simplebooklet thumbnail

Cell Growth and Division
Cell Growth and Division
Prokaryotic organisms bacteria Cell grows to double its size DNA is doubled Divide using binary fission split in two Cell wall pinches in to form to new cells Product 2 genetically identical daughter cells formed after cytokinesis
      Prokaryotic organisms  bacteria        Cell grows to double its size      DNA is doubled      Divide using binary fi...
Simple and short because bacteria have a small genome genome all of the genetic material of an organism No organelles to copy Can happen under many conditions
     Simple  and short because bacteria have a small genome      genome  all of the genetic material of an  organism      ...
Larger than prokaryotic cells Contains organelles Has a much larger genome Genes organized into chromosomes Each chromosome is made of chromatin relaxed form where strands of DNA are wound around proteins Humans have approximately 30 000 genes
                Larger than prokaryotic cells Contains organelles Has a much larger genome Genes organized into chromosome...
Each species has its own of chromosomes Somatic cells body cells are diploid 2N meaning these have a full set of chromosomes Gametes sex cells are haploid 1N meaning these have 1 2 a set of chromosomes
     Each  species has its own   of chromosomes       Somatic cells  body cells  are diploid  2N  meaning these have a ful...
1 pair of chromosomes Chromatid another name for a single chromosome Somatic cells 46 Exist in 23 matched pairs 1 set of 23 from each parent Gametes Sex cells 23
1 pair of chromosomes  Chromatid  another name for a single chromosome        Somatic cells   46      Exist in 23 matched ...
Duplicated Chromosome 2 sister chromatids Centromere holds 2 sister chromatids together Breakdown of chromosome structure chromatin DNA double helix
Duplicated Chromosome  2 sister chromatids   Centromere  holds 2 sister chromatids together  Breakdown of chromosome struc...
Broken into 2 parts Interphase 90 of the cell cycle preparation for cell division M phase 10 of the cell cycle includes mitosis and cytokinesis
Broken into 2 parts  Interphase  90  of the cell cycle        preparation for cell division  M phase  10  of the cell cycl...
G2 Phase M Phase G1 Phase G1 phase 1st growth phase cell increases in size and volume S phase DNA is copied all chromosomes now have identical twins Genome is in the form of chromatin not organized relaxed DNA protein S phase G2 phase 2nd growth phase which creates more room for the extra chromosomes by increasing cytoplasm volume
G2 Phase  M Phase  G1 Phase         G1 phase  1st growth phase cell increases in size and volume        S phase  DNA is co...
Definition nuclear cell division resulting in 2 identical daughter cells genetic equivalent of the parent Broken into 5 phases Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase and Telophase Remember PPMAT
Definition  nuclear cell division resulting in 2 identical daughter cells  genetic equivalent of the parent . Broken into ...
Nucleoli disappear Chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes sister chromatids join at a centromere each 1 2 of the X contains identical copies of DNA Mitotic spindle begins to form between the centrosomes Made of microtubule structures called spindle fibers Additional microtubule structures called centrioles begin to migrate
      Nucleoli disappear       Chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes       sister chromatids join at a centromere  ...
Nuclear membrane disintegrates which allows the microtubules to interact with the chromosomes Spindle fibers attach to KINETOCHORES located on the centromere of the chromosome Spindle fibers begin to move the pairs of sister chromatids within the cell organize
      Nuclear membrane disintegrates  which allows the microtubules to interact with the chromosomes       Spindle fibers ...
Chromosomes move toward the metaphase plate the equator of the cell Centrioles are positioned at opposite sides of the cell Kinetochores fibers move and hold the pairs of sister chromatids in place Metaphase is one of the shortest stages but ensures new cells have accurate copies of chromosomes
      Chromosomes move toward the metaphase plate     the equator of the cell       Centrioles are positioned at opposite ...
Sister chromatids split and move toward poles of the cell Chromosomes form a V shape because the kinetochore fibers are attached to the middle of the chromosome Kinetochore microtubules shorten as chromosomes get closer to the poles
      Sister chromatids split and move toward poles of the cell       Chromosomes form a    V    shape because the kinetoc...
Nonkinetochore microtubules help to further elongate the cell Daughter nuclei begin to form at the two poles Nuclear envelopes form around the chromosomes and nucleoli reappear happens on both sides creating 2 new cells Chromosomes become relaxed again into chromatin
      Nonkinetochore microtubules help to further elongate the cell       Daughter nuclei begin to form at the two poles  ...
Animal Cells Performed as cleavage Cleavage furrow is formed near metaphase plate Mitotic spindle breaks and cells completely separate
Animal Cells       Performed as cleavage       Cleavage furrow is formed near metaphase plate       Mitotic spindle breaks...
Plant Cells A cell plate forms along midline Vesicles like vacuoles line up in the center to create a new cell wall Cellulose is deposited between vesicle membranes to form a new cell wall each new cell is smaller than the original cell
Plant Cells       A cell plate forms along midline       Vesicles  like vacuoles  line up in the center to create a new ce...
46 46 92 Interphase Mitosis PPMAT and cytokinesis 46 Product 2 identical daughter cells same of chromosomes as original cell
46 46  92 Interphase  Mitosis  PPMAT and cytokinesis 46  Product  2 identical daughter cells  same   of chromosomes as ori...
Prokaryotic Cells Binary fission Eukaryotic Cells Cell cycle Produces 2 identical daughter cells Interphase preparation for division G1 S G2 phases Process short and simple Mitosis Prophase prometaphase metaphase anaphase telophase Cytokinesis splitting the cytoplasm and the cell
Prokaryotic Cells       Binary fission  Eukaryotic Cells       Cell cycle        Produces 2 identical daughter cells      ...