Oscarcell & Friends

Hi! I'm Oscarcell. These are my friends Cecellia, Photosarah, and Respiria! They all have special jobs that help cells just like me!

"The cell cycle has 5 main steps called growth one, synthesis, growth two, mitosis, and cytokinesis," Cecellia continues. "Let's find out more about each step!"

The Cell Cycle

"Hi! I am Cecellia and I will be explaining my process called the cell cycle. The cell cycle takes place in eukaryotic cells and lasts for approximately 20-24 hours," Cecellia says.

Growth One

cell growth

"The first step in the cell cycle is called growth one. Growth one lasts for about 40% of the cell cycle! During this step, the cell grows in size. The proteins and organelles also increase," says Cecellia. 

"The second step in the cell cycle is called synthesis, which lasts for about 45% of the cycle. During this stage, DNA is replicated. All chromosomes will now have two sister chromotids," Cecellia explains.


"The third step in the cell cycle is called growth two, which lasts for 9% of the cycle," Cecellia says. "This stage is similar to growth one, however during this stage, the DNA is checked for correct replication," Cecellia explains.

Growth Two

Checkpoint clear!

DNA replication successful.

Cell growth two

"During the fourth stage of the cell cycle, called mitosis," Cecellia explains, "cell growth is stopped and 2 daughter cells are created and prepare for division."



"The final step in the cell cycle is called cytokinesis! This is when the cytoplasm divides and two daughter cells are created and seperate," Cecellia says.

"Often times," says Cecellia, "mitosis and cytokinesis are referred to as one step called cell division. Cell division lasts for about 6% of the cell cycle."

Cell Division

"Factors such as radiation can cause the cell cycle to slow down. Radiation can cause mutations, which is another factor that causes the rate of this cycle to decrease. Because there are mutations, the checkpoint in growth two will not be passed, therefore the cell can not carry on with the cell cycle," Cecellia answers.

"We know that the average rate for the cell cycle to be completed is between 20 and 24 hours. What can slow this cycle down? What can speed this cycle up?" Cecellia asks.

Factors on the Cell Cycle

"Now that Cecellia has explained the cell cycle," says Oscarcell, "Let's learn about photosynthesis and cellular respiration from our friends Photosarah and Respiria!"

Photosarah (photosynthesis)


Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Respiria (cellular respiration)

"For photosynthesis to occur, we need 3 main reactants. These reactants are sunlight, H2O, and CO2," Photosarah explains.

Reactants of Photosynthesis

"Hi! I am Photosarah and I will be explaining the process of photosynthesis!" she says.


"The products of photosynthesis are oxygen (O2) and glucose (C6H12O6)," Photosarah explains.

Products of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis Formula

"The color of the light a plant is exposed to can also affect the rate of photosynthesis," Photosarah says. "This is a factor of photosynthesis because chloroplasts absorb different colored lights differently because of the differing wavelengths of the colors."

"What can affect the rate of photosynthesis?" Photosarah asks. "Let's find out!"

Factors of Photosynthesis

"The amount of light a plant is exposed to can affect the rate of photosynthesis. The darker the environment a plant is in, the less energy it is provided, in turn decreasing the rate of photosynthesis. If a plant is in a bright environment, the rate of photosynthesis will be increased," Photosarah explains.


Aerobic = uses oxygen

Anaerobic = does not use oxygen

"There are two types of cellular respiration. The first type starts in the cytoplasm and is an anaerobic process. The second type is an aerobic process that releases large amounts of ATP and takes place in the mitochondria," Respiria says.

Types of Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

"Hi! I am Respiria. I will be explaining my process called cellular respiration," she says. "Cellular respiration is a process where cells break down food molecules (sugar) and release the energy they contain."

"The reactants of cellular respiration are glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2)," Respiria says.

Reactants of Cellular Respiration

Products of Cellular Respiration

"The products of cellular respiration are ATP, H2O, and CO2," Respiria tells us.

Cellular Respiration Formula

"The age of cells can also affect the rate of cellular respiration," Respiria says. "New cells that are beginning to develop have higher respiration rates vs. older cells."

"What factors can affect the rate of cellular respiration?" Respiria asks. "Let's find out!"

Factors of Cellular Respiration

"While working out," Respiria explains, "cellular respiration can not occur at an efficient rate due to the lack of oxygen, causing lactic acid to build up and make your muscles tired. This slows the rate the cellular respiration drastically."


Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

"Now that we have learned the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration, let's learn how they are related!" says Oscarcell.

"By looking at the formulas for each process," explains Oscarcell, "you can see that Photosarah's and Respiria's processes are opposites of each other!" 


Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration


cellular respiration

"Now we know both the process of the cell cycle and the process of cellular respiration, but how are they related?" Oscarcell asks.

Cell Cycle and Cellular Respiration

"Therefore, the energy produced in cellular respiration is used to power the cell cycle!" says Oscarcell.

"My process, the cell cycle, can not take place without energy!" says Cecellia.

"My process, cellular respiration, produces ATP energy!" says Respiria.

Cell Cycle, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration

"Now we can understand how the cell cycle, photosynthesis, and cellular respiration all relate to each other!" says Oscarcell.

The end!

"Thank you for joining my friends and I to learn about our special cellular processes. See you next time!" says Oscarcell.