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A student generated news paper of the 1600s from the point of view of the British.

Austin Dunn, Emma Evans, Julia Harris, and Lauren Kell
The London Bridge
bridging people together since the sixteen hundreds!
LIST OF ARTICLES
Reformation and Counter-reformation by Julia Harris
Witch Hunts by Austin Dunn
Scientific Revolution by Austin Dunn
Early Enlightenment by Lauren Kell
Women and Family by Lauren Kell
The Habsburgs and The Holy Roman Empire by Emma Evans
Warfare, Monarchies, and Diplomacies by Emma Evans
Paying For Military Costs by Emma Evans
Deforestation by Julia Harris
Editorials
THIS WEEK’S
TOP STORIES
New Petition Calls for the Beginning of the End
by Julia Harris on January 04
The journey Europe and the papacy has gone through is quite remarkable, and it
isn’t over. Beginning with the Romans, Christianity was new religion, but initially
rejected until Emperor Theodosius and Constantine. The medieval times brought the
kings of Europe and the papacy to shift against each other for ultimate power, mainly
leading to the papacy. Looking back at this now, we may scorn European kings for
cherishing the pope’s crowning. Beginning with the Protestant Reformation, the people
started to fight back the corrupt religion.
Martin Luther was the first. When Pope Leo X began to fund the Catholic church
by selling indulgences, Luther’s demand for a theological debate was justified. After a
course of events, Luther had burned the papal bull of condemnation and rejected the
pope’s authority, beginning the Protestant Reformation. His righteous proposal was the
Bible should have authority, not the Pope. John Calvin agreed with Luther, but went even
farther. He cut the power of the clerical hierarchy and simplifying religious rituals
through many different actions.
In response the Protestants’ actions, a church council met in Trent, Italy, to
reaffirm the power of the pope, traditional teaching, importance of oral confession and
penance, and the authority of ecclesiastical authorities in interpreting the Scriptures.
This can be considered the beginning of the Catholic Reformation, or
Counter-Reformation. This second reformation also led to the Society of Jesus, who
helped the spread the Protestant belief through missions. Both sides were bitter,
persecuting those of the contradicting religion. Instead of sending more military to the
Ottoman Empire, King Charles V and King Philip II dialed back and sent troops to central
Europe to vanquish the new Protestants. In response and defense, Spain did the same,
and removed its focus from its economy. The end result included the destruction of the
Spanish Armada.
Other kings made their contributions to this Reformation, including King Louis
XIII of France and King Henry VIII of England. These events lead to what we have today:
a fighting and growing religion making better Catholicism that has bullied Europeans for
too long. It is in this article and announce and celebrate the petition to eliminate
bishops. Our first Stuart king, James I, will have to look over the petition and will likely
accept, thanks to the great English people banding together for justice against the
Catholic church.
Which Witch is Which?
by Austin Dunn on January 04
The fear of witches have swept across Europe and have been among one of the
top social subjects in London lately. The government has caught and executed these
horrible heathens, but has shown mercy compared to Scotland who has executed three
times more “witches” than Great Britain all together. The execution of these witches
shows just how far these great citizens will go to protect their families from the horrible
magic of these Devil worshippers.
Fairness in London’s trials demonstrate how the accused used their black magic
and practiced the Devil’s work to cause harm to others. After an earthquake in Lisbon,
Portugal hit many wondered whether this could have been a sign from God and His way
of removing the witch infestation going on in Portugal’s capital city. An English
Protestant agreed, comparing Lisbon’s fate with that of Sodom, a city that God destroyed
because of the sinfulness of the citizens, according to the Hebrew Bible.
Overall, the fear these witches and warlocks put upon today’s citizens has not only
shown was a powerful testimony to the endurance of these beliefs among commoners
and the governing class alike demonstrating how no matter what background you come
from, everyone is protective of their family.
Nothing to Lose, Everything to Prove
by Austin Dunn on January 04
The revolution among intellectuals, many of them very influential to today’s growing
society, were Christian. These geniuses used science to help support and prove the views
and reinforce religion. This is known as the Scientific Revolution and it is still going on
today. Most of these scientists were either Catholic or Protestant who sought better
understanding of their religions.
Robert Boyle had been one of the leading philosophers who was from England. He
just recently created a new vacuum pump to show how you need air to create sound! He
humbly wrote a prestigious novel about his latest inventions and graciously wrote of his
failures as well. Boyle not only did these things, but lead an enthusiastic missionary for
mechanical science whilst conducting the Royal society to promote science. His motto
“Nullius in Verba” or “nothing in words” shows how he demanded that science be proven
with well done experiments and not with words.
