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Written By Monisha Nath 

Chapter 1.................................................pg. 3 

 

Chapter 2....................................................pg.5

 

Chapter 3.................................................pg.7

 

Chapter 4................................................pg.8

 

Chapter 5................................................pg.15

 

Chapter 6.................................................pg.16

 

Chapter 7.................................................pg.22

 

 

Table Of Contents

Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account is about the findings of the notorious Dr. Josef Mengele, more common known as The Angel of Death. The book takes place in May 1944 in Auschwitz-Birkenau. The author, Miklos Nyiszili, was a Hungarian physician that was deported with his family to a Nazi concentration camp. The book is written as a memoir. It describes the experiences of Mr. Nyiszili as he was the chieft pathologist, forced to work directly under Mr. Mengele. He viewed the horrors Josef would create in the crematoria and dissecting room.  

Right from the beginning, Nyiszili suspected Mengele of doing horrible things to innocent people inside the crematoria, the screams were extermely loud. Alas, everyone had to survive, Nyiszili kept his head down and secured his survial as being the chief pathologist. When Mengel asked who was a doctor in forensics, Nyiszil stepped forward along with three others. The other men were executed. Nyiszili was assigned to the Sonderkommandos, these were the prisoners who carried out the exterminations. It was indeed a terrible job, many of the Sonderkommandos were exterminated to keep the burning and murder a secret, therefore he wrote many testimonies about the dissection and forensic medicine fidings. He signed every one with his tattoo number. 

Chapter 1

Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account

Small Summary

Some of his experiences were self-congratulatory, giving him pride about his expertise, only being used for the worng reason. Others were forcing him to witness the atrocities he could've avoided. On occassion he would be able to delay a patients death. Nyiszili was determined to record what he saw so someday the Germans will get what the deserve. Nyiszili writes about how he managed to get his family to escape out of Auschwitz, just before their annihilation. Towards the end of the war, thousands of Jews were forced to tread a long path, many died along the way however Nyiszili was determined to live to tell the horrors of what happened in Auschwitz. If he didn't who would?

Tuvia Bielski- Played by Daniel Craig, Tuvia grew up in an only Polish family and was incarcerated at the age of 18. He is the oldest out of three brothers and he plays a large role in the movie leading the resistance army in his Partisan. Along with his brothers, he fought against the war and other Nazi troopers. 

Zus Bielski- Played by Liev Schreiber, brother of Tuvia is the second oldest of the brothers. Their parents, Bella and David Bielski, were murdered by the Nazis when they were young. In the movie Zus has a wife, Sonia Boldo, they met in the forest and immediately fell in love. His first wife and children were butchered along with many other Jews in Nuvergreduk. 

Asael Bielski- Played by Jamie Bell, Asael is the second youngest brother. Asael was second-in-command of the Bielski troops, however he was soon shot and Tuvia became the first-in-command of the Bielski otriad. Asael married Chaya Dziencielsky. They had one child which he never lived to see because he was drafted in the Soviet Red Army and died 6 months later in 1945. 

 

Chapter 2

Characters 

Shimon Haretz- Played by Allan Corduner, Shimon is Tuvia's old elementary school teacher. Shimon always gives Tuvia noble lessons and brings education to the forest camps they build. Shimon gives the camp hope when they lose it, he also has an important line where he explains how Tuvia brought back his faith when he thought he lost it 

Lilka Ticktin- Played by Alexa Davalos, Lilka is a young woman who was brought to the forest by Tuvia. She falls in love with Tuvia and they become very intimate. When the Germans attack, the two are seperated whe Tuvia says it is too dangerous for her and tells her to leave with the others. 

Isaac Malbin- Played by Mark Feuerstein, Isaac is a very intelligent doctor-in-training. He uses his many skills to help in the forest. He is not useful at first but plays an importnat part towards the end of the movie. Shimon and Isaac become good friends in the forest and challenge eachothers smarts with intellectual games includinng chess and checkers. 

Defiance takes place in Belarus, a small country near Lithuania and Poland. The actual story of the Bielski brothers takes place in Belarus between 1942 and 1945. They hide throughout the forest bringing other Jewish people to their camp. They have to move camps three times because of invasions from the Nazi soldiers. The forest was meant to be safe haven for those who were petrfied. The women and children would also work. Other settings include the Soviet Red Army Camp. This is where Zus transports to because he was tired of running and wanted revenge for what the Nazi Soldiers did. The movie moves quite a lot, the reason being the Nazis kept finding their hiding camp and they kept running. Finally, the camp moves across a river to get to their last battle. 

Chapter 3

Settings

In 1941, the Nazi Einsatz-Gruppen were going through Europe looking for any Jews or non-Aryan races to exterminate. The Bielski brothers were some of the survivors of the non-restricted ghettos. After escaping from incarceration, Tuvia went to find his brothers so they can reunite. Meanwhile, Zus goes back to their family's farm to see if anyone survived. When he arrives, he find both of his parents murdered. Heavy-heartedly, he looks for his other two brothers, thankfully both were hiding in the floor boards. The three travel to the forest and bring supplies to start their hiding. 

