ROBERT SALA RAMOS EDITOR EUDALD CARBONELL JOS MAR A BERM DEZ DE CASTRO JUAN LUIS ARSUAGA COORDINATORS PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD BURGOS 2014
ROBERT SALA RAMOS  EDITOR   EUDALD CARBONELL JOS   MAR  A BERM  DEZ DE CASTRO JUAN LUIS ARSUAGA  COORDINATORS   PLEISTOCEN...
Assistant Editors Mar a Gema Chac n Navarro Marcos Terradillos Bernal Am lia Bargall Ferrerons Cristina Vega Maeso Any reproduction distribution public communication or transformation of this book can only be done with the permission of its authors with the exceptions permitted by law Please contact CEDRO Centro Espa ol de Derechos Reprogr cos www cedro org if you need to photocopy or scan any part of this book Published thanks to Junta de Castilla y Le n through Fundaci n Siglo para las Artes y el Turismo de Castilla y Le n Photos from the covert 1 Handaxe from Galer a 2 Skull 5 from Sima de los Huesos 3 and 4 Detail of Gran Dolina TD10 1 5 Jaw of ursus dolinensis from Gran Dolina TD5 6 Cutmarks from Gran Dolina 7 Point from Sima del Elefante upper levels 8 Aerial view from Trinchera del Ferrocarril and 9 Laboratory of microfauna Arlanz n river photos IPHES Texts The authors and the Fundaci n Atapuerca Images The creators and the Fundaci n Atapuerca Current Edition The Fundaci n Atapuerca and the Universidad de Burgos Publisher UNIVERSIDAD DE BURGOS SERVICIO DE PUBLICACIONES E IMAGEN INSTITUCIONAL Edi cio de Administraci n y Servicios C Don Juan de Austria n 1 09001 BURGOS SPAIN FUNDACI N ATAPUERCA Carretera de Logro o n 44 09198 Ibeas de Juarros Burgos ISBN 978 84 92681 87 7 Printed Edition 978 84 92681 88 4 e book Legal Deposit BU 206 2014 Photocomposition Rico Adrados S L Burgos Print Rico Adrados S L Burgos
Assistant Editors  Mar  a Gema Chac  n Navarro Marcos Terradillos Bernal Am  lia Bargall   Ferrerons Cristina Vega Maeso  ...
5 CONTENTS Contents PREFACE 9 MAJOR PHYSIOGRAPHIC GEOGRAPHIC AND ECOLOGICAL REGIONS 15 18 Monforte de Lemos ensemble 26 Valdavara 31 Cantabrian mountains and coastline 35 Cueva de Aitzbitarte III and IV 37 Antoli ako Koba 41 Axlor 45 Los Azules 49 Cabo Busto 52 El Castillo 55 Cueva de la G elga 60 Cueva de Las Caldas 64 Cueva Mor n 72 Ekain 78 Cueva del Esquilleu 82 El Pendo 87 Cueva de la Riera 92 La Vi a 95 Labeko Koba 99 Lezetxiki 105 Cueva del Mir n 110 Santimami e 114 El Sidr n 122 Sope a 3 13 Cova Eir s 2 North western Atlantic basins As G ndaras de Budi o 1 129 Ebro Valley Pyrenees and Pre Pyrenees 133 Abauntz 135
5  CONTENTS  Contents  PREFACE ..............................................................................................
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 6 Arrillor 141 Atxoste 148 Cova del Parco 152 Roca dels Bous 159 Cova Gran de Santa Linya 162 Cova de l Estret de Trag 167 Fuente del Trucho 171 Fuentes de San Crist bal 179 Gabasa 181 Kanpanoste Goikoa 188 Forcas 192 Nerets Cova de les Llenes 196 Martinarri 200 Mendandia 208 Mediterranean basins North of the Ebro River 219 Abric Roman 4 204 Montsant valley ensemble 221 La Cansaladeta 236 Cinglera del Capell 238 Reclau Viver ensemble 246 St Juli de Ramis Pleistocene ensemble 256 Middle Pleistocene ensemble Montgr La Selva and Puig d en Roca Puig d en Roca Cau del Duc de Torroella de Montgr La Selva Cau del Duc d Ull Can Garriga Pedra Dreta Can Rubau and La Jueria 260 Cova de l Arbreda 266 Cova del Gegant 276 Cova del Rinoceront 281 Els Vinyets 284 Barranc de la Boella 287 Mol del Salt 295 Cova de les Teixoneres cova del Toll 302 Vallparad s 5 232 La Cativera 308 Mediterranean basins Centre 317 Abric de El Pastor 319 Cova del Bolomor 323 Casa Corona 331 El Collado 338 Cova Beneito 345 Coves Santa Maira 353 Cova Forad 356
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  6  Arrill...
CONTENTS Cova Negra Cueva de la Cocina 370 La Cueva Negra del Estrecho del R o Qu par 372 El Salt 380 Cova de les Cendres 388 Cova de les Malladetes 395 Cova Matutano 399 Cova del Parpall 402 La Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo 410 Tossal de la Font La Cova de Dalt La Cova de Baix 413 Tossal de la Roca 417 Southern Mediterranean coast Guadalquivir River and Betic intramontane basins 421 El Aculadero 423 Ardales 426 Bajondillo 430 Cueva de Ambrosio 435 Cueva de Nerja 442 Cueva and abrigo del ngel 451 Cueva del Boquete de Zafarraya 6 361 463 Guadix Baza basin and Orce ensemble Orce Venta Micena Barrranco Leon Fuente Nueva 3 Huescar 1 Cullar Baza 1 Solana de Zamborino Cueva Hora Las Grajas de Archidona 497 Strait of Gibraltar 501 Abrigo de Benz 503 Gibraltar Gorham and Vanguard caves 8 494 El Pirulejo 7 474 506 Central plateau 515 Ambrona and Torralba 517 Cuesta de la Bajada 528 Jarama VI 531 Atapuerca ensemble Gran Dolina Galer a Sima del elefante Sima de los Huesos Portal n and Cueva de El Mirador 534 Manzanares and Jarama San Isidro Las Delicias Orcasitas Transfesa Prepesa ridos Valdocarros El Ca averal Los Ahijones and Los Berrocales 561 La Pe a de Estebanvela 568 Pinedo 574 Pinilla Camino Cave Navalma llo Rockshelter Buena Pinta Cave Ocelado Rockshelter Descubierta Cave 577 San Quirce 584 Cueva de Maltravieso Cueva de Santa Ana Cueva de El Conejar Vendimia and El Millar 587 7
CONTENTS  Cova Negra ........................................................................................................
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 8 Siega Verde 601 Valdegoba 608 Palaeolithic art in the north of Spain 611 Introduction 613 Altamira 615 Cueva de Altxerri 628 Cueva de Ekain 630 Santimami e 633 Cueva de Covalanas 634 La Garma 636 El Pendo 644 El Castillo 647 Las Chimeneas 651 La Pasiega 653 Las Monedas 656 Hornos de la Pe a 658 Chuf n 659 El Pindal 661 Llon n 663 La Covaciella 666 Tito Bustillo 667 La Lluera 672 Cueva de la Pe a de Candamo 674 10 Post Pleistocene art from the Iberian Levant 679 Roca dels Moros de El Cogull Abrigo de Perellada IV Abrigo de Cabra Feixeta Abrigos d Ermites en la Serra de la Pietat Conjunto d Ermites Cova Centelles Cova del Puntal Cingle de la Mola Remigia Cova Remigia Rac Gasparo Rac Molero Abrigos de la Joquera La Saltadora Abrigo d en Melia Abrigo del Cingle del Barran de l Espigolar Barranco de la Valltorta La Sarga Abrigo del Lucio Barranco Moreno Cueva de la Ara a El Abrigo de la Pareja Ca aica del Calar Fuente del Sabuco La Risca El Milano Cantos de la Visera en Monte Arab Cueva de los Grajos Estrechos de Santoge Lavaderos de Tello Pe n de la Tabla del Pochico Prado del Azogue Cueva de la Vieja Minateda Abrigo de los toros de las Bojadillas Solana de las Covachas Abrigo de los Oculados Cueva del T o Modesto Pe a del Escrito Selva Pascuala Abrigo de Selva Pascuala Marmalo Los Trepadores Tia Mona Tio Garroso Los Chaparros Cocinilla del Obispo Do a Clotilde Prado del Navazo Toros de la Losilla Ca ada de Marco Val del Cahrco del Agua Amarga Barranco Hondo Roca dels Moros de Calapat Calapat Chimiachas Piezarrodilla Cerrao I and I I Cabras blancas Prado de las Olivanas Muriecho Fariceu 681 9
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  8  Siega ...
preface
preface
PREFACE Our group has decided to update the information available about Spanish palaeohistory for the UISPP congress We thought that this international congress would be an ideal occasion to collate and publish two volumes on our remote history The rst volume looks at the rst palaeoccupations in the prehistoric record of the Iberian Peninsula As you know prehistory research is making spectacular progress thanks to eldwork lab work and also teamwork undertaken by archaeologists biologists geologists and botanists New theoretical proposals by experts in life earth and social sciences as well as modern methodologies and applied technologies are all helping to shape new insights into our history and thus build on our previous knowledge and interpretations Yet none of this can be done without hard data Despite this great panoply of disciplines it would be impossible to provide a consistent explanation of the eco social process of human evolution without archaeological excavations In this volume we wish to highlight above all the empirical data that allow we archaeologists and prehistorians to advance a posteriori interpretations of the structures and systems of past life This realisation of the need to update the information widely available about eldwork is what has led us to edit this volume about prehistory on the Iberian Peninsula particularly in Spain We want to present historians and also history buffs and all other human specimens with a thirst for knowledge with the facts that allow us to concoct the outlines needed to apply reverse engineering to reconstruct the palaeoecological evolution of our genus in a particular territorial context We want to present information about the evolution of the Homo genus and its environment which means that both the natural environment and the historic environment are the focus of this work An analysis of the current state of eldwork and initiatives at prehistoric sites makes an indis pensable contribution to a coherent understanding of the historic sequence of a territory It also allows us to bring this type of scienti c inquiry up to date and places us in a better position to understand the nature of the species through the records of the past In recent times the massive volume of results studied and published in specialist journals has made it necessary to draft sequential summaries in which all the data from all the research is accessible in a single monographic volume This facilitates the necessary socialization of the work of specialists in different periods of history Direct access to the current state of prehistoric archaeology either in print or digital format improves our ability to plan and discuss the past the present and to possess a grounding to build the future The cascade of empirical data contained in the collective effort of this rst volume is in our opinion of incalculable value it is the result of the work of the majority of the Spanish teams who are working in the eld and have helped to make the knowledge of this country s prehistory one of the most thorough and up to date in the world Bringing information about prehistoric archaeological work up to date in an orderly concise manner in order to avoid an intractable volume has led us to the concept and structure of this book We have arranged the sites on the basis of a regional grid which has allowed us to organize and synthesize our discourse and also avoid having to repeat maps and other graphic material which would make the text less palatable This is a reference work in which the reader can nd essential information about the archaeological sites which the editors believe are the most signi cant for our prehistory We apologize if this updated summary does not include every site currently in the process of investigation and publication Our intention has been to produce a signi cant 11
PREFACE  Our group has decided to update the information available about Spanish palaeohistory for the UISPP congress. We ...
12 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD up to date synthesis necessarily abbreviated of the current state of prehistory on the Iberian Peninsula We do not know if this has been achieved but whatever the case we still think the effort was necessary and our commitment has been to coordinate this work The articles on the sites all of them synthetic and systematized open a window onto the empirical reality of our archaeological knowledge and hence the true state of our knowledge avoiding interpretations on the basis of data and knowledge that has not been published and well checked This volume is thus an effort that we wish to share with all those who are interested in the study and the analysis of the past We also hope it will serve us to update our own work and make it more visible in other areas outside the strict realm of prehistory The transformation of the social sciences into the sciences of socialized knowledge is an evolutionary perspective of the way we understand the world Intervening in and in uencing the state of knowledge about the history of populations is a strategic decision that has shaped the powerfully empirical nature of this proposal When another synthesis is written the information will probably have changed but the underlying essence our interest in sharing what we know with our species will remain This has been our intention The reader has the last word EUDALD CARBONELL Vice president of Fundaci n Atapuerca Director of Institut Catal de Paleoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social
12  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  up to...
1 north western atlantic basins NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS 13
1  north-western atlantic basins  NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  13
Site Map numbering As G ndaras de Budi o 1 Cova Eir s 2 Monforte de Lemos ensemble 3 Valdara 4
Site  Map numbering  As G  ndaras de Budi  o  1  Cova Eir  s  2  Monforte de Lemos ensemble  3  Valdara  4
NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS Arturo de Lombera Hermida Xos Pedro Rodr guez The Paleolithic site of As G ndaras de Budi o O Porri o Pontevedra The Paleolithic site of As G ndaras de Budi o is located in O Porri o industrial park Pontevedra UTMX 531 407 UTMY 4 661 631 It is situated in the valley of the river Louro which runs through the southern sector of the Galician Meridiana Depression delimited on each side by the granite heights of Faro de Budi o to the east and Serra do Gali eiro to the west Discovered in 1961 by Henri Nonn in 1963 excavation and survey work began under the guidance of Dr Emiliano Aguirre 1964 At the same time as the excavation work was being carried out a geological and stratigraphic study of the site and of several coastal and continental deposits was conducted in order to correlate the geomorphology of Budi o with its regional context Butzer 1967 The archaeological excavations proved the existence of large accumulations of material identifying workshops areas and the presence of hearths According to D Echaide the lithic assemblages would correspond to the Acheulean Due to the methodological approach used in the excavations As G ndaras de Budi o becomes the emblematic site of Paleolithic research in Galicia However the association of the Acheulean lithic assemblages with the surprising carbon dating obtained from two carbon samples within the Upper Pleistocene and a priori con rmed through stratigraphic correlation of the levels of As G ndaras with the deposits from the southeast coast would make it one of the most controversial sites Aguirre and Butzer 1967 Given this problem in 1979 Julio M Vidal Encinas resumed excavation between 1980 and 1982 opening several trenches near the area ex cavated by Emiliano Aguirre and recovering many materials associated with uvial and colluvia formations similar to those identi ed previously Vidal 1982 Finally in 1991 rescue archaeological excavations were carried out under the guidance of Dolores Cerqueiro Land n Given the problematic and controversial chronological interpretation of this site many review papers have dealt with the stratigraphy and geomorphological context of As G ndaras de Budi o Ramil et al 1993 Gracia et al 2004 and of its lithic assemblages de Lombera et al 2011 M ndez 2007 2008 Synthesis papers based on the stratigraphic descriptions permit the different levels to be correlated and the sequence of the depositional processes observed at the As G ndaras de Budi o site to be reconstructed Ramil et al 1993 Initially the Louro basin was lled by various levels of arkoses and clays during the Upper Miocene Then the basin was captured by the dynamic of the Mi o in the Pleistocene forming the uvial level sequence T 67m T 56m T 33m T 24m and small lateral channels associated with the Louro valley level T 24m being the level related to the site uvial levels Following an episode of microfracturing and dismantling of the uvial deposits and clay baselevels the lower colluvium deposited formed by two units levels 6a and 6b The lithic industries classi ed as Acheulean are located in this deposit Following a second episode of erosion dismantling and dispersion of the lower colluvium sedimentation of the upper colluvium occurs now over the underlying colluvium over the source uvial levels over tertiary clay mate IPHES Institut Catal de Paleoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social C Marcel l Domingo s n Campus Sescelades Edi ci W3 Tarragona 43007 Area de Prehistoria Universitat Rovira i Virgili URV Av Catalunya 35 Tarragona 43002 Grupo de Estudos para a Prehistoria do Noroeste GEPN Dpto de Historia I Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Praza da Universidade 1 Santiago de Compostela 15782 15
NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  Arturo de Lombera-Hermida  ,  ,   , Xos   Pedro Rodr  guez  ,    The Paleolithic site of A...
16 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 Stratigraphy of the As G ndaras de Budi o site and possible stratigraphic correlations between the different levels rials This contains some industries as a result of disassembly of the lower levels vg Level 2 of Locus I Finally different paedogenesis phenomena occur on the upper colluvium levels Fig 1 The presence of lithic assemblages is constant throughout the sequence The uniformity of the technology of the assemblages recovered from the different levels and trenches was identi ed from the very start Adhering to the morphogenetic processes of the site the origin of the lithic materials must be related to Acheulean settlements only which are identi ed in the uvial sequences associated to T 24m However the materials associated to the upper colluvium showed certain volumetric and technological differences lower incidence of Large Cutting Tools LCT smaller format that added to its stratigraphic position led some authors to consider them as evidences of later settlements initially linked to the Mousterian vg Level 2 of Locus I Vidal 1982 Taphonomic reviews of colluvium levels show the existence of volumetric selection and mechanical alteration from rolling of the artefacts in the assemblages At the same time these assemblages show clear convergence at a technological level with those identi ed at the uvial levels de Lombera et al 2011 M ndez 2008 For this reason these small variations between the different sites must be understood as a consequence of the material resedimentation processes The lithic industry is de ned by usage of local and nearby resources the proportion of quartzite and quartz varying between the different sites 63 26 and 73 93 35 5 respectively Rock crystal appears to a lesser extent 3 2 0 7 related to quartz formations Quartz is an abundant resource in the Louro basin the source of good quality quartzite predominant in the assemblages is located on the terraces of the river Mi o 3 km to the south The assemblages are characterised by the dominance of knapping products generally small and medium sized 30 60 mm particularly the quartz items Regarding the knapping strategies the more expeditious types that performance longitudinal and bifacial reduction series especially in quartz predominate but with a signi cant presence of centripetal and discoidal cores and products whereas Levallois products are barely represented around 2 The opportunistic resource of bipolar knapping on quartz is also documented witnessed through various knapping products as well as large blocks interpreted as anvils The presence of handaxes and cleavers Fig 2 although consistent varies between the different sites The majority of the handaxes are made on ake with amygdaloidal morphologies evenly edges and silhouettes trimming mainly using a hammerstone There is a smaller representation of cleavers and picks Regarding light duty tools denticulate scrapers and notched tools stand out
16  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS Figure 2 Handaxes and cleavers recovered from the excavations of Emiliano Aguirre Fotograph Museo Municipal de Vigo Qui ones de Le n These assemblages show a clear difference as to the management of raw materials based on their knapping quality quartzite being used mainly for making LCT medium and large implements and in more complex knapping methods Quartz however becomes more important for small blanks and tools Although for the quartz tools all the phases of the cha ne op ratorie seem to be represented this is fragmented for the quartzite tools basically represented by akes cores in an advanced stage of reduction and LCT Conclusions The technical characteristics of the site of As G ndaras de Budi o place it within the peninsular Acheulean assemblages from the second half of the Middle Pleistocene In this respect the absolute dating obtained show the different morphogenetic processes of the Louro basin but not the age of the industries Its location in the Meridiana Depression gives it a strategic settlement within the mobility of the Atlantic Fa ade that also explain the large number of ndings and their wide distribution in the area 17
NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  Figure 2. Handaxes and cleavers recovered from the excavations of Emiliano Aguirre  Fotogr...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 18 Arturo de Lombera Hermida Xos Pedro Rodr guez Ram n F bregas Valcarce Cova Eir s archaeo palaeontological site Triacastela Lugo 1 Cova Eir s site Location and background The few limestone formations in north western Spain and the primary focus of research on river terraces and rock shelters have resulted in a small number of documented cave sites in this area amongst which Cova Eir s Eir s Cave ranks amongst the most important in palaeontological and archaeological terms The Cova Eir s site is located in a village Cancelo in the Triacastela municipality Lugo UTM X 646 855 UTM Y 4 736 428 The cave entrance is on the NNW slope of Monte Penedo in Serra do Ouribio 780 metres asl and 25 metres above a stream Arroyo de Bezcos The Cova Eir s karst system is part of the C ndana limestone Series formed during the Lower Cambrian The cave is 104 metres long with a mouth that currently measures 2 metres high by 3 5 metres wide The entrance narrows after the rst 7 metres into a 15 metre long neck followed by the cave s largest space the Main or Mammoth Hall 15 metres long 6 metres wide at the most and up to about 5 metres high The cave then continues inwards in a NNW direction in a series of three overlapping levels of galleries Grandal 1993 which are almost entirely clogged by clayey sediment interspersed with stalagmitic crusts or oors From the outset Cova Eir s became renowned as an outstanding palaeontological site due to the presence of bear remains In the late 1980s UDC conducted several digs in the middle and end sections of the cave 1988 1989 and 1991 which recovered approx 4 000 bones from at least 43 bears Grandal 1993 Based on these ndings Cova Eir s became one of the most important sites on the Iberian Peninsula for Ursus spelaeus remains AMS 14C analysis dated a bear bone at 24 090 440 BP Grandal and Vidal 1997 consistent with the dating of a stalagmitic crust below the fertile level in the nal gallery of the cave 25 233 5 027 BP U series Grandal 1993 The most recent datings on bear bones extend the time range to a period between 24 000 and 31 000 BP P rez et al 2011 In addition two datings of the stalagmite crusts in the central corridor and the nal gallery have yielded 117 252 75 438 BP and 97 051 15 426 BP respectively although caution is advised due to their wide standard deviation Grandal and Vidal 1997 In 1993 the rst archaeological dig in Cova Eir s was a 1 m2 test pit at the cave entrance in which ve archaeological levels were identi ed and 550 lithic tools were recovered all initially attributed to the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Following these reports in 2008 a new phase in the exploration of the Cova Eir s occupations was begun F bregas et al 2009 Initially two test pits were dug at the mouth Pit A at the entrance 4 m2 which included the 1993 pit in one of its survey squares and a second pit on the outer embankment Cata B The quantity and quality of the recovered material and the stratigraphic potential of the sediment led to the extension of the excavation area to nearly half the inhabitable space of the entrance sector 21 m2 Fig 1 2 The Pleistocene sequence in Cova Eir s The 16 metre long entrance sector decreases in height to 0 8 m at the neck that leads to the interior part of the complex A steep embankment coincides with the vertex of the mouth The in IPHES Institut Catal de Paleoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social C Marcel l Domingo s n Campus Sescelades Edi ci W3 Tarragona 43007 Area de Prehistoria Universitat Rovira i Virgili URV Av Catalunya 35 Tarragona 43002 Grupo de Estudos para a Prehistoria do Noroeste GEPN Dpto de Historia I Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Praza da Universidade 1 Santiago de Compostela 15782
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  18  Artur...
NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS Figure 1 Location of the Cova Eir s site Plan of the cave and the current archaeological dig with a topographic reconstruction of the entrance sector 2009 1 Entrance sector 2 Great Hall 3 Final Gallery Palaeontological interventions habitable space is thus reduced to this vertical between the ledge and the interior neck On the west wall however eroded remains of a cave wall mark the former entrance area Geophysical surveys using Georadar in this sector have detected a 3 4 m deep stratigraphic in ll Excavation has only reached the 120 140 cm level below the present oor and occupations prior to the currently identi ed may thus be expected to appear in the future Six archaeological levels have been identi ed in the stratigraphic sequence with two types of sedimentary dynamics The lower levels are associated with in situ sedimentation basically linked to gravitational input Levels 4 3 and 2 while the upper levels are from wind borne matter Levels 1A and 1B Levels B and C levels are linked to the dynamics underway outside the cave the slope Rodr guez et al 2011 Fig 2 The stratigraphic sequence described for the site is the following Surface Level Topsoil Very loose and heavily bioturbated organic soil Limestone clasts produced by rockfalls from the ceiling First indication of disturbed archaeological material This level also contains a perimeter stone paving which delimited two medieval silos Potential 10 15 cm Level B Whitish yellow silty matrix well compacted containing angular limestone gravel measuring 5 13 mm along the major axis Abrupt irregular upper limit and gradual diffuse lower limit A 30 mm deep layer of very dark sediment has been identi ed at the bottom of this level A considerable amount of archaeological material has been retrieved from Archaeological Level B The upper limit of this layer de ned by limestone blocks measuring 40 140 mm on the longest axis has a predominantly south slope It might be related to one of the most recent processes in the reduction of the cave cornice AMS radiocarbon dating of the archaeological level is 12 060 50 BP Beta 308859 F bregas et al 2012 Level C A heavily compacted clay matrix with gravel and clasts A steep south facing slope follows the topography of the embankment and intersecting levels 1 2 3 and 4 This is interpreted as a disturbance of the levels inside the cave Level 1 The upper part consists of slightly compacted ne yellow sand with a subhorizontal 19
NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  Figure 1. Location of the Cova Eir  s site. Plan of the cave and the current archaeologica...
20 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 2 Stratigraphic pro le West of the dig in Cova Eir s laminar strati cation 1A The top is archaeologically sterile At the bottom the sand becomes orange more compacted and a parallel horizontal strati cation 1B The top and bottom limits of the level are net Depth 10 to 23 cm Level 2 Orange clay loam more compact than the previous level Two distinct facies at the top level 2a purer sands without concretions while the lower limit is marked by the presence of small limestone plates At the base sub level 2b several small subangular limestone clasts 3 5 cm heavily carbonated with a crust in the southern sector Net ondulating base level Archaeological level 34 45 cm deep C14 AMS radiocarbon dating 31 690 240 BP Beta 254280 Level 3 Brown clay with small sized limestone gravel More compact and homogeneous than the overlying level Contact with level 2 is net and undulating indicating the existence of a gap between the two levels Archaeological level 20 35 cm deep OSL dating 84 807 4919 BP MAD 5612BIN Level 4 Composed of clays and ne yellow sands heavily carbonated with sub rounded limestone and schist gravels Minor lateral variations Archaeological level currently under excavation Unknown depth 3 Middle Palaeolithic occupations Two levels attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic the most substantial records in the study of this period in Galicia have been identi ed in the lower part of the sequence Level 4 Level 4 has a high density of archaeological material currently the richest of the sequence The excavation and analysis of the data is still underway however preliminary results point to certain aspects As in most of the identi ed occupations in Cova Eir s the lithic assemblage is dominated by quartz 90 1 with quartzite playing a secondary role 9 7 Knapping products are over represented with few cores and retouched tools on ake sidescrapers denticulates etc which in conjunction with the scarcity of corticality in the products indicates that this assemblage represents the nal stages of reduction From the technological characteristics of the product we can deduce that the predominant knapping methods are longitudinal and orthogonal strategies although discoidal and Levallois quartz products have been identi ed amongst the higher quality items particularly in the negrained quartzite The technological characteris
20  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS tics of the lithic assemblage on this level suggest that it is Mode 3 The faunal assemblage includes remains of bears deer and horses Several show evidence of human intervention fracturing and cut marks and thermal alteration Several bone fragments have been attributed to Coelodonta sp The most signi cant discovery on this level was 5 metres from the current entrance a combustion structure with a small 40 x 25 cm oval focal area F bregas et al 2012 A large concentration of tools and skeletal remains many of them with evidence of heat impact was identi ed lying around this hearth taxonomic de nition Some of the bones show clear cut marks and fractures pointing to the anthropic factor as the main agent in butcheringrelated activities skinning and access to bone marrow Taxonomically Cervus elaphus has the highest representation followed by Rupicapra rupicapra and Capreolus capreolus Carnivores include numerous Ursus spelaeus with many neonatal tooth remains The presence of Canis lupus and Vulpes vulpes is also documented indicating the alternating use of the cave by hominids and carnivores 4 Upper Palaeolithic sequence Level 3 Level 2 The initial excavation of this level was heavily affected by the presence of medieval silos restricting its area to 1 5 m2 The size of the current work area permitted excavation in the entire zone to commence allowing us to gather more information about the Neanderthal occupations in Cova Eir s The level 2 lithic assemblage contains a high percentage of small sized quartz industry 93 3 Although the type of raw material and the large number of knapping fragments hinder an accurate techno typological de nition certain changes in the supply strategies with the appearance of small amounts of rock crystal and int and the presence of blades in rock crystal ascribe this assemblage to be attributed to the initial Upper Palaeolithic C14 dating places these occupations in the Aurignacian The detected lithic assemblage consists of 702 items The predominant raw material is quartz 90 followed by ne grain quartzite 8 The identi ed reduction methods are Levallois discoidal and orthogonal with some evidence of Kombewa F bregas et al 2009 Rodr guez et al 2011 As in the previous level the operational chains are fragmented with a clear predominance of knapped products and few cores The presence of retouched items sidescrapers denticulates and becs is greater here 9 9 This aspect is more obvious in the ne grained quartzite an allochthonous lithic resource represented by Levallois akes and points as well as sidescrapers bearing evidence of treatment as curated tools Fig 3 The characteristics of the lithic assemblage on Level 3 suggest its attribution to Mode 3 with a differential management of lithic resources found in north western Iberia in the Middle Palaeolithic de ned particularly by the relationship of Levallois techniques to ne grained quartzite and the use of more expedient methods with quartz although quartz Levallois products have also been found Functional analysis of this assemblage has identi ed hunting related activities broken spear tips butchering and hide treatment at the site Lazu n et al 2011 The faunal assemblage is characterized by a high percentage of fragmentation hindering its The faunal record includes Cervus elaphus and Capreolus capreolus and a remarkable representation of carnivores with several remains of Canis lupus and Panthera pardus as well as both bear species which hibernated in the cave Ursus arctos and U spelaeus The faunal remains show a high level of fragmentation and some have obvious cut marks and fresh fracture The low density of lithic tools the identi cation of fragmented operational chains and the higher incidence of carnivore taxa point to occupations with little impact perhaps related to short repeated stays alternated with the cave s use as a den by carnivores and ursids Level 1 The material is concentrated at the base of this stratum where 729 archaeological items have been recovered F bregas et al 2010 Rodr guez et al 2011 The lithic assemblage is predominantly quartz 86 1 while int and rock crystal have a greater representation 4 8 and 6 1 respectively parallel to an increased blade and bladelet component Two types of chaines op ra 21
NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  tics of the lithic assemblage on this level suggest that it is Mode 3. The faunal assembla...
