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Chemistry data booklet
First assessment 2016
Edited in 2014 (version 2)
4073
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Diploma Programme
Chemistry data booklet
Contents
1. Some relevant equations ......................................................................................................................................................... 1
2. Physical constants and unit conversions ......................................................................................................................... 2
3. The electromagnetic spectrum ............................................................................................................................................. 3
4. Fundamental particles ............................................................................................................................................................. 3
5. Names of the elements ............................................................................................................................................................. 4
6. The periodic table ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6
7. Melting points and boiling points of the elements (at 101.325 kPa) .................................................................. 7
8. First ionization energy, electron affinity and electronegativity of the elements ........................................... 8
9. Atomic and ionic radii of the elements ............................................................................................................................. 9
10. Covalent bond lengths ........................................................................................................................................................ 10
11. Bond enthalpies and average bond enthalpies at 298 K ..................................................................................... 11
12. Selected compoundsthermodynamic data ........................................................................................................... 12
13. Enthalpies of combustion ................................................................................................................................................. 13
14. Common oxidation numbers of the 3d ions .............................................................................................................. 14
15. Spectrochemical series ...................................................................................................................................................... 14
16. Ligands ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
17. Colour wheel ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15
18. Lattice enthalpies at 298 K (experimental values) ................................................................................................ 16
19. Enthalpies of aqueous solutions .................................................................................................................................... 17
20. Enthalpies of hydration ..................................................................................................................................................... 18
21. Strengths of organic acids and bases ........................................................................................................................... 19
22. Acid-base indicators ............................................................................................................................................................ 21
23. Values of ionization constant .......................................................................................................................................... 22
24. Standard electrode potentials at 298 K ...................................................................................................................... 23
25. Activity series ......................................................................................................................................................................... 24
26. Infrared data ........................................................................................................................................................................... 25
27. H
1
NMR data .......................................................................................................................................................................... 26
28. Mass spectral fragments lost ........................................................................................................................................... 27
29. Triangular bonding diagram ........................................................................................................................................... 28
30. Resin identification codes ................................................................................................................................................. 29
31. Representations of some materials molecules ........................................................................................................ 29
32. Solubility product constants at 298 K ......................................................................................................................... 30
33. 2-amino acids ......................................................................................................................................................................... 31
34. Lipids, carbohydrates and nucleotide components ............................................................................................... 33
35. Vitamins and pigments ...................................................................................................................................................... 35
36. Binding energy curve .......................................................................................................................................................... 37
37. Representations of some medicinal molecules ....................................................................................................... 38
38. References ............................................................................................................................................................................... 40
N
otes
This booklet cannot be used for paper 1 of the examination (SLP1 and HLP1), but the periodic table given in
section 6 will be available as part of these examination papers. Clean copies of this booklet must be made
available to candidates for papers 2 and 3 (SLP2, HLP2, SLP3 and HLP3).
1. Some relevant equations
Topic
Equation
1.3
 = 
2.2 and C.4
= 
5.1
= 
8.3
= log

[H
O
]
or
= log

[H
]
12.1
= 
15.2

= 

16.2
= 


16.2
ln =


+ ln
16.2
ln
=
1
1
17.1

= ln
19.1

= 
A.5
% atom economy =
molar mass of desired product
molar mass of all reactants
× 100
A.8
= 2sin
B.7
 =
+ log
[

]
[]
B.7
log

= 
Topic
Equation
C.1
Energy density =
energy released from fuel
volume of fuel consumed
C.1
 energy =
energy released from fuel
mass of fuel consumed
C.3
=

C.3 and D.8
=
ln 2
C.6
=


ln
C.7
Rate
Rate
=
D.8
=
(0.5)
2. Physical constants and unit conversions
Avogadro’s constant ( or
) = 6.02 × 10

mol

Gas constant () = 8.31 J K

mol

Molar volume of an ideal gas at STP = 2.27 × 10

m
mol

= 22.7 dm
mol

1 dm
= 1 litre = 1 × 10

m
= 1 × 10
cm
STP conditions = 273 K and 100 kPa
SATP conditions = 298 K and 100 kPa
Speed of light = 3.00 × 10
ms

Specific heat capacity of water = 4.18 kJ kg

K

= 4.18 J g

K

Planck’s constant () = 6.63 × 10

J s
Faraday’s constant () = 9.65 × 10
C mol

Ionic product constant for water (
) = 1.00 × 10

mol
dm

at 298 K
1 amu = 1.66 × 10

kg
3. The electromagnetic spectrum
4. Fundamental particles
Mass (kg)
Charge (C)
10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10
10
10
10
10