Defiance is based on a true story of the Bielski brothers. It describes how forest hiding and gathering refugees from other ghettos and concetration camps helped save 1,200 Jews.  

Chapter 4

Plot Summary

The camp with only 14 people, was very weak. Along with the refugees, Tuvia found his elementary school teacher. He made sure to take special care of him. Tuvia would constantly leave the camp to get supplies and he always came back with more. His second trip had many people including a very knowlegable man named Isaac.  

When Tuvia finds Zus, Asael, and Aron, he learns of his parents death. Immediately he travels to an old family friend to find information of who exactly killed them. However, Nazis arrive at the man's house. Tuvia goes to hide in the barn, there he finds other Jews in hiding. After the incident, the man hiding the Jew said they couldn't stay anymore, it was too risky. Tuvia found his information from the man and then took a gun and the refugees that were hiding to his brothers. Zus was dissapointed in Tuvia for bringing more work. 

After Tuvia found out who killed his parents, he went to the man's house. With a revolver in his and and 5 bullets, Tuvia shot the husband and two sons infront of the wife and left her to live. This was a moment that Tuvia was not proud of but he had to avenge his parents. 

Tuvia led the camp very well. He assigned everyone in the camp different jobs, they included, guarding, serving food, and gathering firewood. The camp was functioning well. More refugees arrived and the camp grew in size. New arrivals were asked their skills and would be assigned based on that. Everyone was doing well until, winter. In winter the food would be more scarce, and wood would be wet or soggy which is useless for campfires. Tuvia saw it coming but did not have a good plan for it. This created a problem. An incident occured, a man was getting aggrivated with the lack of food in the camp. He cut the line for food and demanded seconds before the whole camp got its food. He screamed at the woman running the food stand. He got so angry, he slapped the woman. Asael tried to break up the fight, however he failed. He then ran to Tuvia and alerted him of the situation. Tuvia broke it up and gave the man a warning. The next day, the same man and his group of friends decided Tuvia was "not fit to be their leader". They sat in a circle and commanded the women to give them food before any of the camp. This time Asael was angry and got into a physical fight with the man. Tuvia came out and confronted him. When he started arguing, Tuvia shot him in the head. This was a symb0l of his leadership. If anyone challenged him without good reason, they will face the consequences. 

A few weeks later, Soviet Union troops passed by the camp. They informed the forest camp they were looking for soldiers and weapons, in return they would get food. Tuvia thought it was a great trade, since they were allies. The camp was slightly rejuvenated. Tuvia brought even more refugees. These were from a ghetto that Zus' family was from. A young man told Zus his whole family was executed. This set him off and made him extremely infuriated. Zus was tired of running from the Nazis, he wanted to do something, he wanted to fight. Tuvia tried to stop him, when he did this Zus punched him. Tuvia and Zus got into a massive physical fight. Asael stopped it and told them they were brothers, who stick together. Zus responded by saying his goodbyes and leaving for the Soviet Union partisan. 

During the winter, Tuvia and Zus worked together to get supplies from the Germans. One day, they approached a man going to deliver fuel and food to the Germans. Tuvia and Zus took half of everything so the man wouldn't get killed when he gave it to the Nazis. Zus didn't agree with the decision so he took the man's fur coat. Zus was correct, the man snitched on them. The Nazis came to the camp with firearms and started to destroy the camp. Tuvia informed everyone to run and only take food and weapons. The brothers stayed and fought them. The forest camp killed most of them however three Nazi officials survived and left. Tuvia knew they had to relocate the camp and it would be a tremendous amount of work. 

Around this time, the war was coming to an end. The Soviet Union and United States were making their way into concetration camps to liberate them. This was when Germany was trying to destroy any evidence, however Hitler was not any less ruthless. The Nazi troops attacked the camp once again. This time they had more guns, ammunition, and soldiers. Tuvia called the "soldiers" of the camp which included both men and women. They stayed and fought while the others made their way towards the river. The Nazis threw flash bombs at the camp. There were many casualties on both sides. The camp fought hard, in the fight Tuvia got injured. A flash bomb hit very close to him and both of his ears started bleeding due to an excess amount of sound causing the eardrums to collapse. Asael came to his side and carried him to the edge of the river. When the whole camp got there, Tuvia had to call an order, he was however very hopeless. He took a gun and handed it to Lilka. He then said, "pull the trigger so they can't". Lilka was surprised, Asael jumped in and said there was still hope. 

