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Look What Came From Puerto Rico

By Bianca O.

Table of Contents

Title Page (1)

Table of Contents (2)

Introduction (3)

Transportation (4)

People (5) #1

People (6) #2

Language (7)

Religion (8)

Weather (9)

Recreation (10)




Cities (11) #1

Cities (12) #2

Famous Puerto Ricans (13) #1

Famous Puerto Ricans (14) #2

Food (15) #1

Food (16) #2

Drink (17)

Recipe (18) 

Translations (19) #1

Translations (20) #2

Glossary (21)

Conclusion (22)

Resources (23)

The flag of Puerto Rico sports white and red stripes and one white star in a blue triangle. It is much like the United States's flag.

Christopher Columbus discovered Puerto Rico on his second voyage for the king and queen of Spain, King Ferdinand and Queen Isbella.

Sun. Sea. Sand. The beautiful tropical island of Puerto Rico sports amazing beaches and much more. Golden sand and crystal blue ocean are among the most popular attractions. Other attractions include El Morro and Castillo de San Cristobal, which were forts that protected Puerto Rico against people trying to take it over, Parque Acuático Las Cascadas, a large waterpark meaning “waterpark of the waterfalls”, Aguadilla Ice Skating Arena, the only ice-skating arena in the whole Caribbean, and the Museum of Puerto Rican Music, which has cool musical instruments from the history of Puerto Rico. There are many more entertaining attractions to visit, things to eat, sports to play, and many ways to get there! Read on to find out all about the gorgeous Caribbean island of Puerto Rico.

Introduction


Transportation

         To get to Puerto Rico, there are a lot ways you can travel. You can go by air. The largest and main airport in the country is Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, which is also called- but not officially- San Juan International Airport. It was named to honor Puerto Rico's first democratically elected governor Luis Muñoz Marín. The abbreviation, though, is SJU. Another major airport is Rafael Hernandez Airport, which is located in Aguadilla and flies all around the globe. Another airport is Mercedita Airport, which is not nearly as big as the other two listed and does not fly internationally (only to the United States) is located in Ponce, which is on the south-most central part of the island. To fly in an airport in New York to Puerto Rico would be approximately  four hours. 

         Ways to get around the island itself are taxis, rental cars and cars you can buy, public buses and other public transportation, and limousines for special events like proms and weddings.

Mercedita Airport is a very small airport that only flies to the U.S. and other parts of Puerto Rico.


Rafael Hernandez International Airport is the only other airport in the whole island of Puerto Rico (besides SJU) that flies international.



A limousine. 

Terminal A of JetBlue Airways at Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport.

Puerto Rico is a very populated island. The last U.S. Census check in 2016 revealed that there are 3,578,056 people on the island. While that may not sound like a lot, keep in mind that Puerto Rico is only 100 miles long and 35 miles wide. They have one of the highest population densities of the world ranking in at number 34. Their density is about 1,000 people per square mile. Many Puerto Ricans migrated from Puerto Rico to the United States for better opportunities, and as a result, the amount of people on the island decreased drastically. Most Puerto Ricans that migrated to the United States moved to either New York or Florida. In the whole world there are about 8.6 million Puerto Ricans. If all of those Puerto Ricans came back and lived in Puerto Rico, the island would be so overpopulated that living would be inachievable. About 1/3 of the population lives in the San Juan/Carolina/Bayamon area.

Ethnic Composition of Puerto Rico

White - 75.8%

Black - 12.4%

Other (Hawaiian, American Indian, Alaskan, etc) - 8.5%

Mixed Race - 3.3%

People

= Carolina


= Bayamon


San Juan

=Bayamon

=San Juan

=Carolina

 Did you know Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the United States? Puerto Ricans can travel between the U.S. and Puerto Rico without a passport. Puerto Rico also shares the U.S. currency. Puerto Ricans pay no federal income tax and cannot vote in U.S. presidential elections. Puerto Ricans also do not require a green card (work visa) to come and live/work in the United States. 

People

People marching at a Puerto Rican parade waving flags of Puerto Rico. As you can see, Jennifer Lopez is in the picture. If you didn't know, Jennifer is Puerto Rican. Her parents, Guadelupe Rodriguez and David Lopez, are Puerto Rican so that makes her Puerto Rican.

This is an image of a green card that was tested for use for real people. It tells all about the person pictured at the left.

Puerto Rico and the United States's locations on a map.

Language

A group of people speaking Spanish. The flag of Spain is in the speech bubble because that is where the language of Spanish originated.