X-rays
UV
IR
microwaves
radio waves
400
700
10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10
10
10
10
10
V I B G Y O R
wavelength / nm
wavelength / nm
energy
5. Names of the elements
Element
Symbol
Atomic number
Element
Symbol
Atomic number
actinium
aluminium
americium
antimony
argon
arsenic
astatine
barium
berkelium
beryllium
bismuth
bohrium
boron
bromine
cadmium
caesium
calcium
californium
carbon
cerium
chlorine
chromium
cobalt
copernicium
copper
curium
darmstadtium
dubnium
Ac
Al
Am
Sb
Ar
As
At
Ba
Bk
Be
Bi
Bh
B
Br
Cd
Cs
Ca
Cf
C
Ce
Cl
Cr
Co
Cn
Cu
Cm
Ds
Db
89
13
95
51
18
33
85
56
97
4
83
107
5
35
48
55
20
98
6
58
17
24
27
112
29
96
110
105
dysprosium
einsteinium
erbium
europium
fermium
fluorine
francium
gadolinium
gallium
germanium
gold
hafnium
hassium
helium
holmium
hydrogen
indium
iodine
iridium
iron
krypton
lanthanum
lawrencium
lead
lithium
lutetium
magnesium
manganese
Dy
Es
Er
Eu
Fm
F
Fr
Gd
Ga
Ge
Au
Hf
Hs
He
Ho
H
In
I
Ir
Fe
Kr
La
Lr
Pb
Li
Lu
Mg
Mn
66
99
68
63
100
9
87
64
31
32
79
72
108
2
67
1
49
53
77
26
36
57
103
82
3
71
12
25
Element
Symbol
Atomic number
Element
Symbol
Atomic number
meitnerium
mendelevium
mercury
molybdenum
neodymium
neon
neptunium
nickel
niobium
nitrogen
nobelium
osmium
oxygen
palladium
phosphorus
platinum
plutonium
polonium
potassium
praseodymium
promethium
protactinium
radium
radon
rhenium
rhodium
roentgenium
rubidium
Mt
Md
Hg
Mo
Nd
Ne
Np
Ni
Nb
N
No
Os
O
Pd
P
Pt
Pu
Po
K
Pr
Pm
Pa
Ra
Rn
Re
Rh
Rg
Rb
109
101
80
42
60
10
93
28
41
7
102
76
8
46
15
78
94
84
19
59
61
91
88
86
75
45
111
37
ruthenium
rutherfordium
samarium
scandium
seaborgium
selenium
silicon
silver
sodium
strontium
sulfur
tantalum
technetium
tellurium
terbium
thallium
thorium
thulium
tin
titanium
tungsten
uranium
vanadium
xenon
ytterbium
yttrium
zinc
zirconium
Ru
Rf
Sm
Sc
Sg
Se
Si
Ag
Na
Sr
S
Ta
Tc
Te
Tb
Tl
Th
Tm
Sn
Ti
W
U
V
Xe
Yb
Y
Zn
Zr
44
104
62
21
106
34
14
47
11
38
16
73
43
52
65
81
90
69
50
22
74
92
23
54
70
39
30
40
6. The periodic table
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1
1
H
1.01
Atomic number
Element
Relative atomic
mass
2
He
4.00
2
3
Li
6.94
4
Be
9.01
5
B
10.81
6
C
12.01
7
N
14.01
8
O
16.00
9
F
19.00
10
Ne
20.18
3
11
Na
22.99
12
Mg
24.31
13
Al
26.98
14
Si
28.09
15
P
30.97
16
S
32.07
17
Cl
35.45
18
Ar
39.95
4
19
K
39.10
20
Ca
40.08
21
Sc
44.96
22
Ti
47.87
23
V
50.94
24
Cr
52.00
25
Mn
54.94
26
Fe
55.85
27
Co
58.93
28
Ni
58.69
29
Cu
63.55
30
Zn
65.38
31
Ga
69.72
32
Ge
72.63
33
As
74.92
34
Se
78.96
35
Br
79.90
36
Kr
83.90
5
37
Rb
85.47
38
Sr
87.62
39
Y
88.91
40
Zr
91.22
41
Nb
92.91
42
Mo
95.96
43
Tc
(98)
44
Ru
101.07
45
Rh
102.91
46
Pd
106.42
47
Ag
107.87
48
Cd
112.41
49
In
114.82
50
Sn
118.71
51
Sb
121.76
52
Te
127.60
53
I
126.90
54
Xe
131.29
6
55
Cs
132.91
56
Ba
137.33
57
La
138.91
72
Hf
178.49
73
Ta
180.95
74
W
183.84
75
Re
186.21
76
Os
190.23
77
Ir
192.22
78
Pt
195.08
79
Au
196.97
80
Hg
200.59
81
Tl
204.38
82
Pb
207.20
83
Bi
208.98
84
Po
(209)
85
At
(210)
86
Rn
(222)
7
87
Fr
(223)
88
Ra
(226)
89
Ac
(227)
104
Rf
(267)
105
Db
(268)
106
Sg
(269)
107
Bh
(270)
108
Hs
(269)
109
Mt
(278)
110
Ds
(281)
111
Rg
(281)
112
Cn
(285)
113
Uut
(286)
114
Uuq
(289)
115
Uup
(288)
116
Uuh
(293)
117
Uus
(294)
118
Uuo
(294)
58
Ce
140.12
59
Pr
140.91
60
Nd
144.24
61
Pm
(145)
62
Sm
150.36
63
Eu
151.96
64
Gd
157.25
65
Tb
158.93
66
Dy
162.50
67
Ho
164.93
68
Er
167.26
69
Tm
168.93
70
Yb
173.05
71
Lu
174.97
90
Th
232.04
91
Pa
231.04
92
U
238.03
93
Np
(237)
94
Pu
(244)
95
Am
(243)
96
Cm
(247)
97
Bk
(247)
98
Cf
(251)
99
Es
(252)
100
Fm
(257)
101
Md
(258)
102
No
(259)
103
Lr
(262)
7. Melting points and boiling points of the elements (at 101.325 kPa)
259.2
H
252.9