After Zus left, the camp started to lose hope. This was around the time when Tuvia met his love. Her name was Lilka. She was a very beautiful woman and was eager to learn how to defend herself. Lilka started out as a serving lady. She would give the food. However in the winter, the man who would catch food was killed. Lilka was chosen to fill his place, she was hesitant but was motivated by Tuvia. There was a wolf in the forest hunting her. Tuvia gave her a revolver and she shot it in the head. That night the camp ate very well. It was a symbol of equality, the women could do other tasks other than the ladylike ones. 

Asael came up with a great idea. He knew the river was deep and people were tired and injured. Most of the refugees including Tuvia lost hope. Asael persuaded them to keep going. Why surrender now when they've come so far? Asael thought of ways to get across the river easily, he thought of making a chain. He asked the men for their belts. With the belts he made  rope like chain that everyone could hold onto to get across. The next task was to get Tuvia to lead them. Asael talked sense into him and then gave him water which helped him. Tuvia led the whole group across the river. 

Along the way, Tuvia's old teacher Shimon started coughing vigorously. Shimon was loosing hope and stability. Tuvia quickly went to his side to support him. Shimon was begging him to leave hm there to die. Tuvia couldn't let him do that. In order to save his life, Tuvia had to carry him and his books most of the way. Finally after half a day, they arrived at land, an open field. Everyone sat down and rested, it is what they deserved. 

Less than an hour later, Tuvia and Asael go look for food to feed everyone. All of a sudden, they hear a gunshot. Tuvia grabs his gun. The Nazis have come fore one last fight. The refugees tiredly fight, however the Nazis brought tanks and they are very outnumbered. Isaac tried throwing a bomb at one of the tanks and it partially worked. The saying brothers stick together was very true and would play a large part in the ending. In order to see how the movie plays out and who wins the final battle, you must watch Defiance. 

Opinion

In my opinion, Defiance was an excellent movie. The graphics and action always kept you on your feet eager to see what happens next. I have small critique, sometimes you wouldn't understand what they say because they switch languages but most of it is in English. The movie is also very fast-paced. You must have a good comprehension of whats going on or you'll get lost. Other than that the movie was amazing. I loved the portrayal of almost every genre in the movie, including comedy, romance, and sorrow. It is a rollercoaster of emotion but will not make you bawl. The characters were picked very well especially Daniel Craig as Tuvia. Since this is based on real events, the Bielski brothers, it helps you visualize what its like to live in the forest trying to keep everyone alive. It truly was a great movie.

Recommendation

I highly recommend this movie for anyone who loves a good action movie. It is filled with many fights and it is also very dramatic. The battles they fight are memorable and violent. There is large amounts of bloodshed, but it will give you a rush of emotions. I rate this movie 9.5/10. 

Chapter 5

Opinions & Recommendations

The Bosnian genocide affected the Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim) and Croatian civilians for brutal crimes that resulted in over 100,000 deaths. The Yugoslav republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina declared its independence. This resulted in Bosnian-Serb forces targeting these people. It started in 1992 and ended in 1995. Historians say it was the worst act of genocide since the Nazi genocide of 6 million Jews. 

Overview

After the Second World War, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia became part of the Republic of Yugoslavia. The leader of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito, died. This resulted in the republics threatening to break the Union. In 1991, Slovenia, Croatia, and Macedonia gained their independence. "During the war in Croatia that followed, the Serb-dominated Yugoslav army supported Serbian separatists there in their brutal clashes with Croatian forces."  

Background Information

Muslims made up a large part of Croatia. Most of the Serbians and Croatians emigrated over 1971-1991. After a census, "Bosnia’s population of some 4 million was 44 percent Bosniak, 31 percent Serb, and 17 percent Croatian." Tensions built in and out of the country. The leader of Bosnia-Serbia Radovan Karadzic withdrew from the government. Finally after an election in 1992, President Izetbegovic declared Bosnia's independence. 

Chapter 6

Bosnian Genocide

As mentioned before, president Tito was a very strong communist leader. After his death Yugoslavia quickly went down. The new leader, Slobodan Milosevic turned to nationalism and religious hatred. He made a very detailed plan. The first step was to light the old flame of the tension between Serbs and Muslims. The orthodox Catholic Serbs claimed the Albanian Muslims were mistreating them. "Serbian-backed political unrest in Kosovo eventually led to its loss of independence and domination by Milosevic". After both countries gained their independence, a civil war started. It was Yugoslavia(what was left of it) vs. Croatia and Slovenia. After a failed attempt to get Slovenia back, Milosevic lost interest. He turned his attention to Croatia where 12% of the population was made up of Orthodox Serbs. 

During World War II, Croatia was a pro-Nazi state. The new Croatian government was reviving fascism, basically a dictatorship. They even started using the old flag and enabling laws aimed at Orthodox Serbs. Aided by Serbian guerrilas, Milosevic's forces invaded to 'protect' the Serbian minorities. The first attack was in Vukovar, they bombarded the unarmed Croats for 86 days until the city was rubble. After this Serbs began the mass murder, killing hundreds of Croat men, burying them in mass graves. 