 To understand the talk of the locals in Puerto Rico, you're going to need to know the language. The official languages of Puerto Rico are Spanish and English. Although in the schools students learn English, most people speak Spanish as their primary language. Most people do not speak English outside of school. In fact 94.9%  of people in Puerto Rico speak a different language other than English at home. Most Puerto Ricans do not know how to speak English. Those who can, only 30% speak it correctly

Did You Know?

Fun fact: did you know that in Spanish they have one letter that we, people that speak English, do not use? It is the ñ! It is pronounced like this, (eehn-yeh).

Hola means hello in Spanish.

Religion

   In Puerto Rico, there are people who are of many different religions. Most people are Catholic. 85% of the country's population is Catholic. There are many churches in Puerto Rico. In the Catholic faith, the patron saint of San Juan, Puerto Rico, the capital, is Saint John the Baptist. One of Puerto Rico's most famous catholic churches is the Catedral Metropolitana de San Juan Bautista, or in English, the Metropolitan Cathedral Basilica of Saint John the Baptist. 

         8% of the island is Protestant. Protestants are a branch of Christianity, just like Catholics. Jewish people are included in the  4% that are in other. There is also a 3of the population that is non-religious. 

     People in Puerto Rico are very festive and throw large parties. In Spanish, as the Puerto Ricans say it, Merry Christmas is Feliz Navidad. A holiday that Puerto Ricans celebrate that Americans don't is Three Kings Day. It is on January 6. Another important holiday that only Puerto Ricans celebrate is Commemoracion del Estado Libre Asociado, which means Commemoration of the Commonwealth in English. It is on July 25. It is to show esteem to Puerto Rico.  Another important holiday is Dia de Descubrimiento de Puerto Rico. In Spanish, it means Discovery of Puerto Rico Day. It is on November 19. Christopher Columbus discovered Puerto Rico. A celebration that Puerto Ricans do that Americans do not is a Quinceanera. A Quinceanera is a celebration of a girl's 15th birthday. The girl who is turning 15's dress is very vast. It is an extravagant dress usually embellished with gems. 

Some girls dressed in their Quinceanera dresses. As you can see from the picture, Quinceanera dresses are big. It is a big event for a girl who is 15 from a Spanish country.

This is the Metropolitan Cathedral Basilica of Saint John.

   To plan ahead for your activities, you must know Puerto Rico's weather! Puerto Rico has a tropical-marine climate. It is year round summer in Puerto Rico, and there are only really two seasons: very hot and not as hot. The average degrees in Puerto Rico during the very hot season is 80 degrees fahrenheit. The average degrees in the not as hot season is 70 degrees fahrenheit. It is so hot, even in the not as hot season, it cannot snow. It just isn't cold enough. The highest recorded temperature in all of Puerto Rico is 103 degrees fahrenheit in San Lorenzo. The lowest recorded temperature ever in Puerto Rico comes in at 38 degrees, which still isn't enough to reach the temperature for snow.

        In Puerto Rico, storms are usually quick. They don't usually last for more than 15 minutes. It is very humid in Puerto Rico. The dry season (when it doesn't rain a lot) is from later November to May. The rainy season is from April to early November. The hurricane season is from June to November, so it takes up most of the rainy season. Hurricanes are a common natural disaster in Puerto Rico. When there is a hurricane coming, there is a warning spread over the island. Some recent hurricanes that devastated Puerto Rico are Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria. Irma was in late August to early September of 2017. Puerto Rico had just finished suffering from Irma when Hurricane Maria came. Maria occurred in the middle of September and continued until early October of 2017. Puerto Rico was annihilated by these hurricanes and to today still doesn't have power. People have to wait in lines for long periods of time to get food. Many still cannot call their loved ones. There are plane tickets now going back from Puerto Rico to the United States but they are expensive. The Puerto Ricans that can afford to keep a generator to power their homes pay a lot of money to keep it running.  If you would like to go to Puerto Rico, try to plan away from the hurricane season. 

Weather

As you can see in the diagram, Puerto Rico was damaged pretty badly by the hard winds of Hurricane Irma.

This diagram below shows Puerto Rico being right in the worst section of Hurricane Maria in the purple. They were devastated by Hurricane Maria.

  Puerto Rico participates in all of the same sports as the United States. Some sports Puerto Rico plays are bowling, baseball, basketball, biking, skating, boating, sailing, camping, cockfighting, cycling, diving, fishing, golf, hiking, horse-racing, marathons, surfing, tennis, scuba, snorkeling, swimming, volleyball, and wind-surfing. 