Melting point (°C)
Element
Boiling point (°C)
He
268.9
180.5
Li
1342
1287
Be
2468
2077
B
4000
3500
C
4827
210.0
N
195.8
218.8
O
183.0
219.7
F
188.1
248.6
Ne
246.0
97.79
Na
882.9
650.0
Mg
1090
660.3
Al
2519
1414
Si
3265
44.15
P
280.5
115.2
S
444.6
101.5
Cl
34.04
189.3
Ar
185.8
63.38
K
758.8
842.0
Ca
1484
1541
Sc
2836
1670
Ti
3287
1910
V
3407
1907
Cr
2671
1246
Mn
2061
1538
Fe
2861
1495
Co
2927
1455
Ni
2913
1085
Cu
2560
419.5
Zn
907.0
29.77
Ga
2229
938.2
Ge
2833
816.8
As
613.0
220.8
Se
684.8
7.050
Br
58.78
157.4
Kr
153.4
39.30
Rb
687.8
768.8
Sr
1377
1522
Y
3345
1854
Zr
4406
2477
Nb
4741
2622
Mo
4639
2157
Tc
4262
2333
Ru
4147
1963
Rh
3695
1555
Pd
2963
961.8
Ag
2162
321.1
Cd
766.8
156.6
In
2027
231.9
Sn
2586
630.6
Sb
1587
449.5
Te
987.8
113.7
I
184.4
111.8
Xe
108.1
28.44
Cs
670.8
725.0
Ba
1845
920.0
La
3464
2233
Hf
4600
3017
Ta
5455
3414
W
5555
3453
Re
5900
3033
Os
5008
2446
Ir
4428
1768
Pt
3825
1064
Au
2836
38.83
Hg
356.6
303.8
Tl
1473
327.5
Pb
1749
271.4
Bi
1564
253.8
Po
962.0
301.8
At
336.8
71.15
Rn
61.85
27.00
Fr
676.8
699.8
Ra
1140
1050
Ac
3200
8. First ionization energy, electron affinity and electronegativity of the elements
131 73
H
2.2
First ionization
energy (kJ mol
1
)
Electron affinity (kJ mol
1
)
(2nd
EA / kJ mol
1
)
2372
He
520 60
Li
1.0
900
Be
1.6
Element
Electronegativity
801 27
B
2.0
1086 122
C
2.6
1402
N
3.0
1314 141
(+753)
O
3.4
1681 328
F
4.0
2081
Ne
496 53
Na
0.9
738
Mg
1.3
578 42
Al
1.6
787 134
Si
1.9
1012 72
P
2.2
1000 200
(+545)
S
2.6
1251 349
Cl
3.2
1520
Ar
419 48
K
0.8
590 2
Ca
1.0
633 18
Sc
1.4
659 8
Ti
1.5
651 51
V
1.6
653 64
Cr
1.7
717
Mn
1.6
762 15
Fe
1.8
760 64
Co
1.9
737 112
Ni
1.9
745 119
Cu
1.9
906
Zn
1.6
579 41
Ga
1.8
762 119
Ge
2.0
944 78
As
2.2
941 195
Se
2.6
1140 325
Br
3.0
1351
Kr
403 47
Rb
0.8
549 5
Sr
1.0
600 30
Y
1.2
640 41
Zr
1.3
652 88
Nb
1.6
684 72
Mo
2.2
702 53
Tc
2.1
710 101
Ru
2.2
720 110
Rh
2.3
804 54
Pd
2.2
731 126
Ag
1.9
868
Cd
1.7
558 29
In
1.8
709 107
Sn
2.0
831 101
Sb
2.0
869 190
Te
2.1
1008 295
I
2.7
1170
Xe
2.6
376 46
Cs
0.8
503 14
Ba
0.9
538 45
La
1.1
659 1
Hf
1.3
728 31
Ta
1.5
759 79
W
1.7
756 14
Re
1.9
814 106
Os
2.2
865 151
Ir
2.2
864 205
Pt
2.2
890 223
Au
2.4
1007
Hg
1.9
589 36
Tl
1.8
716 35
Pb
1.8
703 91
Bi
1.9
812 183
Po
2.0
270
At
2.2
1037
Rn
393 47
Fr
0.7
509 10
Ra
0.9
499 34
Ac
1.1
9. Atomic and ionic radii of the elements
32
H
Atomic radius
(10
12
m)
Element
Ionic radius
(10
12
m)
37
He
130
Li
76 (1+)
99
Be
45 (2+)
84
B
27 (3+)
75
C
16 (4+)
71
N
146 (3)
64
O
140 (2)
60
F
133 (1)
62
Ne
160
Na
102 (1+)
140
Mg
72 (2+)
124
Al
54 (3+)
114
Si
40 (4+)
109
P
38 (5+)
104
S
184 (2)
100
Cl
181 (1)
101
Ar
200
K
138 (1+)
174
Ca
100 (2+)
159
Sc
75 (3+)
148
Ti
86 (2+)
61 (4+)
144
V
79 (2+)
54 (5+)
130
Cr
62 (3+)
44 (6+)
129
Mn
83 (2+)
53 (4+)
124
Fe
61 (2+)
55 (3+)
118
Co
65(+2)
55 (+3)
117
Ni
69 (2+)
122
Cu
77 (1+)
73 (2+)
120
Zn
74 (2+)
123
Ga
62(3+)
120
Ge
53 (4+)
272(4)
120
As
58 (3+)
46 (5+)
118
Se
198 (2)
117
Br
196 (1)
116
Kr
215
Rb
152 (1+)
190
Sr
118 (2+)
176
Y
90 (3+)
164
Zr
72 (4+)
156
Nb
72 (3+)
64 (5+)
146
Mo
65 (4+)
138
Tc
65(4+)
136
Ru
68(3+)
62 (4+)
134
Rh
67 (+3)
60 (+4)
130
Pd
86(2+)
62(4+)
136
Ag
115 (1+)
140
Cd
95 (2+)
142
In
80(3+)
140
Sn
118(2+)
69 (4+)
140
Sb
76 (3+)
137
Te
221 (2)
136
I
220(1)
136
Xe
238
Cs
167 (1+)
206
Ba
135 (2+)
194
La
103 (3+)
164
Hf
71 (4+)
158
Ta
64 (5+)
150
W
66 (4+)
60(6+)
141
Re
63(4+)
53(7+)
136
Os
63 (4+)
55(6+)
132
Ir
68(+3)
63 (+4)
130
Pt
80(2+)
63(4+)
130
Au
137 (1+)
85 (3+)
132
Hg
119 (1+)
102 (2+)
144
Tl
150 (1+)
89 (3)
145
Pb
119 (2+)
78 (4+)
150
Bi
103 (3+)
76(5+)
142
Po
97(4+)
148
At
146
Rn
242
Fr
211
Ra
201
Ac
10. Covalent bond lengths
Single bonds (