22 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 3 Levallois points a and akes b in quartzite from the Middle Palaeolithic levels Level 3 and 4 toires have been detected at this level depending on the type of raw material and the purpose of the reduction In the local quartz and quartzites more expeditious strategies longitudinal or centripetal were used to obtain akes while in the case of rock crystal and int production focused on blade akes with microblade cores and bladelets in this material as well as a few backed items Fig 4 While the quartz prisms are of local origin the int items only found in elements from the end of the knapping sequences are from further afar possibly linked to the above mentioned outcrops 12 14 km to the NE The technical nature of the assemblage and the datings currently available ascribe this level to the end of the Gravettian spect to the previous levels particularly ursids a trend documented at other sites in Cantabria One outstanding discovery on this level is a pendant made from a canine tooth of a small carnivore F bregas et al 2010 The faunal assemblage consists of 135 items Rupicapra rupicapra and Cervus elaphus still predominate amongst the herbivore species but there is a signi cant decrease in the carnivores with re Archaeological level B is linked to the nal retreat of the cave ledge de ned by a line of limestone slabs and blocks some over 30 cm in diameter The palaeosol indicates an embankment The top of level 1 1A is a succession of small layers of ne and coarse sands of wind borne origin This level is sterile indicating that the cave was probably not occupied by either humans or animals during the harshest periods of the Last Glacial Maximum contemporary to the formation of nearby glaciers O Queixadoiro Level B
22  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS dynamic on a steep slope towards the archaeological south Moving inwards this level merges with the current organic oor and thus the preserved area is quite small barely 3 m2 Radiocarbon dating places this event right at the end of the Magdalenian F bregas et al 2010 The lithic assemblage shows a clear specialization with a high percentage 40 6 of rock crystal second only to quartz There are two different chaines op ratoires in the reduction strategies the production of ake items in quartz and quartzite with longitudinal orthogonal and to a lesser extent bipolar techniques and on the other hand specialized production centred on the exploitation of rock crystal prisms for bladelets and backed elements Given that all parts of the sequence are represented here cores volumetric adjustment elements retouched products etc it follows that these items were produced in situ Faunal remains including a deer antler are quite scarce possibly due to the more organic component of the sediment Level C Level C is in the outer part of the embankment with a steep south slope lines 20 21 It contains a high density of lithic and bone material These items show a mixture of features evidence of the disturbance of this assemblage F bregas et al 2009 Taphonomicaly the bones are in different stages of fossilization and wear Within the lithic assemblage Levallois akes in quartz and quartzite akin to those recovered from levels 4 and 3 have been identi ed along with rock crystal and int blades and bladelets and akes of the type found on levels 1 and 2 This level is therefore considered to be the result of the dismantling and disturbance of the levels inside the cave at the top of the embankment due to erosion during the retreat of the cave ledge 5 Recent Prehistory and Early Medieval occupations While most of the identi ed occupations at the site have been ascribed to various periods in the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic there is also evidence of this cave s use in subsequent periods In recent prehistory it was used as a burial site judging by the Bell beaker ceramic material recovered at the entrance F bregas et al 2012 and the human remains found inside the cave Corridor dated at the height of the Bronze Age Ua 38121 3151 31 BP These funerary activities can be contextualised in the late Bell beaker horizons and the middle of the second millennium BC Finally the surface level contained several storage structures silos UA1 and UA2 a hearth UA06 and a perimetral pavement related to agro pastoral activities in Cova Eir s from the late 10th to the 15th century AD Teira et al 2012 Figure 4 Core and bladelets in rock crystal and int bladelet from Cova Eir s levels 1 and B 23
NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  dynamic on a steep slope towards the archaeological south. Moving inwards, this level merg...
24 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 6 Mobile and rock art The recurrent presence of Upper Palaeolithic communities in eastern Galicia the discovery of mobile art and most importantly documentation of rock art in northern Portugal indicated that rock art could probably be found in Galicia as well In 2011 several paintings and engravings were discovered in Cova Eir s the rst Palaeolithic rock art detected in north western Iberia de Lombera and F bregas 2013 Previously the only evidence of Palaeolithic art in this region was the F rvedes II stone pendant in Xermade Lugo and Dentalium shells found on Lower Magdalenian levels at Valdavara 1 Becerre Lugo Mobile art Several items of mobile art have also been found at the Cova Eir s site F bregas et al 2010 2012 A small pendant in a perforated canine probably from a fox Vulpes vulpes was found on the Gravettian level Level 1 Several bone industry remains were also found including a double pointed speartip from the interfaces of an Upper Palaeolithic level 1C Both sides are decorated with a zigzag pattern composed of several parallel discontinuous lines whose closest equivalent would be Magdalenian items from the Altamira and El Pendo sites F bregas et al 2012 Rock art There are several parietal art forms inside Cova Eir s from the Upper Palaeolithic The ongoing characterization classi cation and dating work of these motifs will permit a precise de nition of the chrono cultural coordinates of these Palaeolithic expressions Eleven decorated panels have been identi ed to date One of the features of the series also a constraint for their study is the poor state of the images due to heavy washing of the paintings and also the large amount of recent graf ti which has affected many of the motifs The largest concentration is in the Main or Mammoth Hall the widest space of the cave 15 metres long and up to 5 m high Many painted and engraved motifs are on the walls at low or mid height Although gures have been identi ed in all sectors of this hall the majority are on the west wall Panels I to VI looking inwards on the right This sector contains the most complex themes and panels with associations of black paintings and engravings especially on Panel III On the opposite wall is Panel VIII with highly complex concepts distribution and number of engravings alternating signs with geometric and zoomorphic subjects Graphic work has also been located in different recesses in the cave and the south east gallery an indication of the wide dispersal of these manifestations Half of the motifs detected to date are painted elements followed by engravings 46 4 and the possible use of reliefs or natural highlighting of the rock 3 6 However engraved gures are most probably under represented in the counts as many lines have been classi ed together It is also important to note that many black lines or dots may be the result of repeated visits to the interior zones of the cave during recent prehistory early medieval and contemporary periods The motifs are generally small and heavily in uenced by the spaces and surfaces available in the cave Quantitatively the main themes are painted dots and lines thin engraved lines both individual and in sets zoomorphs both painted and engraved bovids and possibly deer equids and carnivores many of them incomplete partial representations of cervical dorsal lines hindquarters etc followed by the representation of signs The predominant painting technique is black FT Raman spectrometry analysis has identi ed the use of charcoal as a pigment Engravings include thin shallow lines in some cases striated and others associated in a dense variegated manner Finally the possible use of natural enhancements of the rock surface with morphologies reminiscent of animal silhouettes in which speci c dots or lines serve to highlight certain anatomical parts of the animal have also been documented There is a great technique and thematic homogeneity in this art According to technical and stylistic studies currently underway certain techno morphological characters permit a working hypothesis for the chrono cultural context of this art The presence of numerous thin linear composite and striated engravings superimposed on other motifs the depiction of zoomorphs with elongated bodies and members simpli ed representations of limbs bodies with lled innards e g bovid Panel I Fig 5 and the small sized gures all seem to suggest the end of the Magdalenian transition to the Mesolithic However the infor
24  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  6. Mo...
NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS mation now available prevents us from ruling out the possibility of older motifs 7 Conclusions The Cova Eir s site contains the most complete stratigraphic sequence now available for the study of the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic in Galicia It allows a direct comparison of evolving technologies subsistence strategies adaptation to and exploitation of the territory between the Neanderthals and the H sapiens of north western Iberia Cova Eir s is a reference point in tracing the history of the settlement of Galicia s eastern ranges Serras Orientais and its relationship to the open air settlements and rock shelters elsewhere in north western Iberia The archaeological record and the cave art at this site point to a similarity and even convergence with historical processes identi ed along the Cantabrian Coast Acknowledgements The archaeological work underwayat Cova Eir s is part of the research project entitled Poblamiento durante el Pleistoceno medio Holoceno en las comarcas orientales de Galicia HUM200763662 HAR 2010 21786 nanced by the Ministry of Economy and Competition Figure 5 Photograph ltered with D Stretch and tracing of bovid and cervid zoomorphs on Panel I 25
NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  mation now available prevents us from ruling out the possibility of older motifs. 7. Concl...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 26 Xos Pedro Rodr guez Arturo de Lombera Hermida Ram n F bregas Valcarce Paleolithic occupations in the Monforte de Lemos Basin Lugo Galicia Introduction The information available about the Paleolithic in the north west of the Iberian Peninsula particularly inland Galicia is scarce and corresponds to accidental and sporadic nds The only nding recorded for the Monforte de Lemos Basin province of Lugo was a handaxe in Vilaescura Sober in the mid twentieth century Systematic research of the area started in 2006 as a consequence of accidental nding by an amateur but the ndings from recent years have demonstrated the existence of a signi cant Paleolithic settlement in this area The Depresi n de Monforte irrigated by the river Cabe is a tertiary basin surrounded by higher Paleozoic and Hercynian areas which reach 600m high to the west Chantada area and 1 600m to the east Serra do Courel The average height of the Cabe valley is 290 metres above sea level The origin of the Monforte basin with a surface area of 175 Km2 is tectonic following the Hercynican fault lines that exist in a WNW ESE direction Following a neotectonic episode and subsequent uvial rearrangement the Pleistocene sediment linked to the paleo channels and alluvial fans covered the banks with tertiary silts and clays of a lacustrine environment These Quaternary deposits arranged in a sequence of at surfaces are identi ed as river terraces glacis and pediments Ameijenda 2011 Arqueological surveys Systematic surveys carried out between 2006 and 2010 were conditioned by the dense vegetation which restricted the extension of the explored area However more than eighty open air artefact scatters were discovered which correspond to Lower Middle and Upper Paleolithic These locations have different entities from sites with dozens of artefacts per square metre to others with just one isolated nding Fig 1 In addition to the surveys test pits were dug in places whose concentration of artefacts could suggest the presence of archaeological sites in a stratigraphic context As Lamas and Valverde in the Monforte Basin and Pedras in the granite plateau of O Savi ao F bregas et al 2009 2010 Findings were also discovered in stratigraphic context in the sites of O Regueiral and spera Rodr guez et al 2008 The geo archaeological work has allowed us to reconstruct a relative chronological framework in accordance with the characteristics of the Quaternary surfaces and the technological interpretations of the lithic assemblages de Lombera et al 2011 The majority of the sites located could be assigned to Mode 2 or Acheulean lithic industries Based on the topography and morphometrics of the Quaternary deposits considering river terraces glacis and pediments 7 levels of erosion were identi ed on the sides of the basin Fig 1 Ameijenda 2011 The majority of the archaeological ndings are located in intermediary levels N4 and N5 whereas their presence in the other levels is scarcer except in N1 The oldest evidence in accordance with the morphotechnic characteristics and the sedimentary contexts are located in Chao de Fabeiro Erosion level 7 on the north bank of the Basin Fig 1 At this site 26 knapped tools were recovered mainly in quartzite The con guration strategies are focused in the production of pebble tools The presence of handaxes and chopping tools and the orthogonal longitudinal and to a lesser extent centripetal reduction sequences suggest their ascription to Mode 2 The majority of Mode 2 sites are located in the intermediary surfaces erosion levels N5 N4 In N5 the most signi cant scatters are those of Chao Vilar IPHES Institut Catal de Paleoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social C Marcel l Domingo s n Campus Sescelades Edi ci W3 Tarragona 43007 Area de Prehistoria Universitat Rovira i Virgili URV Av Catalunya 35 Tarragona 43002 Grupo de Estudos para a Prehistoria do Noroeste GEPN Dpto de Historia I Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Praza da Universidade 1 Santiago de Compostela 15782
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  26  Xos  ...
NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS Figure 1 Location of the sites at the Monforte Basin The squares indicate the Mode 2 ndings the circles Mode 3 ndings and the triangles Mode 4 ndings Black indicates sites with a higher density of artefacts The dots indicate isolated ndings The erosion levels are also speci ed N1 to N7 The numbers correspond to signi cant sites 1 Chao Fabeiro 2 Chao Vilar 3 As Lamas 4 O Reguerial 5 Valverde 6 Costa Grande 7 San Mamede 27
NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  Figure 1  Location of the sites at the Monforte Basin. The squares indicate the Mode 2    ...
28 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 1 2 and 3 with 62 items F bregas et al 2009 As Lamas UTM 621 332 4 711 619 is located in erosion level N4 where ve archaeological points were discovered which provided 241 pieces Fig 2 4 7 Two test pits were dug here in 2009 the test pit II revealed two archaeological levels related to the colluviums that covered the uvial sediments dating by OSL in 39866 3554 BP Level 3 and 38947 3150 BP Level 2 F bregas et al 2010 The rst level N II was related to a Middle Palaeolithic occupation and the second N III provided artefacts with technical characteristics and alterations oxides which were very similar to the pieces recovered on the surface Its presence in a colluvium from the Upper Pleistocene should be considered the result of an episode of erosion that destroyed old sediments during the Heinrich event 4 In these sites the con guration strategies focus on handaxes cleavers and trihedral picks The majority of the handaxes are knapped on pebble and generally show a high amount of cortex on the surface On the ake tools the retouches create continuous and denticulate dihedral edges sidescrapers 17 9 and denticulate tools 13 2 dominating over notch tools becs and endscrapers The most common reduction sequences are unidirectional unifacial bifacial and centripetal followed by the orthogonal method The presence of the discoid method is minimum 5 of cores and the Levallois method has only been identi ed in one core in Chao Vilar II Given the raw material used quartzite pebbles and its availability the cores are knapped using natural platforms and their reduction sequences are short 60 70 of cores abandoned in initial or intermediary stages of reduction Flakes usually show a high amount of cortex on the dorsal surface and faceted striking platforms are rare 3 In the Mode 2 sites the raw material used is quartzite followed by quartz The presence of uvial neocortex in almost all of the artefacts suggests exploitation of the secondary deposits of Quaternary age along the basin Given that the artefact scatterings are directly on these surfaces access to raw material was immediate and quick The Mode 3 sites are mainly located in erosion levels 1 and 2 particularly O Regueiral As Gandari as Susao San Mamede Gullade and Level II of Test pit 2 of As Lamas F bregas et al 2007 2009 2010 In these site Large Cutting Tools LCT are almost non existent whereas the small lithic ake tools take on more importance The reduction strategies are dominated by the centripetal and discoid methods The only archaeological records in a stratigraphic context were identi ed in O Regueiral and As Lamas Test pit II In the rst located in an alluvial fan 32 artefacts were recovered Fig 2 8 2 10 2 12 some of them in a colluvium dated by the OSL in 69446 5472 BP In the site at As Lamas Test pit 2 Level 2 is linked to the upper colluvium but the rolling and size of the lithic tools suggest a primary context of disposition F bregas et al 2010 In the Mode 3 sites centripetal and discoid cores dominate Fig 2 9 10 while the orthogonal or longitudinal methods are less common Some cores and tools in ne grained quartzite could be related to the Levallois method as they show surface hierarchisation in the reduction However use of the Levallois method in Monforte is quite limited whereas discoid products are more common particularly those related to the nal stages of small quartz core reduction Fig 2 9 These lithic assemblages are dominated by akes that often show centripetal disposition of the negative scars on the dorsal surface and the presence of dihedral and faceted striking platforms Fig 2 11 12 The con guration sequences focus on ake tools denticulate tools 45 5 dominating over side scrapers 27 2 and other tools like end scrapers and points Some large tools like handaxes could be present but there are very few Fig 2 8 In Mode 3 sites the use of ne grained quartzite increases in response to the most demanding reduction methods Levallois and discoid and the increased standardisation of ake tools In the sites at Valverde Costa Grande III spera and Pedrouzos de Mourelos Mode 4 lithic assemblages were discovered Unlike the Upper and Middle Palaeolithic sites these are located in high places and not on the Quaternary surfaces Their lithic industry stands out for the presence of blade technology and a wide range of raw materials particularly rock crystal and int The most signi cant site is Valverde located on a hillside 350 metres above sea level UTM 624 434 4 713 497 The artefacts were made of quartz ne grained quartzite rock crystal and int Rodr guez et al 2008 Their techno typological characteristics cores and laminar and micro laminar products and leaf shaped points allow it to be ascribed to the Solutrean Along with these cha nes op ratoires from the Upper Palaeolithic knapped in good quality raw materials rock crystal ne grain quartzite and int bipolar knapping and the discoid method focus on the production of quartzite and quartz implements with good cutting edges de Lombera et al 2012
28  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD   1-2 ...
NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS Figure 2 Lithic industry of the Monforte Basin Mode 2 and Mode 3 1 Quartzite handaxe Chao Fabeiro Mode 2 2 Quartzite chopper Chao Fabeiro Mode 2 3 Quartzite handaxe Chao Vilar Mode 2 4 and 5 quartzite side scrapers As Lamas Modo 2 6 quartzite notch As Lamas Mode 2 7 Quartzite handaxe As Lamas Mode 2 8 Quartzite handaxe O Regueiral Mode 3 9 quartzite discoidal core Gullade III 10 quartzite discoidal core O Regueiral Mode 3 11 and 12 quartzite akes G ndara Ch and O Regueiral Mode 3 13 and 14 retouched quartzite akes Gandari as Mode 3 29
NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  Figure 2  Lithic industry of the Monforte Basin  Mode 2 and Mode 3 . 1, Quartzite handaxe ...
30 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 3 Lithic industry of the Monforte Basin Mode 4 Valverde site 1 10 1 and 2 leaf shaped projectile fragments in int 1 and quartzite 2 3 micro laminar core in rock crystal 4 and 5 backed items in rock crystal 6 7 and 9 laminar and micro laminar fragments in rock crystal 6 and quartzite 7 and 9 8 bipolar core in quartz 9 int ake 11 quartzite blade core spera site
30  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS Conclusions The Monforte de Lemos Basin plays a strategic role due to its geographical location as it is located in the natural route connecting inland Galicia to the western Meseta de Lombera et al 2011 It is also framed by the two main uvial systems of the NW of the Iberian Peninsula the Mi o and Sil that constrain structural mobility through this territory Secondly due to its low altitude the average temperatures of the valley of the Sil and the Monforte Basin during the glacial period were warmer than in the surrounding areas and comparable to those recorded on the coast Therefore the Monforte Basin could serve as refuge area during glacial periods whereas the mountain and inland re Susana Alonso Fern ndez Manuel Vaquero Alicia Ameijenda Iglesias gion with drier and colder conditions would be covered by icecaps and steppes The convergence of these geological geographical and topographical characteristics could explain the high concentration of human settlements identi ed during the Middle and Upper Pleistocene Acknowledgements The archaeological excavations in Monforte de Lemos are part of the research project Poblamiento durante el Pleistoceno medio Holoceno en las comarcas orientales de Galicia HUM2007 63662 HAR 2010 21786 of the Ministry for the Economy and Competition La Cova and Valdavara 3 Becerre Lugo The archaeological activity carried out since 2007 in the municipality of Becerre Lugo has produced an extensive archaeological record corresponding to different chronocultural periods including times almost unknown before in Galicia such as the late Upper Pleistocene and the Middle Magdalenian The work was carried out in two sites La Cova de Valdavara in which a well preserved sequence was found which includes levels from the Late Prehistory and late Upper Paleolithic and Valdavara 3 another cave deposit with remains of the late Upper Pleistocene Vaquero et al 2011 La Cova de Valdavara and Valdavara 3 are situated in the karst located on the right bank of the river Naron known in this area as Cruzul one of the tributaries of the left bank of the river Navia at 120m and 220m respectively above the current channel of the river They are part of a cave system located in limestone formations called the Calizas de Vegadeo from the Lower Middle Cambrian outcropping along a wide stretch plotted NNWSSE between the Palaeozoic formations of the Dominio del Manto de Mondo edo where sandy and slate rocks predominate Vera 2004 Some of these caves like Cueva de Furco or Cova da Venta Fern ndez Rodr guez 1993 Grandal 1991 were already known for having provided some isolated archaeological or paleontological remains La Cova de Valdavara was discovered in the 1960s by a group of amateurs from Becerre The archaeological excavations were carried out between 2007 and 2013 working in three sites with different sequences and deposits Valdavara 1 which is the original cavity found in the 1960s Valdavara 1 2 which corresponds to the outer slope and Valdavara 2 another small cavity located barely 6 m below Valdavara 1 In Valdavara 1 a sequence of almost one and ahalf metres deep has been documented consisting of two main stratigraphic units Fig 1 The upper unit corresponds to the Late Prehistory Vaquero et Institut Catal de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolucio Social IPHES Escorxador s n 43003 Tarragona Area de Prehistoria Universitat Rovira i Virgili Avinguda Catalunya 35 43002 Tarragona Universidade de Santiago de Compostela USC 31
NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  Conclusions The Monforte de Lemos Basin plays a strategic role due to its geographical loc...
32 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 Stratigraphic sequence of Valdavara 1 al 2009 The study of the int and quartz lithic industry the domestic fauna and pottery recovered in this upper unit demonstrate varied use of the cavity during the Late Neolithic Chalcolithic The recovery of decorative seashells Dentalium infers mobility across the territory of these populations and possible contact with coastal population Similarly the recovery of small human remains such as phalanges and teeth of different individuals suggest repeated use of the cavity for burial purposes probably as a primary burial site Vaquero et al 2009 The variety of micro mammals recovered is consistent with other Holocene Chalcolithic associations from the north of the Iberian Peninsula and suggests a more Mediterranean climate Blain et al 2009 The lower unit corresponds to the late Upper Paleolithic when it seems that the cavity was repeatedly occupied between 16 800 and 18 700 cal years BP Table 1 Vaquero et al 2009 The evidence documented above all in level 4 is coherent with the characteristics of the Lower and Middle Magdalenian of the Cantabrian coast laminar ake knapping clear dominance of burins among the retouched objects portable art decorative bone industry and decorative objects including an assemblage of seashells and a pendant made from an atrophic red deer canine tooth Fig 2 Particularly signi cant is the recovery of a deciduous tooth in this level which is the oldest human remain found in Galicia to date A signi cant cultural change seems to occur at the base of this packet characterised by the appearance of quartzite lithic objects The wide variety of species of micro mammals recovered has provided a large amount of environmental and paleo environmental data for the period and suggests cooler conditions than in the upper unit Lopez Garc a et al 2011 At the site of Valdavara 1 2 under a top level that was signi cantly altered by post depositional processes and which contained very heterogeneous materials a more homogeneous unit appeared level C with lithic artefacts in int and quartz indicating some technical strategies aimed at obtaining akes Dating of the associated remains of fauna indicates an Early Holocene chronology for this level F bregas et al 2010 This dating along with the characteristics of the lithic assemblage is coherent with attributing this level to the Macrolithic Mesolithic which is documented for the rst time in Galicia Below this unit we have identi ed another level level D characterised by the predominance of quartzite akes that if their chronology were con rmed would correspond to the oldest occupation documented in Valdavara cave In Valdavara 2 a level was located at the top of the sequence containing the remains of at least three infant individuals devoid of any associated material culture objects but whose dating puts them in the chronological context of the Middle Bronze Age Vaquero et al 2008 Vaquero et al 2009 Another stratigraphic unit appeared below this level with a fossil record characterised by the presence of a large number of carnivore remains but with no evidence whatsoever of human presence
32  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS Loc Level Material Lab ref Years 14C Years cal BP Years cal BC Val 1 2 Human bone Beta 235727 4410 40 5160 4840 3210 2890 Val 1 4 Bone Beta 235728 13 770 70 17 080 16 880 15 130 14 930 Val 1 4 Bone Beta 235726 14 630 70 17 890 17 730 15 940 15 780 Val 1 6 Bone Beta 257849 15 120 70 18 700 17 820 16 750 15 870 Val 1 2 C Bone Beta 257850 8920 50 10270 9830 8320 7880 Val 1 2 C Bone Beta 259199 8890 60 10250 9770 8300 7820 Val 2 3 Human bone Beta 235729 3270 40 3600 3400 1650 1450 Val 2 3 Human bone Beta 235730 3250 40 3600 3360 1650 1410 Table 1 Radiocarbon dating of Valdavara cave Calibration at 2s p 95 has been performed using the cal Pal 2007 Hulu curve Weninger and J ris 2004 Between 2009 and 2011 an rescue excavation was carried out in a cavity exposed due to the consequences of the blasting of a quarry 100 metres from la Cova de Valdavara which was named Valdavara 3 The large variety of fauna recovered from this site lion leopard hyena rhinoceros bison bear fox wolf boar roe deer chamois fallow deer the characteristics of the micro fauna and the rst radiometric data suggest a chronology of early Upper Pleistocene between 100 000 and 120 000 years Although it is mainly a palaeontological assemblage the discovery in situ of lithic industry stratigraphically associated to the fauna con rms human presence in the site Although the chronology of the deposit is yet to be veri ed this data places Valdavara 3 as an important reference regarding the oldest settlement in Galicia Figure 2 Personal decorative objects found in the Magdalenian levels of Valdavara 1 33
NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  Loc.  Level  Material  Lab.ref.  Years 14C  Years cal. BP  Years cal. BC  Val 1  2  Human ...
2 cantabrian mountains and coastline NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS 35
2  cantabrian mountains and coastline  NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  35
Site Map numbering Site Map numbering Cueva de Aitzbitarte III and IV 5 Cueva del Mir n 21 Antoli ako Koba 6 Santimami e 22 Axlor 7 El Sidr n 23 Los Azules 8 Sope a 24 Cabo Busto 9 El Castillo 10 Cueva de la G elga 11 Cueva de Las Caldas 12 Cueva Mor n 13 Ekain 14 Cueva del Esquilleu 15 El Pendo 16 Cueva de la Riera 17 La Vi a 18 Labeko Koba 19 Lezetxiki 20
Site  Map numbering  Site  Map numbering  Cueva de Aitzbitarte III and IV  5  Cueva del Mir  n  21  Antoli  ako Koba  6  S...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Jes s Altuna Koro Mariezkurrena Joseba R os La Cueva de Aitzbitarte III and IV Basque country In Aitzbitarte Hill Renter a Basque Country there is a set of caves of which the two largest III and IV have been excavated in recent decades The latter was worked on in the 1960 s by J M Barandiaran 1961 E Harl 1908 found reindeer remains there for the rst time in the Iberian Peninsula Recently number III has been worked on by J Altuna Altuna et al 2011 Both caves are located 7 km from the current coast in a straight line Cave III develops to the southwest It has a large vestibule which leads to a big hall that is 60m long and averages 15m wide Recent excavations have been conducted at the entrance of this hall and in its deep zone Here we report the last campaigns carried out at the cave entrance Currently the excavations carried out in the profound area are under study Stratigraphy Fig 1 showed a Middle Paleolithic level VI a mixed Middle Paleolithic and Aurignacian level Vb inferior an Evolved Aurignacian Vb central three Gravettian levels upper Vb Va IV and two other levels III and II with Solutrean chronology but linked to the Gravettian technocomplex Level I shows an admixed composition of reworked materials The level Vb central has ve 14C AMS dates made in Uppsala Four of them have provided dates to 33 605 1165 to 31 000 835 and an other to 28 010 600 BP The Va level has ve dates the oldest one being 31 210 860 and four more of 28 950 655 to 26 350 475 In addition the IV has six dates ve from 28 320 605 to 24 240 365 and an other to 22 420 290 The III has seven dates grouped from 22 580 295 to 18 400 215 Finally level II also has one which dates to 19 765 220 Ua 37959 The sedimentological study has shown that the sequence was formed under climate conditions characterized by low temperatures and humidity Level VI is the warmest assembly The level V especially Vb is gradually wetter and colder Level IV is also damp and slightly warmer while in level III the harshest conditions have been recorded ameliorating gradually towards the end of the sequence The pollen study indicates a predominance of open landscapes with sparse tree representation less than 6 Level VI shows more arboreal presence 5 6 with Pinus Juniperus and Betula The Vb central level is very cold tree cover 1 6 with Pinus and Juniperus The upper Vb shows weak tree recovery 2 5 with the same species The Va also indicates a weak recovery in Betula The IV displays an overall increase in Juniperus 3 Due to the lack of spore pollen conservation information was not obtained on levels III and II A total of 16 556 Micromammal remains were recovered using a 1 mm mesh sieve The greatest part of them come from levels Vb to III Represented species are similar in all levels Microtus gr Agrestis arvalis being the most abundant followed by Microtus oeconomus Pitymys pyrenaicus is the most represented species of the genus Pitymys and there is also evidence of Pliomys lenki relict species This species representation indicates a climate characterized by cold and moist conditions and an open landscape with scarce wood patches This information obtained by sedimentological polinical and micromammal analyses is also con rmed by macrommal representation with a good representation of open landscape animals and the presence of species usually linked with colder climates such as Rangifer tarandus or Alopex lagopus Bird fossil assemblages also correspond with these environmental conditions identifying the species Lagopus mutus which lives today in the upper edge of coniferous forests and rocky high mountain areas in the Alps and the Pyrenees The lithic and bone industry reveals transformations between the Evolved Aurignacian Vb central and the beginning of the Gravettian Vb superior Va Centro de Custodia e Investigaci n de los materiales Arqueol gicos de Gipuzkoa 20015 San Sebasti n GOAZ Altuna arkaios com Centro Nacional de Investigaci n sobre la Evoluci n Humana 09002 Burgos joseba rios cenieh es 37
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Jes  s Altuna , Koro Mariezkurrena , Joseba R  os    La Cueva de Aitzbitarte III and ...