     A craft Puerto Ricans make is a santos. A santos is a religious figure carved out of clay, stone, cedar wood, or gold. People who carve santos are called santeros. Santos protect the family of the house it is in. For some families, worshiping the santos replaces a traditional mass. Santos are supposed to resemble saints. Another craft Puerto Ricans do is mundillos. Mundillos are tatted fabrics. They are the product of a certain type of lace making called bobbin. The only places it is made is in Spain and Puerto Rico. This type of lace is over 5 centuries old. The first kind of lace made in Puerto Rico make is torchon. Torchon is also called beggar's lace. Lace bands, also known as entrados, have two straight borders. A traditional style called puntilla has 1 straight border and 1 scalloped border. Those are all types of mundillos. A final craft Puerto Ricans produce is carteras. Carteras are paper-mache masks worn at island festivals. They are half-demons, half-animals. They have horns, fangs, and huge eyes. The old traditional colors of the masks were black, red, and yellow. The colors represented the opposite of heaven. Today, people usually decorate the carteras with pastel colors instead. 

Recreation


A old cartera mask. You can tell, as it has red, yellow, and black.

This is an image of a santos. It resembles a saint.

Puntillas lace, as you can see, has one straight edge and one scalloped edge.

 There are many towns in the island of Puerto Rico that have many pleasing attractions. Four towns that I will discuss are San Juan, Aguadilla, Ponce, and Mayaguez. San Juan is the capital of Puerto Rico. It was founded in 1521, which makes it the first founded city in the entire United States of America. Some sites of interest located in San Juan are Plaza de San Jose, a plaza with a statue of a military leader named Juan Ponce de Leon, Plaza del Quinto Centario, which is a plaza built to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Columbus's arrival in Puerto Rico, and La Perla, a historical neighborhood of poor farmers's homes. Parque de las Palomas, which means Pigeon Park, is a park for children. Castillo de San Cristobal and El Morro are two forts located in San Juan that you can tour that protected Puerto Rico from invaders and other issues coming from the sea. 

     Aguadilla is a town in Puerto Rico. In Aguadilla some places to visit are the Parque Acuatico Las Cascadas, which is a large waterpark, Aguadilla Skating Rink, which is the sole skating rink on the whole island, and La Punta Borinquen Lighthouse. Another interesting place to visit in Aguadilla is Ojo de Agua, meaning waterhole, is a natural subterranean water source.

Cities

This is part of the waterpark, Parque Acuatico de Las Cascadas.

This is an image of the fort of El Morro.

An aerial view of Castillo de San Cristobal. This fort is a barrier that stops enemies from entering Puerto Rico by the sea.

Cities

    Ponce is another town in Puerto Rico. It is the second largest town in Puerto Rico. Some fun attractions located in Ponce are Museum of Puerto Rican Music, a museum of the music of Puerto Rico and the inspirations of the music, the Ponce Museum of Art, La Guancha Paseo Tablado, which is a boardwalk in Ponce, and Castillo Serralles, which is the former residence of one of the most powerful and prosperous rum-producing families, the Serralles family, which produces Don Q Rum. 

  Mayaguez is the fifth largest city in Puerto Rico. It was founded in 1760. Some places to visit in Mayaguez are the Juan A. Rivero Zoo, the Plaza Colon, which was a tribute to Christopher Columbus, Museo Casa Pilar Deffillo, which is a museum of Puerto Rican culture, and Museo Eugenio Maria de Hostos, which is a museum about the history of one of Puerto Rico's most accomplished men, Eugenio Maria de Hostos, who was mostly known for his ideas about independence. More attractions are Salto Curet, which is a waterfall, Cathedral Nuestra Señora de la Candelana, which is a cathedral, and Joyuda Lagoon, which is one of the two natural reservoirs on the entire island of Puerto Rico. 

An image of the entrance of the museum of Puerto Rico.

This is Castillo Seralles.

The classic bottle of Don Q Rum.

Famous Puerto Ricans

  Many famous people, some of whom you may not have even known were Puerto Rican, are Puerto Rican. Three famous Puerto Ricans that I will discuss are Luis Munoz Marin, Maria Bibiana Benitez, and Roberto Clemente. Luis Munoz Marin was the first democratically elected governor of Puerto Rico. He worked towards making Puerto Rico a commonwealth, and his hard work, in the end, paid off. Luis was born February 18, 1898. He was a Catholic and a Democrat. He married Muna Lee on July 1, 1919. Luis had children Luis and Munita with Muna. In 1947, he divorced Muna Lee and remarried Ires Maria Mardosa the same year. With Ires, Luis had Viviana and Victoria. Luis was governor of Puerto Rico from 1948 to 1965. During the Great Depression of the United States he used his connections to the president of America to keep a steady stream of money coming into Puerto Rico. Luis used this money for the financial gain of Puerto Rico and became very popular. Under his government, Puerto Rico became the richest island in the Caribbean. He fought to change Puerto Rico's status to a commonwealth rather than a territory, and received the United States Presidential Medal of Freedom when he achieved this goal in December of 1963. He died on April 30, 1980. 

