Hailee Wheat

Social Studies

 

Strengths

  • has a larger population
  • has more of an industry
  • more abundant resources
  •  had a better banking system to raise money for the cost of the war
  • has more ships and a more efficent railroad

 

Weaknesses

  •  had a diffcult rival and hard journey to obtain their goal

 

The North

Leaders

  • President Lincoln
  • General George B. McClellan
  • Major Robert Anderson

 

War Aims & Strategy 

The North army, also known as the Yankees, had their eyes set on bringing the South back into the Union by invading the South using the stragedy of occuyping the Confederacy's territory and subduing the huge population. The North would blockade Southern ports to damage their economics, by not allowing them to export cotton. Next, cut off the Mississippi for them to not have supplies sent to their troops. Lastly, take the Confederate capitial, Virginia, Richmond. 

States 

Maine, New York Connecticut, Michigan, Vermont, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Iowa, Ohio, California, Indiana, Kansas, Nevada, Oregon

 

Strengths

  • got to fight in familiar territory
  • military leadership was superior 
  • many people who supported the Confederates were strongly passionate about it because of the American Revolution

 

Weaknesses

  •  smaller population
  • few factories to make weapons and other supplies
  • produced less than half of the food that the North produced.
  • less than half to miles of railroaad tracks and fewer trains
  • diffult time to transport food, weapons, and other supplies to their troops because of the lack of transportation
  • states out of the Union did not want to let the Confederecy obtain power

 

The South

Leaders

  • Confederate president was Jefferson Davis
  • General Johnston was the commander of a battle

War Aims & Strategy 

 The South was determined to win the war only for recongnition as an indepent nation. They wanted to preserve their traditional ways like slavery. The South sought to in using a defensive strategy by defending until the North get tired of fighting. They also expected Britain and France to help them and intimidate the North because of the cotton they export them, but these two countries did nothing. Eventually, the South took an offensive strategy and moved their armies upward to Washington, D.C. to persuade the North that they could not win. 

States

South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama,Georgia, Tennessee, Louisiana and Texas, Alabama, Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia

Seccession and Motivation for War

South Carolina was the first state to secede. It had a special convention and voted to secede because even though President Lincoln had promised not to disturb the slavery in the South, they were skeptical and wanted to leave for the sake of slavery. Many states joined in the secedetion and chose Jefferson Davis as the Confederate president. Southerners justified this secession with the theory of states’ rights. In Lincoln’s Inauguration Address, he spoke for many when he stated he wanted to become a Union again. The South started physical conflict when they seized some United States forts within the state, starting with Fort Sumter. Overall the main reason for the Civil War was because the South wanted to continue with slavery and were scared it would become banned once Lincoln was president.

When

  • April 12, 1861

What

Confederates attacked Fort Sumter before Union supplies could arrive. Union relief ships could not reach the fort and Union garrison only held out for 33 hours. No lives were lost as the Confederates hoisted their flag.

Battle of Fort Sumter

Who

  • Commander for the Union: Major Robert Anderson
  • Confederate president: Jefferson Davis
  • President Lincoln of the Union
  • Governor Francis Pickens
  • 80 Union soldiers
  • 500 Confederate soldiers

The

Winner

  • Confederacy won
  • than Lincoln ordered for 75,000 troops 
  • Civil war had begun
  • no casulties

Where

  • Fort Sumter is an island fortification located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.

Why

Knowing that Anderson and his men were running out of supplies, Lincoln announced his intention to send three unarmed ships to relieve Fort Sumter. Having already declared that any attempt to resupply the fort would be seen as an act of aggression, South Carolina militia forces soon scrambled to respond. 

 

What

 

The engagement began when about 35,000 Union troops marched from the federal capital in Washington, D.C. to strike a Confederate force of 20,000 along a small river known as Bull Run. The Yankees drove Confederates back, then the Rebels were inspired and rallied with a Rebel yell. The Northern soldiers were horrified and dropped everything in their hands to retreat.

 

 

 

When

  • July 21, 1861

Battle of First

Bull Run

Who

  • Commander of the Rebels was General Stonewall Jackson

  • General Irvin McDowell, commander of the Union army in Northern Virginia
  • 28,450 Union soldiers
  • 32,230 rebels

The

Winner

  •  The outcome made the President call for a million volunteers in war

     

  • Lincoln appointed General B. McClellan to head the Army of the Potomac.

  • 4,878 casualties

Where

  •  Northern Virginia, Manassas Junction

     

Why

Popular fervor led President Lincoln to push a cautious Brigadier General Irvin McDowell to attack the Confederate forces. He wanted to make quick work of the bulk of the Confederate army, open the way to Richmond, the Confederate capital, and end the war.

