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After-math     If you don   t have faith in yourself, who else would          Charlie McLachlan  Contents      Courage Und...
2  Sparrow  Photo 1   Charlie s discharge papers, included in his soldier s service and paybook.
After-math     Those who don   t know history are destined to repeat it.         Edmund Burke  1729-1797   After-math     ...
4  Sparrow  Photo 2   Lt. Col. W.W. Leggatt DSO MC  Courage Under Fire One of the defining images of Lieutenant Colonel Wi...
After-math to the radios being destroyed, Sparrow Force was isolated for months. Those who stayed in a group of 152 in the...
Sparrow  6  influenced the treatment of us when we were in prison camp. I played basketball with them and some of the blok...
After-math Peter Henning   s biography of the 2 40 Infantry Battalion is titled    Doomed Battalion.    In my opinion, Spa...
Sparrow  8  Photo 4   Sig. Keith Richards, Cpl. John Donovan, and Sgt. Frank Press using a radio on a mountain top in Japa...
After-math other tasks, including    raids, demolitions, sabotage, subversion, and organizing civil resistance.   5 Althou...
10  Sparrow  Photo 6   A patrol of 2 2 Independent Company commandoes, escorted by native criado.  On 18 April 1942, Gener...
After-math Essential to achieving mystical status amongst their enemy were the criado who not only sought and carried supp...
12  Sparrow In June, General Douglas MacArthur was advised by General Thomas Blamey     Allied land force commander     th...
After-math After World War I, the Versailles Treaty gave Japan a mandate over former German colonies in the western Pacifi...
14  Sparrow On Timor, the Japanese reinforced their defences with troops from the Philippines. Some of those troops would ...
After-math the presence of commandoes on the island and they maintained a large garrison on the island, which eventually m...
16  Sparrow  Photo 9   Word of the    Bataan Death March    spread quickly across America. Propaganda poster from the Offi...
After-math war. Many Australians thought the same as those who volunteered for the previous war     it was an adventure to...
18  Sparrow  Photo 10   Omori Prisoner of War Camp in Tokyo Bay, August 1945.  The Japanese viewed surrender as dishonorab...
After-math  Photo 11   Commodore Perry   s flag  upper left corner  was flown from Annapolis to Tokyo for display at the s...
20  Sparrow controlled through specified ports and bans were put in place for the exportation of the few minerals Japan di...
After-math To consider the motives for the Kurofune, one must consider the wider context of imperialism in the Far East an...
22  Sparrow who signed the treaties, which materialized into a radical, xenophobic movement     the sonn   j  i  literally...
After-math himself, sailed into the strait and single-handedly engaged the US-built but poorly manned local fleet. The Bri...
24  Sparrow decided to recognize the new government.30 This did not stop anti-foreign sentiment, which included the deaths...
After-math of personal punishment, would injure the reputation of the new government in the opinion of European Powers.   ...
26  Sparrow a living god, Emperor Meiji received Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, in Tokyo,    as his equal in point of blood.  ...
After-math massive migration to industrializing centres from the countryside. Industrialization also went hand in hand wit...
28  Sparrow The British methods to win the Second Boer War demonstrated the lengths of total war. Total war wasn   t just ...
After-math believed that if they liked particular areas of land, they could capture the Native Americans, place them in co...
30  Sparrow On 15 February 1898, the Maine sank in Havana Harbour after suffering a massive explosion, killing 266 sailors...
After-math Filipino historian E. San Juan Jr. alleges that the death of 1.4 million Filipinos constitutes an act of genoci...
32  Sparrow    The town of Titatia  sic  was surrendered to us a few days ago, and two companies occupy the same. Last nig...
After-math Japan   s original fears were well founded. In 1887, the white elite forced a    Bayonet Constitution    on the...
34  Sparrow Asiatic threat represented by a golden Buddha. This illustration hung in all ships of the Hamburg America Line...
After-math Japan gained more Chinese territory than every Western power combined. The victory established Japan as a regio...
36  Sparrow American media reaction, combined with the political threat to cancel renegotiation of the unequal treaties, c...
After-math Almost 500 foreign civilians and 400 foreign soldiers, together with 3,000 Chinese Christians, quickly fortifie...
38  Sparrow auctions    in the most orderly manner,    and the Beitang was a    salesroom for stolen property.   59 To avo...
After-math    Should you encounter the enemy, he will be defeated  No quarter will be given  Prisoners will not be taken  ...
40  Sparrow Knowing that Russian reinforcements were yet to arrive from the West, Japan acted swiftly. Suffering heavy los...
After-math Russia refused to make any concessions in the name of peace and took advantage of Japan   s apparent need to en...