= )
Br
C
Cl
F
H
I
N
O
P
S
Si
Br
228
194
214
176
141
247
214
220
227
216
C
194
154
177
138
108
214
147
143
184
182
185
Cl
214
177
199
163
128
232
197
170
203
199
202
F
176
138
163
142
92
257
136
142
154
158
156
H
141
108
128
92
74
160
101
97
142
134
148
I
247
214
232
257
160
267
247
243
N
214
147
197
136
101
146
136
175
174
O
143
170
142
97
136
148
154
161
163
P
220
184
203
154
142
247
154
221
210
S
227
182
199
158
134
175
161
210
205
215
Si
216
185
202
156
148
243
174
163
215
232
Multiple bonds (

= )
C=C
134
CN
116
NN
110
CC
120
C=O
122
N=O
114
C C
(in benzene)
140
C=S
156
O=O
121
C=N
130
N=N
125
S=S
189
11. Bond enthalpies and average bond enthalpies at 298 K
Single bonds ( 
−
)
Br
C
Cl
F
H
I
N
O
P
S
Si
Br
193
285
219
249
366
178
201
264
218
330
C
285
346
324
492
414
228
286
358
264
289
307
Cl
219
324
242
255
431
211
192
206
322
271
400
F
249
492
255
159
567
280
278
191
490
327
597
H
366
414
431
567
436
298
391
463
322
364
323
I
178
228
211
280
298
151
201
184
234
N
286
192
278
391
158
214
O
201
358
206
191
463
201
214
144
363
466
P
264
264
322
490
322
184
363
198
S
218
289
271
327
364
266
293
Si
330
307
400
597
323
234
466
293
226
Multiple bonds ( 
−
)
C=C
614
CN
890
NN
945
CC
839
C=O
804
N=O
587
C C
(in benzene)
507
C=S
536
O=O
498
C=N
615
N=N
470
S=S
429
12. Selected compoundsthermodynamic data
Substance
Formula
State

( 

)

( 

)
(



)
methane
ethane
propane
butane
pentane
hexane
ethene
propene
but-1-ene
cis
-but-2-ene
trans
-but-2-ene
ethyne
propyne
buta-1,3-diene
cyclohexane
benzene
methylbenzene
ethylbenzene
phenylethene
chloromethane
dichloromethane
trichloromethane
bromomethane
iodomethane
chloroethane
bromoethane
chlorobenzene
methanol
ethanol
phenol
methanal
ethanal
propanone
methanoic acid
ethanoic acid
benzoic acid
methylamine
water
steam
carbon monoxide
carbon dioxide
hydrogen bromide
hydrogen chloride
hydrogen fluoride
hydrogen iodide
CH
C
H
C
H
C
H

C
H

C
H

C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H

C
H
C
H
CH
C
H
CH
CH
C
H
CHCH
CH
Cl
CH
Cl
CHCl
CH
Br
CH
I
C
H
Cl
C
H
Br
C
H
Cl
CH
OH
C
H
OH
C
H
OH
HCHO
CH
CHO
(CH
)
CO
HCOOH
CH
COOH
C
H
COOH
CH
NH
H
O
H
O
CO
CO
HBr
HCl
HF
HI
g
g
g
g
l
l
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
l
l
l
l
l
g
l
l
g
l
g
l
l
l
l
s
g
g
l
l
l
s
g
l
g
g
g
g
g
g
g






+52.0
+20.0
+0.10


+228
+185
+110

+49.0
+12.0

+104







+11.0

















+26.5




+68.0
+62.0
+71.0
+66.0
+63.0
+211
+194
+151
+125











+32.0







+1.7
+186
+230
+270
+310
+220
+267
+306
+301
+297
+201
+248
+279
+173
+235
+178
+202
+246
+163
+199
+127
+161
+144
+219
+264
+200
+129
+160
+168
+243
+70.0
+188.8
+197.7
+213.8
+198.7
+186.9
+173.8
+206.6
13. Enthalpies of combustion
The values of the molar enthalpy of combustion(
) in the following table refer to a temperature of 298 K and a pressure of 1.00 × 10
Pa .
Substance
Formula
State