Internationally, the response was very minimal. President George Bush of the United States chose not to interact with military, however recognized Slovenia and Croatia's independence. A US cease-fire agreement was brokered between the Serbs and Croats fighting in Croatia. In 1992, the US decided to recognize Bosnia's independence too. It was recognized as a mostly Muslim country where the Serb minority made up on 32%.

Meanwhile in Bosnia, the Bosnian Muslims were hopelessly outgunned. As the Serbs gained on them, they began to round up the Muslims in scenes grossly similar to the Nazis. These included "mass shootings, forced repopulation of entire towns, and confinement in make-shift concentration camps for men and boys". Families were also terrorized by using rape as a weapon against women and girls so they would flee the country.  It was labeled as "ethnic cleansing". 

Despite the countless reports on the camps and killings, they continued, even Muslim mosques were being burned. However, the world still took no notice of it. According to The History Place, "The U.N. responded by imposing economic sanctions on Serbia and also deployed its troops to protect the distribution of food and medicine to dispossessed Muslims." The U.N did not allow military in Bosnia. They remained very neutral even when the circumstances worstened. 

Because the U.N did not take military action,  Serbs in Bosnia freely continued the genocide. They operated under the leadership of Radovan Karadzic. He was the president of an illegal Bosnian Serb Republic. A specific comment he told to journalists was very Hitler-like, "Serbs and Muslims are like cats and dogs, they can't live together in peace. It is impossible". When confronted by reporters he would alwas deny any of his actions. 

On February 6, 1994 the world's attention turned toward Bosnia completely. A marketplace in Sarajevo was struck by a Serb mortar shell, killing 68 people and wounding 0ver 200. Sights and sound were broadcasted globally, finally military intervention was called in against the Serbs. 

Meanwhile, in the U.S, the new president, Bill Clinton was elected. He "promised" to stop the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia. He issued, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This demanded the Serbs take the artillery out of Sarajevo. The Serbs immediately obeyed and a NATO imposed truce was declared only in Sarajevo. 

The United States tried to unify the Bosnian Muslims and Croats against the Serbs. The alliance failed, Serbs continued to terrorize many Muslim towns which were supposed to be Safe-Havens. The Serbs didn't only attack the Bosnian Muslisms, but the attacked UN peacekeepers. 

Srebrenica was another Safe Haven town. The peacekeepers stood helplessly as the Serbs methodically chose 8,000 men and boys, age 12-60, and slaughtered them. It was the worst mass murder in Europe since WWII. 

Finally, on Augast 30, 1995 effective military intervention was put into Bosnia from the U.S. They led a massive NATO bombing in response to the mass murder in Srebrenica. It continued for two months. The Serbs started to lose ground, the Bosnian Muslims were getting help from the Islamic world. 

 

After constant fighting, the Serbs were growing weak. On Novemer 1, 1995, Milosevic and Tudjman traveled to the U.S for peace talks. Finally, after negotiating for three weeks, a peace accord was declared. Along with other terms, 60,000 NATO troops were sent to preserve the cease-fire. 

By this time, over 100,000 Bosnian Muslims were deliberately murdered. More than 20,000 were missing or dead, it was unknown. Over 2,000,000 had become refugees. According to U.S Assistant Secretary of State Richard Holbrooke, "it was the greatest failure of the West since the 1930s."

Ultimately, the Bosnian Genocide and Holocaust help us realize the world is not learning from their constant mistakes. There were grossly, many similarities between the Holocaust genocide of Jews and any other non-Aryan races and the Bosnian Genocide of Bosnian Muslims. For example, both included camps, mass murders, destruction of religious churches (synagogues and mosques), mass graves, and the denial. Although the numbers were very different, 6 million compared to 200,000, the destruction was the same. The differences were the NATO treaty played a large part in stopping the genocide, the Holocaust was tied up in a war. Other countries helped save the Jews including Soviets and U.S. There was no propoganda spread even though Milosevic always denied any of the genocide. Both were horrible, but they were signs that the world doesn't pay attention to history cause these are just 2 of the many genocides that have occurred since the Holocaust. 

Copyright/Release Date  

December 31, 2008

Hine, Lewis H. "Genocide in the 20th Century." The History Place. The History Place, June-July 1998. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

 

History.com Staff. "Bosnian Genocide." History.com. A&E Television Networks, July-Aug. 2009. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

 

Aull, Felice M. "Auschwirz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account." Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account. NYU School Of Medicine, 26 July 2010. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

 

 

Nyiszli, Miklós. Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account. London: Penguin Classics, 2012. Print.

 

Defiance. Perf. Daniel Craig. Roadshow, 2008. DVD.

Chapter 7

Works Cited Page