38 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 Stratigraphic units from Aitzbitarte cave III and IV and provides data characterizing human occupations around 20 000 BP levels III and II which have a dif cult cultural attribution in the Cantabrian regional framework Level VI was excavated in 1 m2 and the scarce material recovered can only be attributed to Middle Paleolithic technocomplexes without more precision The upper part of this level is mixed with the lower part of Vb Vb inferior so the industrial complex shows an anomalous nature mixing elements from Middle Paleolithic and Evolved Aurignacian Level Vb central displays intense bladelet production from cores ake edges and Vachons type cores and also unipolar production of wide and attened blades The types of int used were obtained in nearby outcrops either the Urgonian located in Aitzbitarte hill s limestone or a Flysch variety from Gaitxurizketa
38  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Figure 2a Platelet engraved from Aurignacian level Figure 2b Platelet engraved Drawing No remarkable difference was noted in the knapping strategies between levels IV and Va The presence of diverse tool types is notable with some Noailles burins and splintered pieces followed by scrapers truncated blades and backed tools The only evidence of bone industry is one bone point fragment The assemblage composition also seems to be related to domestic activities The upper part of level Vb and levels Va and IV are techno typological and chronologically correlated with an early Gravettian phase The decrease in the use of local int Urgonian or Gaitxurizketa is signi cant in comparison with Evolved Aurignacian as is the increase of int coming from more distant sources such as Chalosse or Bidache Level III shows a great variability in production systems identifying production of narrow and wide bladelets both from cores or ake and production of akes and the importation of already produced blades The retouched assemblage is composed of burins of various types including Noailles and Busqu backed bladelets scrapers and two geometrics The bone tool assemblage is the richest and most varied of the entire sequence with two exceptional needle fragments and two bone points with attened circular sections In addition there is one pendant made of canine fox and one fragment of bone bead This level corresponds to multifunctional occupations including domestic activities and the preparation and restoration of hunting tools Level II is characterized by the production of different sized bladelets especially from pyramidal cores and probably from Busqu type burin cores while ake and blade production seems to have tak en place outside the cave Regarding the retouched tools most represented types are burins specially Noailles and Busqu types On the contrary scrapers are scarce and there are not clear foliate types Pieces with abrupt retouch especially truncated and backed tools are relatively abundant and maybe some of them could be interpreted as fragments of shouldered points The bone industry shows a pos Figure 3 Noailles burin from Gravettian levels 39
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Figure 2a. Platelet engraved from Aurignacian level  Figure 2b. Platelet engraved. Dr...
40 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD sible bone point fragment and bird bone tube with transverse linear engravings Levels III and II chronologically coincide with the beginning of regional Solutrean nevertheless the industrial assemblage shows distinct characteristics closer to the Gravettian technocomplex For that reason it seems an original industry variety linked with other assemblages as Amalda V or Ermittia V Meanwhile level I appears extremely altered offering unreliable data Level III recent Gravettian has provided four human teeth belonging to three children under 13 years of age and one adult It is so far the oldest known remains of our species in the Basque Country The identi ed evidence is one D2 corresponding to newborn between 12 21 months one M1 belonging to a 5 5 6 year old child one M2 from another child aged between 11 13 years and one P4 from an adult The macromammals assemblage is composed of 30 261 remains generally very fragmented of which 2 149 have been taxonomically identi ed The large number of undetermined specimens responds to the 2 mm water sieving and to the exhaustive recovery of fragments during the excavation The macromammals are the subsistence basis for the human groups that occupied the cave Most represented species are the bovine among them Bos primigenius and Bison priscus Cervus elaphus and Rupicapra rupicapra The presence of other ungulates such as Rangifer tarandus Capreolus capreolus and Capra pyrenaica is scarce some of these species being absent in certain levels In the Vb central level Evolved Aurignacian Cervus elaphus dominates followed by bovine and Rupicapra rupicapra The Ursus spelaeus also has a large representation The upper level Vb Early Gravettian shows a similar faunal spectrum leading subsequently to bovine increase during Early Gravettian Va and IV Finally on levels III and II bovine presence decreases and Rupicapra rupicapra increases Reindeer is represented by a few remains in levels Va IV III and II There are numerous anthropogenic traces on the bones fractures multiple incisions traces of re in changing degrees There are a few traces of Carnivore bites probably on abandoned human faunal remains An Ursus spelaeus ulna with cut marks recovered in Vb central level is also remarkable On the other hand level IV is notorious for its large hearths and for the large amount of chopped and burned small bone fragments The elevated proportion of spongy bone fragments with high fat content indicates that they probably served as fuel during the harshest periods with low tree cover The Bird assemblage is small with 137 determinable remains mostly concentrated in levels III 82 and IV 32 Identi ed remains correspond basically to Lagopus mutus Perdix perdix and Pyrrhocorax While these ndings are compatible with their introduction in the cave by humans at the moment no anthropogenic modi cations have been observed in the bone fragments Also the appearance of rock species especially at level III indicates that the cavity was not permanently occupied by humans at that moment Fossil sh assemblage is also small with 156 remains The most abundant genus is Salmon especially trout The presence of Anguilla anguilla Trisopteros minutus III Blenius sp Va and IV Scomber sp Va and Platichys esus Vb is signi cant This latter species occupied the seawater areas of river mouths and could be caught in the Oiartzun River The mollusks assemblage is composed by shells of marine origin typical of the Bay of Biscay such as Patella vulgate l I II and III Littorina littorea l II III and IV L obtusata L fabalis both in l III Stramonita haemastomsa Mytilus sp Pecten maximus and Antalis sp four of them found in l II Three shells have been transformed into hanging ornaments In the Aitzbitarte III exterior sequence an interesting archeoestratigraphic sequence has been documented environmental evolution and transformations in human behavior and culture including the site function subsistence strategies and tool procurement have been observed At this time the research focused in the interior part of the cave is very advanced speci cally in the rich Gravettian levels with Noailles burins where subsistence strategies were based almost exclusively on bovine hunting over 90 of the remains The level IV of la Cueva de Aitzbitarte located above the III has a poorly de ned Aurignacian level one Solutrean two Magdalenian and another Azilian level Also in the deepest part of the cave paleolithic paintings have recently been found Garate et al 2013 In comparison with cave III the absence of Gravettian occupations in cave IV is noteworthy and likewise the late Paleolithic occupations represented in this cave Magdalenian and Azilian are absent from cave III Antoli a Cave Antoli ako koba in Basque DATUM ETRS 89 x 528 685 46 Y 4 801 186 83 Z 285 is placed within a basin downstream of Oka or Gernika River in area called Urdaibai Bizkaia It is close to the Santimami e classic archaeological site Fig 1 1 Its mean height above sea level is 285 m strategically orientated in the southwest direction allowing visual control in most part of the Urdaibai basin and access to the coastal valleys of the rivers Lea and Artibai
40  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  sible...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Mikel Aguirre Antoli ako Koba Gautegiz Arteaga Bizkaia Antoli a cave Antoli ako Koba in Basque DATUM ETRS 89 x 528 685 46 Y 4 801 186 83 Z 285 is located in a basin downstream of the Oka or Gernika River in an area called Urdaibai Bizkaia It is close to the Santimami e classic archaeological site Fig 1 1 Its average height above sea level is 285 m it is strategically orientated toward the southwest allowing visual control of most parts of the Urdaibai basin and access to the coastal valleys of the Lea and Artibai rivers The archaeological excavation was carried out between 1995 and 2008 It has allowed the identi cation of a major stratigraphic sequence of Aurignacian Gravettian Upper Solutrean Lower advanced Magdalenian occupations evidence of Upper Magdalenian and Azilian Aguirre 1996 2001 Aguirre et al 2001 The archaeological record and paleo environmentare the most complete and richest in the Urdaibai between c 35 000 BP and 14 500 BP with some well de ned stratigraphic hiatuses in sequence with essentially anthropogenic accumulation dynamics Are they demographic contractions in the eastern Bay of Biscay Is this a change of strategy in territorial exploitation There have been some contributions to the origin of the siliceous raw materials from Antoli a Tarri o et al 1998 Tarri o 2006 136 139 and the paleoenvironment from microvertebrates sequence Zubeldia et al 2006 Currently an interdisciplinary archaeological study is underway The con guration of the caves sedimentary ll has signi cant lateral changes in their character and vertical development In the west room Fig 1 2 stratigraphy has little impact due to the proximity to the rock base we call this Upper Sedimentary Set USS and Middle Sedimentary Set MSS Meanwhile the Lower Sedimentary Set LSS was of considerable depth in the northern part of the gallery and lobby with archaeological levels absent Here we will expose from wall to roof different documented archaeological horizons Fig 2 Horizon 1 The earliest evidence of Antoli a occupation is located in a con ned level between stalagmite ltering Fig 2 from LSS Sbl P brown sandy silt with phosphates where one marmot was identi ed among the poor faunal evidence along with one scraper and a few other lithic elements There is currently no dating for these strata but there is some geochemical analysis Yusta et al 2005 These levels belong to the lower half of this sedimentary base assembly Observation has been done of forming speleothems blocks and limit clasts as well as different sandy layers sometimes brecciated brown silty clay and packages of very compact orange clays mixed with phosphates All of this it is archaeologically sterile except for the mentioned stratum Horizon 2 The top half of LSS is a thick phosphate with various clay packages and speleothems It contains the archaeological rst level of a certain entity composed of brown sand with abundant phosphate lumps Sb P This horizon displays Aurignacian industry the most signi cant being the simple retouching in denticulate and scrapers with a few Dufour akes Horizon 3 It is covered by orange sands and phosphates So P with similar archaeological lithic material and scarce fauna poorly preserved at these levels dating is pending Its roof differentiates from upper zone in color texture and small bioturbation Horizon 4 Above it is de ned by one reddish brown compact sand package Sbk with infrequent clasts or corroded blocks and countless lateral variations Table 1 We have data near the roof 30 640 240 BP Beta 251304 and one on charcoal 29 990 230 BP GrA 23 898 in the lower level section This horizon contains hue evolved Aurignacian industries with signi cant percentages of substrate groups rare Dufour bladelet and ordinary bone industry This stratum containing compact brown silt L and sand with blocks Lbk lower Sbk forms the basis of the MSS UNED CA Bergara San Martin Agirre Plaza 4 20570 Bergara Gipuzkoa maguirre bergara uned es 41
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Mikel Aguirre   Antoli  ako Koba  Gautegiz-Arteaga, Bizkaia   Antoli  a cave  Antoli ...
42 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 1 Location of Antoli a 2 Map of the excavation 3 Antoli a Gravettian engraving on a pebble 4 7 Retouched falt Solutrean artifact from Antoli a 7 Indeterminate ungulate rib with a distal tip end
42  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
Cultural att Aziliense Lower Magd Upp Solu Upp Solu Gravettian Gravettian Evol Aurig Ref Level Lanc Upper Lgc Lower Lgc Lmb Lmc Lab Sab Upper Lmbk Smbk Lower Lmbk Smk Material Bone Bone C14AMS C14AMS C14AMS Bone Bone C14AMS Bone C14AMS Bone Bone C14AMS Bone Bone Bone Charcoal Bone C14AMS Bone C14AMS Bone C14 Bone Bone C14AMS C14AMS Bone C14 C14AMS Bone C14 Bone Methhod C14AMS C14 C14AMS C14AMS C14AMS Beta 251304 GrA 23898 Beta 230279 GrN 23786 Beta 251300 Beta 251299 Beta 230282 Beta 251303 Beta 215542 Beta 233766 GrN 23785 Beta 230284 Beta 251301 GrN 23784 GrN 23783 Beta 230280 Beta 230281 Beta 215543 Beta 215544 Ref lab Table 1 Dating of Antoli ako koba and its calibration 2007 Calpal HULU Weninger et al 2010 Middle Upper Sedimentary ensemble 30640 240 BP 29990 230 BP 27520 190 BP 27390 320 BP 27100 190 BP 26720 180 BP 26710 180 BP 26140 150 BP 26080 200 BP 22640 120 BP 19280 120 BP 19020 120 BP 17340 100 BP 14680 100 BP 14680 80 BP 14630 70 BP 14580 70 BP 10800 40 BP 10220 40 BP BP Date 34823 355 34253 196 32109 222 32064 277 31822 154 31486 273 31469 284 31046 343 31011 356 27358 388 23044 283 22879 303 20801 301 17998 378 18003 374 17954 379 17829 314 12777 63 11932 128 CalBP 34467 35178 34057 34449 31887 32331 31786 32341 31667 31976 31212 31759 31185 31753 30702 31389 30655 31367 26969 27746 22760 23327 22575 23182 20500 21102 17619 18376 17628 18377 17574 18333 17515 18143 12713 12840 11804 12060 68 range calBP CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE 43
Cultural att.  Aziliense  Lower Magd.  Upp. Solu. Upp. Solu. Gravettian  Gravettian  Evol. Aurig.  Ref. Level  Lanc  Upper...
44 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 2 Test of provisional stratigraphy chrono climatic correlation in Antoli a such as radiocarbon and curves of temperature variation and partial processing of column sampling microvertebrates Zubeldia et al 2006 Horizon 5 After a relatively short sedimentary hiatus with no interfaces de ned in the west room but clearer in the north gallery it develops a package with high archaeological material density at the base compact yellowish brown silt and sand with abundant blocks Lbk upper Sybk attached to Gravettian with Noailles bur ins Aguirre 2013 In the bone industry there are outstanding oval section assegais with morphologies similar to the Isturitz As for its implications one small hammer abraseur with deer morphology is remarkable Fig 1 3 Aguirre and Gonzalez Sainz 2011 We have six dates found with Accelerator mass spectrometry AMS and 14C
44  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE as one conventional staggered consistently between c 25 800 and 27 700 BP c 31 000 32 300 calBP The archaeological material Gravettian type with Noailles becomes scarcer in the upper sections with yellow silt and sand with blocks Lyb Syb Toward the roof net erosional contact occurs It has been dated to 22 640 120 BP Beta233766 Horizon 6 The USS begins over the Tardiglaciar erosive difference It has signi cant Upper Solutrean occupations the lower one of brown silt with clasts Lbc and the upper with brown silt blocks Lbb Both abundant with at retouched pieces Fig 1 4 7 as well as a predominance of concave bases about fty and uncommon little lateral notches Noailles burins are present There are three dates 19 280 120 BP GrN 23 785 and 19 020 120 BP Beta 230284 for Bsc and 17 340 100 BP Beta 251301 for the upper Lbb Horizon 7 After another hiatus with erosion signs on the Lbb roof it follows grayish silt with clasts Lgc already in surface in one lobby section and the west room They are greatly affected by various conditions cattle illegal reaching the Solutrean levels in most of the excavated Gonz lez Urquijo Jes s Ib ez Juan Jos Lazu n Tal a Mozota Mill n Horizon 8 Unable to establish sedimentary differentiation with upper section Lgc Lgc upper in some exceptional locations it is possible to nd greater density of small clasts and mollusks between the archaeological material It is dated Beta 215543 to 10 800 40 BP In marginal areas of the northwest room and small gallery zones of black negro n silty clay and silt with clasts Lcnc overlapping Lgc a speleothems roof is conserved sealed and dated in 10 220 40 BP Beta215544 data that is very close to the previous but not coinciding During screening of scrambled sediment several fragments of Magdalenian harpoons hardly attributable to such late dates were recovered Logically this fact shows occasional visits during the Magdalenian to the central section of Lgc The composition of archaeological material of upper Lgc and Lcnc is similar comprised of backed elements and analogous variety of mollusks assigning it to Azilian Axlor Research History The site of Axlor Dima Bizcaia is located on the northern Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula The cave mouth is located at about 320 m above sea level on an interior valley near one of the crossing points between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins The site was discovered by archae area The bone industry evidence comprises sub triangular and square sections and spatulate points There are four dating between 14 510 and 14 780 BP 17 515 and 18 377 calBP two of them completed with AMS and the others with conventional methods The lower section of this horizon corresponds to Lower Magdalenian Lgc lower ologist J M Barandiar n in 1932 and was excavated by him between 1967 and 1974 Barandiar n described nine stratigraphic layers and de ned levels III to VIII as fertile all of them with Mousterian lithic industries Barandiar n 1980 The faunal remains of big mammals were studied by J Altuna 1989 The lithic and bone industries were analyzed by A Balde n in his doctoral thesis Instituto de Prehistoria IIIPC Departamento de Ciencias Hist ricas Universidad de Cantabria Avda de los Castros s n 39005 Santander gonzalje unican es Instituci Mil i Fontanals CSIC C Egipciaques 15 08001 Barcelona ibanezjj imf csic es and millanm imf csic es PACEA CNRS Universit de Bordeaux All e Geoffroy de Saint Hilaire 33615 PESSAC t lazuen pacea u bordeaux1 fr 45
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  as one conventional, staggered consistently between c. 25,800 and 27,700 BP  c. 31,00...
46 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 1985 and extensively published later Balde n 1999 A Balde n classi ed all levels as Charentian Mousterian with some variations for the two lower levels having abundant sidescrapers Stratigraphic Sequence In 2000 the excavation of the Axlor site was restarted by a team led by J Gonz lez Urquijo and J J Ib ez The new excavation took place in contemporary levels to those of the sequence excavated by Barandiar n Roughly levels B to N Fig 1 correspond to levels III to VIII of the excavation of the 1960 s and 1970 s Gonz lez Urquijo et al 2005 2006 This sequence which chronologically corresponds to the nal stages of the Middle Paleolithic Level D is dated to 42 010 1 280 BP Beta 144262 and the lower levels of sequence M and N date to 47 500 BP or earlier The sequence recognized until then was completed at the base with a mass of yellow clay level IX The new excavations have revealed a sedimentary deposit stratigraphically located below the original sequence with two sublevels containing archaeological material deposited around OIS 4 5 A deep drilling down to 6 80 marks revealed a huge sterile lling Also the remains of a layer of the early Upper Paleolithic were located in the upper section of the sequence level A corresponding to Figure 1 Axlor Stratigraphy the base of level II of J M Barandiar n which had been considered sterile at the time At the lower levels Axlor R the lithic industry is scarce n 414 and is knapped in int 46 5 quartz 27 silici ed mudstone 14 limestone 8 quartzite limonite and sandstone In the immediate surroundings of the site the chances to nd useful rocks for knapping are limited to silici ed mudstone limestone limonite and sandstone These materials are relatively easy to locate in both primary and secondary position in the nearby scree and waterways less than 1 km 0 62 miles from the cave The best quality silici ed mudstone is found in the formations of the Supraurgonian black Flysch a few kilometers north of Axlor However blocks usable for knapping can be found in Albian age outcrops a few hundred meters from the site Quartz can be discovered on the edges of Biscay synclinorium about 5 10 km north from the site We do not know the origin of the quartzite found in very low amounts in uvial deposits near Axlor The int basically comes from the coastal Flysch located 35 40 km from the site The bulk of the set is composed of d bitage residues 65 and akes 28 whereas cores and retouched tools barely reach 1 and 5 8 respectively It should be noted however that out of the 116 akes in the collection 48 41 correspond to rejuvenation akes The most represented utensils are the sidescrapers which are of different
46  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD   1985...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE types lateral transversal and double four of them featuring Quina or Quina like retouch A different management of int over other raw materials can be observed in level R Flint artifacts are smaller and much more often retouched An impor Figure 2 Quina sidescrapers tant part of them are in fact rejuvenation ake from Quina sidescrapers which sometimes have been in turn retouched and used Lazu n and Gonz lez Urquijo i p a The functional study of a sample of lithic tools of this layer suggests the development of 47
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  types  lateral, transversal, and double, four of them featuring Quina or Quina-like r...
48 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD a variety of tasks including butchery as well as work on non woody plants dry hide and wood Lazu n and Gonz lez Urquijo in press b At the bottom of the modern sequence levels M and N the raw materials used for the lithic production are similar to those of the lower layers int 45 quartz 30 silici ed mudstone 20 quartzite and others Flint comes from outcrops to the north in the coastal Flysch in the form of akes and tools of medium or large size 5 cm or small Levallois type cores These cores produced akes of up to 1 1 5 cm as can be observed in the negatives of the latest extractions A signi cant portion of the tools at the site are points of Mousterian type to be used as projectiles The silici ed mudstone is exploited often with Levallois techniques for the production of larger akes which are often retouched as sidescrapers Production schemes followed with quartz are less de ned The faunal remains of level N are composed of deer 74 Altuna 1989 with 20 of animals from rocky goat chamois areas and almost no presence of large bovid and horse remains An important behavioral feature recognized in Axlor is the intensive use of bone hammers mainly diaphysis fragments Nearly a thousand of them have been recovered in the campaigns conducted to date and about 500 have been technically and functionally analyzed Mozota 2012 Out of these 73 are from level N and 92 from level M These tools are obtained from faunal remains without strict selection criteria and without an intentional manufacture unlike what happens in upper layers They are mainly used for various lithic retouching techniques At these levels especially in level N the presence of abundant and well preserved combustion structures is to be noted The latest part of the sequence corresponding to the nal Middle Paleolithic levels D C and B has a quite different tool management strategy Most of the material is int over 60 followed way behind by silici ed mudstone and quartz between 10 and 15 each material At these layers the int comes from three different sources the coastal Flysch the Urbasa mountain range and the Trevi o outcrops Gonz lez Urquijo et al 2005 There are hardly any cores or evidence of block knapping Large int artifacts are imported to the site These are obtained through a Quina type production of thick implements displaying a dorsal surface These akes are retouched as Quina sidescrapers at the site where they are heavily used and reshaped to reach very small sizes at the time they were abandoned Fig 2 Some of the rejuvenation akes speci cally the largest appear to be the result of an intentional or at least a preferential selection to produce a new generation of tools As has been demonstrated through the analysis of a large sample of retouched artifacts from level D n 917 Fr as 2013 the most abundant type about 75 are the sidescrapers which are very often double or multiple The nal retouched tools are very small in size This is the result of the intensive exploitation and the use of rejuvenation which account for about 30 of the retouched implements Unlike what was initially observed with a small sample n 50 Rivers 2007 the average size of the nal sidescraper reached only 2 3 x 2 2 x 0 8 mm and many of them are less than 2 cm in any their two dimensions The bone hammers are very abundant at these levels According to the analyzed sample over 200 Mozota 2013 these are obtained after a careful selection of formats or perhaps an intentional production of fragments during big mammals food processing Its use is more specialized with variations in the types of tools and predominant use of retouching tools in Quina tasks In level B these are especially massive being adapted to the extraction of the bigger rejuvenation akes The faunal remains of levels D C and B are far more diversi ed showing a progressive increase in the presence of horse and bovids to the detriment of deer In the most recent layer of the Middle Paleolithic level B deer goat large bovids and horse are distributed in almost balanced shares in the spectrum of ungulate species Altuna 1989 Casta os 2005 Balance Most of the occupations at the Axlor site occurred during the Middle Paleolithic and the most intense took place along OIS 3 The behavior that is best re ected in these occupations during OIS 3 is the variability in the technical organization of the Neanderthal societies of the period This variability can be observed in the range of hunted animals the formation and use of the bone industry the management of lithic raw materials with highly variable percentages for the different types of rocks and int deposits in different regions and in the repertoire of knapping techniques or deductible territorial mobility patterns
48  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  a var...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Manuel R Gonz lez Morales Los Azules cave Cangas de On s Asturias Location and description Los Azules cave is located on the southern slope of Mount Llueves today a dense forest in Contranquil Cangas de On s roughly at 30 m above the current course of the Sella River Its name comes from the farm property on the riverbank It consists of a complex of small cavities on the same face of Cretaceous Albian Lower Cenomanian limestone outcrops The cave that has been exca Figure 1 Azilian harpoons from Los Azules cave 1 2 Level 5 3 4 Level 3g 5 9 Level 3f According to Fern ndez Tresguerres and Junceda 1994 vated have two mouths originally de ned as Los Azules cave I west and II east separated by a rocky pillar which open to a single inner space When discovered it was almost completely lled with sediment with a thick top layer dumped by landslides from the slope as was the case with the other adjacent cave mouths of the complex Discovery and excavation The archaeological site was discovered accidentally in 1971 by Alberto Blanco Casta o and Francisco de la Roz Soto who found an Azilian harpoon and some quartzite and int akes Formal excavation began in 1973 under Juan Fern ndez Tresguerres after nding that the site had been plundered by clandestines In the rst two campaigns became clear that the site contained a wide range of Azilian occupations and extraordinary materials including several characteristic harpoons Fig 1 and rich lithic industry At the end of the 1974 eld season the discovery of bones from a human foot on the edge of the excavated area led to a larger scale excavation in 1975 which exhumed a burial Fig 2 in the Azilian level with exceptionally well preserved remains from different skeletal parts Subsequent excavations until the mid 90s extended the excavated area to the inner area of Los Azules cave II and test pits were dug on the platform outside in front of each mouth and on the bench between them Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistoricas de Cantabria 39005 Santander Spain 49
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Manuel R. Gonz  lez Morales   Los Azules cave  Cangas de On  s, Asturias   Location a...
50 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 2 Plan of Los Azules cave burial As per Fern ndez Tresguerres 1976 sketch by Lorenzo Arias P ramo Stratigraphy The in ll of the two cave mouths shows a relatively turbulent sedimentary history with successive phases of water erosion and in lls of clay from landslides interstrati ed with clast episodes facilitated by exposure to external agents and the poor quality of the rock The cultural sequence described by the excavators with the exception of the aforementioned disturbances is as follows Level I Sterile Level 7 layers a c Magdalenian Level 2 Late Azilian Level 8 Magdalenian Level 3 layers a h Late Azilian Level 9 Magdalenian Level 4 Sterile Level 10 Magdalenian Level 5 layers a b Early Azilian Level 11 Magdalenian Level 6 Late Magdalenian Level 12 Magdalenian The cave was almost completely lled up at the time of its discovery and the surface layer formed a mound at the entrance This is most probably due to a clay ow slopedown slope that ultimately fossilized the cave The upper layers of level 3 3a d had a limited distribution at the entrance and outside the cave while the lower layers especially 3d2 and 3e extended throughout the cave and contained abundant ash organic matter and evidence of intense human activity From layer 3f onwards occupations were found towards the back of the cave also with large amounts of ashes Level 4 a period when the cave is not occupied consists of yellowish clay with abundant angular limestone clasts across the entire area of the cave Level 5 like the lower beds of Level 3 appear at the rear of the cave lling a large erosive depression that affected Upper Magdalenian levels 6 9 These levels experienced both the erosive effect of water owing deep into the cave and also the intense use of the space by Azilians who dug ditches pits and various other structures The deepest levels 10 12 have been tentatively assigned to the Magdalenian without further details available at present Various structures have been found here as well including layers of cobbles enclosure walls caches of ochre and others
50  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Lithic and bone industries According to Fernandez Tresguerres the raw material management pattern was characterized by an increased selection of materials located near the site throughout the Azilian period Less common in the Early Azilian this trend became more marked during the Azilianization of the lithic industry The classic Azilian progressed from careful selection to the exploitation of areas closer to the site The Magdalenian levels showed an almost constant use of higher quality int a tendency that persisted into the Early Azilian There was a massive accumulation of knapping debris in the classic Azilian indicative of constant lithic manufacture during the occupation including a signi cant presence of ultra local quartzite collected from the banks of the G e a and Sella Rivers although it had limited use in the manufacture of tools primarily limited to substrate types denticulates notches and retouched akes with a smaller number of endscrapers made from the same material and almost no bladelets or points Flint on the other hand was widely used to manufacture endscrapers bladelets and points with a predominance of mediocre or poor quality radiolarite Higher quality int is present but in much lower proportions than in previous periods Fern ndez Tresguerres states that the retouched tools in the Early Azilian at Los Azules cave show an industry that is well de ned by small elongated double backed points in some cases tending to be straight and sometimes showing at retouch on the distal dorsal face reminiscent of the shape of late Sauveterre points Their appearance was preceded by very short thick points The rest of the industry is less distinctive from the Upper Late Magdalenian where small somewhat rounded endscrapers and abundant backed bladelets are observed often linear and in some cases double backed Burins become less frequent Denticulates and notches are as common as in any of the levels of this site What is most noteworthy about Los Azules however is the bone industry particularly the 105 Azilian harpoons The sequence in this cave re ects the evolution of harpoon types from the oldest classic Azilian items level 3 h usually with more barbs than their more modern counterparts in which the perforation tends to be closer to the centre of the base later shifting towards the centre of the shaft in the central layers of level 3 g f and e then returning to the centre of the base The four harpoons from Level 5 early Azilian are worthy of special mention Two are complete one of them has a round perforation at the base lacking in the other one both of them infrequent features in harpoons from this period However the outstanding aspect is the decoration of one of the complete harpoons an extraordinary piece with seven barbs and also one of the fragments an exceptional feature for this period specially considering the particularities of the decoration Both items share the same decoration based on oblique lines with short strokes connected to them a pattern also found in decorative pendants that are chronologically midway between the late Magdalenian and the Azilian In the case of the complete item the initial decoration was covered by another motif based on strips of two parallel lines with the space between them lled by short oblique etched lines a motif which also extends to the barbs This second decorative phase almost exactly matches the decoration on a similar harpoon fragment found in La Lluera cave more than 60 km away In addition to the harpoons excavations of the upper levels of the classic Azilian unearthed an sagaie decorated on most of its central ank with series of short oblique lines and a spatula made from a heavily polished deer metapodial retaining part of the articulation with a blunt point with one side covered with nely etched lines of dots Azilian burial During the controlled excavation of a burial in 1975 it was found to contain not only human remains but also a remarkable range of grave goods The body had been laid on its back in a shallow depression along the west wall of the cave dug into layers 3b d The base seemed to have been dusted with ochre with several pebbles delimiting the right side A large limestone slab was placed on the knees of the deceased and the whole grave had been covered with a pile of stones and earth This adult male more than 40 years old and 1 75 m tall had possibly suffered bone disease from an early age which seriously hindered his ability to walk According to Fernandez Tresguerres he could made a minor contribution to the group s economy yet he reached a relatively advanced age evidence of a strong sense of group solidarity and was given a unique burial perhaps due to a speci c 51
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Lithic and bone industries  According to Fernandez-Tresguerres, the raw material mana...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 52 role that he may have played in this social group Several items recognizable as grave goods were placed around or over the corpse stone tools two harpoons lithic raw material cores and hammerstones and deer antler fragments Two piles of large carefully stacked Modiolus sp shells and a badger skull were placed beside the left leg An even more striking complement was a series of pebbles painted with black points several of them delimiting the head of the grave This complex burial an exceptional discovery for the Azilian in southwestern Europe is one of the few elements that provide a glimpse of the spiritual and social world of the last Palaeolithic hunter gatherers Conclusion Los Azules is undoubtedly the most important Azilian site on the Iberian Peninsula and a key loca Jos Adolfo Rodr guez Asensio Cabo Busto A Middle Pleistocene Site Cabo Busto is located on the edge cliff of the Western Asturian wave cut platform and was excavated by J A Rodr guez Asensio between 1993 and 1997 Two levels of human occupation have been identi ed in the stratigraphic sequence level II and level V Both belong to the Acheulean period but correspond with two different chronological spans separated by several thousand years The Cantabrian wave cut platform locally named Rasa is a at coastal 5 km wide platform extending from the mountain foot hills of the ancient coastline to the actual sea cliff that is situated in this area 60 metres above sea level This platform descends from Cape Pe as where it is tion for the de nition of the Late Magdalenian Azilian sequence in southwestern Europe Still pending the detailed publication of its stone and bone material and information about its sedimentology fauna and environment it is nevertheless clear that the series of harpoons more than the sum of all those found at the rest of the Azilian sites in Iberia can play a major role in determining the evolution and extinction of this particular technology and act as an extraordinary basis for comparisons The possible excavation of the Magdalenian levels or the extension of work on the Azilian layers at some point in the future would undoubtedly provide a unique source of information for research into this late Pleistocene period The richness of materials at the site and the diversity of structures linked to the use and habitation of the cave will make a valuable contribution to our understanding of the lifestyles of the hunter gatherers at the end of the Palaeolithic in the transit to the Mesolithic 100 metres high into the coast of Burela the result of the geo morphological process of tilting Altogether this sector provides one of the most relevant habitability areas at the moment of the rst human population arrival to the North of the Iberian Peninsula Several rivers in the region ow into this platform More precisely along their uvial terraces different settlements from this period have been documented Numerous characteristics provide this area with excellent habitability conditions it is an area where movement is easy and it offers a very rich hunting area with plenty of water Some of the most important and well known Lower Paleolithic sites such rea de Prehistoria Dpto de Historia Universidad de Oviedo Campus de El Mil n 33011 Oviedo adolfo uniovi es
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  52  role ...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE chopping tools and a minimal presence of small akes and cores They are primitive type materials made with elemental technology and poorly de ned shape Based on the chronological interpretations of other similar uvial deposits in the area dated around interglacial MIS 11 and the recent ndings of lithic assemblages a minimum relative chronology can be established for level V of Cabo Busto corresponding with MIS 13 11 between 500 and 300 ky during the Acheulean period Figure 1 Stratigraphy of Cabo Busto excavation showing the two archaeological levels II and V as Ba ugues Tenrero and Louselas are located at this coastal platform The Esvariveror Canero river running along the lower part of the rasa before owing into the Cantabrian Sea is responsible for the transportation of the geological deposits where the oldest human occupation remains have been found Thus it seems quite likely that this archaeological nding would not have been in situ but that they have been swept along the oodplains The earliest level or Busto V has been ascribed to the Middle Pleistocene Fig 1 It is the oldest archaeological level documented in Asturias and represents the rst human occupation in uvial terraces of the Cantabrian region In the rst archaeological eldwork the technotypological sequence could not have been de ned due to the scarce number of lithic items However in a recent rescue excavation carried out in 2013 due to refurbishment in a nearby pond a large collection of lithic materials were retrieved and the old archaeological stratigraphy was also identi ed The lithic assemblage still under study is composed primarily of massive pieces of end products crude bifacial tools large retouched akes without a clear typology Once these deposits settled down ponds emerged in the landscape and precisely at the edge of the water reservoir remains of human occupation have been found This evidence corresponds to level II in the archaeological sequence of Cabo Busto and techno morphologically have been dated in the Upper Acheulean that in Asturias region has a relative chronological span corresponding to the Riss W rm interglacial Fig 1 Level II offers different lithic assemblages made of another type of quartzite the Ordovician quartzite the most common variety together with the ne grained sandstone that was used for lithic reduction in the Acheulean both in this site and the whole settlements in Asturias This type of raw material produces crude and primitive artefacts in contrast to ne grained quartzite it is extremely tough and very dif cult when knapping but that produces very accurate tools Typologically and technologically the lithic collection is more elaborated and has a better shaped nish Among the tools we can identify a broad set of medium size subtriangular or amygdaloidal shape bifaces also a broad and rich collection of cleavers knapped from large akes that predetermined their morphology very few trihedral picks and a signi cant set of small size ake tools like notched and denticulate akes a wide number of scrapers Mousterian points and even if they are scarce some tools obtained using llevallois techniques like piercing tools knives and retouched artefacts The few core are just pebbles although some prepared core also appear The paucity of any kind of pebble tools proves that it was employed in a speci c cha ne op ratoire aimed at producing bifacial artefacts and primary ake blank The small size of the cores and the low frequency of preparation techniques reinforce that fact 53
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  chopping tools and a minimal presence of small    akes and cores. They are primitive ...