Another noble Englishman by the name of Isaac Newton built off the heavily
successful work of Boyle and a counterpart of his, Descartes, who was associated with
astronomy and optics. He used the experiments and background knowledge of Galileo’s
experiments and thus came his Law of Gravity and his well known teachings in calculus.
He is considered one of the most famous men of today and soon will serve as the
President of the Royal Society. These well known English greats will go down in history
as some of our most respected and most intelligent people in world. They were able to
not only weave in the religions they believed in for science, but united everyone towards
a brighter and more technologically advanced future. They opened the gates to many
questions we are unable to answer as of now, but who knows? Maybe one day we will be
able to do things we could never imagine.
enLIGHTenment Leads London
by Lauren Kell on January 04
Now that the scientific revolution has taken place, we are beginning to question
everything from agricultural methods to religion to laws. A few people have begun to
shape their own views on what our world should
look like. The main leader is known as
Voltaire, and he has fled to Europe and affected many people along the way. Voltaire has
created his own scientific method, and spoke his concerns of the political and social
aspects of our lives. One of our own, Alexander Pope has also participated in what is now
called the “early enlightenment”. He is a poet who believes that “nature and nature’s laws
lay hidden in night”.
This enlightenment does not seem to be a complete movement, but more a frame
of mind that many of us are choosing to engage in. Everyone is putting their input in with
complete optimism for a better world. The increasing literacy and the printing press are
two important things that are helping to spread these new ideas. Our very own city is
also credited for printing the many books that have contributed to the enlightenment.
Leaders of the Catholic and Protestant churches are opposed to the
enlightenment at the moment, but are monarchs are welcoming the change with open
arms. With the new ideas for the future, monarchs hope to increase their power and
wealth over the church. With so many people involved, we continue to wonder what our
future will look like.
Marriage, Mothers, and rule by Men: What all is
changing?
by Lauren Kell on January 04
Women are gaining importance in our society today. Currently, they are “tied” to
their husbands, but in the absence of a male heir, they could inherit the throne. Along
with this, they can also become the heads of convents. Luckily, they are still ranked
below men, but in this new age their class is becoming more important than their sex.
The world of marriage is constantly changing in Western Europe. Men and women
are now allowed to choose their spouse, but some of the wealthy are staying with
arranged marriages. This way the parents have complete control of who will represent
the future of the family. People are also starting to marry later in life. For example, sons
are beginning to marry in their late twenties with wives a few years behind them. Finally,
to support their marriage, women are becoming domestic servants for their parents.
They will use this money for their dowry, which is the money and household goods a
couple needs to start their life independent from their parents. The need for a dowry is
part of the reason why we have started to marry so late in life.
The birthrates are down, due to late marriage, but orphans are still a rising issue.
Mothers are starting to leave their children on the doorsteps of churches, convents, and
rich households. Without your help, the children of our future will continue to perish.
Our idea of family is changing as we know it, so please write in and share your
views with the London Bridge.
Habsburgs Hatching Havoc
by Emma Evans on January 04
For those of us whom are unaware, Charles I of Spain tried to waste resources in
order to create a sort of counter-reformation. He believes that we should all be Catholic,
therefore he is trying to overcome our church, he is trying to change our religion. By
doing this he will get rid of the rights of our protestant church. He has taken advantage
of the fact that he was elected in by Holy Roman Empire officials, therefore he must be
put to waste, put out of his misery. Like his predecessor he is only listening to himself,
putting himself fully within his own head.
Of course a Habsburg would do such a thing, trying to force their country to
follow by a religion in order to protest ours. Charles is whom we chose to save Spain, to
try and replenish that horrid country. But now, it appears obvious that there will be no
saving them. Especially since it is rumored that Germany isn’t happy with their so-called
religion. Again, they will be rained upon by a nation, just as they were when France sided
with the Ottomans in order to push Charles off his high throne. Germany is most likely
already planning to invade in order to dismount this silly “anti-protestant” religion
created by demons who don’t believe in the correct, uncorrupt religion bestowed upon
us by Luther.
