHI xviii Compiled Military Service Records from the State of Delaware 1st Delaware Regimental Orders Book General Orders 5 October 17 1861 118 December 27 1862 xix Noah Andre Trudeau Bloody Roads South The Wilderness to Cold Harbor May June 1864 New York 1989 pg 302 William F Smith to his mother June 8 1864 USMHI OR 36 3 603 Lyman Meade s Headquarters pg 150 151 Thomas Smyth diary entry June 7 1864 Delaware Public Archives xx John Gibbon Personal Recollections of the Civil War Dayton Ohio 1978 pg 227 259 i ii
reduction, mainly due to battlefield casualties, sickness with the occasional desertions. Companies E, G and H all had les...