54 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD ping intentionally Closely related with the above mentioned uniformity comes a low functional specialization Most of the lithic tools are polyvalent and might have been used in multiple various and sometimes opposed functions These lithic assemblages can be better described as polyfunctional artifacts although some groups such as notches and denticulates could point out certain degrees of specialization Figure 2 Cha ne op ratoire of Cabo Busto site The sourcing of raw materials would be available at the same platform where outcrops of quartzite and sandstone can be found Also although exceptionally the nearby beaches can provide large pebbles and blocks for producing thick tools such as bifaces and cleavers The cha ne op ratoire of Cabo Busto is simple highly uniform and with a low functional specialization Its simplicity can be observed in the technical processes of production since the shape of pebbles determines the type and morphology of the tools Concerning the high uniformity the low technical and morphological variability indicates low diversity Types are repeated and the unique variations are the result of the raw material characteristics more than the product of knap Therefore the cha ne op ratoire of Cabo Busto site is characterized by the immediacy of the strategies in the knapping process and the use of tools and by the localism of raw material procurement and distribution strategies Immediacy and localism can be observed in the sourcing knapping and use of lithic artefacts The catchment area of cobbles and pebbles can be found at the same site Once the large blanks are transported to the campsite ake debitage and nishing tools are used at the campsite as well Finally tool use would have also occurred at the campsite and we think that most of the tools were produced to obtain new tools made not of stone but of perishable materials such as wood In short at the Cabo Busto platform an archaeological sequence with two different prehistoric levels has been identi ed Busto II and Busto V The rst one corresponds to the Upper Acheulean and presents similar characteristics to other known sites at the Asturian wave cut such as Ba uges Tenrero and Louselas The second level represents so far the only case of Middle Pleistocene human occupation at the Northern Iberian Peninsula Also the different raw materials employed allows discernment of both levels as unambiguously different episodes being ne grained quartzite used in the early occupation and Ordovician quartzite used by the Acheulean population Rodr guez Asensio 2001
54  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  ping ...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE F Bernaldo de Quiros A Neira Campos J M Maillo Fern ndez El Castillo cave 1 Introduction El Castillo cave is in the Puente Viesgo municipality Cantabria on the hill of the same name near the La Pasiega Las Monedas and Las Chimeneas sites This series of decorated sites makes Castillo Hill the largest known set of Palaeolithic art The cave was discovered by H Alcalde del Rio in 1903 Archaeological sediment covered the entire current entrance area forcing early explorers to enter on their hands and knees Fig 1 A H Alcalde del Rio s rst excavations unearthed the Magdalenian levels A subsequently visit by Prince Albert I of Monaco led the recently established Institut de Paleontologie Humaine to commission H Breuil and H Obermaier along with H Alcalde del Rio to conduct new excavations from 1910 until 1914 During this time they discovered a long stratigraphy ranging from the Lower Palaeolithic to the Metal Ages one of the longest known sequences in Europe This succession of levels was largely responsible for H Breuil s rst outline of his subsequent subdivisions of the Upper Palaeolithic 2 Exploration of El Castillo cave El Castillo cave is one of the longest known archaeological sequences with a complete succession of Palaeolithic occupations which have been subdivided into 25 units These include Lower and Middle Palaeolithic archaeological units Mousterian Unit 20 to Unit 26 and all the complexes of the Upper Palaeolithic one Figure 1 Plan of El Castillo cave Transitional Aurignacian Unit 18 Early Aurignacian Unit 16 two Gravettian Unit 14 and 12 one Solutrean Unit 10 one Cantabrian Lower Magdalenian Unit 8 one Upper Magdalenian Unit 6 and one Azilian Unit 4 The total depth of the sequence was calculated by H Obermaier to be 18 to 20 m Fig 2 The stratigraphy included sterile archaeologically interlayers which isolated the series of occupations from each other Obviously one of the problems for the initial study of the site was the system used in 1910 14 Contemporary documents show that H Obermaier collected the material in geological strata which contained the rea de Prehistoria Universidad de Le n Campus de Vegazana Le n 26071 fberg unileon es Dpto Prehistoria y Arqueolog a UNED C Paseo Senda del rey 7 28040 Madrid 43 17 32 N 3 57 53 W Zona 30 X 421 678 Y 4 793 734 55
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  F. Bernaldo de Quiros   A. Neira Campos   J.M. Maillo Fern  ndez     El Castillo cave...
56 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Unit 16 Figure 2 Stratigraphy of El Castillo cave same type of sediment and also archaeological vestiges corresponding to a particular cultural unit Obermaier 1914 1925 As a result some layers such as the Azilien and Solutrean pose no dif culties for analysis while others evidenced a high density of occupations which in a modern excavation would represent a process of gradual industrial transformation within certain cultural units This is the case of Upper Magdalenian Unit 6 When H Obermaier sketched out the stratigraphy he clearly showed two levels of hearths as con rmed by Oxford AMS dating see below 3 New excavations After analysing the documents and materials from the old excavation Cabrera 1984 in 1980 we began to clear the debris and vegetation from the cave entrance Since then we have continued to study the stratigraphy and the site with an interdisciplinary team led by V Cabrera and F Bernaldo de Quir s since 2004 by the latter After uncovering what was left of the site we found that the layers with the best potential for complete analysis corresponded to the sequence ranging from the rst Upper Palaeolithic occupations Obermaier s Units 16 and 18 to the base This 5 m high series spreads out from the cave and contains a high density of materials Moreover it is isolated by 40 cm of silt from the Middle Palaeolithic occupations The material culture in Unit 16 is small in number but in qualitative terms can be included without dif culty in the Archaic Aurignacian technocomplex The lithological set is predominated by ne grained quartzite followed at a great distance by int coarse grained quartzite or quartz There are two sets of lithic technology systems laminar and akes Laminar schemes are divided into prismatic operative schemes and carinated scrapers and carinated burins Cabrera Vald s et al 2002 As in other Archaic Aurignacian complexes in the region there was a continuity in the exploitation of prismatic cores which began with the production of blades and ended with bladelets Both items are rectilinear with little curvature and in the latter case lack torsion This feature is the same in the bladelets produced by the other above mentioned schemes In the case of the most common scheme carinated scrapers the extraction surface is broad and hence the supports are broad straight and lack torsion Flakes are scarce but characterized by a discoidal type of production Typologically Dufour bladelets standard with quite minor or denticulate retouch account for 26 of the total followed by substrate items 14 The scrapers are Aurignacian and one busqu type of burin stands out Unit 18 Stratigraphically Unit 18 was subdivided into 18a 18b 18c It lies between two sterile 17 and 19 units which are the result of two collapses of the cave cornice Unit 19 seals Unit 20 Middle Palaeolithic It consists of a large fan of big blocks which form an external buttress on top of which are loam sand clays yellowish brown with horizontal furrows in some cases due to runoff marked by discontinuous layers of gravel and sand in the same clay matrix Above this sediment are levels 18b and 18c of variable depth depending on the zone in the cave Level 18c appears primarily in the longitudinal section It consists of black sub horizontal materials with very thin layers
56  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Unit ...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE 2010 This interpretation is also supported by its marginal location in the cave and the high proportion of lithic microdebris in comparison with the items discovered Level 18b consists of a dense concentration of bones along with lithic industry predominantly limestone as well as quartzite and sandstone hammerstones and a smaller number of quartzite and int akes The fauna largely consists of cranial elements jawbones and remains of axial skeletons which leads us to interpret this as a primary processing site for animal remains with large easy replaceable tools Limestone is ideal raw material for this purpose Both levels have a brown clay matrix characterized by a greater abundance of organic matter and less detrital calcareous elements than Unit 19 They contain medium sized angular limestone blocks scattered or in irregular groups resulting from para sedimentary rockfalls The sterile level 18a possibly indicative of the point prior to the rockfall sits above these levels The lithic industry found in these levels is consistent with the material collected by H Obermaier although the difference in the occupied areas must not be overlooked In both sub levels the retouching material consists of endscrapers both simple and carinated and few burins primarily dihedral Material found in the substrate such as sidescrapers and denticulates is also important Aurignacian blades on laminar akes common in the Cantabria region are also present Raw materials include different varieties of quartzite and int Quantitatively however the predominant material is black Jurassic limestone exogenous to the cave found in large boulders in the surrounding valleys This material has a high degree of alteration particularly in excavated sector 18c In 18b it is almost all in the form of debris cores and akes amongst faunal remains However some of the least altered sectors of level 18c have yielded a carinated scraper and a dihedral burin permitting the supposition that part of the abundant material made unrecognizable by subsequent alteration may have been characteristic tools Technologically lithic production is predominated by discoidal operational schemes with two well de ned methods unifacial and bifacial D bitage began with the extraction of cortical akes in two directions chordal and centripetal It is curious to note that the negatives of the thinner cores not as sharp as the thicker ones because secant exploitation is not possible in the former and are thus produced in a sub parallel direction to the crest separating either side of the core This makes the nal shape of the core quite similar morphologically to recurrent centripetal Levallois cores The technique used throughout the d bitage sequence is direct percussion with a hard hammerstone A more discrete laminar operational scheme has been identi ed in the case of bladelets and akelets from burin like or unipolar pseudo prismatic ne grained quartzite cores Blades were produced from limestone using prismatic and carinated burin schemes and to a lesser extent from carinated scrapers The technique was direct percussion with hard and also soft hammerstones The bone industry is scarce but signi cant On level 18c we found two distal fragments of staghorn speartips a bone fragment shhook resembling those found on the Aurignacian levels and an awl on a horn ake In addition an antler handle was discovered on 18b Tejero et al 2005 Tejero and Bernaldo de Quir s 2008 Fig 3 The discovery of this bone industry enables these levels to be linked to H Obermaier s digs in particular his Aurignacian D V Cabrera s Unit 18 where the set of ten spears and several bones with marks was found Cabrera Vald s 1984 Level 18c also yielded evidence of symbolism with a distal fragment of a chisel bearing a series of short rectilinear incisions on the left edge of the upper face oriented transversely to the longitudinal axis of the item Cabrera et al 2001 Figure 3 Handle from level 18b 57
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  2010 . This interpretation is also supported by its marginal location in the cave and...
58 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD We also found a mesial fragment of an ungulate metapod bearing a series of incisions on the upper face three deep marks with an irregular contour two of them parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the item while the third is in a divergent oblique direction More interesting is a at bone fragment with lines painted on its upper side which form a gurative representation interpreted as an animal head facing the right side of the preserved fragment SEM composition analysis detected the presence of natural graphite Level 18b includes several items most notably a proximal fragment of a hyoid bone possibly from Cervus elaphus with lines scratched and painted in black on its upper face Cabrera et al 2001 Tejero et al 2005 Tejero et al 2008 The theme has been interpreted as an animal foreleg Analysis of the pigments in the painted lines indicates the presence of manganese suggesting that it was drawn with the same manganese pencil used for the incision which left the marks found inside the groove Interestingly this is not a unique case The use of instruments to scratch and draw at the same time has been detected in several gures at the cave in Chauvet The same level has yielded a triangular sandstone ake with four lines etched on the attest surface of one of the faces while the dorsal face has a natural concavity The incisions have a U section and seem to have been made with the thick edge of a stone tool The two levels of this Unit have been attributed to a transitional Aurignacian an industrial complex which for us is the oldest phase of the Upper Palaeolithic comparable to others such as Ch telperronian Jermanovician Bohunician Neronian etc regardless of the human species which may have produced them Many Mousterian elements are still present here but new traits appear possibly indicating the presence of groups of modern humans and the ensuing crisis in the Middle Palaeolithic These complexes may therefore be considered as transition industries which show different local solutions to an early presence of new populations sionally characterized as Mousterian One characteristic of its industry on almost every level is lithic production using discoidal schemes in bifacial and unifacial modes The Levallois methods are present on some levels such as 20e focused on the production of laminar akelets or bladelets S nchez Fern ndez and Bernaldo de Quir s 2008 There is also a small output of blades from Levallois cores and also from unipolar cores Some of these cores bear evidence of alternating bifacial retouch The lithic industry on level 20e is characterized typologically by an average index of sidescrapers few denticulates and little Quina retouch It can be classi ed as standard Mousterian Our new excavation work has also found similar cleavers on ake to those unearthed in the old digs These items led F Bordes to describe the Mousterian levels of this and other Cantabrian assemblages as vasconian although the entity of the facies was refuted for the Spanish sites Unit 21 Although the study of this Unit is still in a preliminary state it has yielded one item which can be interpreted from a symbolic perspective a 5 7 cm long quartzite pebble decorated with a line of four pitted points on its outer face and a fth one above them in the centre of the line Cabrera et al 2004 Bernaldo de Quir s 2006 Fig 4 The nature of the pittings precludes any functional interpretation Unit 20 Unit 20 still under analysis has been divided into 20 a b 20c 20d and 20e It can be provi Figure 4 Decorated pebble from Level 21
58  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  We al...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE 4 Chronology One of the fundamental missions in our review of the cave was to de ne a time frame for each of the cultural assemblages in the stratigraphy We now have datings for almost all the units in the cave mainly from bones sampled from the same cut during the 2002 clearing process or the material at the American Museum of Natural History where several boxes of sediment samples including archaeological material were archived in the 1920 s Four us this collection is a time capsule since the attributions of the archaeological units were de ned by Obermaier himself In other cases especially in Units 18 and 20 samples were taken during our excavations For the Upper Magdalenian present in Unit 6 datings by I Barandarian for art objects are 10 310 120 BP for the upper sub level and 12 390 220 BP for the lower sub level Barandiaran 1988 However a rhinoceros remain from this Unit has been dated at 31 800 600 showing that fossil collection is older than it might seem Bernaldo de Quir s et al 2006 For Unit 8 attributed to the Cantabrian Lower Magdalenian with its characteristic scapula etched with deer heads and strong connections to rock art there are two datings both unpublished One is a bone fragment dated at 15 540 70 BP Beta 242618 found in the stratigraphy during the 2002 clearing process while the other is from a selected scapula fragment held at the IPH which yielded 15 160 70 BP Beta 242620 Both dates are close to those obtained at other sites from scapulae etched with deer heads To learn more about the Unit 10 dates we sent a sample from the American Museum of Natural History collection to BETA Analytic which returned a date of 19 260 90 Beta 242619 The same process was repeated with the Gravettian units The dates for Unit 12 ranged from 24 070 BP to 25 920 BP and for Unit 14 29 600 BP and 29 740 BP Bernaldo de Quir s et al 2012 Due to complexity of Units 18 and 20 and the implications for their organization a series of extremely important datings for the reinterpretation of the Middle Upper Palaeolithic Transition were done Most were in AMS C14 and ESR at three laboratories Tucson Oxford and Gif sur Yvette Cabrera Vald s and Bischoff 1989 Cabrera Vald s et al 1996 The specimens were taken from different zones of the site and different excavation seasons all independent from each other Material from the National Archaeological Museum in Madrid and the AMNH was also dated Despite the relatively large number of samples the diversity of laboratories and the methods used all results are quite consistent We currently have over 20 datings between 40 000 and 45 000 BP for Unit 18 We also have C14 datings for Unit 20 most ESR All are staggered between 41 000 and 49 000 BP Liberda et al 2010 For Unit 22 there is one ESR dating at 59 100 BP and for Unit 23 a stagmitic crust which seals the base sections Units 24 25 and 26 there are two 89 000 and 92 200 BP Rink et al 1995 1997 5 Resource management The management of the resources used by the populations who occupied El Castillo cave is another of the interests that have driven our work The possibilities afforded by a site of this nature cannot be ignored One of the research lines at the site has been the changes in resource and land use We rst did an analysis of the fauna seasonality since the information about the season when the animals were hunted down and their age is taken from the growth marks on their teeth For the El Castillo site we selected 159 deer teeth the most numerous species from levels 18b 18c Transitional Aurignacian 20a 20b and 20c Mousterian with cleavers The most relevant results are that during the Mousterian animals were captured from late autumn until spring Pike Tay et al 1999 During the Transitional Aurignacian they were hunted from winter and throughout spring All ages are present in both cases with more young adults suggesting similar fauna resource management solutions in both cases centred on the winter which is consistent with an aggregation model in which the individuals in the group shared their resources at this time of year Several studies of the fauna are currently under way to check these results and expand our knowl 59
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  4. Chronology One of the fundamental missions in our review of the cave was to de   n...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 60 edge about the lifestyles of the human groups at this exciting time 6 Conclusions The El Castillo cave site is one of the most important records of the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic on the Iberian Peninsula and indeed in Europe The presence of a stratigraphy represent Mario Men ndez Gerd Christian Weniger David lvarez Alonso1 Mar a de Andr s Herrero Eduardo Garc a Jes s F Jord Martin Kehl Julio Rojo Jos M Quesada Isabell Schmidh La Cueva de la G elga Cangas de On s Asturias Introduction La Cueva de la G elga whose name in the local language refers to wet and shady sites opens to the heart of a limestone mountain valley forming a cul de sac A stream ows from the current cave aperture and has con gurated a karst system with corresponding terrace drain caverns that were successively occupied during the Middle and Upper Paleolithic This group of rock shelters and caves has been divided into different sectors for investigation which has developed from 1989 to the present A B and C areas are located on the lower terrace occupied during the Magdalenian and Solutrean At the top is D sector with occupations attributed to Ch telperronian Aurignacian and Mousterian This valley closed in itself has provided numerous lithic remains in surfaces mostly attributable to Mode 3 surely exponents of intense and prolonged occupations It is located 200 m above sea level and along with Buxu and Azules caves is a core site in the middle reaches ing all stages of human presence dating back more than 300 000 years enables a wide range of working hypotheses to be tested both historically and in other disciplines palaeontology climatology etc Our studies have focused on the transition period from the Middle to the Upper Palaeolithic They have contributed several aspects that challenge and indeed will continue to challenge current views This con rms the importance of the site and the opportunities it presents of the Sella River territorially linked with other coast sites 15 km away around the Ribadesella Bay Men ndez 2003 Areas A B and C Upper Paleolithic Located around the current cave entrance they show remains of an intense Solutrean occupation swept by the river into the karst The only evidence from the upper Solutrean industry also present in neighboring Buxu Cave are gap vestiges attached to the wall of the shelter and in situ layer Area C with notch points and concave bases Also A and C were excavated and assigned to Cantabrian Lower Magdalenian or Magdalenian III occupation from the so called Juyofacies The lithic and especially the bone industry display the existence of a group of hunters specialized in deer 55 chamois 24 and goats 20 probably during the middle months of the year spring summer which left at layer 3 an excellent collection of art mobilier The hyoid hanging of deer must be highlighted decorated assegai Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueolog a Universidad Nacional de Educaci n a Distancia Ciudad Universitaria Paseo Senda del Rey 7 E 28040 Madrid Spain mmenendez geo uned es dalvarez gijon uned es egarciasmail gmail com jjorda geo uned es juliorojo juliorojo jazztel es jmquesada geo uned es Neanderthal Museum Talstr 300 40822 Mettmann Germany schmidt neanderthal de weniger neanderthal de University of Cologne Institute of Prehistoric Archaeology Albertus Magnus Platz 50923 Cologne Germany mdeandres neanderthal de University of Cologne Institute of Geography Albertus Magnus Platz 50923 Cologne Germany kehlm uni koeln de
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  60  edge ...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE and bones emphasizing an adult deer tibia fragment three heads of the same animal synchronously recorded all done with fresh bone but with very different styles and conventions This occupation of the late Magdalenian is well dated around to 14 key BP Fig 1 results Jord et al 2013 Men ndez et al 2014 We will summarize the current geoarchaeological results and hypotheses in future work The geoarcheological D sector sequence from La G elga comprises a series of levels generated by both anthropogenic and natural processes These natural processes detected by the sedimentological analysis highlight the gravitational collapse of large blocks gelifraction and diffuse gullies of very low energy Jord Pardo et al 2013 The micromorphologic analysis of D interior area identi es features that indicate the nature in situ of both the Mousterian L9 and Aurignacian L5 L6 levels whereas in the Ch telperronian levels L1 and L2 the traits indicated were emplaced by processes of creep after a roof block fall and aren t signi cantly compacted by trampling Chronological invertion seems to con rm this hypothesis D Interior The sequence excavated so far consists of nine archaeological layers deposited in slope Fig 2 into the cave under a strong surface layer S1 and S2 Quesada and Men ndez 2009 Jord et al 2013 Figure 1 Engraved Magdalenian tibia Area D Transition MP UP In the middle terrace around11 m above the current stream bed appears a cave entrance excavated since 2000 which was lled in by debris from a collapsed cornice that fell and formed a slope Overall nine archaeological layers were excavated inside the shelter which we have called D interior The result was a Ch telperronian Aurignacian Mousterian sequence separated by periods of collapse and abandonment of the cavern Quesada and Men ndez 2009 As stratigraphic variations in certain areas were observed and the Aurignacian interlayer was the utmost interest to the transition paradigm MP UP in 2005 a new excavation zone was determined to be opened on the outdoor terrace under the large blocks of the old collapsed shelter This area which has been called D exterior provided intense Mousterian occupation In 2012 in collaboration with the Neanderthal Museum in Mettmann and the University of Cologne Germany led by G Ch Weniger micromorphological analysis of D zone was done on interior and exterior levels to contrast them with the sedimentological Ch telperronian L1 and L2 Layers 1 and 2 form a sedimentological unit in slope into the cave interior It was only useful for excavation 3 7 m2 A int laminar industry was found having noted the presence of two Ch telperron points and another assemblage of quartzite akes such as scrapers and denticulates The presence of lithic manufactured the absence of bone artifacts and 14C studies Table 1 encouraged us to de ne this set as Ch telperronian considering the possible underlying Aurignacian as an interstra cation Recent dating of the lower level L5 and sedimentological and microstratigraphic analysis carried out by the University of Cologne does not ensure that this level is in situ Under level 2 a fringe of stone blocks detached from the shelter and a layer of clay and silt appear from the outside Levels 3 and 4 are almost sterile Aurignacian L5 and L6 Under a line of stone blocks L5 appears a clay layer L6 shown in situ by the sedimentological and microstratigraphic analyses This unit has provided a few anthropic remains although very typical The lithic assemblage mostly laminar is made on int and quartzite There are nosed scrapers one Aurignacian blade and retouched akes Regarding bone industry several attened oval section awls were found a moothed mesial fragment of assegai and one deer phalanx whistle The chronology pend 61
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  and bones emphasizing an adult deer tibia fragment, three heads of the same animal sy...
