Seccession Event And Causes to the Civil War
General Major Robert Anderson
After the sessession crisis that followed Lincolns election in November 1860, many threats were made to the forts thatwere occupied in the south. Major Robert Anderson leader of the Union forces moved his men from Fort Moultrie to a more secured island, Fort Sumter. The Confederate soon surrounded Fort Sumter, wanting the Union troops out. Considering the fact that Major Robert Anderson and his soldiers were running out of food, fuel, and needed supplies, the Confederacy was hoping that they would leave without a fight. However, Anderson refused to leave, hoping that the supply ship that Lincoln sent would get to the fort. Losing patience Confederate General Beauregard sent a message to Mjor Anderson saying that he would fire in one hour if he did not surrender. Anderson didnt' surrender, and the firing began. Fort Sumter was soon surrounded by all sides, firing left and right, eventually causing the union troops to surrender
The South's secedment from the Union is what caused the first battle of the American Civil War.
Charleston, South Carolina
Battle of Second Bull Run
In August 1862, Union and Confederate soldiers once again met on the same battlefield. The second Battle of Bull run had the highest casualties than any battle fought throughout the Civil War, it was a gruesome battle that cost many lives. In early August, McClellan was ordered to send his troops to Northern Virginia, where they would unite with Pope’s army and create an overwhelming force that could crush Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Recognizing the danger Lee decided to attack before the two Union troops were able to combine against him. Lee split his forces and ordered General Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson to march around Pope’s right flank, and Gen. James Longstreet, would stay at Pope’s front. The battle occurred when Jackson attacked a Union column marching along the Warrenton Pike near Gainesville, Virginia. Pope saw the outcome of the first day as a Union victory and believed Jackson was retreating. He then launched an assault on Jackson's troops for the 29th. By the end of the night, Pope still believed the Confederates were in a state of retreat and ordered a massive offensive for the 30th. The next day Pope launched his attack which was immediately defended, and sent the entire left flank of the Union forces back to Bull Run Creek. Because of exhaustion and darkness, the Confederates did not pursue, and although Pope had lost the battle, his army was not totally destroyed.
The Second Battle of Bull Run gave the Confederate army a chance to march into the north for a battle in northern territory and Soldiers were more experienced than the first Bull Run.
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville show cases General Robert E. Lee battle skills at their most spectacular. Unhappy with the results from the war President Lincoln keeps changing the Generals, in hope that one will make a difference. Lincoln replaces General Ambrose E. Burnside with General Joseph Hooker. Hooker attacks Lee’s troops in an area called the wilderness, badly outnumbered General Robert E. Lee still advances through with the battle. He splits his army into many pieces and sends Stonewall Jackson and 14,000 men on a wide left hook. Once there Jackson attacks Hooker's army almost destroying it, until he accidentally got shot in the arm by some of his own troop members. This resulted in his arm to be amputated, and caused his death a week later. Fortunately for Hooker he manages to keep his army from destruction and leaves the area. Even though Confederate Army had won the battle, they were considerably weakened. They lost 13,000 of their 60,000 men, and they had also lost one of their best generals due to an accidental shot by his own men.
After the battle of Fredericksburg, Joseph hooker rebuilt his army early May 1863 and launched a campaign against lee. This battle was considered by many historians to be Lee’s greatest victory. At the same time, the South lost one of its greatest strategic minds with the death of Stonewall Jackson.
On May 18, 1863, Grant's army approached Vicksburg. The confederate army was stationed behind the defenses of the city, making it nearly impossible to defeat. Grants first idea was to just break through the city by overwhelming them with his superior numbers. Unfortunately for him his plan failed, many of his soldiers lost their lives, and the Confederates still had the advantage. Grants next plan was to just bomb the city over and over again until they ran out of food, which would lead them to eventually surrender. The Confederate indeed run out of food. There conditions got worse and worse as time went on. The began to eat anything that was available including cats, dogs, and horses. Once those ran out they started eating rats and tree bark. Due to malnutrition, many of the soldiers became sick from diseases like scurvy, dysentery, and malaria. To make things worse for the people who were living in the city, they had to hide day and night in their basements or dug out caves in the hills. On July 4, 1863, the Confederates had had enough. General Pemberton surrendered to Grant.
The Siege of Vicksburg was a great victory for the Union. It gave control of the Mississippi River to the Union.
3,300 deaths with nearly 30,000 captured
General John C. Pemberton
Surrender at Appomattox & Terms of Surrender
On April 9, 1865 General Robert E. Lee and his troops surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in a small Virginia Village called Appomattox Court House.
On August 20, 1866 President Andrew Johnson signed a document stating that the American Civil War was over and all of America was at peace.
In addition food was granted for the starving army and permission was granted allowing soldiers to keep their own horses and mules for use in the spring planting.
To abide by the laws of their individual states.
To observe the conditions of their parole, not to take up arms against the government.
To surrender their arms and artillery (not including the swords of officers)
To return to their respective homes.
Born: April 27, 1822 Died: July 23, 1885
Spouse: Julia Grant (m. 1848–1885)
Ulysses Grant was a Union general who commanded the victorious Union army during the American Civil War (1861-1865) and served as the 18th U.S. president from 1869 to 1877. Ulysses S. Grant is most known for being the lead general of the Union troops during the American Civil War. His fame as a war hero propelled him into the White House where his presidency was full of scandals.