 

 

 

When

  • February 6, 1862

What

 Grant captured Fort Henry with an army of ironclads and ten days later, he captured Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. When Ulysses S. Grant realized he was trapped, he asked for freedom and got a surrender as an answer, demonstrating Grant’s heroicness.

 

 

 

Battle of Fort  Donelson

Who

  •  Ulysses S. Grant was the Union commander
  • Gen. Simon B. Buckner was in charge of the Rebels
  • 24,531 Union soldiers
  • 16,171 Rebel soldiers

The

Winner

  •  Grant’s victories helped secure the lower Tennessee River and opened a path for Union troops to march into Alabama, Tennessee, and Mississippi.
  • 16,537 casualties 

Where

  •  West from Cairo, Illinois

     

Why

 

Grant was ordered to move against Confederate troops in Kentucky and Tennessee and was determined to succeed.

 

 

 

What

 

Confederates used an old Northern ship, Merrimack, to use and refurbish as their warship. As the North sent a warship, Monitor for battle, the Confederacy renamed Merrimack, Virginia, and attacked the Union ship off of the coast of the state, Virginia. This was the first battle between metal covered ships, it marked a new age in naval warfare. On March 8, the Virginia sunk two minor Union ships and ran one aground off Hampton Roads in southeastern Virginia.The Monitor went down in bad weather off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

 

 

 

When

  • March 8, 1862

Battle of Hampton Roads

Who

  •  Confederacy was under the command of Flag Officer
  • Franklin Buchanan

    Union was commanded by Lt. John L. Worden

  • 1,400 Yankees

  • 188 rebels

     

The

Winner

  •  The Confederacy won 
  • Marked history for the naval military because it was the first battle between metal covered ships

  • 393 casualties

     

     

Where

  • Norfolk, Virginia

     

     

Why

 

Seeking to interdict Federal naval operations in Hampton Roads, the ironclad CSS Virginia left its berth at Norfolk and steamed out to attack the nearby Union ships.  

 

 

 

When

  • April 6, 1862

What

Confederate troops performed a suprise attack on Union troops. The battle lasted two days and was one of the goriest battles. The first day, Confederates were wiining but on the second day the Yankees recovered and they defeated the Confederecy. Together, there were more than 20,000 casualties.

Battle of Shiloh

Who

  • General George B. McClellan was in charge of Union troops
  • General Johnston was in charge of Rebels
  • 65,085 Union soldiers
  • 44,968 Confederates

 

The

Winner

  •  the Union won
  • Union gained control of Cornith
  • The North started gainning back the Mississppi River
  • 23,746 casualties

Where

  •  Pittsburg Landing

     

Why

Grant’s objective was Corinth, a vital rail center that if captured would give the Union total control of the region. Johnston did not wait for Grant and Buell to combine their forces. 

 

When

  • August 29, 1862

     

     

What

 Jackson’s army joined with Lee, and Pope started the attack. Lee’s army arrived and launched a counterattack, forcing Pope to withdraw his battered army toward Washington that night with massive casualties on both sides.

Battle of the Second Bull Run

Who

  •  Robert Lee was the commander for Confederates
  • John Pope was in charge of the Union

  •  

    70.000 Yankees

  • 55,000 Rebels 

The

Winner

  •  The Confederacy won
  • Richmond was not threatened

  • Rebels stood 20 miles from Washington, D.C.

  • 22,177 casualties

Where

  •  Prince William County, Virginia

Why

 

Jackson’s forces wanted to attack Pope’s supply base at Manassas and take over Richmond, Virginia.

 

 

 

 

What

 

The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest battle of the Civil War. This battle could have been prevented if only General McClellan was not hesitant, which enabled Lee to prepare his forces and military supplies. In total of Rebels and Yankees, 6,000 soldiers died and 17,000 were wounded. Since McClellan could not pursue the rebels, he was replaced by General Ambrose Burnside because of President Lincoln. The British government was also ready to support the Confederacy, if they had won. This battle made the Rebels miss their best chance of gaining international recognition.

 

 

 

When

  • September 17, 1862

Battle of Antietam

Who

  • General McClellan         
  • Robert E. Lee
  • 87,000 Union soldiers
  • 45,000 Confederates

The

Winner

  • The Union won, which made the British government withhold their support and gave them no recognition.
  • The Army of Potomac gained confidence and forced the Rebels back to the South.
  • This battle had a major impact on the war because it changed Northern war aims.
  • Lincoln used this battle to go against slavery and brought out the abolitionist in him. 
  • 22,717 casualties

Why

 

Robert Lee and his army wanted Maryland to join the Confederacy so they marched into the city. The Confederacy was getting their troops ready for an invasion and the North followed as they had found a paper with Lee’s plans on them, which led to the North and South meeting and conflict began.