62 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 2 Overall stratigraphy of la Cueva de la G elga ing new dates places it into 38ky calBP Despite the reduced sample the homogeneity and conventional characters of the assemblage the absence of contradictory elements preliminary dating and stratigraphic position indicate an undoubted Aurignacian presence Below this layer a long period of cave abandonment L7 and L8 is documented Mousterian It is represented in D interior by level 9 showing intense human presence evident in combustion remains wealth lithic industry Mode 3 with Levallois pieces and animals bones with eshing traces as well as the possibility of setting spatial occupation patterns This inside occupation matches on open air the terrace level with the 4B layer from D exterior Both have provided a typically Mousterian lithic accumulation consisting of local quartzite akes retouched denticulate and scrapers as well as Levallois points All phases of the operational chain are present mostly discoid and also Levallois Scarce ints remain Pilo a type show relationships with other sites such as Sidr n cave in the same river basin Premolar 15 and several human dental fragments with Neanderthal morphology were found The14C dating with pretreatment by ultra ltration OxA places this occupation in the period 55 44 ky in OIS 3c between H6 and H4 events Men ndez et al 2009 Quesada and Men ndez 2009 Jord et al 2013 The fauna recovered around 70 000 remains show deer 66 and chamois 31 predominance along with uncommon species and diverse ecosystems such as mammoth Mammuthus primigenius panther P pardus megaloceros rhino wolf boar etc suggesting a recurrent and prolonged use of the site by the Neanderthal populations of the River Sella basin Conclusions 1 The assignment Ch telperronian sediments L1 and L2 are displaced Their sedimento
62  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Zone Level Culture Material Procedure Code BP Date Deviation Indoor D 2 Ch telperronian Bone with marks AMS untra ltration COL2014 37429 Indoor D 2 Ch telperronian Bone with marks AMS untra ltration OxA 27958 Indoor D 5 Aurignacian Bone with marks AMS untra ltration Indoor D 9 Mousterian Bone with marks Indoor D 9 Mousterian Outdoor D 4b Outdoor D 95 probability calibrate Date CalPal 2007 Hulu INTCAL 13 302 42780 41460 calBP 42320 41400 calBP 40300 1200 45910 42070 calBP 45890 42090 calBP Beta377233 33610 220 41730 35570 calBP 38720 37200 calBP AMS untra ltration OxA 19244 43700 800 49020 44540 calBP 48740 45300 calBP Bone with marks AMS untra ltration OxA 19245 44300 1200 50660 44380 calBP Out range calibration Mousterian Bone with marks AMS untra ltration OxA 20122 47400 2700 Out range calibration Out range calibration 4b Mousterian Bone with marks AMS untra ltration OxA 20123 43200 Outdoor D 4b Mousterian Bone with marks AMS untra ltration OxA 20124 48500 3500 Out range calibration Out range calibration Outdoor D 4b Mousterian Bone with marks AMS untra ltration OxA 20125 43600 Table 1 Datations of Cueva de la G elga calBP before an intense Mousterian occupation 45 48 ky calBP logical quality is not enough to defend such a signi cant hypothesis as interlayer Aurignacian Future work should pursue an explanation for their stratigraphic position and timing 42 45 ky calBP 3 There is a long period of abandonment between Aurignacian and Mousterian occupations 7 10 ky 2 There is an Aurignacian presence with little information but with a timeline around 38 ky 4 The lower Magdalenian occupation provided an excellent collection of portable art 63
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Zone  Level  Culture  Material  Procedure  Code  BP Date  Deviation  Indoor D  2    C...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 64 M Soledad Corch n Rodr guez La Cueva de las Caldas Priorio Northern Spain 1 La Cueva de las Caldas in the context of the Nal n valley The Oviedo basin where La Cueva de las Caldas is located forms part of the central northern part of the Cantabrian region of Asturias and the western end of the central depression of Asturias It is a region of Mesozoic and tertiary materials extending towards the coast characterized by a landscape of deep karst modelling This territory forms the known limit of Cantabrian Upper Paleolithic deposits as Paleozoic rocks spread westwards to the western Asturias Leon area and no outdoor settlements are known In terms of geomorphology the surroundings of Las Caldas correspond to a depression whose evolution is linked to the encasement of the river Nal n The middle section of this valley the network of tributaries and streams that ow into the Nal n have formed a landscape of small sheltered valleys running laterally to the main valley in one of which the cave is located on the right bank of the river It consists of a karstic complex developed in mountain limestone Visean Namurian Lower Carboniferous composed of two connected cavities Caldas I and Caldas II structured in a complex network of galleries and channels over 1km long The main entrance Caldas I faces SWW and its geographic coordinates are 5 54 723 W 43 20 123 N 160 metres above sea level Towards the exit of Las Caldas valley 800 m from the site there are medicinal mineral hot springs that give the cave its name not far from it between 5 and 20 km away another eighteen springs with therapeutic properties are known At the end of the Pleistocene these circumstances in addition to the variety of ecosystems created by the signi cant contrasts in altitude generated a shelter environment with a wide range of ecosystems in the surroundings of Las Caldas high mountains Sierra del Aramo 8 km ways with peaks of 1 700 m low lying hills Pe a Avis 410 m and sheltered valleys This data helps to explain the large concentration of Palaeo lithic sites in the middle Nal n valley more than 20 caves and rock shelters occupied between the Aurignacian and Azilian 13 of them with parietal art In the main cavity Caldas I the cave preserves one of the most signi cant stratigraphic records of the Solutrean and Magdalenianin south east Europe The site has been open excavated to 24m2 representing all of the occupied topographic units Sala I Sala II Pasillo I and Corte exterior The stratigraphic sequence covers a time range of c 10 000 from the start of the regional Solutrean 24185 370 calBP Middle Solutrean to the Late Magdalenian 14936 342 calBP The thickest Solutrean stratigraphic units correspond to Sala I with 17 levels that cover the entire sequence of the Cantabrian Solutrean level 3 to base 19 Above this series are remains of eroded Magdalenian levels one of them Late Magdalenian level 2A Sala II however only preserves one Late Solutrean level level XIV resting on the limestone oor as the oldest levels were evacuated towards sala II when the hypogeum river A thick ller of 16 Magdalenian levels was deposited on this level with all of the stadials represented upper early and recent middle upper and late Magdalenian This deposit covers from the Lascaux interstadial to the Aller d and to date the levels there are 26 dating results14C Table 1 2 The Solutrean stratigraphy of Caldas I and the outdoor engravings The Solutrean record of Las Caldas is a reference in the Cantabrian region but its conditions of preservation are not the same in the 4 areas excavated The outer hall altered by the collapse of the overhang that covered the entrance only preserves one Upper Solutrean level level III the same applies to Sala II with just one level level XIV In the Pasillo and Sala I although the levels do not always coincide the record is very extensive levels 3 18 and 3 base 19 respectively Chair in Prehistory University of Salamanca Department of Prehistory c Cervantes s n 37002 Salamanca Spain scorchon usal es
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  64  M   S...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Lab Ref C BP 14 CalBP_CalPal 2007 HULU 68 range calBP Level Sector Classi cation Ua 15318 20250 235 AMS 24185 370 23814 24555 15 Sala I Middle Solutreen Ly 2428 19510 330 23340 468 22872 23808 16 Topera Middle Solutreen Ly 2426 19480 260 23296 413 22882 23709 12b Pasillo Middle Solutreen Ly 2425 19030 320 22857 404 22452 23261 12t Pasillo Middle Solutreen Ly 2429 19000 280 22843 379 22464 23222 18 Topera Middle Solutreen Ly 2424 19390 260 23199 398 22801 23597 9 Pasillo Upper Solutreen Ly 2423 18310 260 21960 388 21571 22348 7 Pasillo Upper Solutreen Ua 15316 18305 295 AMS 21949 412 21537 22361 11 Sala I Upper Solutreen Ua 15315 17945 370 AMS 21541 603 20938 22144 9 Sala I Upper Solutreen Ua 4302 17380 215 AMS 20837 358 20478 21195 XIVc Sala II End of the Solutreen Ly 2422 17050 290 20405 495 19910 20900 4 Pasillo End of the Solutreen Ly 2421 18250 300 21904 424 21480 22328 3 Pasillo End of the Solutreen Ua 4301 15165 160 AMS 18324 273 18051 18597 XIII Sala II Lower Magdalenian Ua 4300 14835 130 AMS 18156 282 17874 18438 XII inf Sala II Lower Magdalenian Ua 2735 14495 140 AMS 17635 282 17353 17917 XII Sala II Lower Magdalenian Ua 2734 13755 120 AMS 16881 230 16651 17111 XI Sala II Lower Magdalenian Ua 10188 13370 110 AMS 16297 436 15860 16733 IX Sala II Middle Magdalenian Ua 10189 13640 150 AMS 16604 393 16211 16997 VIII Sala II Middle Magdalenian Ly 2936 13310 200 16220 475 15745 16695 VIII Sala II Middle Magdalenian Ly 3318 12869 160 15571 512 15059 16083 VII Sala II Middle Magdalenian Ua 10190 13650 140 AMS 16641 363 16277 17004 VIc Sala II Middle Magdalenian Ly 2427 13400 150 16314 454 15860 16768 IV III Sala II Middle Magdalenian Ua 10191 13185 155 AMS 16114 441 15672 16555 IIIb IIIc Sala II Middle Mag Upper Mag Ua 10192 12960 190 AMS 15775 529 15245 16304 II Sala II Upper Magdalenian Ua 10193 12595 125 AMSA 14936 342 14594 15278 I Sala II Upper Magdalenian Ua 10194 12590 120 AMS 14931 337 14593 15268 II Sala II Upper Magdalenian Table 1 Cueva de Las Caldas radiocarbon dates Weninger B J ris O Danzeglocke U 2007 Calpal Cologne University Radiocarbon Calibration Package 65
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Lab. Ref..  C BP  14  CalBP_CalPal 2007-HULU  68  range calBP   Level   Sector  Class...
66 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Another relevant aspect is the existence of linear and ideomorph engravings on the right wall next to the entrance and lit by the daylight The Solutrean engravings are deep linear grooves in a regular series Their stratigraphic dating in the Middle Solutrean is of additional interest as they are split by a fracture line and there are large blocks from the collapse of the right wall which occurred during the deposit of level 15 according to the excavation carried out in Pasillo I In the middle of the Pasillo area the Solutrean engravings are replaced by Magdalenian engravings the most recent fusiform overlapping others of ne multiple lines with claviformideomorphs and a female styling A large quartzite plaquette engraved with a similar fusiform from the base of the Middle Magdalenian is a solid chronological reference for the former overlapping the rest Corch n et al 2009a initial Cantabrian Solutrean middle of the European sequence is dated at 24185 370 calBP AMS level 15 camber I 23340 468 23296 413 and 22857 404 calBP ordinary C14 levels 16 base 12 and ceiling 12 corridor 2 1 Characterisation of the Solutrean levels At the beginning of the Upper Solutrean the previous very wet conditions continued Sala I levels 12 11 but as it progressed the climate turned very cold and wet GS 2c the levels near the entrance present cryoturbation levels 9 8 and cold steppe fauna appears throughout the section levels 9 4 mammoth and reindeer It is dated at 23199 398 and 21904 424 calBP levels 9 and 7 The Late Solutrean returns dates of 20837 358 calBP for Sala II AMS n XIVc a similar date to those obtained for the Pasillo levels 4 3 more altered due to their proximity to the entrance During this disposition the climate is extremely wet and cold with ooding processes and partial erosion of the deposits The excavations reveal that based on current data they are the oldest base levels on the Cantabrian coast They were deposited under very wet and cold conditions in the Late Glacial Maximum LGM levels base 19 19 18 As the Middle Solutrean progressed the environment changed to mild and very wet GI 2 with intermittent episodes of ooding in which the cave was abandoned These are the conditions recorded for levels 17 to 13 Sala I and 17 to 11 pasillo I This The fauna in the Solutrean levels is very abundant 84 465 remains 14 579 of which can be identi ed according to the authors of the study Altuna and Mariezkurrena it is the richest record of Solutrean remain in the Iberian Peninsula There are a large number of anthropic alterations fracture marks related to obtaining bone marrow and stripping the esh or carving in all levels demonstrating that the vast majority of the ungulates were contributed by humans Figure 1 Karstic complex Caldas I and II Stratigraphy of Sala II
66  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Anoth...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE The dominant species among the macro mammals in the 17 Solutrean levels is deer 65 This is followed by horse which at the start of the Middle Solutrean exceeds 20 level base 19 although its presence is minimum 3 4 6 in the Upper and late Solutrean levels 8 and 4 5 Then the mountain goat exceeds and equals the horse in some levels in the centre of the sequence and the chamois absent in the Middle Solutrean increases its presence towards the end levels 4 5 18 9 There are some roe remains in the Upper Solutrean Regarding bovine species they are represented throughout the sequence but the low number and fragmented remains do not allow us to determine whether they are aurochs or bison Reindeer are found at the beginning of the Upper Solutrean levels 12 11 10 and in a level from the middle level 15 but do not exceed 0 2 of the remains identi ed This scarcity is coherent with the general data for the Cantabrian region where its rarity is perceived in the sites located to the west Asturias while the frequency is higher in the territory more to the east Guip zcoa Las Caldas con rms this data given the richness of its fauna material and the fact that the majority of the sequence corresponds to a particularly cold period UMG Due to its relative rarity 20 remains of mammoth tooth are interesting which coincide with the most coldest phase of the Upper and Late Solutrean levels 9 8 7 and 3 and fragments of the tusk of this species were used as the raw material for making a rod level Middle Solutrean18 and portable art engraved tusk levels base 10 11 two pendants levels 9 and 8 Upper Solutrean The rst tooth remains were identi ed by E Aguirre and F Poplin and later by J Altuna In addition to the ungulates already mentioned the record is completed by remains of carnivores in the Middle and Upper Solutrean cave bear fox badger marten leopard and lynx Even scarcer are marmot rabbit a distal end of humorous from this animal shows incisions from removing the esh and hare 2 2 Solutrean level raw materials technology and industries The subsistence strategies of the Solutrean and Magdalenian groups in Las Caldas are similar in terms of extensive logistics mobility to procure exotic raw materials and exchange cultural items The Solutrean and Magdalenian portable art used unusual local minerals such as amber and lignite to make necklace beads The study of the lithic raw materials allows the traditional routes travelled and the extensive territo Figure 2 Upper Solutrean Layout of the fauna and laurelleaf blades of various sizes Sala I ries visited by the Palaeolithic groups in the Nal n in order to gather high quality siliceous rocks to be identi ed A Tarri o has identi ed fteen local siliceous rocks in Las Caldas including int lacustrine int Cenozoic Jurassic int Mesozoic carboniferous int from mountain limestone Paleozoic Barrios quartzite and Paleozoic rock crystal All of these are found in the vicinity of the cave between 2 and 15km away In addition to these the Solutrean and Magdalenian levels show high quality allochthonous int that constitute real lithological markers demonstrating that these materials were transported from distant source areas Corch n Mart nez and Tarri o 2009 These are Flysch int brought to the cave from Vizcaya Barrica and the French Pyrenees Bidache 150 and 300 km away Urbasa int Navarre from 380km away and Trevi o int lava 350km 67
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  The dominant species among the macro-mammals in the 17 Solutrean levels is deer    65...
68 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD from the cave Finally Chaloss int SW France has been identi ed the nearest source area of which is 550km away representing the most distant Palaeolithic siliceous rock known to date Later new allochthonous and local varieties have been identi ed one of them very suitable for laminar knapping Pilo a int transported to Las Caldas from the eastern basin of Oviedo 40 50 km away Tarri o et al 2013 The knapping technology and techniques applied to the Solutrean leaf shaped blades are known thanks to the discovery of numerous tools in various stages of reduction which have allowed two operational sequences to be reconstructed one for knapping laurel leaf blades and the other for notched points Corch n et al 2013a In the Middle Solutrean levels base 19 13 Sala I from the oldest levels the thin bifacial laurel leaf blades coexist often knapped using pressure aking and frequently in high quality foreign int Trevi o Urbasa Flysch with thick bifacial leaf shaped blades with a rounded base and irregular percussion aking in many cases discarded in the preliminary knapping phases A unique case is the use of tools that are barely operative due to their fragility three leaf shaped blades and a racloir delicately knapped in rock crystal level13 and 14 as well as a bifacial laurel leaf blade in int associated to a necklace consisting of 7 deer canines at the base of the sequence level base 19 However leaf shaped blades are only abundant in two levels 14 and 18 18 being scarce in the rest 3 5 5 Other characteristic types are points a face plane unifacial at retouch points which are often pieces in progress and leaf shaped racloirs for which foreign int was also reserved There is an abundance of retouched blades and scrapers 3 5 some on Solutrean blades always prevalent over few and mediocre burins To summarise even though the record is smaller than in other levels 440 tools due to the interruptions and washing caused by ooding in the Middle Solutrean domination of the technique is noticeable the laminar trend of tools and the widespread use of Solutrean pressure retouch which characterises the Upper Solutrean levels are not fully developed This is re ected in the many shapeless cores knapped in local quartzite and int and the high percentages of substrate also show lower technical expertise 25 recess denticulate and chipped tools and scrapers and the diverse tools 40 ake and other atypical retouched tools in all levels In the Upper Solutrean level12 7 chamberI the record is very rich 13 125 lithic materials recovered 1 049 of which are tools 8 and 96 cores 0 73 The structure of the common tools does not show any major changes compared to the previous stadial and there are even more scrapers than burins in all levels the percentages are similar Some thick leafshaped blades in quartzite discarded in the knapping process have been reused as burins Substrate still has a signi cant weight 14 6 19 as do retouched blades 4 62 9 09 The high rate of laminar ake is the most characteristic feature consistent with the abundance of leaf shaped blades knapped from large akes and laminar supports The laurel leaf willowleaf notched points and other leaf shapes in progress range between 43 and 38 revealing the boom in at retouch techniques across the section Laurelleaf blades unifacial and bifacial have very contrasting dimensions with varied techniques for attaching handles convex straight concave asymmetrical base revealing a high level of specialisation and their adaptation to different types of prey As regards the late Solutrean even though there is a large sample 5 036 remains it is considered less representative due to the erosion and ooding that occurred during and after the levels were deposited The tools 608 reach a high percentage 12 07 but this increase is due to the high rate of substrate The Scrapers Index Burins Index ratio is inverted in favour of the latter thick scrapers on ake appear and retouched blades are abundant particularly towards the end level 3 The number of leaf shaped blades decreases to 6 levels 3 6 in accordance with the process of gradually abandoning knapping of leafshaped blades in the late Solutrean in contrast with the Upper Solutrean 39 and 43 levels 10 and 8 respectively To sum up the late Solutrean levels XIV and 6 3 shows worsening of the lithic types with few laurel leaf blades akes with ne side retouches and combined tools scraper truncated blade burin truncated blade A few racloirs perforators denticulate tools and some atypical raclettes complete the tools Bone types which are scarce and uncharacteristic of the Middle Solutrean assegais rods and engraved smoothers and of the Late Solutrean some assegais awls demonstrate the creativity in the Upper Solutrean The assegais show different formats for attaching the handle bevelled bi point with central attening accompanied by rods and needles With these two unique pieces in the Cantabrian Solutrean have also been recovered a large spear thrower from antler 183 3 x 17 23 x 8 78 mm unique level 11c with a distal hook made by cutting and polishing and with the shaft not entirely polished and with traces of scraping and grooving and a notched point
68  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  from ...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE made of bone from the tibia of a deer preserved complete level 12 ceiling Corch n et al 2013b There are also many pendants made from various materials ivory slabs Upper Solutrean necklace beads in bone antler amber ivory and lignite Middle and Upper Solutrean with perforated bones and teeth and incisors in all levels 3 The Magdalenian sequence in Las Caldas 3 1 The Lower Magdalenian The period between 18324 273 and 16881 230 calBP is occupied by the Lower Magdalenian an extremely complex episode in the Cantabrian In La Cueva de las Caldas the sedimentology study shows that it corresponds to the transition between the Lascaux level XIII to very cold and wet conditions levels lower XII XII XI with erosive and soli uction processes and in one case with the sliding of the sediment section level lower XII Fig 1 According to Altuna and Mariezkurrena the ungulate fauna is dominated by Cervus elaphus 40 in all levels reaching 61 and 80 lower XII and XIII This is followed closely by Equus ferus with a large number of remains in all levels If we assess the meat supplied by the horse its importance grows in the Lower Magdalenian reaching 70 in some levels level XII XI However goat roe and chamois have a low presence as do bovine aurochs bison These only have a signi cant presence in levels XIII and lower XII 4 3 and 4 6 of remains Obviously these values increase if we look at the meat supplied as it is a large animal that supplies an abundance of meat As data of particular interest level lower XII contained a Coelodonta antiquitatis remain The Rangifer tarandusis present in levels XII and lower XII 2 and 1 remains respectively and one antler from level XII in accordance with the aforementioned harshness of the environment Roe appears in both levels later cf Among the nonungulates wolf fox and marmot are just as rare The four levels show industries with similar characteristics facies of the west of Asturias with more laminar tools and better fracturing than those in the centre of the region eastern Cantabria Asturias facies Juyo Of particular interest are the selection of high quality allochthonous int for laminar knapping the large number of burins on blades retouched blades back edge bladelets and scalene triangles which exceed 40 of the total in some levels The bone industry shows various types of assegai single bevelled and grooved rods and needles and many bone objects show line pairs series of parallel lines indents and other engraved symbols The gurative subject is limited to an antler engraved with deer and a horse with a synthetic design in level XII Corch n 1994 3 2 The Middle Magdalenian Levels IX IV of Sala II were deposited over a thick deposit of sterile clay from ooding 40cm level X which separates the section from the neighbouring Lower Magdalenian Fig 1 The sedimentology study Hoyos 1995 and the material culture show that they correspond to two successive stadia The early Middle Magdalenian level IX IV is a very cold and wet episode GS2 with a thick deposit 70 cm that offers representations of cold steppe fauna engraved on slabs Rangifer tarandus Mammutus primigenius and Coelodonta antiquitatis Accordingly the fauna consumed includes reindeer remains at the base necklace of eleven serrated incisors level IX and in the ceiling level VI of the section In the latter level particularly cold boar and reindeer appear together reproducing the reindeer roe association observed in the Lower Magdalenian In this respect Altuna says Corch n in process that the simultaneous presence of con icting communities of ungulates which do not currently exist in any biotype nor among the fauna in the sites in open areas of central and western Europe during the W rm glacial stage is not uncommon in the Cantabrian region Its complex terrain creates a labyrinth of valleys with sunny and shady spots in the same valley where cold steppe areas can coexist with deciduous woods The palaeoeconomy is based on the exploitation of deer 61 horses 19 and capridae Capra and Rupicapra 15 with some bovine and carnivores Visits to the coast provide marine mammals to the archaeological record Physeter macrocephalus Globicefala melas Halichoerus gryphus the majority teeth perforated to be used as pendants and a wide collection of molluscs Pecten maximus Nucella lapillus Littorina obtusata Mytilus Teredonavalis One data of interest refers to the association of the sperm whale with Coronula diadema level VIII an ectoparasite of large cetacean that proves that the meat from these animals was transported to and consumed in the cave In addition the mollusc Teredo navalis proves that wood that had been submerged in the sea was transported to Las Caldas Corch n et al 2008 The advanced Middle Magdalenian level V IV was deposited under harsh and very wet 69
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  made of bone from the tibia of a deer, preserved complete  level 12 ceiling  Corch  n...
70 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD knapped on blades Retouch and Aurignacian blades account for 10 and Dufour and backed blades represent 16 The proportion of laminar ake among the knapped remains is low which could be explained by the use of the blades and laminar ake for knapping tools The advanced Middle Magdalenian equally representative 24 000 lithic remains provide high levels of laminar ake supports are second and blades bladelets reach 40 Similarly 49 of cores are laminar prismatic pyramidal Among the tools burins 8 barely exceed scrapers some laminar with many retouched blades 8 and back edge bladelets with some triangles The bone industries and mobiliary art are particularly typical in the early Middle Magdalenian Fig 4 offering many Pyrenean type items relief sculptures trimmed contours rims spear throwers pointed horses teethand engravings With them appear protoharpoons forked assegais denticulate points semi cylindrical rods spatulas and perforated canes extensively engraved The engraved lithic plaque very numerous c 100 to 200 per level reproduce in addition to the typical animals horse deer goat bison aurochs reindeer mammoth rhinoceros symbolic topics acephalous isolated hands or legs and beast like anthropomorphs carrying a pack on his back or doing an activity sitting squatting or with extended arms Figure 3 Early Middle Magdalenian engraved sperm whale s tooth engraved seal and dolphin teeth sea molluscs remains of Coronula Diadema conditions during the transition to the Late Glacial Maximum GI Ie with erosion and soli uction displacement processes The fauna records the disappearance of steppe species and a notable reduction in large ungulates Equusferus 1 5 2 3 and Bos Bison
70  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  knapp...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Figure 4 Early Middle Magdalenian portable art 1 7 plaquettes engraved with anthropomorphs bone with engravings of horse legs and spear thrower with relief bison hoof and advanced Middle Magdalenian 8 horse pelvis with engraved horses tuberculated decoration with one sided harpoons In the most recent level late Magdalenian level 2A Sala I a harpoon with a centre perforation characteristic of the end of the sequence in the Cantabrian was collected Corch n 2007 In the portable art zoomorphology symbols become rarer and in general the highly elaborate decorations decreasing engraved slabs At the same time linear decorations usually regular series of short incisions engraved on the shaft of assegais rods and harpoons which combine the functional quality with simple decorative graphic schemas Conclusions The data provided by research at La Cueva de las Caldas cave shows that the middle Nal n valley could have acted as a shelter during the UMG and Late Glacial Maximum Las Caldas shows that since the beginning of the regional Solutrean regional organisation has arisen in the subsistence strategies This is demonstrated by the mobility of the social groups that occupied the valley in order to collect resources and raw materials which were sometimes transported to the cave over signi cant distances In the early Middle Magdalenian this mobility implied the existence of long distance cultural contacts exchanges and the distribution of objects the portable of which puts their origin in the SW French Pyrenees The rapid fall in the levels of occupation and cultural evidence in the Nal n valley as the Upper Magdalenian advanced is a little known phenomenon The break in these ows of cultural diffusion over time with the onset of milder climates are perhaps related to the glacier discharges and mass landslides documented in the High Nal n valley Jim nez 1997 which could have affected the middle section of the Nal n valley in warm and wet climate cycles given that this drained the whole Macizo Central of Picos de Europa and its peak hosted signi cant W rm glaciers Jim nez 1996 71
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Figure 4. Early Middle Magdalenian portable art  1-7  plaquettes engraved with anthro...
72 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Ma llo Fern ndez Jos Manuel Arteaga Carlos Iriarte Chiapusso Mar a Jos Fern ndez Antonio Wood R Bernaldo de Quir s Federico Cueva Mor n Villanueva de Villaescusa Cantabria Introduction Cueva Mor n is one of the key sites to understand the evolution of the Palaeolithic in Cantabrian Spain thanks to its long stratigraphy It contains many of the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic techno complexes and has provided a series of unusual nds in the region in connection with the ways of life and funerary realm of its Palaeolithic inhabitants The cave is located in Villanueva de Villaescusa Cantabria and is also known as Mazo Moril and Cueva del Rey It formed in a small hill of Urgonian Aptian limestone in the Solia drainage basin at 57m above sea level and 22m above the Obreg n rivulet 6 km from the modern coastline in the Bay of Santander The cave entrance faces north east and leads into a short cave Gonz lezEchegaray and Freeman 1971 Cueva Mor n is not the only cave in the hill which in fact contains a complex series of passages above all another cave on a lower level called Cueva del Oso where surveying found some lithic artefacts on the surface Serna et al 2001 History of research on the deposit The cave was made known to the scienti c community by H Obermaier and P Wernert in 1910 After several visits to the cave two years after the discovery in 1912 J Carballo and P Sierra carried out a small pit which remained unrecorded until O Cendrero later published some of the materials the two researchers had found Cendrero 1915 From 1917 to 1919 J Carballo continued working in the cave and undertook what can be considered the rst serious and systematic excava tion of the deposit At this time the Upper Palaeolithic and two Middle Palaeolithic levels were excavated Carballo 1923 In turn in 1918 after he had nished his eldwork Carballo invited the Count of Vega del Sella to excavate the site These new excavations which lasted two years were soon published by the Count Vega del Sella 1921 and he also informed about the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic occupations The site was abandoned until the mid 1960s when from 1966 to 1969 a Spanish American team led by the Professors J Gonz lez Echegaray and L G Freeman carried out further excavations These were some of the rst modern excavations in Palaeolithic archaeology at that time introducing new excavation techniques and with the participation of an inter disciplinary team to assess the totality of data obtained from the deposit Gonz lez Echegaray and Freeman 1971 1973 This research as well as the application of new excavation methods also contributed a complete and revised sequence of the different occupations at the site which included for the rst time a clear and well de ned Chatelperronian level The stratigraphic sequence comprising the deposit after this eldwork consisted of 22 levels attributed to the following periods Azilian Level 1 Magdalenian Level 2 upper Solutrean Level 3 Gravettian Levels 4 and 5b evolved Aurignacian Levels 5a early Aurignacian Levels 6 and 7 archaic Aurignacian Levels 8 and 9 Chatelperronian Level 10 archaeologically sterile Levels 18 to 21 and Mousterian Level 22 In addition to this signi cant cultural sequence Gonz lez Echegaray and Freeman s excavations uncovered evidence of two dwelling structures belonging respectively to the Mousterian and Au Dpto Prehistoria y Arqueolog a UNED C Paseo Senda del rey 7 28040 Madrid jlmaillo geo uned es Dpto de Geograf a y ordenaci n del territorio rea de Geograf a F sica Universidad Aut noma de Madrid IKERBASQUE rea de Prehistoria Universidad del Pa s Vasco Departamento de Geograf a UNED Research School for Earth Sciences Australian National University Canberra Australia rea de Prehistoria Universidad de Le n
72  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Ma  l...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE rignacian and exhumed three pseudomorphs one of them complete and the badly altered grave of a fourth Freeman 1971a 1973 Freeman and Gonz lez Echegaray 1973 Gonz lez Echegaray and Freeman 1978 Thirty ve years later it was necessary to update information about Cueva Mor n in relation with new methods and data introduced during that time from both methodological and epistemological approaches to the science For this reason one of the authors J M Maillo Fern ndez together with J Gonz lez Echegaray as co director carried out a research project which included a small archaeological study of a section of the deposit in 2005 in order to determine its sedimento logical and geomorphologic characteristics as well as obtain environmental palynology and chronocultural information about the deposit The small size of the section left by the old excavations and their delicate state of conservation were deciding factors when selecting the area to excavate in order to preserve as much of this important section as possible Stratigraphy geomorphology and chronology The most complete stratigraphic sequence in the deposit 22 levels although not all of them are archaeological was attained by the 1966 69 excavation Table 1 Level Composition Thickness cm Cultural attribution 1 Sandy silty 7 5 YR 3 2 2 20 Azilian 2 Silty sand with gravel 10 YR 2 2 5 10 Magdalenian 3 Silt 7 5 YR 3 2 2 8 Upper Solutrean 4 Sandy silt 5 YR 3 2 5 20 Gravettian 5 Sandy silt with gravel 5 YR 2 1 15 30 Gravettian and nal Aurignacian 6 Silty 5 YR 3 3 5 20 30 Early Aurignacian 7 Sandy silt with clay lenses 5 YR 2 1 10 18 Early Aurignacian 8 Silty sand 5 YR 3 3 10 20 Proto Aurignacian 9 Silty sand with ne gravel 10 YR 3 5 3 5 8 Proto Aurignacian 10 Clay 10 YR 3 3 2 5 Chatelperronian 11 Sandy silty 2 5 YR 2 0 8 18 Mousterian 12 Silt with gravel 7 5 YR 3 2 12 20 Mousterian 13 Clayey silt 7 5 YR 2 0 5 8 Mousterian 14 Silty clay 10YR 3 5 3 7 10 Mousterian 15 Clayey silt 10 YR 3 5 3 15 20 Mousterian 16 Silty sand 10 YR 5 6 12 15 Mousterian 17 Sandy silt with gravel 10 YR 4 5 5 12 22 Mousterian 18 Sandy silt 7 5 YR 4 4 45 70 Sterile 19 Sandy silty 7 5 YR 4 4 12 22 Sterile 20 n a 2 5 Sterile 21 n a 7 10 Sterile 22 n a 2 5 Indeterminate Palaeolithic Table 1 Archaeological levels in Cueva Mor n 73
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  rignacian, and exhumed three pseudomorphs  one of them complete  and the badly altere...