Never-ending Navy
by Emma Evans on January 04
Our navy can not be rivaled by any others. Our secluded island is protected by our
body of water as well as our massive navy. This was a result of the fracturing wars that
occurred in the past. The past wars that Britain has fought in have only resulted in
innovation of British warfare. It is now known that rather than train a grand standing
army, that it would be best to use the resources of our country to build boats, naval
weaponry, and expand common knowledge of naval warfare. But by making the British
military mostly naval, it allows the ability to go and conquer far off lands, to contest in
foreign lands.
By this we have improved our military tactics, our weapons, and our navy. Every
other country is focused on standing military, they think by increasing the amount of
men and firepower on foot that they would conquer the world. But how would they
conquer us? They can't. If they dare come near England or our land, our navy will blast
them back from whence they came.
The monarchy is gaining power and money from our military from the defense
and conquests of our navy. The naval army is one that the British can easily set out in
order to force leverage upon another country or state.
Reports say that France has increased their standing soldier army by quite the
ratio, but it would do them no use if they were to attempt to invade England, or to
conquer and contest future lands.
By conquering other lands, England can gather/tax to replenish what was lost in
the building of the military. But also to get out of the current and future debts. Perhaps
with having many conquered lands, one could more triangular trades, where a triangle
of goods is established, and each participant gets what they want in return for a good of
a different location.
On Your Own Dime
by Emma Evans on January 04
As a Noble, I find myself paying less and less tax. This Tax Farmer system has been
beneficial for our country, allowing us to pay less tax through exemptions. Though
Peasants still pay tax, the nobles and Clergy are exempted from paying the full price of
these taxes. Through the increase of the peasants tax, we now are able to pay less.
Though, there are rumors of the tax farmers being corrupt, how could that be?
These tax farmers pay the government in order for the right to collect tax, therefore
shouldn’t they be able to take a little extra money from the peasants? By doing this, it
allows our businesses to remain up and running. One of these ‘businesses’ could be
considered the military.
The Military needs our support in order for us to have control over those around
us but also in order to defend ourselves. With trading via boat becoming a big part of
how we trade, taxes for peasants have gone up in order to build these ships, but also to
invent and install defenses.Our army has to grow larger in order for us to maintain our
power and leverage over others.
Our Navy is our military therefore we must fund more boats and fire power. If one
does choose to invade us, we would be able to retaliate via naval ships. Though this also
allows us to invade and conquer these new places such as the Americas.
With this said, our invention of tax farmers is much more efficient than of those
around us. We aren’t squandering around like Spain, whoms is grasping at straws for an
effective way in which to collect their taxes. France, on the other hand, is currently
struggling in their debt, unable to pay back money to us or others around them due to
not having enough funding. Some say this was due to their greedy aristocrats, of course
nothing like our British nobles.
Coal is The New Wood
by Julia Harris on January 04
For those of us who are not laborers or peasants working in the farms of England,
many of us take part in other important jobs to our economy: miners, lumberjacks, and
charcoal makers. Thanks to the growing iron industry, there are many opportunities for
employment. However, there is a con to this industry. Wood fuel has been in serious
demand, and has become the main cause of deforestation.
Deforestation has not just been a problem for England. France, known to be
heavily forested, struggles with the demand for wood fuel as well. Quoted from the
French minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert, “France will perish for the lack of
wood.” In addition, in Sweden and the far east Russia, deforestation is becoming a rising
threat to their economies.
An intuitive repercussion has come into the spotlight because of the rising price
wood, due to its shortage. Coal has become the alternative fuel. As you read, coal mining
is increasing, and still offering more jobs like the need for wood does. Although
deforestation proves to be an international issue, there is hope yet to solve the problem
with coal.
Editorials:
by Julia Harris on January 04
Dear London Bridge,
I would like to point out a large part of our current world you seem to have overlooked in your “Coal is
the New Wood” article. The way the writer has worded “job opportunities” makes it sound like all low class
people can easily obtain these new jobs and improve their life just like that. No mention of the percent of
English people who are unemployed. There is no denying the class gap existent in our society today. The clear
difference between us deformed and rag-clothed poor and fat, well dressed wealthy jollocks cannot go
unnoted. You seem to have mistaken the perspective of part of your readers. Let us not forget the other part
of the lower class: the immigrants, the peddlers, the beggars. Their only hope is for money is charity; to not to
thrive, but to survive. The fact that I can be considered lucky to live on the streets as a native Englishman is
atrocious. You can blab about how the country is so innovative and providing for the lower class, but know
their is a large chunk of the population not open to your false newspaper interpretation. Many peasants have
been rebelling against nobles and privileged landowning classes, not limiting to attacks. As a newspaper, I do
hope you have heard of this. If your articles keep up with the ignorance to the poor, you will not be out of sight
of an attack. Personally, I want this endless fight for religion and class to be over, but my voice won’t be
considered to be heard until this country recognizes we are not all made of money. Please consider this letter.