Luis Munoz Marin's Time cover illustration.

An image in black and white of Luis Munoz Marin giving a speech.

A photograph of Luis Munoz Marin with John F. Kennedy. 

Famous Puerto Ricans

  Another famous Puerto Rican that I will discuss is Maria Bibiana Benitez. Maria Bibiana Benitez was the first official female poet. She was born on December 10, 1783 in Aguadilla. She became the first poet after a newspaper published her poem called "La Ninfa de Puerto Rico" which means the Nymph of Puerto Rico. Maria also wrote a drama called "La Cruz del Marro". She died in San Juan, Puerto Rico on April 18, 1873. 

    The last famous Puerto Rican I will discuss is Roberto Clemente. Roberto Clemente was a baseball player who was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame and was the first Latino man to do it. He was born Roberto Enrique Clemente Walker on August 18, 1934. He first played on the major league team the Brooklyn Dodgers (back when it was in Brooklyn before moving to Los Angeles) and then moved to the Pittsburg Pirates. Roberto played the position right field on both teams. He married Vera Zambala in 1963, and they had 3 children. He was a humanitarian and went on a plane to deliver necessary supplies to earthquake survivors in Nicaragua in 1972. Unfortunately, the plane crashed and both Roberto and the supplies were lost. After this he was elected into the baseball hall of fame after his death and was the first Latin American player to collect 3,000 hits through his entire career.

An old photograph of Maria Bibiana Benitez.

A picture from when Roberto Clemente played for the Pittsburg Pirates.

Roberto Clemente's plaque in the Baseball Hall of Fame.

    If you go out to eat in Puerto Rico, chances are you will eat the typical meals of the island. Some entrees that are usual to eat for lunch and dinner in Puerto Rico are sancocho, asopao, roasted entire pig, bacalaitos, carne guisada, guanimes de platano, and pasteles. Sancocho is a stew made with potato and other starches  and chicken, commonly eaten with rice. Asopao is a chicken and rice soup. Roasted entire pig is exactly what it sounds like- an entire roasted pig. Bacalaitos are salted fried codfish fritters that are like pancakes. They are very flat. Carne guisada is stewed meat. Guanimes de platano are little packets of plantain that are like tamales. Pasteles are also like tamales. They are filled with plantains and other vegetables. Pasteles are traditionally eaten around Christmas time.

             Some traditional side dishes/appetizers eaten in Puerto Rico are mofongo, arroz con gandules, tostones, and yuca de ajillo. Mofongo is plantains rolled into small spheres then fried. Arroz con gandules is Spanish for rice and beans. Tostones are plantains mashed in the center to form flat saucers of plantain. Yuca de ajillo is Spanish for yucca and garlic. Yucca is a potato product.

Food

An entire roasted pig.

This is yucca (in English) or yuca (in Spanish).

Tostones and carne guisada.

Fun Fact: A very widely used brand in Puerto Rico is Goya. Goya produces food like beans, rice, crackers, and cookies.

Food

Tembleque is a wobbly dessert made of coconut. Cinnamon is sometimes sprinkled on top of it.

  Some desserts that are traditional in Puerto Rico are tembleque, arroz con dulce, besitos de coco, flancocho, and flan de queso. Tembleque is coconut pudding. It means wobbly in Spanish. The dessert is very wobbly. Arroz con dulce is Spanish for rice and candy. Caramel and candy is mixed into the rice to make it sweet. Besitos de coco are little sweet pellets of coconut baked in an oven. Besitos means little kisses. Flancocho is a mix between cake and flan. Bizcocho is cake in Spanish, causing the mixed word to be flancocho. Flan is like a caramel and sweet milk pudding. It is called cheese flan because it is made with cream cheese. 

Besitos de coco are like France's coconut macaroons.

Flan is a sticky and sweet cake.

  A variety of delicious and tropical drinks are served in Puerto Rico. Out of all of the drinks I will talk about, 80% are alcoholic. Some child friendly beverages I will talk about are champola de guineo y pina and chocolate cortes. Some other drinks that come from Puerto Rico that have to do with coffee are Cafe Alto Grande, and cafe con leche. Champola de guineo y pina is a banana and pineapple smoothie like drink that is very sweet. Chocolate cortes is a bar of chocolate made into hot chocolate. Cafe Alto Grande is a popular type of coffee produced and exported from Puerto Rico. Cafe con leche is a classic drink which is made with expresso coffee and steamed milk. Kids drink this beverage with cookies or crackers.