74 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 Plan of the cave The sedimentological study carried out by H Laville and M Hoyos Laville and Hoyos 1994 revealed some issues in the chrono climatic sequence and the composition of some levels in comparison with earlier work Butzer 1981 Later J Sanguino and collaborators indirectly by using the other researchers work even cast doubts on the nature of some of the archaeological levels Sanguino and Montes 2005 Therefore an understanding of the formation of the sedimentary deposit in the cave was one of the main objectives of the eldwork carried out in Cueva Mor n in 2005 The sedimentological study Figure 2 Stratigraphy of Cueva Mor n performed with samples collected then has characterised sediments of two different kinds in the main section of the deposit IB IXB in the classic nomenclature Fig 1 On the one hand those near the cave entrance of external origin and with the classic formation process of ll in rock shelters and caves On the other sediments related with water owing from inside the cave to outside Fig 2 This multi episodic ow may have alternated with the occupation in the cave as no erosive scars are seen between the sediments of the two parts As Count of Vega del Sella was able to observe in his excavation it formed a meander whose channel lag deposits may be situated around square IX where the cave turns and the material is larger grained The outer side of the meander where the ner sediment is deposited can be traced in the section of square J Fig 1 This current may have been active at different times in the sedimentary history of the cave as the end of the cave is blocked by calcite and sub angular and sub rounded cobbles as if it was an underground point bar It was abandoned allowing later occupations as suggested by the nds made in the central part of the cave in previous archaeological studies and as is seen in the whole main stratigraphic section Chronology is the Achilles heel of the deposit Several attempts have been made to date its human occupations with very different results and leaving part of the stratigraphy unsampled Table 2 The rst attempt was during Gonz lez Echegaray and Freeman s excavations Stuckenrath 1978 The results were partly contradictory with the stratigraphy and generally rejected by the scienti c community However attention should be paid the determinations from Level 8 proto Aurignacian as they bear no relation to the stratigraphic section or the excavation in that area where the industries have been
74  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Level Techno complex Material Context Lab Ref Date BP Calibration range cal BP 95 4 probability range from Reference to 5s Gravettian Charcoal Excavation SI 953 20120 340 BP 25194 23452 Stuckenrath 1978 7 Early Aurignacian Charcoal Excavation SI 954 31500 880 BP 37985 33975 Stuckenrath 1978 7 Early Aurignacian Charcoal Excavation SI 955 28680 840 BP 34381 31171 Stuckenrath 1978 7 Early Aurignacian Charcoal SI 955a 27260 1500 BP 35220 28610 Stuckenrath 1978 8 Proto Aurignacian Charcoal Mor n III SI 956 27710 1300 BP 34925 29420 Stuckenrath 1978 8 Proto Aurignacian Charcoal Section ABA GifA96263 36590 770 BP 42432 39734 Ma lloFern ndez et al 2001 8 Proto Aurignacian Charcoal Section OxA19084 40060 350 BP 44399 43052 Maroto et al 2012 8 Proto Aurignacian Charcoal Upper part of Mor n I SI 952 27630 540 BP 33022 30820 Stuckenrath 1978 8 Proto Aurignacian Charcoal Idem soluble part in NaOH SI 952a 27360 740 BP 33445 30214 Stuckenrath 1978 9 Proto Aurignacian Charcoal Section ABA GrA33891 33 430 250 230 BP 38470 36879 Maroto et al 2012 10 Chatelperronian Charcoal GrA33823 29 380 260 240 BP 34033 32984 Maroto et al 2012 10 Chatelperronian Charcoal Section SI951 27800 560 BP 33235 30935 Stuckenrath 1978 10 Chatelperronian Charcoal SI951a 30340 BP 11 Mosterian Charcoal Section ABA OxA19083 41800 450 BP 46022 44406 Maroto et al 2012 11 Mosterian Charcoal OxA19459 43600 600 BP 48343 45648 Maroto et al 2012 11 Mosterian Charcoal Section ABA GifA96264 42000 730 BP 46922 44120 Ma lloFern ndez et al 2001 Idem soluble part in NaOH Section Acid only Idem soluble part in NaOH Scetion ABOx SC Stuckenrath 1978 N A Table 2 Radiocarbon dates from Cueva Mor n Stuckenrath s determinations 1978 were given in years BC supposing a half life of 5370 years They have been recalculated following Stuiver and Polach 1977 using a half life of 5568 years and placing it on a time scale before 1950 These recalculated dates have been used in the calibration The dates with an asterisk were obtained from the same sample The determinations have been calibrated against IntCal13 Reimer et al 2013 in OxCal v 4 2 Ramsey 2009 75
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Level  Techno-complex  Material Context  Lab. Ref.  Date  BP   Calibration range  cal...
76 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD de ned These dates correspond to the area of the burials which are associated with this Level 8 They are all in a span of time between 27 and 26 ky BP In our research project we carried out a series of determinations with material taken from the section and these have provided dates for the Mousterian of 40 ky BP and for Level 8 of 36 5 ky BP MailloFern ndez et al 2001 Recently Maroto and collaborators have re analysed samples we have provided by ultra ltration also obtaining disconcerting results in which the date for Level 10 Chatelperronian is very similar to the one obtained by Stuckenrath Maroto et al 2012 and Table 2 Unfortunately the fragment was very poorly conserved and only the carbon prepared before the dating process could be analysed It therefore only gives a minimum age for this level Once again technical improvement induced us to carry out a new attempt with material from the 1966 69 collection with the ultra ltration method The low collagen content in the samples meant that results could not be obtained Cultural sequence Cueva Mor n is an important site for Upper and Middle Palaeolithic studies in the region owing to the long cultural sequence conserved in its deposit 7 Mousterian levels 1 Chatelperronian 2 proto Aurignacian 2 early Aurignacian 1 evolved Aurignacian 2 Gravettian 1 Solutrean 1 Magdalenian and 1 Azilian The Azilian level Level 1 has not been dated although grosso modo this techno complex can be situated between 11 500 and 9 500 BP Tresguerres 2004 The layer is located near the cave entrance and contains a dense number of objects including micro blade tools mostly consisting of retouched bladelets micro gravettes and numerous endscrapers Gonz lez Echegaray 1971a Level 2 corresponds to the upper Magdalenian and is characterised by a large number of burins truncated pieces and carinated and nucleiform endscrapers together with a large proportion of microlithic tools backed bladelets denticulates Dufour geometric microliths etc The osseous assemblage is abundant with fragments of sagaie points with a circular cross section some of them with central groove decorated attened rods and pendants made from bone and red deer canine teeth Gonz lez Echegaray 1971a The upper Solutrean Level 3 is a thin layer where the lithic assemblage is not particularly rich However shouldered points and to a lesser extent willow and laurel leaf points are relatively abundant Therefore this level can be clearly attributed to the upper Solutrean in Cantabrian Spain Gonz lez Echegaray 1971a The Gravettian is represented by two layers Levels 4 and upper 5 with a large number of backed pieces Gravette points micro gravettes truncated pieces and some Noailles burins in the most recent level No recent studies have examined the technotypology in these two levels in depth nor is any date available to situate them in the Cantabrian Gravettian as the one obtained by Stuckenrath 1978 is clearly anomalous Recently the Gravettian in Cueva Mor n has been identi ed as belonging to a late stage in which Noailles burins are scarce and backed pieces more abundant Pe a 2011 Similarly the evolved Aurignacian at Cueva Mor n lower Level 5 is in need of a techno typological reappraisal The evolved Aurignacian is a polymorphic techno complex in Cantabrian Spain which hinders its characterisation Cabrera et al 2004 Thus in Cueva Mor n the lithic assemblage differs from the early Aurignacian in the smaller number of carinated endscrapers and a greater abundance of thick nosed endscrapers However the osseous assemblage is abundant and meaningful in this level with spindle and at shaped points together with the survival of split based points Levels 6 and 7 in the deposit correspond to the early Aurignacian The industry is characteristic of this techno complex with abundance of carinated pieces two types of blade debitage one for blades from prismatic cores with unipolar exploitation and another for bladelets made from carinated cores Arrizabalaga 1995 Cabrera et al 2004 However the bone industry is poor and not diagnostic The proto Aurignacian Levels 8 and 9 have been reappraised recently from the technological and typological viewpoints Arrizabalaga 1995 Ma lloFern ndez 2003 It is a markedly micro blade industry with abundant Dufour bladelets The blade were extracted from prismatic cores with unipolar reduction in a continuum between blades and bladelets The relative importance of substrate tools sidescrapers denticulates and notches should be stressed as well as ake reduction schemes Ma llo Fern ndez 2012 Level 9 because of techno typological and sedimentological issues may have suffered taphonomic alterations affecting its industrial integrity
76  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  de   ...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE There is no doubt that the most important level the one that has attracted most attention to Cueva Mor n is Level 10 corresponding to the Chatelperronian When it was identi ed it was used to address the problem of the Middle Upper Palaeolithic transition at that time associated with the Aurignacian Mousterian Gonz lez Echegaray 1969 1971a The lithic assemblage has been revised on several occasions since then Arrizabalaga 1995 Ma llo Fern ndez 2003 However the level and its integrity have been discussed by several scholars K Butzer who carried out the rst sedimentologival study of the cave concluded that this level contained parts colluviated by later cryoturbation Butzer 1981 146 probably based on the incoherence of the dates Stuckenrath 1978 In the review carried out by H Laville and M Hoyos it was thought that it had been eroded towards the interior and scalloped towards the exterior by cryoturbation processes Laville and Hoyos 1994 204 The total integrity of the level has recently been questioned following a re interpretation of the data given by Laville and Hoyos who thought the Cueva Mor n like nearly all the caves in Cantabrian Spain was not apt for determining a regional palaeo climate sequence In this new interpretation the scalloped part was taken as an exclusive indicator of soli uction and taken together with the thinness of the level 2 5cm it was concluded that Level 10 is an erosive contact altered by water currents in Levels 11 and 9 Mu oz and Montes 2003 206 We carried out the rst examination of the section since 1969 This allowed us to verify that Level 10 is visible in the outer part of the stratigraphic section exactly as identi ed by Butzer Laville and Hoyos and as represented in the relevant monographs Gonz lez Echegaray 1971b Butzer 1981 143 In addition the sedimentological curve of the Level 10 reveals that it was deposited in a low energy process and not by soli uction The scalloping is due to a load deformation processes which also caused scrolling which is only found at the top of the level although certain higher energy water action which produced a large scroll cannot be ruled out The Chatelperronian level has also been questioned from the point of view of the lithic assemblage its existence has even been denied arguing that it is a mixture in equal parts of Aurignacian and Mousterian material Mu oz and Montes 2003 206 We have already reasoned at length against this hypothesis Ma llo Fern ndez 2007a 2008 but we might repeat that it is very hard for us to un derstand how the mixture of two lithic assemblages that belong to two well de ned techno complexes Aurignacian and Mousterian can result in a third completely different one Chatelperronian The cultural sequence at Cueva Mor n ends with a series of Mousterian levels The most recent Levels 11 and 12 classi ed as denticulate Mousterian is characterised by discoid and partly Levallois production with a small but signi cant micro blade production Ma llo Fern ndez 2001 2007b The lower section Levels 13 17 where the predominance of cleavers is the most signi cant trait Mousterian variety traditionally known as Vasconian was attributed to the Mousterian of Acheulian tradition in the rst studies Freeman 1971b Dwelling structures and burials The 1966 69 excavation at Cueva Mor n did not only reveal a chrono stratigraphic sequence of vital importance in Cantabrian Spain but also two dwelling structures and a series of burials The dwellings appeared in the central part of the cave but belonged to different cultural periods The oldest corresponded to Level 17 Mousterian and had been cut through by Vega del Sella s excavations It is 6 6m2 in size and consists of a line of stones forming a curved area with sediment inside it clearly different from the rest of the level No remains of hearths were detected inside it Freeman 1973 In Level 8 proto Aurignacian another area was interpreted as a dwelling structure Partially destroyed by the excavations in the early twentieth century which do not allow its width to be determined it was nearly three metres long and rectangular There was no evidence that the structure had been covered at least with posts The sediment had been dug out to a maximum depth of 27cm and against the innermost wall there were remains of a hearth possibly in a pit and on the opposite side a step 125cm long and 50cm wide interpreted as a bench Freeman 1971a Associated with the Aurignacian at the back of the cave after an area interpreted by the excavators as a wall with wooden posts were found a series of mounds that held the burials of four individuals The most peculiar thing about these burials is that they did not contain the skeletal remains of the bodies Instead in the decomposition processes they had 77
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  There is no doubt that the most important level, the one that has attracted most atte...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 78 turned into adipose and later been covered by sediment so that the remains were turned into a positive mould that was dif cult to interpret The most complete and most recent is Mor n I found in a grave 210 x 52 cm in size Although it is not easy to interpret it seems that this individual was lying on its left side with exed arms and slightly exed legs The excavators interpreted that its head had been amputated and deposited in the lower part of the grave In the mount covering the body the remains of two small hearths were found Freeman and Gonz lez Echegaray 1973 The remains called Mor n II were limited to a dark greasy and plastic substance similar to that in the other graves but it could not be interpreted Jes s Altuna Koro Mariezkurrena further Beneath Mor n I and partly destroyed by it Mor n III only consisted of two legs Finally Mor n IV was limited to the partial remains of the grave and the mound covering it as it had been destroyed by the other burials Acknowledgements This study is dedicated to the memory of Professor Joaqu n Gonz lez Echegaray and Professor Leslie G Freeman who were truly responsible for the scienti c understanding of Cueva Mor n Ekain cave Deba Basque Country Ekain cave Deba Basque Country a cave famous for its rock art ensemble in its interior Altuna 1996 possesses an archaeological deposit at its entrance This has been excavated in two stages between 1969 and 1975 rst directed by J M de Barandiar n and later by J Altuna Altuna and Merino 1984 and then between 2009 and 2011 directed by J Altuna Altuna 2009 The cave is located at the con uence of two valleys each with a small stream in an area with biotopes of steep crags The two streams together ow into the River Urola one and a half kilometres downstream at a point 8 kilometres from the modern coastline In this point the landscape has changed to gentle hills The deposit in the entrance of Ekain 5m thick consists of 12 levels Fig 1 The lowest Levels XII and XI are totally barren both archaeologically and palaeontologically Level X is very rich in remains of Ursus spelaeus Human in uence is minimal and only a few signs of Chatelperronian remains have been identi ed Figure 1 Stratigraphy of the archaeological deposit at Ekain cave Centro de Conservaci n e Investigaci n de los materiales Arqueol gicos de Gipuzkoa GOAZ Paseo de Zarategi 84 88 20015 San Sebasti n altuna arkaios com
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  78  turne...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Level IX also contains quite a large number of Ursus spelaeus remains but only a little evidence of the Gravettian Its base was dated by radiocarbon to over 30 600 BP I 11056 These two levels contain very little knapping waste which indicates that the artefacts found in them had been made elsewhere The cave was therefore visited sporadically by people who did not usually live there The site of Irikaitz located 2km from Ekain with Gravettian remains in its upper part might be connected with this Level VIII was probably deposited in the W rm III IV interstadial as it no longer contains Ursus spelaeus remains The lithic assemblage is scanty and not diagnostic There are a few faunal remains above all of Rupicapra rupicapra The presence of Sus scrofa and Capreolus capreolus indicates climate amelioration in this level which has been dated to 20 900 450 BP I 13005 Level VII Cantabrian lower Magdalenian is the rst level displaying intense human occupation The sedimentological study shows that the base of the level was deposited in conditions of moderate humidity and relatively high temperatures while these changed to cold and humid at the top of the layer Five radiocarbon determinations have been obtained dating to between 16 500 and 15 400 BP all by Isotopes Westwood New Jersey The pollen analysis shows at the base of the level a proportion of 12 Pinus 3 Corylus and a smaller presence of Alnus Betula and Quercus t pedunculata as well as an abundance of Ericaceae and licales triletes This appears to correspond to the late Lascaux interstadial The conditions worsen and the number of taxa decreases but the climate improves again at the end of the deposition of the level which suggests the B lling The most common small mammal in the coldest phases is Microtus oeconomus and Arviciola terrestris in the less cold phases Microtus gr agrestis arvalis and Talpa europea also occur in signi cant numbers The lithic assemblage displays specialisation with a large number of microlithic backed bladelets used to make hunting implements This suggests a seasonal occupation of the cave However these occupations were prolonged as indicated by the fact that knapping was performed in the cave Knapping waste is abundant Equally the readaptations of decorticating akes and core akes as well as some burins and their spalls con rm this The osseous assemblage clearly exhibits the particular characteristics of the Cantabrian lower Magdalenian The most characteristic tools because of their chrono stratigraphic position are assegai points with a square cross section and split base and a bi pointed object They belong to a single type pointed artefacts which seems to suggest a particular activity hunting The presence of antler waste rods means that certain artefacts were manufactured in situ The ungulate remains clearly support the seasonality indicated by the industry The base of animal subsistence was red deer The age analysis of the fawns and other young ungulates demonstrates that they were hunted in the rst month of life June and others also in a mild season of the year None were hunted in winter This raises the matter of the base site from which Ekain was used as a hunting post Two hours away on foot is the site of Urtiaga occupied throughout the year with Erralla an hour and a half away Altuna Balde n and Mariezkurrena 1985 Both sites possess thick lower Magdalenian levels The analysis of the skeletal parts in the deposit shows that the animals were brought to the site whole which is logical bearing in mind that many of the prey were fawns killed in their rst month of life The osseous industry in this Level VII at Ekain displays similarities with Level F in Urtiaga Level VI upper nal Magdalenian formed in its lower part in very cold and less humid conditions than the previous level It includes the most evidence of frost shattering in the whole deposit The upper part of level formed in a cold and dry climate The pollen studies re ect a decline in arboreal and lical species in the lower part in which deciduous trees are practically non existent Carduaceae acquire their highest proportions which Ericaceae reach a minimum level in the severest conditions low humidity and extreme cold in the sequence at Ekain The level is dated by radiocarbon to 12 050 190 BP I 9240 However the upper part of the level indicates a slight improvement probably corresponding to the Aller d The signi cant decrease in Ericaceae together with the lesser tree cover produced a decline in the Cervus elaphus population and consequently these animals were replaced as prey by Capra pyrenaica The faunal analysis suggests that the site was still occupied seasonally The skeletal pro les show that 79
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Level IX also contains quite a large number of Ursus spelaeus remains, but only a lit...
80 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD the prey was brought to the cave whole less often than in Level VII This is understandable because the preferred prey was adult ibex and the hunting sites would have been of more dif cult access The animals were butchered where they were hunted and selected parts were brought back to the cave The faunal assemblage also includes evidence of Rangifer tarandus and Lepus timidus as well as salmon vertebrae It is interesting to note that the rock art in the cave includes a painting of a salmon plays a deep longitudinal incision next to the start of the barbs on one side and profound incisions in the barbs Another exhibits ne incisions on one of its sides forming a decorative V shaped motif On the opposite side seven short and shallow transversal incisions are similar to the so called hunting marks This specimen is similar to a harpoon found in Level D at the site of Urtiaga The lithic assemblage further supports this seasonality The most abundant implements are still microliths with few medium size tools such as burins scrapers or denticulates The percentage of burins increases slightly which may be connected with the greater importance of the osseous industry in this level The small backed tools display a change within this level as in its lower part Level VIb there are no backed points whereas the upper part Level VIa does contain some Two of the assegai points are decorated with schematic depictions of an ibex viewed from the front like some gures in the rock art ensemble The same level yielded an engraved sandstone plaquette representing three animals a male ibex a stag and a horse Fig 2 The ibex is the most outstanding gure as its head is depicted in great detail Its horn displays the two typical curves of the Pyrenean species on which the growth rings are indicated by a series of transversal lines The red deer drawn with ner lines displays antlers in which the two base points the middle points in each antler and the wider crown are indicated The third gure a horse is less conspicuous and perfect than the other two The osseous assemblage also exhibits two stages as there are no harpoons in Level VIb while there are in Level VIa The harpoon assemblage in VIa is homogeneous Their barbs are on one side and they are somewhat attened The barbs are large and separated with few of them in relation to the shaft and with deep incisions One of them has a at shaft with a single row of barbs It dis Level V re ects more humid and less cold conditions than Level VI although the reduction in arboreal cover and licales persists The lithic industry is poorer but continues to include backed points and bladelets scrapers burins and denticulates The assemblage from this level is not very characteristic but appears to represent the end of the upper Palaeolithic in the cave This level does not contain a single remain of marine molluscs Figure 2 Plaquette from Level VI at Ekain cave
80  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  the p...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Levels IV and III dated in the Azilian clearly show the climate amelioration in the Pre Boreal with very humid conditions and clear rise in the temperatures Pine which had been the main tree species was slowly replaced by deciduous taxa such as Corylus and Alnus with a presence of Juglans Tilia Quercus Betula Fagus Cupresaceae and a large percentage of Ericaceae which reaches its maximum values Microtus oeconomus disappears de nitively from among the small mammals while the bat Myotis myotis appears Red deer was the preferred prey over ibex The representation of Capreolus capreolus increases and Sus scrofa appears in the Ekain sequence together with Meles meles Shell sh were gathered as shown by the large number of remains of Patella and Osilinus lineatus These resources were easily obtainable at this time as the coastline approached the cave Figure 3 Contour d coup of a bird The lithic assemblage continues to indicate specialisation in hunting The osseous industry includes a base of a typical Azilian at harpoon with eye shaped perforation Altuna 2009 2010 and 2011 in reference to two aspects of the deposit Level II formed in very dry and warm conditions It has been dated to 9540 210 BP I11666 The lithic industry is comparable with Level III but with a more advanced Mesolithic component including some triangles and the appearance of the micro burin technique Shell sh gathering reached its greatest importance in the whole sequence at Ekain The species represented are Osilinus lineatus Patella vulgata P depressa P aspera and Mytilus edulis Remains of ungulates are scanty with evidence of Cervus elaphus Capra pyrenaica and Sus scrofa The presence of 11 remains of Bos taurus is striking and these were undoubtedly introduced afterwards A potsherd was also found in this level and must have equally been a later intrusion Together with the remains of Bos taurus this indicates that a new excavation needed to be carried out in an intact area in order to clarify these intrusions Level I is the modern surface layer Modern Excavations New excavations were carried out from 2009 to 2011 and these provided some signi cant data First affecting Levels II III and IV a series of remains of human infants and fragments of hand made pottery were found One of the sherds displayed button shaped decorations and another had nger nail impressions One fragment of an infant s mandible found in Level II re tted with another piece from Level III This mandible has been dated to 4960 60 BP Ua36854 The pottery and Bos taurus remains found in Level II in the old excavations must be ascribed to this assemblage When the base of Level VI was excavated a contour d coup of a bird made from a bovine rib was found Fig 3 Altuna and Mariezkurrena 2013 This displays detailed internal shaping and has been dated to 13 862 129 BP Ua39108 Both the date and the characteristics of the nd correspond to the middle Magdalenian This occupation in this phase which must have been very short lived in Ekain cave was not detected by the old excavation Level VI begins immediately beneath it This representation is unique as to date no gures of birds have been found on this kind of object Additionally it was made from a bovine rib rather than from a hyoid bone which is also unusual in contours d coup s 81
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Levels IV and III, dated in the Azilian, clearly show the climate amelioration in the...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 82 Javier Baena Preysler Elena Carrion Santaf Cueva de El Esquilleu a new point of reference for the Cantabrian Mousterian As a result of collaboration between the Autonomous University of Madrid and the Consejer a de Cultura of the government of Cantabria in the context of the project HUM2004 04679 HIST CONTEXTO CRONOL GICO Y CULTURAL DEL FINAL DEL PALEOL TICO MEDIO EN EL NORTE PENINSULAR a series of eld seasons were carried out in Cueva de El Esquilleu in Castro Cillorigo Cantabria from 1997 to 2006 The state of conservation of the sequence in Cueva de El Esquilleu and the method used giving priority to determining the sequence and sampling has enabled the collection of a large amount of data from the faunal pollen anthracological sedimentological stratigraphic and naturally archaeological records The research has also Figure 1 Cueva de El Esquilleu Cantabria Spain and its surroundings included a taphonomic study technical and functional analysis the nds of human remains the micro spatial reconstruction by phytolith analysis and the study of processes of procurement of lithic resources and the functional relationship of the site with its environment In short this new sequence is one of the most complete Middle Palaeolithic sites in Iberia El Esquilleu is a unique deposit Although it is not at a great altitude 280m above sea level and 68m about the River Deva the montane environment predominates It is a large rock shelter in a mostly limestone area Valdeteja formation It is a rugged location different from most of the Cantabrian valleys that were occupied and similar to only a small number of Mousterian sites in northern Spain such as Axlor R os Garaizar 2012 The geomorphologic setting is a small basin between mountains bounded to the south by the steep slope of the mountain valleys which were glaciated at their heads and very dif cult connections with surrounding valleys Fig 1 The general nature of the Cantabrian relief with its tendency towards dividing up the territory is more pronounced in the Deva basin with the connection to the coastal strip through a narrow gorge The climate is also slightly milder than in other parts because of its particular location The length of the occupation more than 50 000 years and the stratigraphic sequence are unique in Cantabrian Spain The excavation formally a sounding was carried out from 1997 to 2006 with two test excavations perpendicular to each other one of them transversal to the rock wall The large surface area excavated was 14m2 In the sounding transversal to the cave wall a depth of 4 2m was reached and 41 stratigraphic levels were de ned 34 of them archaeologically fertile and in succession Fig 2 Over 100 000 lithic remains were retrieved and about 25 of these have been described and studied from the technical viewpoint as well as the initial typo Dpto Prehistoria y Arqueolog a Universidad Aut noma de Madrid Campus Cantoblanco 28049 Madrid Spain Subdirecci n General de Museos Estatales Ministerio de Cultura 28071 Madrid Spain
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  82  Javie...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE IV 19 300 100 BP III Bone OxA 19968 19 310 80 BP III B Bone OxA 19246 20 810 110 BP 44 100 1300 BP Charcoal AA37882 36 500 830 BP Charcoal Beta149320 39 000 300 BP OxAX 2297 31 OxA 20320 49 400 1300 BP Charcoal OxA 20318 53 400 1300 BP Charcoal OxA 19993 54 000 BP Charcoal OxA 20319 58 500 BP XVIII Charcoal OxA 19993 49 700 1600 BP XIX 1 OxA 19967 OxA 19966 XVII Bone Bone XVII III OxA 19965 XVII 12 050 130 BP Bone 40 110 500 420 BP 43 700 1400 BP XVII 2 Charcoal AA 29664 GrA 33816 XVII 1 Charcoal Bone Charcoal XIII III AA37883 XIF 3640 90 BP Charcoal VI 2 GrA 33829 GrA 35065 VI 1 Charcoal Charcoal VI III GrA 35064 VIF The chronology at El Esquilleu covers a time from the early OIS 3 including OIS 3c and OIS 3b the H5 H4 and H3 cold events in the middle part of OIS 3a and probably part of OIS 2 Its levels cover a full span of time 53 ky BP to 54 600 BP XIX 3 Charcoal 39 600 400 BP XIX 4 Charcoal XXI I Charcoal OxAV 2284 29 OxAV 2284 30 OxA 20321 XXId Burnt clay Mad3299 XXIb Burnt clay Mad3300 TL 51 034 5114 BP TL 53 491 5114 BP 30 250 500 430 BP 34 380 670 BP 52 600 1200 BP 39 650 450 BP 59 600 BP Table 1 El Esquilleu dates The sequence is special not only because of the late age of its upper levels but also because of its early chronological start 53 ky BP for Level XXIb in a total sequence of 41 levels No other Middle Palaeolithic site is known in Cantabria or in the rest of Iberia with such a continual and repeated occupation of the same place Expressed in terms of the number of generations if the occupation had been continual and it was undoubtedly seasonal and possibly intermittent these would amount to 1 600 The dates obtained for El Esquilleu are reasonably coherent bearing in mind the variation in types of samples methods and laboratories Some of the 83
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  IV  19,300  100 BP  III  Bone  OxA-19968  19,310  80 BP  III B  Bone  OxA-19246  20,8...