 

 

 

Where

  •  Antietam Creek, Maryland, Sharpsburg

     

When

  •  December 13, 1862

     

     

     

What

 The Union had a larger army, but the Rebels had an upper hand, being prepared on higher ground. After failed attacks, Burnside resigned his command to Hooker.

 

Battle of Fredericksburg

 

Who

  •  The Union commander was General Ambrose Burnside, but replaced by
  • Joseph Hooker

    Robert E. Lee was in charge of the Confederates

  •  100,007 Yankees

  • 72,497 Rebels 

The

Winner

  •  Confederacy won
  • Hooker was in charge now of the Yankees

  • 17,929 casualties

     

Where

  • Fredericksburg, Virginia

     

     

Why

 Robert Lee attacked Fredericksburg to cut off the Union’s supplies  to have an advantage.

 

 

 

 

 

When

  •  April 30, 1863

     

     

     

What

The Confederacy faced an enemy force nearly twice the size of his own, Lee split his troops in two, confronting and surprising Joseph Hooker. The battle was costly and had huge casualties on both sides.

 

 

Battle of Chancellorville

 

 

 

 

Who

  •  General Joseph Hooker was the commander of the Union
  • Robert Lee was in charge of the Confederacy

  •  

    97,382 Union soldiers

  • 57,352 Confederates 

The

Winner

  •  Confederacy won
  • Thomas Jackson died from friendly fire

  • 30,764 casualties

Where

  •  Chancellorsville, Virginia

     

Why

 

The battle began because the Union army crossed the Rappahannock River, causing the Confederate army to retaliate. They fought until the Union forces retreated back to the other side of the river.

 

 

 

 

 

When

  • May 18, 1863

     

     

     

     

What

 Grant conducting a surprise landing below Vicksburg at Bruinsburg, Mississippi, Grant’s forces moved rapidly inland, pushing back the Rebels.

 

Battle of Vicksburg

Who

  •  John C. Pemberton was commander of the Rebels 
  • Ulysses S. Grant was commander for the Union

  • 77,000 Union

  •  33,000 Rebels 

The

Winner

  •  The Union won
  • The Union now had all control of the Mississippi River

  • Turning point in the wa
  • 37,402 casualties

Why

The Union wanted the Mississippi River for transportation of supplies and people but it also was a place they must have had control of to take the Confederacy down. Union victories at Champion Hill and Big Black Bridge weakened Pemberton’s forces, leaving the Confederate chief with no alternative but to retreat

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where

  •  Vicksburg, Mississippi

     

When

  • July 1, 1863

What

This battle was considered the most important engagement of the American Civil War. Recognizing the importance of holding Gettysburg because a dozen roads converged there, the Union fought desperately to hold off the Rebel advance.Ewell hesitated to attack thereby giving the Union troops a chance to dig in along Cemetery Ridge and bring in reinforcements with artillery. The combined casualty total from two days of fighting came to nearly 35,000.

 

 

 

Battle of Gettysburg

Who

  •  Robert E. Lee and General Richard Ewell was in charge of the Confederacy 
  • Union corps commanded by George Meade and George Pickett

  • 93,921 Yankees

  • 71,699 Rebels 

     

The

Winner

  •  Lee offered his resignation to President Jefferson Davis, but was refused
  • turned the tide of the Civil War in the Union’s favor.

  • The Union won 

  • 51,112 casualties

Where

  •  town of Gettysburg, 35 miles southwest of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

     

Why

 Upon learning that the Army of the Potomac was on its way, Lee planned to assemble his army

 Lee ordered General Richard Ewell to attack this position "if practicable". Both rivals also knew the advantages of having the many roads of Gettysburg for transporting supplies and for trading.

 

 

 

When

  •  April 9, 1865

     

     

     

     

What

The attack, led by General Bryan Grimes of North Carolina, was successful. The outnumbered Union cavalry fell back. Lee ordered his troops to retreat through the village and back across the Appomattox River. Rather than destroy his army and sacrifice the lives of his soldiers to no purpose, Lee decided to surrender the Army of Northern Virginia. Lee asked for the terms, and Grant hurriedly wrote them out. All officers and men were to be pardoned, and they would be sent home with their private property–most important to the men were the horses, which could be used for a late spring planting. Officers would keep their side arms, and Lee’s starving men would be given Union rations.

 

Surrender of Appomattox

Who

  • Ulysses S. Grant was commander for the Union

  • Robert E. Lee was commander of the Rebels

  • 63,285 Union soldiers

  • 26,000 Confederate soldiers

The

Winner

  •  Union won
  • a formal peace treaty was never signed by the combatants

    submission of the Confederate armies

  • ended the war 

  • began the long road toward reunification.