     Some alcoholic drinks consumed in Puerto Rico are boriqua island punch, bili, cuba libre, daiquiri de fresa, pina colada, sangria, Pitorro, Medalla, Don Q Rum, chichaito, and coquito. Bili is rum fermented with quenepa, a local fruit. Cuba Libre is Don Q rum and coke mixed together. Daiquiri de fresa, or strawberry daiquiri, is a strawberry shake that can be made with or without rum. Pina Colada is a pinapple smoothie that, like the daiquiri de fresa, can be made with or without rum. Sangria is a red wine or white wine with peaches and other seasonal fruit. Pittoro is a rum that is made in Puerto Rico. Medalla Light is a local beer. Don Q Rum is a very famous and successful rum that was created in Puerto Rico. Chichaito is a drink made with rum and liqueur. Coquito is Puerto Rican eggnog. 

This is a glass of sangria.

Drinks

A can of Alto Grande coffee.

A bar of Cortes chocolate.

This is a bottle of Don Q Rum.

Flan Recipe

Ingredients

1 medium saucepan

1 stove, low heat

1 13 1/2 x 9 inch bakery tin

1 blender

1 14 x 10 bakery tin

1 oven

Utensils

1 (14 ounces) can of sweetened condensed milk

1 (12 ounces) can of evaporated milk

1 tablespoon of vanilla extract

4 eggs

1 packet of cream cheese

1 cup sugar

A flan.

This is the recipe for cheese flan by my grandmother who lived in Puerto Rico. It has been in our family for a long time.

1) Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit.

2) In a medium saucepan, on low heat on the stove, melt sugar until a liquid that is golden-brown color. 

3) Carefully pour the hot syrup into a 13 1/2 x 9 inch rectangular bakery tin, turning the tin to evenly coat the sides with syrup.

4) In a blender, mix the eggs, condensed milk, evaporated milk, vanilla extract, and cream cheese. Pour the mixture into the baking tin. 

5) Get a 14 x 10 inch baking tin and put water inside. Put the other tin with the flan and put it in the water tin. Do not submerge the flan in the water. It should be just enough to make a water bath for the flan while in the oven. 

6)Put the water and flan tin combo into the oven for one hour.  Tip: get oven gloves and put them on to put the flan in the oven. 

 7)When it comes out, you can enjoy it with your friends and family. 

Directions

Translations

Hello, my name is...

I speak English.

Good morning.

Good afternoon.

Good evening.

What is your name?

How are you?

I am fine.

Nice to meet you.

Goodbye.

See you later.




English to Spanish

  Useful Phrases

Hola, me llamo...

Yo hablo inglés.

Buenos dias.

Buenas tardes.

Buenas noches.

¿Cómo se llama usted?

¿Cómo está usted?

Estoy bien.

Mucho gusto.

Adiós.

Hasta luego.


Traducciones

I am lost. Where is the restroom?

Excuse me.

Please.

Thank you.

I'm sorry.

Bless you.

You're welcome.

How much does it cost?

What time is it?

I do not understand.

Yes.

No.

Translations

English to Spanish Phrases

Estoy perdido. ¿Dónde está el baño?

Con permiso or perdóname.

Por favor.

Gracías.

Lo siento.

Salud.

De nada.

¿Cuánto cuesta?

¿Qué hora es?

Yo no entiendo.

Sí.

No.


Glossary

Population density: the number of people living in each unit of area (such as a square mile)

Commonwealth: a political unit having local self-government but voluntarily united with the U.S. —used officially of Puerto Rico

Currency: a system of money in general use in a particular country

Extravagant: more than is usual, necessary, or proper

Commemoration: something (such as a special ceremony) that is intended to honor an important event or person from the past

Fermentation: to go through a chemical change that results in the production of alcohol

Subterranean: located or living under the surface of the ground

Humanitarian: a person who works to make other people's lives better

Submerge: to make (someone or something) go under the surface of water or some other liquid : to cover (someone or something) with a liquid

Patron saint: a saint who is believed to protect a particular place or type of person

Reservoir: a usually artificial lake that is used to store a large supply of water for use in people's homes, in businesses, etc.

Conclusion

Puerto Rico is a stunning island off of the coast of the United States of America that flaunts glamourous beaches, delectible food and drinks, fun attractions and places to explore, charming people, and beautiful sunny days. I hope this presentation has allowed you to see all of the wonderful things Puerto Rico has to offer.