84 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD differences can be explained as laboratory errors Thus for example the different dates for Level XVII 53 400 1300 BP Oxa 20318 charcoal and 58 500 BP OxA 20319 charcoal and for Level XIF 36 500 830 BP AA 37882 AMS charcoal and 34 380 670 BP AA 37883 AMS were obtained from a single sample that was divided up Other cases can be regarded as inconsistent such as 1 the three dates obtained for Level VI with results between 44 and 40 ky BP that do not match the chronological sequence of the occupation and 2 those for Level XIX for which the new determinations 30 ky BP contradict the rst ones obtained However the date for Level III 12 050 130 BP AA29664 AMS bone is only atypical It ts in the archaeological sequence and the samples have passed the stress tests carried out in speci c studies Jord Pardo et al 2009 Maroto et al 2011 Stratigraphically it may be supposed that the sequence entered markedly colder conditions after Level VI which may correspond to H3c c 30 ky BP The new dates obtained for Level III 19 300 100 and 19 310 80 14C ky BP and 20 810 110 14C BP performed within a monographic project involving a critical reappraisal of many of the dates obtained in Iberia support its validity However other clearly aberrant results such as one recently obtained for Level III 3640 90 BP may be explained by the intrusion of Holocene charcoal Maroto et al 2011 or the presence of a very atypical Upper Paleolithic industries In this way radiometric coherence is observed in the dates around 20 ky BP for the end of the sequence They were obtained in different laboratories using different pre treatment methods including ultra ltration and display C13 values that con rm the quality of the sample Maroto et al 2011 Although many of the dates thought to be recent have been put back in time in general terms El Esquilleu is still within an increasingly select group However some unknown issues cannot be ruled out such as a possible contamination of the samples owing to post depositional processes or percolation problems T aphonomical studies Yravedra and Gonz lez Castanedo 2013 have suggested that the dates may have been obtained from bones which had not been handled by humans and which are therefore not archaeological material Methodologically i e De la Rasilla and Santamar a 2013 the limitations of the radiometric method itself have been pointed out because of calibration de ciencies J ris et al 2011 and the divergent results caused by the speci c treatment and analytical protocols Bird et al 2010 Technologically Vaquero 2013 other studies based on the nature of the lithic assemblage whose expedient and indeterminate character has been highlighted suggest that Level III could be a facies with an atemporal cultural attribution In any case a relativist position of the dates can be used where independently of their exact result their relative position in the sequence can be considered Carri n et al 2013 In addition the internal analysis of the industries and their relationship with the environment in cha ne op ratoire terms provides interesting information about changes in the relationship between the group and their surroundings Carri n et al 2008 El Esquilleu is also special because its sequence starts at an early date There are few sites dated before 40 45 ky BP in the Cantabrian Mousterian The classic chronologies of Castillo Level 22 Pendo XVII and Lezetxiki V have been seen to be disputable and older dates are very rare with only El Sidr n c 50 ky BP De la Rasilla et al 2013 and in a nearby region Cueva Coraz n 96 95 ky BP by TL D ez et al 2008 Most of the occupations that are known are concentrated in a time near the late Mousterian Mir n Covalejos Arrillor Sope a Mor n Amalda and Axlor Hoyos et al 1999 Sanquino and Montes 2005 Straus and Gonz lez Morales 2001 Maroto et al 2011 etc An attempt has been made to explain this circumstance by the limitation of the radiocarbon method itself Santamar a and de La Rasilla 2013 as the risk of rejuvenating the result increases exponentially with an increase in the age of the sample The litho stratigraphic study divided the sequence into four sections according to their composition and the agents involved in their formation by integrating taphonomic and geo archaeological criteria X Ray diffraction environmental scanning electron microscopy and thermoluminescence Jord 2008 From bottom to top these four sections are ESQ D Levels XXXI to XLI ESQ C Levels XII to XXX ESQ B Levels I to XI and ESQ A covering breccia and speleothems the cave which was partially lled was initially sealed by this large formation Jord Pardo et al 2009 The human occupation is located in the central Units B and C Unit C coincided with sedimentation in the rock shelter by diffuse run off the upper central Unit B consists of clasts and frost shattered rocks
84  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  diffe...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE with a contribution of diffuse run off and heavier ow at the top The characteristics of the matrix in the upper section according to some authors would have favoured the vertical movement of contaminating material Santamar a and de La Rasilla 2013 The micro morphological analysis Mallol et al 2010 con rms the good state of conservation in Unit B although it is affected in its internal structure by cryoturbation and moderate diagenetic action in Unit C with levels revealing intense anthropic action In this way in neither of these sections have any general processes been detected that might have altered the deposit in any considerable way Below these possibly 9m of barren sedimentation is characterised by a massive clayey matrix with highly altered limestone clasts formed in endokarst conditions Mallol et al 2010 Phytolith analysis Cabanes et al 2010 provided surprising results The sample from the upper litho stratigraphic section Unit B yielded the worst sample but the moderate diagenesis in Unit C and the upper levels in Unit B favoured the conservation of a larger number of remains which had initially been interpreted as an accumulation of ash Jord Pardo et al 2008 Only the detailed micro stratigraphic study revealed a succession of hearths with thick accumulations of ash burnt bones and artefacts In this way it has been suggested that beds of grass were related to a large central area of hearth with a possible selection of grass species depending on their properties The charcoal record is irregular Acceptable data were obtained from Level XI to Level XVII although samples were taken as far as Level XXII Thus species have been identi ed for a span of time dated grosso modo between 53 and 36 ky Uzquiano et al 2012 The study con rms the general presence of pine in the sequence although between Levels XIV and XI the percentage of pine decreases in favour of a greater variety of species including Sorbus aria steppe type scrub Juniperus Betula and a large range of shrubs possibly chosen to light the res This decline in pine may be explained by environmental change which meant that fuel had to be gathered over a larger area and shrubs used in larger quantities Uzquiano et al 2012 The data do not seem to indicate that rewood ever became scarce Pollen data Ru z Zapata and Gil Garc a 2005 con rm the predominance of pine throughout the sequence and this occasionally alternates with river bank species in optimal climate conditions accompanied by herbaceous plants A brief reconstruction indicates that between the old Levels XXX and XX 50 ky BP a possibly colder phase was represented by an open vegetation with Asteracae Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae and a signi cant presence of pine as well as some Betula and Cupresaceae However in the phase between Levels XXX and XIV the hearths noticeably affected pollen conservation and therefore the record consists mainly of pine birch Cupresaceae and Asteracae These levels are dated grosso modo before 39 ky BP Between 39 and 34 5 ky BP the palynological study re ects an optimum in humidity conditions as pine is accompanied by a larger range of mesophile plants especially Betula This circumstance which is found at other Cantabrian sites dated in a similar time concords with the anthracological data obtained at El Esquilleu Uzquiano et al 2010 The archaeozoological record at El Esquilleu agrees with what might be expected in the area Yravedra 2006 Uzquiano et al 2012 Ibex and chamois Rupicapra rupicapra are the most common species while bovids aurochs occasionally appear in Levels XIII and XIF and cervids between Levels V and XIV The presence of these animals probably denotes connections with areas on the coastal strip In addition in the levels in which the seasonality of the hunting could be reconstructed basically from Level XIV to Level III owing to lesser fragmentation of the bones this took place mostly in the summer with prolongations in late spring or early autumn Only in Level XI were caprids hunted also in winter Uzquiano et al 2012 Yravedra 2006 which may be interpreted as a change in the seasonality pattern and a more residential use of the cave In general terms therefore it may be af rmed that the environmental data from Level XI to Level VI indicate that the site was more closely integrated in the environment the occupation was more stable seasonally and there was a larger range of prey occasionally including species not found in the immediate surroundings and a wider and more varied plant catchment area The pollen data indicates greater humidity and a certain expansion of trees in addition to pine The provenance of raw materials also supports a changing strategy in the use of the environment in the central levels in contrast with the lower occupations in Levels XIX to XVI The raw materials were transported over distances of up to 30km with connections to the 85
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  with a contribution of diffuse run-off and heavier    ow at the top. The characterist...
86 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD coast in lithologies involving fragmented cha nes op ratoires suggesting great mobility From Level XIV onwards the selection of raw material increased quartzite cobbles from secondary aggregate deposits Manzano et al 2005 and the cave acted as a central place El Esquilleu and other sites like El Habario and El Arteu Carri n 2002 were then operating in a functionally combined way However from Level VIII the procurement used new deposits and lithologies in the Deva valley to the south of site and to the south east and tributaries and the site increasingly made use of local resources towards the end of the sequence very few anthropic marks Yravedra and Gonz lez Castanedo 2014 The importance of carnivore action in the formation of the deposit has equally been seen at another important site in northern Spain Level VII in Cueva de Amalda and is de ned both by distinctive marks and the differential presence of skulls and distal limb bones This would directly explain the presence of many of the caprids in these levels Rupicapra rupicapra and Capra pyrenaica in the case of El Esquilleu in comparison with larger animals such as equids and red deer whose origin is thought to be necessarily anthropic as in any case they would be smaller carnivores like hyenas or foxes In the upper levels a detailed t phonomical study indicates an increase in carnivore activity from Level V onwards especially in Levels IV and III to such an extent that they may have become the main accumulating agent The bone material in Level III displays The detailed study of the material found in the hearths which mostly appear in the litho stratigraphic Unit C in El Esquilleu is also signi cant Hearths have been identi ed in Levels XXI XXIII XXV XXVIII and XXIX Charcoal from the hearth in Level XXI was dated by TL to 53 491 5114 BP This is the oldest date in the series corresponding to the earliest occupation The number of burnt bones and the degree of fragmentation gradually increases from Level XIV to the base of the sequence The degree of combustion of the bones is high and quite unmistakeable evidence of intentional breakage is occasionally seen Level XXI indicating the bones were used as fuel in the hearths Yravedra and Uzquiano 2013 Uzquiano et al 2010 Although the pollen data re ects conditions of open vegetation with a predominance of grasses the anthracological study showed that there would not have been an extreme scarcity of plant matter or of species for lighting the res for which Ericaceae and Fabaceae were used at El Esquilleu Nor is the active selection of the more favourable bones for fuel seen at the site This suggests that it was a hygienic habit in which organic waste was thrown on to the hearths Yravedra and Uzquiano 2013 Figure 3 Lithic artefacts from El Esquilleu I Levels III to VI II Levels VII to IX III Levels XI to XV and IV lower levels Drawn by E Carri n Practically all the levels have yielded remains of microfauna except the three lowest levels XVIII to XXX and Levels XVI XXI and XXIII affected by diagenesis and solution processes Level VIII has provided the largest assemblage Ses in Baena et al 2005 Ses in Uzquiano et al 2012 From the environmental viewpoint none of the taxa in the sequence indicate extremely cold conditions Between Levels XXVI and XIV only indeterminate rodents are found arvicolids However from Level XI onwards a larger range of species Eliomys quercinus Pliomyslenki Microtus cf lusitanicus Microtus arvalisagrestis etc re ects the more temperate conditions between 34 3 and 36 5 ky BP as detected in pollen
86  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  coast...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE sequences at other sites in Cantabrian Spain like Covalejos and Labeko Koba Finally the study of the archaeological material has provided an important sequential collection of materials enabling a unique techno economic study which surely corresponds to adaptive processes within the environment around the site In this sense a surprisingly close correlation is found between the dominant technical sequences the investment in energy in the changing models of raw material pro Ram n Montes Barqu n The stratigraphic sequence of the El Pendo cave Escobedo de Camargo Cantabria Spain 1 Introduction The El Pendo cave was discovered for science in 1878 by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola 1880 Since then it has been the object of numerous archaeological actions such as those performed by Juan Vilanova y Piera at the end of the 19th century J Carballo and B Lar n during the rst decades of the 20th century and Mart nez SantaOlalla the excavations of 1953 1957 among many others Three monographs mark the research into the cave up to the present day that published by Carballo and Lar n in 1933 that of J Gonz lez Echegaray 1980 regarding the excavations carried out by Mart nez Santaolalla and that published by Montes and Sanguino 2001 about the actions performed between 1994 and 2000 during which the cave paintings were discovered To these can be added numerous works on partial aspects and references in joint studies The international importance acquired by El Pendo is due without doubt to the International Field Archaeology Courses designed and delivered as a consequence of the excavations of 1953 1957 under the direction of the Spanish archaeologist Julio Mart nez Santa Olalla courses that led to European and North American archaeologists developing an curement and the climate uctuations in the environment especially in the last parts of the sequence Baena et al 2012 In addition the artefacts display great techno typological development Fig 3 especially in the levels with a predominance of the Quina Levels XX and XV XIf Levallois Levels IXI and X VIII and discoid Levels XXX XXI and VI III techniques Level XVII displays a clearly different nature with certain predominance of blades In all cases however the dominant schemes are found together with secondary ones intense research activity Leading gures from the world of prehistoric archaeology of the time such as Cheynier and the husband and wife team of Leroi and Gourhan personally directed the team on the excavation of the stratigraphic deposit located inside the cave in which up to 18 different strata were documented and in theory covered the period from the onset of the Middle Palaeolithic to the Bronze Age Unfortunately these studies were not published at the time and it was Joaqu n Gonz lez Echegaray who in 1980 published a report on the excavations and a scienti c interpretation of the site based on different studies the geology section of which was written by K W Butzer 1980 The interpretation theoretically generous and at the same time very possibly frugal as far as practicality is concerned put forward by K W Butzer 1980 1981 regarding its stratigraphic column transformed El Pendo into a site of iconic proportions on a par with the sequences of El Castillo and Cueva Mor n when it comes to establishing the general sequence of the Cantabrian and Iberian Peninsular Palaeolithic However in recent years Butzer s idyllic interpretation has been seriously questioned and doubt cast on the value of this sequence Montes and Sanguino dirs 2001 Montes et al 2005 Moreover these latest studies have rede ned the series which would Unidad T cnica del Itinerario Cultural del Consejo de Europa Caminos de Arte Rupestre Prehist rico RCDR C San Mart n del Pino 16 3 bajo 39011 Pe acastillo Santander rmontes prehistour eu 87
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  sequences at other sites in Cantabrian Spain, like Covalejos and Labeko Koba. Finally...
88 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD in reality consist of a total of 33 levels with the base layer being subjected to a whole host of dating methods that not only show the existence of remains of up to 84 ky BP but also the presence of severe chronocultural inversions that represent a clearly anomalous post depositional accumulation when it comes to establishing a sequence of some interest a fragment of spear or rod that is clearly post Palaeolithic in appearance was found at the base of the sequence 2 From Classical Stratigraphic Benchmark To Inconsistent Erudite Reference The mouth of the El Pendo cave is situated in the village of Escobedo which in turn forms part of the municipal district of Camargo Cantabria northern Spain It lies within the karst massif of Alto del Pe ajorao one of the region s many minor coastal ranges The landscape in the area is relatively gentle and rolling typical in other words of the coastal fringe of northern Spain being composed as it is of Mesozoic materials from the Lower Cretaceous and forming part of the so called Urgonain Complex The limestones that interest us here have been attributed to the Aptian Age The karsti cation of the limestone has given rise to numerous single and compound sinkholes As it happens the El Pendo cave is situated in the north face of one of the many compound sinkholes to have formed in this system A precise topographic survey carried out by Luque in 2001 places the oor of the cave s entrance at a height of 90 metres above sea level while the height of the surface area of the place where the archaeological digs carried out between 1953 and 1957 and the more recent excavations of 1994 to 1997 were started is 71 metres above sea level representing a 19 metre fall over the barely 35 linear metres between the cave entrance and the dig site The classical sequence namely the 18 levels identi ed by Butzer is based on a series of cuts made in the left hand side of the enormous rubble cone that starts a few metres in front of the fence erected at the back of the cavity s vestibule extends over 80 metres beyond the aforementioned barrier Fig 1 and ends just before reaching the area in which the red paintings were discovered during the 1997 dig Gonz lez Echegaray 1980 and his collaborators interpret the sequence in accordance with the following series of human occupations Bronze Age level 0 Azilian level I the end of the Magdalenian level II late Aurignacian levels III and IV Gravettian V and Va evolved Aurignacian VI Aurignacian I VII lower Perigordian VIII archaic Aurignacian VIIIa and VIIIb denticulate Mousterian VIIId Mousterian IX and X denticulate Mousterian XI and XII typical Mousterian XIII and XIV Mousterian XV denticulate Mousterian XVI Unidenti ed and yet to be identi ed industry XVII and XVIII Figure 1 Location and footprint Regarding the characteristics and interpretation of this deposit over time we can refer to Montes et al 2005 The most recent interpretation of this sedimentary deposit highlights the existence of a broad range of post depositional processes which are visible and may be documented in the cuts made during the excavations carried out and concludes that whatever the case may be the area in which digs were undertaken in the 20th century and where the classical sequence was documented is nothing more
88  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  in re...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Figure 2 Cross section of the cave than a monumental rubble cone brought in from an original accumulation area most likely situated in the Pleistocene vestibule of the grotto Fig 2 In other words what we have here is a derived site with an in nite number of geo archaeological problems that render it invalid as a reference for the establishment of a sequence of any chronostratigraphic value action of the stream that evacuates the compound sinkhole of which the cave system is a natural drain currently the grotto s active watercourse is documented as being at around 20 metres below the mouth used for accessing the site In fact the current oor of the sinkhole is above many of the levels that form the base section of the site Few doubts currently remain regarding the fact that the general sedimentological dynamic of the site has to a great extent been conditioned by the The calcareous elements that make up the deposit would appear to have come from rock falls caused by thermoclastic processes but these would not have 89
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Figure 2. Cross-section of the cave  than a monumental rubble cone brought in from an...
90 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD occurred on the vertical plane of the sequence The only blocks that could have fallen on this would have been those loosened from the roof of the cave by processes of chemical solution rather than cracking and fracturing The mechanical detachment point would have to be brought back to the area close to the mouth of the cave Finally the alteration of the detrital elements would have been caused not only by post sedimentary processes but also by the length of time these elements were exposed to the weather and the climatic conditions that prevailed while they were being transported Three principal agents were involved in the formation of the sedimentary deposits of El Pendo cave the slope of the accumulation cone that protrudes from the rock shelter at the mouth of the cave the stream that drains the compound sinkhole and the topography of the cone These three elements have acted together with one or other of them being more in uential at different times to create the deposit we know today Fig 2 a The slope Starting in the vestibule of the cave is a large debris cone made up of big blocks that stretches into the cave s interior to form an accumulation cone The distance from the point at which the slope begins in the vestibule of the cave to the area containing the main sequence column of the site is 34 6 metres with the gradient being 44 degrees Given the steepness of the slope the action of gravitational ows is extremely feasible b The stream that drains the sinkhole of El Pendo cave acts as a very effective transportation agent capable of dislodging the detritic materials contained within it Inside the cave it currently ows beneath the archaeo sedimentary deposits but its height at the point at which it disappears is a few metres above the levels of the shaft and this was shown by the topographical survey As was seen during the heavy rainstorm of 1983 under certain circumstances the stream is not capable of evacuating all the water that accumulates in the small basin of the sinkhole This results in it over owing and using the upper level of the cave where the geoarchaeological deposit is situated to drain off the water The sedimentary record provides irrefutable evidence of other times when the water carried by the stream penetrated the cave c Finally the topography of the cone has determined the routes taken by the ows and the areas in which the materials have accumu lated The rocky escarpment of the entrance has undergone considerable chemical and mechanical alteration processes The fallen materials have formed a rubble cone These fallen blocks have changed the directions in which the waters ow thereby causing lateral changes in the storm water runoff which might explain the deposition of some materials in one area of the cave and not in others These three agents serve to develop the interpretation of the depositional sequence of the El Pendo cave and the sedimentary factors that have resulted in the stratigraphy that we can see today The study of the materials recovered during the digs carried out between 1994 and 1997 on the levels of the base of the sequence in the shaft especially of those obtained from levels 25 and 26 which provided a signi cant number of nds also provided data that showed them to be clearly inconsistent and therefore an unreliable chronocultural record Apart from a few anecdotal and at the same time tremendously symptomatic questions such as the discovery of a fragment of spear point or rod in level 32 or of lithic nds that have been dubiously ascribed to the Mousterian technocomplex in many of the sequence base levels theoretically dated as pertaining to the Middle Palaeolithic the internal study of the lithic series based on the operational sequence analysis methodology supports the existence of notable anomalies The palynological and paleontological data also revealed countless anomalies in fact far too many to mention in detail here Montes Sanguino dirs 2001 In addition to geological paleoecological and archaeological studies the most recent excavations included the use of absolute dating methods such as ESR Thermoluminescence and Uranium Thorium series although Carbon 14 was not used given the purported chronology of the lower sequence being worked on The programme of absolute dating methods was without doubt essential for establishing the hypothesis that what we have here is a monumental archaeological misunderstanding Its results clearly show the inconsistency of the El Pendo sequence that the geological data provided in such an overwhelming manner Fig 3 3 The El Pendo site A current assessment Unfortunately the sedimentary deposits of the El Pendo cave brought to light by the excavations of 1953 57 are the result of a major post depositional that includes three elements the slope of the rubble cone in question the stream that
90  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  occur...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE drains the sinkhole at the bottom of which lies the cave and the ever changing topography of the rubble cone in which the different cuts have been made The entire sedimentary dynamic that has given rise to the depositional sequence can be explained by the action of these three agents In the geo archaeological studies undertaken following the theory put forward by K W Butzer Hoyos and Laville 1982 Montes and Sanguino 2001 Montes et al 2005 a great deal of evidence has been compiled and documented regarding a source of energy powerful enough to carry and transport huge quantities of materials and in ict a great deal of erosion while doing so Episodes involving the total or partial ooding of the grotto have also been documented The analysis of the 33 levels which in reality go to make up the series and the contacts between them provides interesting information about the nature and origin of the sequence this in one way can be interpreted as a geo archaeological stratigraph that is valid as a benchmark series Moreover the different absolute dating methods used have con rmed the existence of signi cant anomalies as regards the existence of an authentic chronocultural sequence The study of the archaeological and paleontological materials obtained from the base of the sequence have proved the limited internal cultural coherence of many of the levels The dynamic interpretation of the stratigraphic levels and the sedimentology shows that it is the slope movement phenomena that are mainly responsible for the formation of the deposit The description of the processes level by level causes a loss of perspective but if we examine the sequence as a whole the El Pendo deposit is in general terms a macro sequence with positive grain selection Successive in ll processes have made the slope less steep thereby reducing the potential energy which explains the positive trend of the grain selection The sedimentary differences are the result of the varying forces of the gravitational processes Likewise most of the contacts between the levels are erosive which implies on the one hand an absence of the sequence s time record and on the other the incorporation of material whether archaeological or not from the underlying part of the level above Several examples of these erosions occur In short the stratigraphy of the El Pendo cave cannot be used as a reliable source of knowledge for the Upper Pleistocene in the area excavated in the 20th century The mixtures of archaeological material from different levels means this site cannot be considered as a benchmark in the paleoclimatic and Figure 3 Stratigraphic cut and absolute dating methods chronocultural sequence of the Cantabrian Region despite the weight of its Historiography Although different degrees of contamination exist in the stratigraphy and not all the levels must be treated in the same way the extremely large body of research to have used data from the El Pendo levels in any section of its sequence must be severely questioned mainly because no guarantee exists of the synchronism of the elements contained by each level Despite everything it has also been possible to document the presence of some areas in the exterior shelter not inside the cave that would appear not to have suffered major alterations and offer hope for future investigations Montes and Sanguino dir 2001 which under all circumstances should be carried out away from the area we know as the classic El Pendo site namely in the area that is still covered by the debris left by the collapse of the overhang of the shelter 91
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  drains the sinkhole    at the bottom of which lies the cave    and the ever-changing ...
92 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Lawrence Guy Straus Geoffrey A Clark La Riera Cave Posada de Llanes Asturias The 1976 1979 excavation of La Riera Cave Fig 1 coming a decade after that of Cueva Mor n in Cantabria by J Gonz lez and L G Freeman and done in association with M R Gonz lez Morales represented the continuation of a international collaborative effort to modernize Paleolithic research in Cantabrian Spain These Hispano American projects like those that followed in El Juyo by Freeman and Gonz lez Echegaray and Mir n by Straus and Gonz lez Morales both in Cantabria were designed and conducted withexplicitly interdisciplinary p aleoanthropological problem oriented foci that guided excavation methodologies analyses and interpretations fundamentally diverging from the solely culture historical raison d tre of many traditional excavations in Spain and elsewhere Figure 1 La Riera in its surroundings The complete monographic publication of the La Riera research Straus and Clark 1986 has made this one of the most widely cited extensively debated and frequently restudied excavations in the long history of Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic research in Cantabrian Spain A surprisingly small cave La Riera has nonetheless played an unusually signi cant role in the development of scienti c and anthropological archeology in the Iberian Peninsula and the profession ultimately owes the importance of this site to its discovery initial excavation and monographic publication to the Conde de la Vega del Sella in whose footsteps the authors respectfully followed 60 years later La Riera Cave is located on the narrow coastal strip of eastern Asturias at 43 25 31 N x 4 52 W x 30 m above sea level The low cave mouth faces west from the south slope of the low La Llera rasa ridge which runs parallel to the shore west east between the valley of the Bed n Riverand the town of Llanes Between this ridge and the steep Sierra de Cuera range maximum elevation 1315 m at only 7 km from the shore there is a depression that is drained via the Calabres stream that runs underground through a karstic system immediately adjacent to and slightly below La Riera The Calabres resurges at the Niembro inlet 1 5 km north of La Riera and the open ocean coastline is at 1 75 km while it would have been less than 10 km from the site during the Last Glacial Maximum Other cave sites in this ridge include Cueto de la Mina only 50 m from La Riera Balmori Tres Calabres Bricia etc giving the area around the town of Posada de Llanes one of the densest concentrations of Paleolithic and Mesolithic sites including minor cave art loci in all of Iberia Department of Anthropology University of New Mexico Albuquerque NM 87131 USA Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistoricas de Cantabria 39005 Santander Spain School of Human Evolution and Social Change Arizona State University Tempe AZ 85287 USA
92  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Lawre...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE The mouth of La Riera was completely filled with archeological deposits capped by a rare intact Asturian shell midden conchero at the time of its discovery by Vega del Sella probably during his excavation of Cueto de la Mina in 1914 15 The Conde excavated the outer part of La Riera in 1917 18 and published a monograph on it and nearby Balmori in 1930 He uncoverd a sequence of Solutrean Magdalenian Azilian and Asturian layers His Magdalenian clearly included both Lower and Upper phase components indicated respectively by the presence of nuecleiform endscrapers and quadrangular cross section geometrically engraved antler points on the one hand and antler harpoons on the other The Magdalenian horizon also included archaic looking macrolithic artifacts some of which the Conde improbably attribued to an Acheulean deposit that had washed into the cave from the slope above the cave at this time despite that fact that he cited the presence of other similar artifacts among the unquestioned Magdalenian assemblage La Riera was a key site for the Conde s de nition of a new Mesolithic culture the Asturian also characterized by the presence of crude macrolithic implements i e cobble picks sometimes misinterpreted by later scholars as also being of Acheulean age see discussion in Clark 1976 1983 The talus slope in front of La Riera was tested and a concreted conchero remnant sampled by Clark in 1969 as part of his dissertation research on the Asturian Clark 1976 1983 This research yielded two radiocarbon dates that were among the rst ever run for this techno complex clearly showing it to be postPleistocene and pre Neolithic in age The 1970s excavation aimed to gather and analyze data to reconstruct the environments of the late Last Glacial and early Postglacial and to use artifactual and faunal evidence to elicit information about and to suggest explanations for variations in hunter gatherer adaptations as their uses of the cave changed through time against the backdrop of changing conditions Anthropological hypothesis testing was a keystone of the research and the agenda was explicitly processual both directors having been students of L G Freeman at the University of Chicago and directly and indirectly influenced by the thinking of L R Binford and the New Archeology of the late 1960s 1970s In this context much reliance was placed on radiocarbon as opposed to Bordesian cumulative percentage graphs of retouched stone tool frequencies to date levels while diagnostic artifacts such as Solutrean points Magdalenian and Azilian harpoon types certain Magdalenian sagaie forms and Asturian picks were acknowledged generally to be temporally diagnostic Consequently La Riera was the first Upper Paleolithic Mesolithic site in Cantabria and indeed in Iberia for which a major investment was made to procure large numbers of 14C determinations albeit with inevitable contradictions and inconsistencies due to the number of different labs that did the dating the use of both bone and charcoal and the inability at the time to remove as many contaminants as can be done now and the possibility of mixing by cryoturbation and prehistoric human activities such as hearth pit digging Other dates on shells corrected for marine reservoir effect were later published by A Craighead 1999 generally confirming the ages of the oldest Solurean the Upper Magdalenian the Azilian and the Asturian conchero The 7 10 m excavation of a remnant of intact deposits left by the Conde in the interior of the cave was done by ne dissection of units thought to approximate more or less horizontal living oors This resulted in the de nition of 36 levels and lenses in contrast to the Conde s 4 horizons and in fact most of the Asturian save small remnants had earlier been removed so that the new excavation mainly sampled the Solutrean Magdalenian and more locally Azilian units for a stratigraphic thickness of about 1 8 m plus a 60 cm deep sondage dug into the basal clay deposit Levels 1 3 The resulting culturestratigraphic sequence included a pre Solutrean Aurignacian or more likely undiagnostic Gravettian component Levels 1 3 probably 20 uncal BP several Solutrean layers with shouldered concave base laurel and willow leaf points Levels 4 17 20 17 uncal kya Initial and Lower Magdalenian Levels 18 19 16 5 15 2 uncal BP Upper Magdalenian Levels 20 24 13 11 5 uncal kya Azilian Levels 26 27 11 5 10 5 uncal kya and Asturian 9 0 6 5 uncal BP Finds were piece plotted in 3D and all sediments were screened in water through ne mesh Fig 2 The following analy 93
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  The mouth of La Riera was completely filled with archeological deposits capped by a r...