( 

)
Substance
Formula
State

( 

)
hydrogen
sulfur
carbon (graphite)
carbon monoxide
methane
ethane
propane
butane
pentane
hexane
octane
cyclohexane
ethene
buta-1,3-diene
ethyne
benzene
methylbenzene
naphthalene
chloroethane
iodoethane
trichloromethane
methanol
ethanol
H
S
C
CO
CH
C
H
C
H
C
H

C
H

C
H

C
H

C
H

C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
CH
C

H
C
H
Cl
C
H
I
CHCl
CH
OH
C
H
OH
g
s
s
g
g
g
g
g
l
l
l
l
g
g
g
l
l
s
g
l
l
l
l
286
297
394
283
891
1561
2219
2878
3509
4163
5470
3920
1411
2541
1301
3268
3910
5156
1413
1463
473
726
1367
propan-1-ol
butan-1-ol
cyclohexanol
phenol
ethoxyethane
methanal
ethanal
benzaldehyde
propanone
pentan-3-one
phenylethanone
methanoic acid
ethanoic acid
benzoic acid
ethanedioic acid
ethyl ethanoate
ethanamide
methylamine
phenylamine
nitrobenzene
urea
glucose
sucrose
C
H
OH
C
H
OH
C
H

OH
C
H
OH
(C
H
)
O
HCHO
CH
CHO
C
H
CHO
(CH
)
CO
(C
H
)
CO
CH
COC
H
HCOOH
CH
COOH
C
H
COOH
(COOH)
CH
COOC
H
CH
CONH
CH
NH
C
H
NH
C
H
NO
CO(NH
)
C
H

O
C

H

O

l
l
s
s
l
g
g
l
l
l
l
l
l
s
s
l
s
g
l
l
s
s
s
2021
2676
3728
3053
2724
571
1167
3525
1790
3100
4149
255
874
3228
243
2238
1186
1086
3393
3088
633
2803
5640
14. Common oxidation numbers of the 3d ions
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
+1
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+4
+4
+4
+5
+6
+6
+7
15. Spectrochemical series
Ligands can be arranged in a spectrochemical series according to the energy difference they produce between the
two sets of d-orbitals in an octahedral complex.
I
< Br
< S
2−
< Cl
< F
< OH
< H
2
O < SCN
< NH
3
< CN
CO
16. Ligands
NH
2
NH
2
1,2-ethanediamine
N
N
O
HO
O
HO
HO
O
OH
O
EDTA
O
O
O
O
ethanedioate
17. Colour wheel
575 nm
647 nm
585 nm
700 nm
400 nm
424 nm
491 nm
Orange
Yellow
Red
Violet
Blue
Green
18. Lattice enthalpies at 298 K (experimental values)
The lattice enthalpy values (∆
lattice
) given relate to the endothermic process M
a
X
b
(
s
)
aM
b+
(
g
)
+ bX
a−
(g)
in which the gaseous ions of a crystal are separated to an infinite distance from each other.
Experimental values
The data in these tables are experimental values obtained by means of a suitable BornHaber cycle.
Alkali metal halides
∆

( 
−
)
F
Cl
Br
I
Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
1049
930
829
795
759
864
790
720
695
670
820
754
691
668
647
764
705
650
632
613
Other substances
∆

( 
−
)
Other substances
∆

( 
−
)
CaF
2
BeCl
2
MgCl
2
CaCl
2
SrCl
2
BaCl
2
MgO
CaO
2651
3033
2540
2271
2170
2069
3791
3401
SrO
BaO
CuCl
2
AgF
AgCl
AgBr
AgI
3223
3054
2824
974
918
905
892
19. Enthalpies of aqueous solutions
Solute


( 

)
Solute


( 

)
NH
Cl
NH
NO
LiF
LiCl
LiBr
LiI
NaF
NaCl
NaBr
NaI
KF
+14.78
+25.69
+4.73



+0.91
+3.88



KCl
KBr
KI
RbF
RbCl
RbBr
RbI
CsF
CsCl
CsBr
CsI
+17.22
+19.87
+20.33

+17.28
+21.88
+25.10

+17.78
+25.98
+33.35
20. Enthalpies of hydration
Cations


( 

)
Anions


( 

)
Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
Be

Mg

Ca

Sr

Ba

Ra

Al

Ga

In

Tl

Tl
Sn

Pb



















F

Cl

Br

I

ClO

BrO

IO

ClO

OH

CN

NO

HCO

CO

HSO

SO

PO

















21. Strengths of organic acids and bases
The acid strengths in the following tables are given in terms of p
a
values, where p
a
= log
10
a
.
The dissociation constant
a
values are for aqueous solutions at 298 K . Base strengths are given in terms of p
b
values.
Carboxylic acids
Name
Formula

methanoic
ethanoic
propanoic
butanoic
2-methylpropanoic
pentanoic
2,2-dimethylpropanoic
benzoic
phenylethanoic
HCOOH
CH
3
COOH
CH
3
CH
2
COOH
CH
3
(CH
2
)
2
COOH
(CH
3
)
2
CHCOOH
CH
3
(CH
2
)
3
COOH
(CH
3
)
3
CCOOH
C
6
H
5
COOH
C
6
H
5
CH
2
COOH
3.75
4.76
4.87
4.83
4.84
4.83
5.03
4.20
4.31
Halogenated carboxylic acids
Name
Formula

