INTERDISCIPLINARY PROJECT OPEN DAY 

 

CHLOROPLAST

 

DNA AND GENETICS

CHEMISTRY OF CELLS

 

 

Do you really know how scientists study cells? It is all based on Chemistry of Cells, Chemistry of Cells is a general interaction to the chemical principals that underpin a contemporary level. Chemistry of Cells has thousands of chemical reactions, all tied and coordinated to perform all the functions necessary for life.

 

Photosynthesis is one pf the topics studied in chemistry of cells, Photosynthesis s the process of converting light energy into chemical energy. Plants take light energy from the sun and then in the chloroplast, they produce sugar,, which is the food of the plant. And they produce oxygen for CO2.

 

Cellular respiration is also one of the topics studied in chemistry of cells. It is a set of reactions that take  place in the cell, which purpose is to convert bio-chemical energy into adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) which is as said by chemists “ The energy necessary for living “. Mitochondria is in charge of the process, and it is the energy it produces.

 

There are many topics in chemistry of cells, but one that is quite important, is organic compounds that make up a cell, and there are 3 important types, carbohydrates, Proteins and lipids.

 

Inorganic compounds is one of the most studied topics too, they are similar to organic, but it usually uses carbides, carbonates, cyanides etc…. They form water, which forms 90% of the protoplasm. Some gases are produced in chloroplast and mitochondria.

 

In conclusion, chemistry of cells is a very complex topic that explains the structure, behavior and reaction of cells. An example of the themes studied in chemistry of cells is Photosynthesis, Also we study chemical reaction of the cells. Chemistry of Cells help us to understand the processes of our body at a molecular level. 

 

 

 Do you know what your body contains?

The nucleus of a cell acts like a brain. The nucleus apart from that is also an organelle. It also gives the information which carries the cell’s heredity material, or its DNA. It helps control the movement, eating and reproduction of a cell. If anything happens inside a cell the nucleus will know about it. Nuclei is always in living things which have cells. All cells have nucleus, except the prokaryote cells.

 

Here we will talk about the nucleus. Did you know that the nucleus carries and create proteins that are important for the cell? The cell stores DNA, it produces RNA and RNA is outside the nucleus. Sometimes the nucleus is located in different parts, some at the corner of the cell and others in the middle.

 

The nucleus is conformed by many important parts that help it work. Surrounding every nucleus there is a double layer membrane called the nuclear envelope, very similar to the cell membrane around the whole cell. There are pores and spaces for RNA, and proteins to pass through while all the nuclear membrane keeps all of the chromatin nucleus inside.

 

Genetic biology is also part of the nucleus. It also is known as heredity and is related to genetic information. It includes the explanation of inheritance and can be shown in a punnet square, which is a model that explains how parent pass off springs.

 

Deoxyribonucleic acid is a cell replicating material which carries genetic information. Its located in the cell nucleus and its made of four different chemicals, which are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. It’s the main constituent of chromosomes.

 

In the nucleus of each cell the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome has DNA, they are not visible in the nucleus but the can be visible when they are dividing. Each one of them has a constriction point called the centromere. It divides the chromosomes into two parts, the long part is called “Qarm”, the short arm is called “earm”. It is Y shaped.

 

In conclusion nucleus is the one that controls your body, including all its parts and complements. By for example dividing chromosomes or taking the decisions that your body has to take.  

DNA & GENETICS 

 

Do you think you know everything about cells? You know they divide but they are divided in two groups. One group is Prokaryotes and the other is Eukaryotes. Both are group of cells but they have different meanings. Prokaryotes are cells that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. In fact “prokaryotic” in Greek means “before nucleus”. Eukaryotes are cells that possess a cell membrane that holds genetic information. Eukaryotes also have an organized nucleus. Now that you know the meanings of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, keep reading to learn more of them.

 

Do you know you are made of prokaryote and eukaryote cells? Do you want to know how they work?  Here, we are going to tell you how! Prokaryotes work without a nucleus, but they have DNA, prokaryotes divide or reproduce by a process called Binary Fusion. An interesting fact is that prokaryotes are the oldest bacteria in the world. Eukaryotes are younger Eukaryotes are younger cells so they have more characteristics, for example they have a nucleus and they reproduce by mitosis and meiosis.

 

Did you know there are two types of prokaryote cells? They are bacteria and archaea. The archaea is a bacteria that constitute a domain or a kingdom of single bacteria called microorganisms. Bacteria is a microorganism unicellular prokaryote that can cause sicknesses. Also there is the eukaryote cell, which divides into four, which are: animal, plant, fungi and protist. Some examples of fungi are mushrooms. An example of protist is amoeba.

 

The majority of cells are actually prokaryotic cells. The prokaryotes just have ten organelles, which are: nucleoid, ribosomes, plasmid, cytoplasm, cell wall, flagellum, plasma membrane, which is responsible for controlling what gets in and out of the cell, mostly it give access to the proteins. The last one is genetic material. Eukaryotes have around 20 organelles. Some of the most important organelles are: nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasm, ribosomes, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and vacuole.

 

Did you know there are organisms living and duplicating inside your body right now? Do you know how this happens? Well, we will start with the eukaryotes reproduction. First, the cell takes in nutrients, grows and duplicates its chromosomes. Then the nucleus divides and the divided nuclei are stablished in different cells. The reproduction process of the prokaryotes starts when the chromosomes in the middle of the cell divides and the chromosomes go to the opposite sides of the cell. The plasma membrane in the middle of both chromosomes closes and two new cells form.

PROKARYOTE &  EUKARYOTE CELLS 

 

Can you imagine a world without oxygen? That would be a world without photosynthesis. Probably you know what photosynthesis is, but maybe you do not know what chloroplast is. Chloroplast is an organelle that you can only find in plant cells.

 

Chloroplast is the food producer and powerhouse of the cell. Chloroplast is also the organelle that does photosynthesis by absorbing sunlight and combining it with carbon dioxide and water, in order to create sugar, which is the plants food.

 

Inside chloroplast there are some stacks of thylakoids, which are the ones that help absorb sunlight, in order to help photosynthesis. This stacks are called grana or stoma, which is a dense fluid inside the chloroplast. The thylakoids contain the chlorophyll that is necessary for the plants in order to go through photosynthesis. Chloroplast also has an inner and outer membrane with an empty intermediate space in between.

 

Chloroplast is one of many unique organelles, they are considered to have originated as cyanobacteria. Both organelles are covered by a double cell membrane, they have their own DNA, and are involved in energy. As well as chloroplast it can make sugar, they are also very important in making other essential liquids such as fats, oils, scents, and proteins.

 

Maybe you are asking why animal cells do not have chloroplast. It is really simple, it is because animals have evolved in a different way. Plants are costumed to do their own food but animals have to search for it.

 

Finally chloroplast t is very important because it helps in many processes and it also creates the food for the plants. If chloroplast did not exist probably plants will neither exist, which means that we could die because plants give us oxygen and we need oxygen in order to survive. This is another reason for taking care of the plants and of nature.

 

CHLOROPLAST

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/prokar.html

http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/eukaryotic-cells-14023963

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/CellularRespiration.html

http://global.britannica.com/science/organic-compound

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/inorganic+compound

https://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html

http://www.rsc.org/Education/Teachers/Resources/cfb/Photosynthesis.htm

http://www.dnai.org/

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/basics/dna

http://www.genetics.org/

http://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/What-is-Genetics.aspx

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