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psychology topics

By. curtis weston

Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like increased blood pressure.

People with anxiety disorders usually have recurring intrusive thoughts or concerns. They may avoid certain situations out of worry. They may also have physical symptoms such as sweating, trembling, dizziness or a rapid heartbeat.

 

Research on Anxiety

  • Anniversary dates of traumatic events can reactivate thoughts and feelings from the actual event, and survivors may experience peaks of anxiety and depression.

  • Panic disorder is highly treatable, with a variety of extremely effective therapies. Once treated, panic disorder doesn't lead to any permanent complications.

 

Getting Help

  • A web resource center for behavioral science-based information on children, youth and families developed by leaders of seven divisions of the American Psychological Association.

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Depression is more than just sadness. People with depression may experience a lack of interest and pleasure in daily activities, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or excessive sleeping, lack of energy, inability to concentrate, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

Depression is the most common mental disorder. Fortunately, depression is treatable. A combination of therapy and antidepressant medication can help ensure recovery

 

What You Can Do

  • Social isolation increases the risk of depression. But it turns out that spending too much time discussing problems with friends could actually increase depression as well.

  • Exercise is an effective, cost-effective treatment for depression and may help in the treatment of other mental disorders.

Getting Help

  • Depression is a real illness and carries with it a high cost in terms of relationship problems, family suffering and lost work productivity. Yet, depression is a highly treatable illness, with psychotherapy, coping and cognitive-behavioral techniques, and medication.

 

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  • Depression

Eating disorders

Eating disorders are abnormal eating habits that can threaten your health or even your life. They include:

  • Anorexia nervosa: Individuals believe they’re fat even when they’re dangerously thin and restrict their eating to the point of starvation.     

  • Bulimia nervosa: Individuals eat excessive amounts of food, then purge by making themselves vomit or using laxatives.  

  • Binge eating: Individuals have out-of-control eating patterns, but don’t purge. 

 

Learn About Eating Disorders

  • Almost everyone worries about their weight occasionally. People with eating disorders take such concerns to extremes. Learn more about eating disorders and how psychologists treat them.

Getting Help

  • Therapy can help restore a healthy attitude toward eating.

  • Experts agree that binge eating treatment must tackle the obesity that comes with binge eating and the psychological problems that underlie the disorder. But they’re still debating which aspect to treat first.

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Bullying

Bullying is a form of aggressive behavior in which someone intentionally and repeatedly causes another person injury or discomfort. Bullying can take the form of physical contact, words or more subtle actions.

The bullied individual typically has trouble defending him or herself and does nothing to “cause” the bullying.

What You Can Do

  • Learn what cyberbullying is, its impact and what you can do if the victim is you or your child.

  • Kids aren't the only bullies. Bullying also occurs in the workplace. Learn more about the strategies employers are using to put a stop to this destructive practice.

  • Questions for bullying expert Susan Swearer, PhD

  • APA recommends that teachers, parents and students can take certain actions to address bullying.

Getting Help

  • Systematic international research has shown school bullying to be a frequent and serious public health problem. But psychologists are using this research to develop bullying prevention programs that are being implemented in schools around the world.

  • A web resource center for behavioral science-based information on children, youth and families developed by leaders of seven divisions of the American Psychological Association.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness in which common emotions become intensely and often unpredictably magnified. Individuals with bipolar disorder can quickly swing from extremes of happiness, energy and clarity to sadness, fatigue and confusion. These shifts can be so devastating that individuals may choose suicide.

All people with bipolar disorder have manic episodes — abnormally elevated or irritable moods that last at least a week and impair functioning. But not all become depressed. 

 

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