chloroethanoic
dichloroethanoic
trichloroethanoic
fluoroethanoic
bromoethanoic
iodoethanoic
CH
2
ClCOOH
CHCl
2
COOH
CCl
3
COOH
CH
2
FCOOH
CH
2
BrCOOH
CH
2
ICOOH
2.87
1.35
0.66
2.59
2.90
3.18
Phenols
Name
Formula

phenol
2-nitrophenol
3-nitrophenol
4-nitrophenol
2,4-dinitrophenol
2,4,6-trinitrophenol
C
6
H
5
OH
O
2
NC
6
H
4
OH
O
2
NC
6
H
4
OH
O
2
NC
6
H
4
OH
(O
2
N)
2
C
6
H
3
OH
(O
2
N)
3
C
6
H
2
OH
9.99
7.23
8.36
7.15
4.07
0.42
Alcohols
Name
Formula

methanol
ethanol
CH
3
OH
C
2
H
5
OH
15.5
15.5
Amines
Name
Formula

ammonia
methylamine
ethylamine
dimethylamine
trimethylamine
diethylamine
triethylamine
phenylamine
NH
3
CH
3
NH
2
CH
3
CH
2
NH
2
(CH
3
)
2
NH
(CH
3
)
3
N
(C
2
H
5
)
2
NH
(C
2
H
5
)
3
N
C
6
H
5
NH
2
4.75
3.34
3.35
3.27
4.20
3.16
3.25
9.13
22. Acid-base indicators
Colour change
Indicator

pH range
Acid
Alkali
methyl orange
bromophenol blue
bromocresol green
methyl red
bromothymol blue
phenol red
phenolphthalein
3.7
4.2
4.7
5.1
7.0
7.9
9.6
3.1–4.4
3.0–4.6
3.8–5.4
4.4–6.2
6.0–7.6
6.8–8.4
8.3–10.0
red
yellow
yellow
red
yellow
yellow
colourless
yellow
blue
blue
yellow
blue
red
pink
23. Values of the ionization constant of water
Temperature (°)
value
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
0.113 × 10
14
0.185 × 10
14
0.292 × 10
14
0.453 × 10
14
0.684 × 10
14
1.00 × 10
14
1.47 × 10
14
2.09 × 10
14
2.92 × 10
14
4.02 × 10
14
5.43 × 10
14
7.24 × 10
14
9.55 × 10
14
12.4 × 10
14
15.9 × 10
14
20.1 × 10
14
25.2 × 10
14
31.3 × 10
14
38.3 × 10
14
46.6 × 10
14
56.0 × 10
14
24. Standard electrode potentials at 298 K
Oxidized species
Reduced species
()
Oxidized species
Reduced species
()
Li
(
aq
)
+ e