Growing up in Ohio he was the son of a tanner who did not want to follow the same footsteps as his father. Knowing this Grant's father suggested that he attend the U.S Military Academy at West Point. Not really liking the idea of becoming a soldier, he decided against it, until he realized that this was his chance at a college education, reconsidered his decision he decided to attend at West Point. After his graduation from West Point he became an officer in the army, which led him to the result in drinking because of the long periods of times he was away from his wife and family. Deciding to return home, he opens up a general store, to support his family.
Grant re-enters the military, due to the start of the Civil War. He started in the Illinois Militia, and soon proceeded up the ranks in the army to general. In 1862 Grant produced his first victorious battle at the capture of Fort Donelson in Tennessee. He became known as Unconditional Surrender(U.S) Grant when he told the Confederate commanders “No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender.”
Becoming a famous war hero in 1864 President Lincoln made him General -in-Chief of the entire Union army. Being the General of the entire Union Army, Grants first step was to lead his army up against Robert E. Lee in Virginia. Battling over a year, Grant eventually defeated both Lee and the Confederate Army. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House, in Virginia on April 9, 1865. Grant received word from Lincoln containing the terms of surrender, which were very generous, one included all the Confederate troops to return home after surrendering their weapons.
After the Civil War Grant's popularity soared causing him to win the presidential election in 1868. Grant served two terms as president and even ran for third, which resulted in a loss. Unfortunately, his presidency was marked by a series of scandals. Many people in his administration stole from the government, and caused many problems. Regardless of all the scandals, Grant was still able to produce several positive accomplishments. One included Grant fighting for civil rights for both Africans and Native Americans. He pushed for the passage of the 15th Amendment, giving the right of all men to vote regardless of race, color, or whether they were a former slave. He also signed a bill that allowed people of African Descent to become U.S. citizens.
The result of him not winning a third election brought him and his wife to tour the world for over two years. Once returning from his trip he once again decided to run for president in 1880, which resulted in another loss.
Unfortunately for Grant he died of throat cancer in 1855, many say that this was probably due to the result of him smoking several cigars majority of his life.
In both the North and South, civilians and soldiers suffered terrible hardships and faced new challenges during the war. The Lives of Soldiers in the war were not glorious. As seen from the several letters that were wrote to each of the soldier's family. They described their boredom, discomfort, sickness, fear and horror. At first there were many enthusiastic civilians who volunteered for the armies, but as the war progressed many were soon forced to join, and the stories of a soldier, were not as joyful as everyone thought. Camps is where soldiers lived. Life there had its pleasant moments of baseball games, songs stories, and letters to their family. Camp life was also dull, it had a routine of drills, bad food, marches, and was full of rain. Both sides of the army were full of losses, the advancement of technology in the rifles that they used caused more death because of better accuracy. The result of thousands of casualties in each battle led to the medical facilities to be overwhelmed. Many soldiers would die because of they were not able to be treated in time. Faced with many horrors, soldiers from both sides would run run away because of fear, hunger, or sickness.
Many Northern and Southern women took on new responsibilities during the war. Women in both the North and South played different roles at home while their husbands, fathers, sons, and brothers were at war. Some became teachers, office workers, and managed their farms. Others performed many jobs that helped the soldiers in the armies. They rolled bandages, wove blankets, and made ammunition. Additional to that women also collected food, clothing, and medicine to distribute to the troops, and raised money for supplies. Aside from all the handy work that women were in charge of some served as spies. Harriet Tubman and Rose O’Neal Greenhow spied for the North, unfortunately for Greenhow she was caught and exiled to the South. Another spy was Belle Boyd, she informed Confederate generals of Union army movements in the Shenandoah Valley. Those who did not want to stand back and watch what was going, disguised themselves as men and became soldiers. Loreta Janeta Velazquez was a woman who is an example of this, she repeatedly fought for the South at the First battle of Bull run and at Shiloh.
At first African Americans were not allowed to fight along with the North during the Civil War. President Lincoln was afraid that the border states would secede if he allowed former slaves to fight. As the war proceeded, more recruits were needed and President Lincoln was left with no other choice but to let them fight. In early 1863, the Union decided to officially allow African-Americans to join the army. Considering the fact that the South wanted slavery to continue, it was very dangerous for a black man to be fighting in the war. If captured by the Confederates while fighting for the Union, they were executed or sold back into slavery. At the end of the war, around 180,000 African-Americans had fought in the war making a major difference and helping the North to victory.
African Americans During the Civil War
Life During The Civil War
Some children actually served in the army as soldiers, while others witnessed the horror of war from afar. Many children had to grow up quickly, taking on new responsibilities at home or on the warfront. As a result thousands of young boys between the ages of 13 and 17 fought in the Civil War. Many of these boys were killed or wounded in battle. The most famous of the boy soldiers during the Civil War was Johnny Clem. He tried to join the army at the age of 9, but was rejected because of his size and height. Not giving up he became the drummer boy at age 13. He continued as a soldier, then after the war he rose to the rank of Brigadier General. Some children served in the army camps. They would help wash dishes, fix meals, and set up the camp when it moved.