42  Sparrow The annexation of Korea was different to how the Japanese treated other colonies, such as Taiwan. In Taiwan, t...
After-math  Photo 23   The Second Japanese Diet Hall  1891-1925 , site of Asia   s first representative Parliament.  Army ...
44  Sparrow The Japanese reached the pinnacle of their relationship with the West. After they conducted the first naval-la...
After-math  Photo 24      Emperor of Japan and his British and American well-wishers.    Russia cartoon from 1905.    Isol...
46  Sparrow Japan initially refused to send troops to Siberia. After the U.S. President Woodrow Wilson asked for 7,000 Jap...
After-math Covenant of the League of Nations. While Japan sought racial equality, such a clause had wider ramifications fo...
48  Sparrow Japan benefited considerably from the cultural exchanges provided by the AngloJapanese Alliance. Academics, sc...
After-math It was the Commonwealth, not Britain, who wanted to sacrifice its alliance with Japan in favour of goodwill wit...
50  Sparrow Hirohito was an army and naval officer at age thirteen and a special institute     the T  g  gogakumonsho     ...
After-math Unemployment in both the cities and the countryside skyrocketed and social agitation came to a head. As the lef...
52  Sparrow aftermath of the monks    beating. The upsurge of anti-Japanese and anti-imperialist protests in the city led ...
After-math Japan could now enjoy the same freedom from the League of Nations as the United States. The problem was, it als...
54  Sparrow were assassinated. Other targets, including Prime Minister Okada Keisuke and Grand Chamberlain Admiral Suzuki ...
After-math Shortly after the directive was signed, however, the Kuomintang sensed that the Japanese aggression had reached...
56  Sparrow As the Chinese retreated from the walled city, the Chinese troops looted shops for food and other supplies, ca...
After-math pursued their own agenda. There were also conflicting orders from General Mitsui and Prince Asaka. Orders from ...
58  Sparrow undeclared, had no clear-cut goal or purpose. Perhaps all Chinese, regardless of sex or age, seemed marked out...
After-math As part of the United States effort to bypass the League of Nations, they convinced many countries in 1928 to s...
60  Sparrow Japan remembered the rejection of the racial equality clause by the British. Together with subsequent events, ...
After-math Known to the Japanese as the Nomonhan Incident, the Japanese attacked Mongol cavalry grazing in the disputed ar...
62  Sparrow self-interest. From the Japanese perspective, it was a radical measure to spite the United States    Export Co...
After-math With the Dutch on their side, the United States, Britain, and Australia tried to curb Japanese militarism by st...
64  Sparrow With backing from the Navy, the Emperor, and a reluctant Army, Kanoe pushed for one last attempt to avert war....
After-math ahead of diplomacy and, standing in for the Emperor, asked if that was the case. The Navy Minister made a reply...
66  Sparrow convinced that the United States and Japan could reach agreement. Grew, impressed with Kanoe   s sincerity, ca...
After-math but you do not have to worry so much.    Thus, gradually, he began to lean toward war. And the next time I met ...
68  Sparrow              Initial attacks on the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor with carrier-based aircraft of the Combin...
After-math  Photo 36      Waiting for the Signal From Home.    Dr. Seuss joined the war effort.    Culture Clash    Now in...
70  Sparrow to action. In marketing, this is called the AIDA model     attention, interest, desire, and action. During the...
After-math which incidents, inseparable alas from all hostilities, were magnified and distorted for the express purpose of...
72  Sparrow  Racism was a motivating tool for not just soldiers but also civilians. It was used to increase production and...
After-math Crowded into cars like cattle, these hapless people were hurried away to hastily constructed and thoroughly ina...
74  Sparrow    I don   t want any of them  persons of Japanese ancestry  here. They are a dangerous element. There is no w...
After-math    In remembering, it is important to come to grips with the past. No nation can fully understand itself or fin...
76  Sparrow    There is a point when coincidence becomes a deliberate pattern.        Charlie McLachlan Charlie McLachlan ...
After-math Charlie noticed a strange series of coincidences evolving relating to the Japanese treatment of prisoners of wa...
78  Sparrow Frontline Japanese didn   t need propaganda to generate fear of their enemy. The Australians and Americans sub...
After-math The British invaded South Africa for its mineral wealth. The United States cleared Indians off their territory....
80  Sparrow  Photo 44   Central Hiroshima, September 1945. The building at the centre is now the Hiroshima Peace Memorial....
After-math wounded.123 Taking into those factors, the figures were revised down from 380,000 killed and 1.6 million casual...
82  Sparrow kill prisoners who became hostile. These orders were no different to how Japanese prisoners of war were treate...