Li(s)
3.04
Cu

(
aq
)
+ e

Cu
(
aq
)
+0.15
K
(
aq
)
+ e

K(s)
2.93
SO

(
aq
)
+ 4H
(
aq
)
+ 2e

H
SO
(
aq
)
+ H
O(l)
+0.17
Ca

(
aq
)
+ 2e

Ca(s)
2.87
Cu

(
aq
)
+ 2e

Cu(s)
+0.34
Na
(
aq
)
+ e

Na(s)
2.71
O
(
g
)
+ H
O
(
l
)
+ 2e

2OH

(
aq
)
+0.40
Mg

(
aq
)
+ 2e

Mg(s)
2.37
Cu
(
aq
)
+ e

Cu(s)
+0.52
Al

(
aq
)
+ 3e

Al(s)
1.66
I
(
s
)
+ e

I

(
aq
)
+0.54
Mn

(
aq
)
+ 2e

Mn(s)
1.18
Fe

(
aq
)
+ e

Fe

(
aq
)
+0.77
H
O
(
l
)
+ e

H
(
g
)
+ OH

(
aq
)
0.83
Ag
(
aq
)
+ e

Ag(s)
+0.80
Zn

(
aq
)
+ 2e

Zn(s)
0.76
Br
(
l
)
+ e

Br

(
aq
)
+1.09
Fe

(
aq
)
+ 2e

Fe(s)
0.45
O
(
g
)
+ 2H
(
aq
)
+ 2e

H
O(l)
+1.23
Ni

(
aq
)
+ 2e

Ni(s)
0.26
Cr
O

(
aq
)
+ 14H
(
aq
)
+ 6e

2Cr

(
aq
)
+ 7H
O
(
l
)
+1.36
Sn

(
aq
)
+ 2e

Sn(s)
0.14
Cl
(
g
)
+ e

Cl

(
aq
)
+1.36
Pb

(
aq
)
+ 2e

Pb(s)
0.13
MnO

(
aq
)
+ 8H
(
aq
)
+ 5e

Mn

+ 4H
O
(
l
)
+1.51
H
(
aq
)
+ e

H
(
g
)
0.00
F
(
g
)
+ e

F

(
aq
)
+2.87
25. Activity series
Increasing
activity
Li
Cs
Rb
K
Ba
Sr
Ca
Na
Mg
Be
Al
C
Zn
Cr
Fe
Cd
Co
Ni
Sn
Pb
H
Sb
As
Bi
Cu
Ag
Pd
Hg
Pt
Au
26. Infrared data
Characteristic ranges for infrared absorption due to stretching vibrations in organic molecules.
Bond
Organic molecules
Wavenumber (
−
)
Intensity
C–I
iodoalkanes
490620
strong
C–Br
bromoalkanes
500600
strong
C–Cl
chloroalkanes
600800
strong
C–F
fluoroalkanes
10001400
strong
C–O
alcohols, esters, ethers
10501410
strong
C=C
alkenes
16201680
medium-weak; multiple
bands
C=O
aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and
esters
17001750
strong
C≡C
alkynes
21002260
variable
O–H
hydrogen bonding in carboxylic acids
25003000
strong, very broad
C–H
alkanes, alkenes, arenes
28503090
strong
O–H
hydrogen bonding in alcohols and phenols
32003600
strong, broad
N–H
primary amines
33003500
medium, two bands
27. H
1
NMR data
Typical proton chemical shift values () relative to tetramethylsilane (TMS) = .
R represents an alkyl group, and Hal represents F, Cl, Br, or I.
These values may vary in different solvents and conditions.
Type of proton
Chemical shift (ppm)
C
H
3
0.9–1.0
C
H
2
R
1.3–1.4
R
2
C
H
1.5
C
O
RO
C
H
2
2.0–2.5
C
R
C
H
2
O
2.2–2.7
C
H
3
2.5–3.5
C C
H
1.8–3.1
C
H
2
Hal
3.5–4.4
O C
H
2
R
3.3–3.7
C
O
R
O C
H
2
3.7–4.8
C
O
R
O
H
9.0–13.0
O
H
R
1.0–6.0
HC C
H
2
4.5–6.0
Type of proton
Chemical shift (ppm)
O
H
4.012.0
H
6.99.0
C
H
R
O
9.410.0
28. Mass spectral fragments lost
Mass lost
Fragment lost
15
CH
3
17
OH
18
H
2
O
28
CH
2
=CH
2
, C=O
29
CH
3
CH
2
, CHO
31
CH
3
O
45
COOH
29. Triangular bonding diagram
Average electronegativity
=
(
+
)
=
|
|
Electronegativity
difference
van Arkel-Ketelaar
Triangle of Bonding
3.0
2.5
% covalent
% ionic
Metallic
Ionic
Polar
covalent
Covalent
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
8 92
25 75
50 50
75 25
100 0
0.79
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
Electronegativity
difference
30. Resin identification codes
Resin Identification Code
(RIC)
Plastic types
Resin Identification Code
(RIC)
Plastic types
polyethylene
terephthalate
polypropylene
high-density
polyethylene
polystyrene
polyvinyl chloride
other
low-density polyethylene
31. Representations of some materials molecules
Cl
n
Cl
m
polychlorinated biphenyls
O
O
1,4-dioxin
O
Cl
n
Cl
m
polychlorinated dibenzofuran
O
O
Cl
Cl
Cl
Cl
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
O
O
Cl
n
Cl
m
polychlorinated dibenzo-
p
-dioxin
32. Solubility product constants at 298 K
Compound