Sincerely,
A Perturbed Englishman
by Lauren Kell on January 04
London Bridge,
These witch hunts you write about in “Which Witch is Which” are horrible! You have managed to kill
thousands of people and torture many others all for what? I feel there is no need for this extreme behavior
towards a mostly innocent group of people. Ever since the Pope released a document banning witchcraft in
1484, people and families have been scared of something that is most likely harmless. In this document it states
that you don’t even need to be guilty to be killed, so witch hunters are everywhere killing anyone who fits the
crazy description for a witch. Over 70% of people killed are women, especially widows who have no one to
defend them, and if you are related to a previously convicted witch, you might be considered one as well.
People of low social positions, who have few or no children, are stubborn, or have committed another crime are
also likely to be falsely accused. Your “tests” are inhumane as well. It is absurd to believe that if someone sinks
in water that they are normal, but if they float, they must be a witch. Next, I’ll discuss the punishments. People
are being burned at the stake, hung, executed, and I’ve even heard stories of people being stoned to death. Have
these people even done anything to harm anyone? A leading French thinker also writes, “No opinion is worth
burning your neighbor for”, when responding to the punishments of witch hunting. I think we all need to reflect
on his view and rethink how we are treating the people some of us call our friends.
Sincerely,
A Brave Humanist
by Austin Dunn on January 04
Dear London Bridge,
I cannot begin to describe my outage on your article, “Nothing to Lose, Everything to Prove”. My
intolerance with this article comes from the fact that this dull-witted writer seemed to forget some of the
major partners and influences the came from not only Englishman. As a Polish man I would like to incorporate
the influential workings of Nicholas Copernicus, a Polish monk. He not only used his intelligence to prove that
the center of our solar system was the sun, but he started this whole scientific revolution you are referring to.
He was able to help begin to unite Europe in a movement that would change the face of science and religion
forever. In case your writer forgot to mention also that Copernicus was at first reluctant to release his findings
in fear that people would not believe him and would be somewhat shunned to some extent. He would then go
on to die and never see his vast teachings through. This writer also seemed to forget that Galileo and other
scientists like Tycho Brahe (Danish) and his German assistant Johannes Kepler would soon build off Copernicus’
teachings to soon prove that he was right. He would somewhat dismiss of the Bible and use his own teachings
to move forward despite the negative view. Galileo explained how the Bible then coincided with science and
moved forward. However later he would be forced to renunciate his findings and the Catholic Church seemed
to stop the opposition at hand. These scientists have been forgotten or barely mentioned in this article and I
was just hoping to spread a little more light on the background of the soon findings of the well known English
intellectuals. Overall not only Englishmen have found praise for their discoveries, but many scientists alike
whether they be Danish, German, English, or Polish.
Sincerely,
An Off-putting Polish Politician
by Emma Evans on September 04
Dear London Bridge,
As a peasant, your article over how tax has been lowered for all the nobles, but how tax farmers
‘probably aren’t’ corrupt. By the tax reformers lowering tax for higher ups, it’s causing the chain to be corrupt.
They take more from peasants in order to stay on the good side of others for future deals, etc. Yes, I agree that
they are efficient, but they do not escape the idea of being corrupt in order to benefit themselves.
Why is it fair to put all the pressure of tax on peasants and merchants? What money do we have to give
to the state, what money do others pay us in order for us to pay for the state. Why should it be deemed ok that
tax farmers take their paycheck cut from our pockets. Shouldn’t more money be taken from nobles so that
more taxes can be payed. If the government wants more taxes than it should stop the tax exemption of nobles
and clergy.
Also, in your article talking about our navy and how Britain would be able to replenish what it lost
eventually. Does this mean we will get some sort of money back, or is it just replenishment for the lining of the
government’s pockets?
In your article “Coal is the new Thang” why is it that us peasants can not move up and obtain these
new jobs? Your author claims that there are “many job opportunities” with the growing need for coal and/or
mining. Peasants are usually forced to cut down trees in order to expand lots, so what is it that makes us so
‘unable’ to do move into these “many job opportunities”.
When can I leave to another country…
Sincerely,
A Bothered Bumpkin
The London Bridge
London, England