After-math  Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender Issued, at Potsdam, July 26, 1945 1.  2.  3.  4.  5. 6.  7....
84  Sparrow But the Potsdam Declaration was conditional. In exchange for demilitarization, occupation, and punishment of w...
After-math A more obvious problem faced by the Japanese leadership was that, by accepting the Potsdam Declaration, there w...
86  Sparrow Britain Empire was vulnerable against Japan. Churchill wanted to get the United States into the war, which he ...
After-math The Soviet Union had some intentions of occupying Hokkaid  .148 When a Soviet general confronted Douglas MacArt...
88  Sparrow The official British history, The War Against Japan, also states that the Soviet declaration of war    brought...
After-math effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.    The lethal possibilities of ato...
90  Sparrow that Kyoto is an intellectual center for Japan and the people there are more apt to appreciate the significanc...
After-math weapon. Hiroshima has the advantage of being such a size and with possible focussing from nearby mountains that...
92  Sparrow Truman insisted that the effects of Japan witnessing a failed test would be too great of a risk to arrange suc...
After-math Essential to the propaganda campaign against the Japanese, the United States used images and vocabulary to dehu...
94  Sparrow The United States strategy to use aerial bombing is a complete turnaround from its earlier positions. Here is ...
After-math of the Convention was to ban the use of certain types of modern technology in war, including bombing from the a...
96  Sparrow The Allies proclaimed that Japan   s unprovoked attacks on 7 December 1941 were undeclared acts of aggression....
After-math  Photo 46   The Mitsushima POW Memorial, Hiraoka, Japan. The poppies  left from a visit the previous year  mark...
98  Sparrow executions and 4 life sentences, Mitsushima earned the reputation as one the most notorious POW Camps of the w...
After-math Ocean as a result of those sub attacks and those plane attacks that took place.   187 Conditions weren   t any ...
100  Sparrow The root of the cause of the deaths at Mitsushima were twofold  1. 2.  The condition of the prisoners when th...
After-math The poor hygiene amongst some prisoners on the Tofuku Maru caused and spread the epidemic aboard. The prisoners...
102  Sparrow For a start, Nakajima was a lazy camp commander. He arrived late, left early, and did little in between. The ...
After-math    So, do you find it strange that Mushmouth  the interpreter  used to send people out to work who were sick   ...
104  Sparrow    OK, what do you need        We desperately need medicines for dysentery.       What medicine do you need  ...
After-math The Author     Why     Chater     The Camp Commander is responsible for deaths. Doesn   t matter what happened ...
106  Sparrow and Peil cooked was not properly prepared and, instead of providing carbohydrates and essential amino acids, ...
After-math  Photo 48   Harold Rogers showing two different length stokers used at the plant.  Exhibit in USA vs. Azuma et ...
108  Sparrow  Photo 50   Tatsuo    Little Glass Eye    Tsuchiya before the Yokohama War Crimes Commission sentencing. He i...
After-math With so much depending on the result, one would have expected every loose end to be firmly tied. Instead, any f...
110  Sparrow No one bothered to ask Kirch to be present. Kirch returned home to his old job in the United States Army Air ...
After-math Cpl. S Sgt. Pvt. Pvt. Pvt. Gnr. Cpl. A.C.2. A.C.2. P.F.C. Sgt. Cpl. Pvt. Cpl. A.C.2. P.F.C. Sgt. Pvt. P.F.C. S ...
112  Sparrow All the British experienced the same conditions as the Americans and yet seven times as many Americans felt t...
After-math Commander, Sukeo Nakajima, was sacked and replaced with his second-incommand, Capt. Tatsuro Kubo. Nakajima was ...
114  Sparrow Mushmouth did kill. He was the interpreter     the link between the camp commander and the prisoners. He was ...
After-math not disembark at either stop  medicine was not distributed. The ship was not marked according to The Hague and ...
116  Sparrow facilitated, can the same be said of current U.S. actions that weaken accountability and reintroduce the noti...
After-math  Photo 51   A wreath laid by the Author at Hobart   s Cenotaph on 23 February 2004 on behalf of The Sparrows.  ...
118  Sparrow  Table 3   Table of Sparrow Force casualty numbers.  Sparrow Force  79 LAA Bty RA  Unit Size  1852  Not Captu...
After-math After the war, the men still faced danger. Sea lanes were mined and typhoons raged. Charlie was witness to the ...
120  Sparrow Of the 36,000 POWs who reached Japan, around 3500 POWs died  9.7       proportionally higher than Allied deat...
After-math  Photo 52   The letter from King George VI welcoming liberated prisoners of war home. Charlie kept his letter f...