BaCO
3
2.58 × 10
−9
Ba(OH)
2
8H
2
O
2.55 × 10
−4
BaSO
4
1.08 × 10
10
CdCO
3
1.0 × 10
12
Cd(OH)
2
7.2 × 10
15
PbCO
3
7.40 × 10
14
Pb(OH)
2
1.43 × 10
20
PbSO
4
2.53 × 10
−8
Hg
2
CO
3
3.6 × 10
17
Hg
2
SO
4
6.5 × 10
−7
NiCO
3
1.42 × 10
−7
Ni(OH)
2
5.48 × 10
16
Ag
2
CO
3
8.46 × 10
12
Ag
2
SO
4
1.20 × 10
−5
ZnCO
3
1.46 × 10
10
Zn(OH)
2
3.0 × 10
17
33. 2-amino acids
Common name
Symbol
Structural formula
pH of isoelectric
point
alanine
Ala
H
2
N
CH
CH
3
COOH
6.0
arginine
Arg
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
COOH
CH
2
CH
2
NH
C
NH
2
NH
10.8
asparagine
Asn
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
COOH
C
NH
2
O
5.4
aspartic acid
Asp
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
COOH
COOH
2.8
cysteine
Cys
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
COOH
SH
5.1
glutamic acid
Glu
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
COOH
CH
2
COOH
3.2
glutamine
Gln
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
COOH
CH
2
C
O
NH
2
5.7
glycine
Gly
H
2
N
CH
2
COOH
6.0
histidine
His
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
N
N
COOH
H
7.6
isoleucine
Ile
H
2
N
CH
CH
H
3
C
COOH
CH
2
CH
3
6.0
leucine
Leu
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
CH
H
3
C CH
3
COOH
6.0
Common name
Symbol
Structural formula
pH of isoelectric
point
lysine
Lys
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
COOH
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
NH
2
9.7
methionine
Met
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
CH
2
S CH
3
COOH
5.7
phenylalanine
Phe
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
COOH
5.5
proline
Pro
HN
COOH
6.3
serine
Ser
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
COOH
OH
5.7
threonine
Thr
H
2
N
CH
CH
COOH
H
3
C
OH
5.6
tryptophan
Trp
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
NH
COOH
5.9
tyrosine
Tyr
H
2
N
CH
CH
2
OH
COOH
5.7
valine
Val
H
2
N
CH
CH
COOH
CH
3
H
3
C
6.0
34. Lipids, carbohydrates and nucleotide components
Lipids
C
arbohydrates
Octanoic acid
CH
3
(CH
2
)
6
COOH
Lauric acid
CH
3
(CH
2
)
10
COOH
Palmitic acid
CH
3
(CH
2
)
14
COOH
Stearic acid
CH
3
(CH
2
)
16
COOH
Oleic acid
CH
3
(CH
2
)
7
CH=CH(CH
2
)
7
COOH
Linoleic acid
CH
3
(
CH
2
)
4
(CH=CHCH
2
)
2
(CH
2
)
6
COOH
α-Linolenic acid
CH
3
CH
2
(CH=CHCH
2
)
3
(CH
2
)
6
COOH
HO
H
C
H
3
C
CH
2
CH
3
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
CH
3
CH
3
cholesterol
H
C
O
C
H
OH
CHO
H
C
H
OH
C
H
OH
CH
2
OH
straight chain glucose
α-glucose
CH
2
OH
C
O
CHO
H
C
H
OH
C
H
OH
CH
2
OH
straight chain fructose
Nitrogenous bases
OH
CH
2
OH
H
CH
2
OH
OH
H
H
OH
O
fructose
H
OH
H
CH
2
OH
OH
OH
H
H
O
ribose
H
OH
H
CH
2
OH
OH
H
H
H
O
deoxyribose
HC
N
C
C
C
N
N
CH
N
H
NH
2
adenine
C
N
C
C
C
NH
N
CH
N
H
NH
2
O
guanine
NH
2
C
N
C
N
CH
CH
H
O
cytosine
C
N
C
N
CH
CH
H
O
O
H
uracil
C
N
C
N
CH
C
H
O
O
H
CH
3
thymine
35. Vitamins and pigments
Vitamins
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
H
C
CH
C
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
C
CH
CH
3
CH
2
OH
retinol (vitamin A)
CH
CH
2
OH
O
O
OH
HO
HO
ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
CH
2
CH
CH
CH
3
CH
2
HO
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
CH
3
CH
3
vitamin D (D3)
Pigments
NN
CH
N N
CH
CH
2
R
CH
CH
2
H
3
C
CH
3
CH
2
O
C
CH
2
C
O O
CH
3
Mg
2
+
C
20
H
39
O
O
CH
3
H
CH
3
H
H
chlorophyll
N
HC
N
CH
N
N
Fe
2+
CH
3
CH
3
CH
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
OH
O
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
HO
O
CH
CH
2
CH
2
heme B
O
R
OH
R
O
OH
O
glucose
quinoidal base (blue)
O
+
R
OH
R
OH
OH
O
glucose
flavylium cation (red)
CH
3
CH
CH
C
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
C
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
CH
C
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
C
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
α-carotene
CH
3
CH
CH
C
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
C
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
CH
C
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
C
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
β-carotene
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
CH
C
CH
CH
3
CH
CH
C
H
3
C CH
CH
O
11-
cis
-retinal
CH
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
C
CH
CH
3
CH
CH
C
CH
CH
3
CH
O
all-
trans
-retinal
36. Binding energy curve
H
1
H
2
He
3
H
3
Li
6
Li
7
He
4
C
12
O
16
Fe
56
U
235
U
238
Average binding energy per nucleon (MeV)
Number of nucleons in nucleus
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
37. Representations of some medicinal molecules
O
OH
C
O
C
CH
3
O
aspirin
C
O
O
NHR
N
S
C
HO
O
CH
3
CH
3
penicillin (general structure)
CH
2
C
CH
3
COOH
H
C
CH
3
H
CH
3
ibuprofen
OH
N
H
C
O
CH
3
paracetamol (acetaminophen)
O
OH
OH
CH
2
N
CH
2
CH
3
morphine
O
OH
O
CH
3
CH
2
N
CH
2
H
3
C
codeine
O
O
O
C
C
CH
3
O
CH
3
O
CH
2
N
CH
3
CH
2
diamorphine (heroin)
N
NH
O
CH
3
S
O
N
CH
3
O CH
3
CH
3
omeprazole
O
N
CH
3
CH
3
S
NH
NH
N
+
H
3
C
O
O
ranitidine
NH
O
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
O
CH
3
O
NH
2
O
oseltamivir
OH
OH
NH
O
NH
O
OH
O
OH
NH
2
NH
CH
3
zanamivir
O
NH
OH
O
O
O
CH
3
O
O
O
O
CH
3
O
OH
O
O
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
OH
taxol
38. References
Data in sections 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 22, 26 and 27 was taken fully or in part from:
Aylward, G and Findlay, T. 2008.
SI chemical data
. (5th edition). Queensland, Australia. John Wiley & Sons.
D
ata in section 20 reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Barret, J. 2003.
Inorganic chemistry in aqueous solution
. London, UK. Royal Society of Chemistry.
D
ata in section 13 was taken in part from:
Burgess, DR. 2012. "Thermochemical Data".
NIST Chemistry WebBook,
NIST Standard Reference Database
.
Number 69. http://webbook.nist.gov.
D
ata in sections 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 28, 32, 33 was taken fully or in part from:
Haynes, WM, (ed). 2012.
CRC Handbook of chemistry and physics
. (93rd edition). Boca Raton, US. CRC Press.
D
ata in section 29 can be found in the following source:
Leach, MR. 2013.
Timeline of structural theory
. 04 January 2013.
http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/30_timeline/timeline.html.