  • 700 casualties

Why

The Union wanted the Mississippi River for transportation of supplies and people but it also was a place they must have had control of to take the Confederacy down. Union victories at Champion Hill and Big Black Bridge weakened Pemberton’s forces, leaving the Confederate chief with no alternative but to retreat

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where

  •  Appomattox county, Virginia

     

Time Lived:

  January 21, 1824 to May 10, 1863

 

 

 

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson was a famous war hero for the Confederacy during the Civil War in America. He graduated from West Point in 1846 and began his official military career with the US Army as a brevet second lieutenant in the Mexican-American War from 1846-1848, where he first met Robert E. Lee. He eventually moved up to major with his experience in battle. Jackson originally wanted to be apart of the Union didn’t want to go against Virginia, his home state. He died from pneumonia, a complication of having his left arm amputated from the incident.

Worked for the Confederacy

Thomas Jackson

Born to Revolutionary War hero Henry Lee, Robert E. Lee graduated at the United States Military Academy at West Point at 22 and married Mary Anna Randolph Custis. He served seventeen years as an officer in the Corps of Engineers, supervising and inspecting the construction of the nation's coastal defenses.  As a member of General Winfield Scott's staff, Lee distinguished himself, earning three brevets for gallantry, and emerging from the conflict with the rank of colonel. Since his reputation as one of the finest officers in the United States Army, Abraham Lincoln offered Lee the command of the Federal forces but he declined because he didn’t want to fight against his own people and state, Virginia. Lee suffered a stroke on September 28, 1870, and lingered for two weeks before passing.

Born to Revolutionary War hero Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee, Robert E. Lee graduated at the United States Military Academy at West Point at 22 and married Mary Anna Randolph Custis. He served seventeen years as an officer in the Corps of Engineers, supervising and inspecting the construction of the nation's coastal defenses.  As a member of General Winfield Scott's staff, Lee distinguished himself, earning three brevets for gallantry, and emerging from the conflict with the rank of colonel. Since his reputation as one of the finest officers in the United States Army, Abraham Lincoln offered Lee the command of the Federal forces but he declined because he didn’t want to fight against his own people and state, Virginia. Lee suffered a stroke on September 28, 1870, and lingered for two weeks before passing.

Time Lived:

January 19, 1807 October 12, 1870

 

Battles:

Battle Of Fredericksburg

Battle Of Chickamauga

Battle Of Antietam

Battle Of Chancellorsville

Battle Of The Wilderness

Battle Of Gettysburg

Battle Of Spotsylvania

Appomattox Court House Battle

 

 

 

Worked for the Confederacy

Robert E. Lee

Children

Almost every kid had their relative in the war and had to take jobs of adults to make meets end. Some children served in the army camps. They would help wash dishes, fix meals, and set up the camp when it moved.Children living in the South had an added fear because much of the fighting took place in the South. If their home was near a battle, they would hear gunfire. Boys as young as thirteen were in the army because both sides were desperate even though the requirements were over eighteen.

 

African Americans

The Emancipation Proclamation allowed slaves to join the Union army making the lives of African Americans change. Some worked as nurses in military hospital and others cooks in the army. Southerners started to be frightened of a slave rebellion to occur, this is why they did not allowed any African Americans as a soldier with a weapon. Finally in 1865, the Confederate military became desperate and passed a law to enlist enslaved people and they freedom could be in exchange, but the war ended before regiments could organized. Many African Americans in the South wanted to help but the army would not accept them but the navy did. They were very valuable because of the knowledge they owned. Escaped slaves often were spies and guides because of how familiar they were in the South. In 1862, the Union allowed African Americans into the war. This took African Americans to the next step in securing their civil rights. However, they were separated from the rest of the regiments and received lower pay until 1864 because of protests. Many Southerners were disgusted with African Americans in the army and navy and expressed it violently, but enslaved workers were overjoyed and soldiers knew what they had been fighting for.

Life in the

Civil War

Women

Women performed many jobs to aid soldiers and their armies. They also suffered the loss of their kin, leaving them a widow or mourning a father causing them to be suicidal sometimes. However in the south, their life changed drastically, yet every woman was somehow affected by the war. Some women served as spies by telling the side they supported the others plan and some disguised as men and became soldiers fighting in the war. While some doctors objected because it was men’s work, thousands of women were nurses.

 

 

 

 

The Civil War had a positive side and a negative side. It caused a loss in crops, hurt the country’s economy because of the cost of supplies for war, and many Americans were lost. States rights were forever changed and Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was applied in all states. The Union had won and made all the states that seceded back into the Union without slavery. The 13th through 15th amendments abolished slavery officially, freeing millions of slaves. President Lincoln was assassinated by a Confederate and Andrew Johnson, the vice president, was the president after that. The federal government is now more powerful than the states.

Results of the War