The Cell Organelles




Ingrid Jetlund

The Cell consists of Cytoplasm and it is covered in a Cell Membrane. The Cell Membrane separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The Cytoplasm is everything within the living cell, except the Nucleus.

The Cell

The Nucleus contains the cell's DNA, and it is often located near the center of the cell and it also controls the cell's growth and reproduction. 

The Nucleus

The Cell Nucleus is covered by a double membrane, called a Nuclear Envelope. This envelope helps maintain the shape of the nucleus.

Molecules travel in and out of the Nucleus through the Nuclear pores, and the Nuclear Envelope helps assist the flow of molecules.

Nuclear envelope & Nuclear pores


Ribosomes are the protein builders in a cell. A cell makes proteins, because enzymes made up of protein help speed up biological processes.

They can be found in several places inside the cell, like attached to the Nuclear Envelope or the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

Some Ribosomes are found on the Endoplasmic Reticulum. When the Endoplasmic Reticulum has Ribosomes attatched to them, they are called ER. The ER functions as a manufacturing and packaging system. It is a network of membranes, and the membranes are different from cell to cell.


Endoplasmic Reticulum can be found in most cells, but are absent in red blood cells.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

A Vesicle is a small, membrane-bound sac that transports substances in cells. Certain proteins can also be enclosed in vesicles.


The Golgi Apparatus is a packaging organelle. Simple molecules are collected in the Golgi Apparatus and made into more complex molecules. Then they are stored in vesicles and then stored away or used in the cell.

The Lysosomes digest things and stores enzymes in the cell. A lysosome is proteins created in the ER, which is then sent to the Golgi Apparatus to packed into a digestive enzyme. A small, specific vesicle is cut off and that vesicle is a lysosome.


Packaging and Distribution of Proteins

Mitochondria are organelles that act like a digestive systems. It can take in nutrients, break them down and create energy for the cell. Many of the reactions that occur within the cell, occur in the mitochondria. They are small organelles floating around in the cell, and they are perfectly shaped, made out of two membranes.

Different cells has different amounts of mitochondria, some have hardly any and some has hundreds.


Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondria is different from the other organelles in the cell because it has its own DNA. Most of the cell's DNA is found in the Nucleus, but the Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA found in the Mitochondria.

Structures of Plant Cells

A plant cell and an animal cell has the same structure, except for 3 extra organelles that the plant cells has.

A Cell Wall is a structural layer outside the cell membrane, and it provides extra protection for the cell.

Chloroplasts' main role in a plant cell is to conduct photosynthesis, which is why is it is only found in plant cells.

The Central Vacuole helps in plant growth, and plays an important role in the plant structure.