94 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD ses are published in the monograph sedimentology H Laville speleothems R Harmon palynology Arl Leroi Gourhan macrobotanicals K Cushman features and lithic technology Straus and Clark lithic raw materials J Ordaz L Su raz and R Esbert with Straus and Clark osseous industry M Gonz lez Morales mammalian faunas J Altuna sh M Men ndez de la Hoz with Strans and Clark marine mollusks J Ortea oxygen isotopes M Deith and N J Shackleton human remains M D Garralda There are several background objectives synthesis statistical interpretive conclusion chapters by Straus and Clark Some of the main conclusions of the research included There is no basis for subdividing the Solutrean into artifact based phases and the late Solutrean intergraded with the early Magdalenian through a process of desolultreanization thus questioning the reality of these concepts as separate cultures The role of the site changed notably through time e g from transitory specialized camp for hunting ibexon the nearby cliffs of the Sierra de Cuera to major multi functional residential hub with diversi ed technologies and features associated with many hunting and gathering activities plus others such as parietal and portable art creation to a dump for shells and other bulk garbage The process of subsistence intensi cation through both situational specialization and overall diversi cation earlier thought to have begun in the Magdalenian started here with the Solutrean and included the large scale collection of shell sh some shing and the increasingly intensive hunting of ibex and red deer including the ultimately Figure 2 Stratigraphy of La Riera Cave L G Strauss and G A Clark Eds Anthropological Research Papers 36 Tempe Arizona 1986 G A Clark
94  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  ses a...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE counter productive taking of ever larger numbers of young individuals as well as the addition of woodland adapted species boar roe deer as Late Glacial and early Post glacialconditions permitted There was no clear relationship between some of the changes in site use and major climatic shifts but demographic pressure was seen as a key motor in driving subsistence change and presumably many of the main technological developments especially in the area of weap David Santamar a Elsa Duarte Mar a Gonz lez Pumariega Luc a Mart nez Paloma Su rez Javier Fern ndez de la Vega Gabriel Santos Tom Higham Rachel Wood Marco de la Rasilla It is a large rock shelter with a surface area of approximately 225 m2 and 30 m long Fig 1 which preserves a wide stratigraphic and cultural sequence dated in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic Fig 2 and many parietal engravings that are partially covered by the stratigraphy Fortea 1994 In short despite undoubted shortcomings La Riera helped significantly to change the nature of the conversation about the meaning of inter assemblage and even inter period variability in Spain for a generation of researchers La Vi a rock shelter Asturias Spain The site is located in La Manzaneda 9 km south of Oviedo in the middle basin of theNal nriver Facing S SE the rock shelter opens up inaVisean Namurianlimestone measuring 200m long and 30m high and around 500m from the right bank of the river Nal n The UTM30 ETRS89 coordinates of the site are X 270725 79Y 4799477 68 Z 292 metres above sea level onry e g Solutrean points antler sagaies with backed bladelet inserts antler harpoons and the presumed invention of traps nets and maybe weirs as well as of new more ef cient hunting strategies and tactics The shelter was discovered in 1978 by A J Gavelas 1981 and a little later the Prehistory Department of the University of Oviedo surveyed the rock shelter con rming its archaeological and artistic interest The excavations directed by J Fortea and integrated in the Proyecto de Investigaci n Nal n medio Middle Nal n Research Project started in 1980 and lasted through to 1996 Fortea 1981 1990 1992 1995 1999 and 2001 The cultural episodes the physical and biological environments the rock engravings the portable art and the mineral pigments are currently being studied The archaeological interventions focused on two sectors of the shelter called central and western coinciding with the areas where the parietal rea de Prehistoria Departamento de Historia Facultad de Filosof a y Letras Universidad de Oviedo c Teniente Alfonso Mart nez s n 33011 Oviedo Espa a santamariadavid uniovi es duarteelsa uniovi es lucia_satis hotmail com psuarez ferruelo gmail com mrasilla uniovi es Consejer a de Educaci n Cultura y Deporte del Principado de Asturias Apartado de correos n 29 33590 Ribadedeva maria glez pumariegasolis asturias org Departamento de Ingenier a Cartogr ca y del Terreno Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de Salamanca Pza de la Merced s n 37008 Salamanca Espa a gsd usal es Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art University of Oxford South Parks Road Oxford OX1 3QY United Kingdom thomas higham rlaha ox ac uk Research School of Earth Sciences Australian National University 1 Mills Road Canberra 0200 Australia rachel wood anu edu au 95
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  counter-productive  taking of ever larger numbers of young individuals, as well as th...
96 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 Floor plan and stratigraphic section of the western sector engravings are concentrated and on two cores next to the wall of the shelter which preserve remains of settlements posterior to level IV which forms the current oor Central Sector Located between lines10 and 14 its surface area is approximately 30 m2 The whole area was excavated up to the topof level V and to the bedrock atline14 It presents a wide stratigraphic and cultural sequence From top to bottom Strata I to III Identi ed in Core 4 next to the north wall of the shelter squareH 15 Attributed to the Tardiglacialand the Holocene Fortea 1990 Stratum IV Attributed to the Middle Magdalenian Dated at 13 300 150 Ly 3317 and 13 360 190 BP Ly 3316 Gonz lez Morales et al 1989 Fortea 1990 Duarte 2010 Contact with the underlying unit is erosional unconformity It is very rich in lithic and bone industry and portable art
96  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figur...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Stratum V Sub divided into several levels in the area not covered by the overhang Classi ed as Upper Solutrean with notched and concave base projectile points Fortea 1990 Stratum VI Sub divided into three levels VIa VI band VIc Level VI awas assigned to aphase previous to the UpperSolutrean Middle Solutrean and levels VI band Vic to Gravettian the latter VIc with Noailles burins Fortea 1992 Stratum VII Collapse of the overhang only outside the shelter Sterile from an archaeological point of view Stratum VIII Attributed to the Aurignacian Fortea 1995 Stratum IX The techno typological analysis of the lithic industry puts it in the oldest Aurignacian Su rez 2013 Stratum X Classi ed as undetermined initial Upper Paleolithic Su rez 2013 Few lithic remains Stratum XI Limestone bedrock Archaeologically sterile Western sector Located in lines 23 and 27 next to the western wall of the shelter Its surface area is approximately 17 m2 It was open excavated up to the topof level V and to the bedrock at squares F 25 to F 27 and G 25 to G 27 It also presents a wide stratigraphic and cultural sequence partially dated by radiocarbon conventional and AMS Santamar a 2012 Wood et al 2014 Tab 1 From top to bottom Stratum I Identi ed in Core 1 From the Holocene it presents an industry with a low diagnostic typology Stratum II Also identi ed in Core 1 without cultural assignment Fortea 1990 Stratum III Excavated in lines I and J and in Core 1 Provisionally classi ed as Upper Magdalenian Fortea 1990 Figure 2 Selection of the archaeological materials 1 5 Magdalenian 6 8 Solutrean 9 12 Gravettian 13 14 Aurignacian 15 16 Mousterian Drawings 1 9 14 and 16 E Duarte 10 12 L Mart nez 13 and 15 D Santamar a tected a few Noailles burins so this level best ts in to an advanced Gravettian phase Stratum VIII Gravettian with Noailles burins microgravette pointsand pedunculated points similar to the shape of the Font Robert point Fortea 1992 Stratum IV Corresponds to stratum IV of the central sector Attributed to the Middle Magdalenian Fortea 1990 Duarte 2010 Stratum IX Gravettian with Noailles burins microgravette points many burins and a knapped calamite fossil deliberately modi ed Fortea 1992 Mart nez and Rasilla 2013 Dated at 24 680 130 BP OxA 21688 Stratum V Similar to V in the central sector Attributed to the Upper Solutrean Fortea 1990 Stratum X Gravettian with Noailles burins Fortea 1992 Mart nez and Rasilla 2013 Stratum VI Middle Solutrean with points face plane unifacial at retouch and laurel leaf points Fortea 1990 Fern ndez de la Vega and Rasilla 2012 Stratum XI Aurignacian with keeled and nosedendscrapers busqu burins and Dufour subtype Roc de Combebladelets This level belongs to the late Aurignacian Mart nez 2010 and has been dated between 27 900 280 OxA X 2290 19 and 30 600 370 BP OxA 21687 Stratum VII End of the Gravettian with Gravette points microgravettes points and backed bladelets Fortea 1992 Current research has de 97
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Stratum V. Sub-divided into several levels in the area not covered by the overhang. C...
98 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Stratum XII Aurignacian with keeled and nosedendscrapers busqu burins Aurignacian blades and many Dufour subtype Roc de Combebladelets Ascribed to the late Aurignacian Santamar a 2012 Two antler points of at section were recovered from F 26 Dated at 31 500 400 OxA 21689 and 31 600 400 BP OxA 21678 Stratum XIII This level overlaps with level XIII basalin squaresG 25 to G 27 and XIII in n line F Assigned to early Aurignacian Santamar a 2012 with many keeled endscrapers some Aurignacian blades and Dufour subtype Dufour bladelets A split base point ofelliptic section was recovered in square F 27 The middle and top section of this level have been dated between 30 650 360 OxA21845 and 31 860 680 BP GifA 95463 The interfaces XIII XIII basa land XIII XIII infhave been dated at 35 800 1000 GifA 95550 and 36 500 750 BP Ly 6390 respectively Stratum XIII inf First Aurignacian occupation of the site This unit was partially deposited over strata XIII basal XIV XIV and IA reaching the bed rockin some areas of the sector The contact between this unit and the underlying units IA XIV XIV and XIII basal is erosional unconformity Classi ed as polymorphic Proto Aurignacian with microlaminarprismatic cores keeledendscrapers and Dufour subtype Dufour bladelets Santamar a 2012 Only the contact with the overlaying strata XIII Ly 6390 vid supra has been dated Stratum XIIIbasal Last Mousterian level of the site Only preserved in line G and sub squares 3 6 and 9 of F 25 and 1 of F 26 Towards the south the N Inv Lab Ref Level Pret BP Date cal BP Date From To VI 1 Ly 3317 IV C 13300 150 15986 223 16453 15515 VI 2 Ly 3316 IV C 13360 190 16075 285 16664 15469 VI 45 OxA 21688 IX UF 24680 130 28716 152 29016 28403 VI 35 OxAX 2290 19 XI UF 27900 280 31800 376 32586 31190 VI 36 OxA 21686 XI UF 20820 130 VI 39 OxA 21687 XI UF 30600 370 34581 342 35285 33922 VI 83 OxA 19195 XI ABA 30130 170 34180 176 34541 33848 VI 72 OxA 21678 XII UF 31600 400 35521 415 36309 34734 VI 73 OxA 21689 XII UF 31500 400 35431 409 36231 34671 VI 4 Ly15 OxA 4092 XIII C 19930 220 VI 5 GifA 95463 XIII C 31860 680 35976 828 37846 34545 VI 67 OxA 21705 XIII UF 31160 230 35073 248 35582 34615 VI 68 OxA 21845 XIII UF 30650 360 34621 339 35320 33967 VI 6 Ly 6390 XIII XIII low C 36500 750 41043 676 42341 39676 VI 7 GifA 95550 XIII XIII bas C 35800 1000 40412 961 42230 38560 VI 8 GifA 99230 XIII bas C 48100 1600 50650 1820 54424 47305 VI 9 GifA 99231 XIII bas C 37700 590 VI 10 GifA 95537 XIII bas C 39000 VI 85 OxA 19144 XIII bas ABOx 59300 VI 85 OxA 19196 XIII bas ABA 62000 VI 11 GifA 95551 XIV C 39000 Table 1 La Vi a dating In bold the anomalous dating values Pre treatment Pret UF Ultra ltration ABA acid base acid ABOx acid base oxidation C Conventional The Columns age cal BP From and Until they are calibrated with the OxCal programme based on the 2013 IntCal curve Bronk Ramsey 2009 Reimer et al 2013
98  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Strat...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE level forms a wedge changing to XIIIinf The contact between these units is erosional unconformity It is Mousterian rich in lithic industry with many different types of sidescrapers some Mousterian and Tayac points with quite a few denticulate tools a good Chatelperron point and four bifaces with a transverse edge Santamar a 2012 Dated at 62 000 BP OxA 19196 Stratum XIV This unit is preserved in lines25 and 26 of the western sector It does not overlap with XIV but both outline a pseudo horizontal linein section with similar top and bottom heights This unit is partially deposited on IB IA and XIV in erosional unconformity Mousterian with more sidescrapers than denticulate tools and some Mousterian points Santamar a 2012 Dated at 39 000 BP GifA 95551 Stratum XIV This unit only appears in lines 26 and 27 Mousterian with more denticulate tools than sidescrapers Santamar a 2012 Stratum XV IA Present in lines 25 and 27 of the western sector Mousterian with more denticulate tools than sidescrapers Santamar a 2012 Stratum IB Preserved in sub squares 7 8 and 9 of G 25 and 1 2 of G 26 Mousterianwith few lithic tools and a similar proportion of sidescrapers and denticulate tools Santamar a 2012 Stratum RA Altered bedrock Archaeologically sterile Alvaro Arrizabalaga Mar a Jos Iriarte Chiapuso The parietal engravings are spread across ve areas along the large rock wall all of them exposed to direct sunlight Gonz lez Pumariega 2013 Several engraving assemblages are currently unearthed c which were documented as the excavations advanced These have been arranged into two graphic horizons that are successive over time Fortea 1994 the rst and oldest associated to the Aurignacian consists of deeply engraved lines arranged rhythmically into various groups and the second Gravettian Solutrean consists of gurative mainly deer and non gurative art Labeko Koba Arrasate Gipuzkoa 1 Introduction The archaeological site of Labeko Koba is located on the southwestern edge of Gipuzkoa along the upper course of the river Deba and in a highly anthropic environment almost in the town of Arrasate Like the whole of Gipuzkoa it is located in a geographic area that is a mixture The erosional processes identi ed in the lower section of the western sector from IB to XIII have aided vertical and lateral displacement of archaeological materials between the Mousterian and Aurignacian levels These contaminations have played a signi cant role in the techno type con guration of the series studied generating a local i e culturally linked to the local Mousterian and gradualtransition from Middle to Upper Palaeolithic recognisable from at least IA but whose origin is strictly taphonomic or post depositional These contaminations are very evident in the Mousterian levels and less obvious or more elusive in the Aurignacian levels clearer in XIII inf than in XIII and undetectable in XII Rasilla and Santamar a 2011 12 Santamar a 2012 of Cantabrian Pyrenean and Aquitaine environments It was excavated between September 1987 and December 1988 under exceptional circumstances which could be referred to as for salvage purposes rather than for emergency purposes The work method was adapted to a certain extent to ensure complete removal of the site before the cavity was destroyed by the Arrasate ring road but Universidad del Pa s Vasco UPV EHU Tom s y Valiente s n 01006 Vitoria alvaro arrizabalaga ehu es Universidad del Pa s Vasco IKERBASQUE UPV EHU Tom s y Valiente s n 01006 Vitoria 99
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  level forms a wedge changing to XIIIinf. The contact between these units is erosional...
100 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD included the guarantees typical of this type of deposit All of the sediment recovered while the excavation was sieved with water allowing systematic recovery of almost one hundred percent of the assemblages at the site In fact the absolute dating values the fauna spectrum identi ed Fig 1 the paleoenvironmental analyses and the lithic and bone techno complexes allowed in the case of Labeko Koba the characteristics of the human settlements of the site to be de ned quite well In this respect it could be said that Labeko Koba is one of the main sites corresponding to the initial Upper Palaeolithic excavated in the Cantabrian environment in recent decades Sometime after the excavation advances in the monograph Arrizabalaga 1989a 1989b 1991 1992 1993 a monograph with various analytical studies Arrizabalaga and Altuna eds 2000 and a brief summary of its content Arrizabalaga et al 2000 2002 2003 were published 2 Circumstances and dating of the deposit The post depositional circumstances have signi cantly altered the archaeological remains The majority of the surface of the site is not protected by the original overhang so the remains deposited there have been heavily washed by the rain and exposed to the elements This degradation particularly affects the bone both fauna and industry and pollen remains and signi cantly alters the lithic record In fact this circumstance imposes higher restrictions on reading and interpreting the site much higher than those imposed by the fact that it is an excavation that has been carried out without interruption over a long period To highlight a particularly symptomatic detail the main stratigraphic differences of the site occur laterally depending on whether they are located under the overhang or outside it compared to the vertical ones which are more attenuated especially in the Figure 1 Sample of the fauna recovered Bone industry Levels VII IV Proto aurignacian and Lower Aurignacian
100  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  incl...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE area outside the protection of a small rock shelter Radiocarbon dating of the site levels has been dif cult due to the taphonomic characteristics of the deposit whose sediment has been heavily washed by rain The dates initially available were much more recent than those estimated for the early Upper Palaeolithic of the region Level lower IX Ch telperronian 34 215 1265 BP Ua 3324 Level VII Proto Aurignacian 31 455 915 BP Ua 3321 Level V Early Aurignacian 30 615 820 BP Ua 3322 An article was published recently Wood et al 2014 that presents nineteen new dates for the Labeko Koba sequence which are much more consistent with one another and with the new regional framework for the early Upper Paleolithic after pre treating the radiocarbon samples in this case ultra ltration In accordance with this the dates that have not been calibrated that establish the Ch telperronianinthe site would be 38 100 900 BP OxA 22562 and 37 400 800 BP OxA22560 the Proto Aurignacianwould cover 35 250 650 BP OxA 21793 to 36 850 800 BP OxA21766 and the three Early Aurignacian levels from 35 100 600 BP OxA 21778 for level VI from 34 750 750 BP OxA 21767 to 34 650 600 BP OxA 21779 for level V and from 33 600 500 BP OxA 21768 to 33 550 550 BP OxA 21780 for level IV Calibration as demonstrated in the aforementioned article shows additional aging of these results by between four and six millennia Therefore the probability curve of the oldest dating values clearly exceeds 44 000 cal BP and the most recent dating values at least 37 000 cal BP These dates are signi cantly more consistent with the new regional framework established for SW Europe France Italy Germany We must add that almost all of the new dating values have been made on bone retouch in order to minimise the risk of dating bone remains brought in by predators or scavengers that therefore do not have any direct relationship with human activity 3 The stratigraphic sequence of Labeko Koba and its archaeological re t We have evidence of initial visits to the cave by species that would alternate with one another throughout the occupation sequence various carnivores and humans Before the entrance that we excavated started to settle at the bottom there was a pit cave that accessed the lower red karstic of Labeko Koba In the top section of this pit cave and at the base of the debris cone that originated in it in 1973 and 1987 three batches of material were recovered the majority archaeozoological named Sima pit cave 1973 Derrubio Superior Upper Debris 1987 and Derrubio Inferior Lower Debris 1987 The presence of a fragment of a Ch telperron points in the Sima materials a section of a burin in Derrubio Superior that can be traced back to a burin in sub level lower IX and the fauna associations in both batches indicate a precise chronological identity between these materials and the assemblage in level IX It is therefore probable that these materials with no stratigraphy correspond to initial visits to Labeko Kobafrom hyena cave bear and humans using the pit cave as a den in the case of the carnivores Human presence which is very occasional is more dif cult to explain but could be interpreted in relation to the procurement of biotic resources meat skin antlers bones etc present in the pit cave through the activity of carnivores the leading players in the taphocoenosis at the base of the deposit The presence of many hyaena and bear remains in the pit cave can be explained by the dif culties of climbing back up the slope of the narrow pit cave of Labeko Koba after throwing animals remains into it in order to eat them Thus some of these carnivores would die inside the lower cave The prey includes horse and deer species that would be relegated to more secondary positions in the levels in which humans were the principal authors of the fauna contributions The site sediment originated when the pit cave that fed the debris cone of the lower system became obstructed with silt We assume that for some time the pit cave was still occasionally activated as a sink hole due to the similarity of the Palaeolithic materials of sub level upper IX and the Derrubio Superior However there is not a single Dufour bladelet among the material very overabundant in level VII which leads us to deduce that the pit cave was de nitively closed during this period or in level VIII sterile from an archaeological point of view In addition the sinkhole could have been completely obstructed before the deposition of level IX later occasionally activating However what does seem to be true is that it only drags sedimentary materials included in sublevels lower and upper IX and perhaps VIII too The early clogging phases of Labeko Koba which represent almost half of the total archaeological thickness of the site make up level IX in 101
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  area outside the protection of a small rock shelter . Radiocarbon dating of the site ...
102 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD some cases it reaches almost two metres thick This level does not seem to have an anthropic origin and the majority of the material recovered from it consists of fauna remains accumulated from hyena contributions that have left part of their bone remains and bite marks in a large part of the series and other carnivores Arrizabalaga et al 2010 Villaluenga et al 2012 As happened with the archaeological material from the lower gallery network human presence seems to be limited to occasional visits to procure materials or meat During these visits they left some evidence of industry of opportunistic character barely knapped and the remains are crude supports or tools probably used as cutting instruments The arrangement of archaeological remains on the inside and some of the smaller sedimentary differences suggested from its excavation differentiating two sections or sub levels in the core of level IX separated by a horizon of fragments of a stalagmite slab Sub level lower IX has been attributed to a hunting base from the Ch telperronian mainly due to the signi cance of three Ch telperronian points in a limited batch of lithic industry R os Garaizar 2008 R os Garaizar et al 2012 There is also a very deteriorated fragment of assegai It is noteworthy that the scarce lithic industry from this sub level shows typical Upper Palaeolithic characteristics such as the high number of blades in the assemblage Similarly the int sources will be the same as those detected throughout the levels Sierra de Urbasa and the Trevi o syncline to the south and the coastal Flysch to the north make up the outcrops detected These circumstances will be common to the entire series of Labeko Koba The environmental data on sub level lower IX comes from several pollen and sediment samples and the ecology of the animal species taken to the site by carnivores A certain convergence is observed in these studies which indicate dating in the W rm Les Cott s interstadial for this wet and relatively mild stage with the start of the stratigraphic sequence The sedimentology study detects a high level of humidity at the same time as an environment in which it is cold but not very cold The pollen analyses carried out on samples from outside the central column showed the appearance of mesothermophile taxon such as Castanea The macro mammals include a dominant presence 65 of deer and a lower frequency of hyena than in the upper debris in a spectrum that indicated a more moderate climate than the upper part of the level Apart from a few reindeer remains there are no indicators of a cold climate As occurs in the rest of the stratigraphic sequence the micro mammals return a mild reading for the level and the avifauna does not provide any signi cant information in this respect The upper part of level IX occupies the majority of the unit and has almost no industry remains just ve int akes and another ve possible hammer stones on Irish elk antler From a cultural point of view it is dif cult to label this sub level which is sandwiched between the Ch telperronian lower IX and the Proto Aurignacian VII separating them more clearly than the irregular level VIII However its environmental characteristics allow us to certify that we have entered the Pleniglacial W rm III The sedimentology palynology and archaeozoology studies indicate intense cold The sedimentology study also detects a humid environment with little energy which decreases at the top of the level The steppe vegetation and the recrudescence of the climate are noticeable in the pollen record with the domination of Poaceae throughout the level and by the constant presence of Ephedra Among the ungulates deer dominates and mammoth and woolly rhinoceros emerge strongly in the strati ed sequence Level VIII which is located in a dispersed fashion in different gentils throughout the cave is characterised precisely for being archaeologically sterile Level VII frequently rests directly on the top of level IX without continuity Due to this discontinuity it has not been identi ed in the samples of the columns and neither do we have any paleoenvironmental information about it Level VII indicates a clear in ection compared to the underlying level For the rst time in the Labeko Koba sequence the human being takes on a key role rivalling the carnivores mainly bears in this level to occupy the small space available Although we cannot identify its rhythm from the record we have it seems to have occurred in an alternation between human occupations with certain stability over time and the use of the cave by bears as a den In fact the lithic industry seems to indicate that this level is the only level in Labeko Koba that presents a fairly complete and closed assemblage which includes all of the segments of the lithic operating processes In particular given the composition of the lithic industry Fig 2 this level clearly adheres to the Proto Aurignacian more speci cally from the variety of the abundant retouch and semi abrupt bladelets often Dufour type In general the int sources
102  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  some...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Figure 2 Sample of the lithic industry are the same as in the rest of the sequence but an advance in provisioning from the outcrops to the south is noticeable in the levels of stable occupation compared to a higher proportion of northern Flysch int common in more sporadic presences However the proximity of the outcrops and the Figure 3 Stone with engraved lines Level VII awareness of them do not seem to indicate full access as the use of the raw material throughout the sequence is such that it allows a serious shortage of lithic resources to be detected Various remains have been recovered from level VII a stone with engraved lines Fig 3 a small ball of amber and various decorative pieces on bone which indicate that at least from the ProtoAurignacian these groups had a symbolic universe similar to that observed throughout the Upper Palaeolithic As a result of the irregular presence of the remains in the Cantabrian Upper Palaeolithic we might be encountering the rst evidence of this kind described for the northern Iberian Peninsula From an environmental point of view the reading of level VII is not unambiguous in the light of the different analyses The sedimentology study records signi cant intensi cation of cold In the pollen record the base of the level shows that the cold observed in sub level upper IX remains stable or increases at the same time as the level of humidity falls However the top section of level VII shows a signi cant improvement presenting a milder and wetter landscape from which steppe taxon disappear Finally the archaeozoology study detects a signi cant change in the proportion of ungulates probably related to the generalisation of 103
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Figure 2. Sample of the lithic industry.  are the same  as in the rest of the sequenc...
104 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD the human contribution In terms of the environment although different sections have not been distinguished dominance of woolly rhinoceros remains have been observed at the bottom of the level in the same way as fawn and boar are mainly located in the upper area which could help con rm the hypothesis presented by the palynology study In Labeko Koba levels VII and V are separated by level VI which is very poor culturally it seems to lean more towards level V than level VII due to its industrial composition Although the lithic industry is not signi cant in this level there is a bone object which has been identi ed as a split based assegai an item that delimits the occupation as an initial presence of Early Aurignacian people A large number of stones and small blocks characterise level VI they are often cemented by a reactivation of the cavity that dissolved and precipitated some of the carbonates contained in the stones It is suggestive to see the result of the last phase of signi cant collapse of the overhang of the cave in this brecciated mass Sedimentology and palynology studies certify that humidity remained and increased although lower uniformity is recorded in the characterisation of the dominant temperature during the deposit of this unit While the sedimentology study shows remission of cold in level VI the pollen record seems to prove a worsening of the climate with a fully stadial landscape The archaeozoology study does not provide much information on the environment but it does show regression in carnivore contributions which are now small knapped objects across the level in correlation with the higher importance of human hunting In this respect a large increase in the presence of bison followed by deer and horse sets the tone of the rest of the sequence which stands out for several recurring characteristics These include specialised hunting of bison which is demonstrated by removing the carnivore remains from the assemblage the almost non existence of rock dwelling animals among the species hunted or the identi cation of an area that was probably the preferred hunting ground on the plain of the river Aramaio at the other end of which the Lezetxiki site is located The chronology of level V is also accurate given the existence of an almost complete split based assegai with a attened section that could correspond to remains of this bone type The lithic techno complexes point in the same direction as they present modal and group levels within the parameters observed for the Early Aurignacian in other levels in the Cantabrian Mor n cave or Polvor n cave among others There is still a certain amount of paleoenvironmental information available for level V even though pollen data comes from isolated samples The sedimentology study records again a situation of intense cold as do the aforementioned pollen samples which is also relevant to the decrease in the ambient humidity The use of bones as fuel is identi ed in both this record and in the upper level level IV after being carefully fragmented Yravedra et al 2005 It could be concluded that in an environment with little forest cover this byproduct would be used as fuel after recovering the marrow that was easier to make use of The mammoth appears again in the archaeozoological record and this also demonstrates the climate was worsening Regarding the economic variables this level allows us to observe even greater specialisation in hunting bison followed by horses deer and other ungulates Level IV of Labeko Koba is more dif cult to date We have just one absolute dating Our main argument for ascribing level IV is its close similarity to level V in every way environment sediment industry activity If we look at the lithic record we can see that the majority of the tests used in the structural dynamics of the lithic industry tend to associate both levels The lithic structure that returns the best cultural diagnosis the modal shows a signi cant similarity between the two models even though the semi abrupt retouch signi cantly represented in level V almost disappears from level IV It is also possible to reference this Early Aurignacian level with others units of Gatzarria or Mor n cave The bone industry does not provide de nitive data in terms of cultural chronology we consider level IV a more advanced phase of the Early Aurignacian At this point we must stress that we are not referring to an Evolved Aurignacian or volu in its French nomenclature which has a series of characteristics that clearly distinguish it from the Early Aurignacian Proximity to the model of level V seems to dominate in the assemblage of level IV For level IV the sedimentology study detects a progressive remission of cold We do not have any other signi cant data on the climate at the time of the deposition of the level or after as the pollen record is highly disturbed and the ungulate remains maintain similar conditions to those in level V in which bison dominate followed by horse and deer The last occupations of the site are detected in level III with the cave almost clogged up There are no dating values and almost no materials that
104  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  the ...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE could be dated in this level Furthermore the industries located in it are particularly poor For these reasons the only object that can be used to obtain a possible dating for the level comes from the continuity between levels III and IV both in terms of stratigraphy and other circumstances the fauna recovered is very similar very little coherent lithic industry and the sedimentology Alvaro Arrizabalaga Lezetxiki Arrasate Gipuzkoa 1 History of research Although the Cave of Lezetxiki had been known since 1927 its excavation only began in 1956 after J M de Barandiar n s return from exile Between 1956 and 1968 alone or in the company of several collaborators Fern ndez Medrano Boucher and Altuna among others Barandiar n excavated a surface area of over 100 square metres to a depth of over nine metres in some places The sequence included Middle and Upper Palaeolithic levels and several fossil human remains not precisely located owing to the poor conservation of the sequence and the dif culties in interpreting the deposit The excavation reports were published annually and specialised studies of the anthropological remains Basabe fauna Altuna and Chaline and the sedimentological sequence Kornprobst and Rat were made known In order to clarify certain aspects not solved by these publications since 1996 a new team has been excavating a small sector of the deposit under the supervision of A Arrizabalaga and M J Iriarte Chiapusso This is in an area of about 25 square metres next to Barandiar n s southern section as well as a four square metre trench on one side called Lezetxiki II 2 Chrono stratigraphic sequence Although the modern eldwork has maintained the layout of the grid of the original excavations study indicates that tempering that started in level IV continues Judging by this and considering that a sedimentological hiatus does not seem to occur between the start of the strati cation and the clogging of the cavity we could conclude that in terms of chronology level III is not far from the Upper Aurignacian to which we ascribe levels V and IV the levels have been numbered differently using letters rather than Roman numerals to avoid confusions From the bottom to top the levels dated before the Eemian are Barandiar n s Units VII and VIII and Levels M N O P and R in Arrizabalaga s sequence Above these Barandiar n s Mousterian levels are Units IIIb IVa IVc Va and VI which correspond to the new units F G I and J Fig 1 and L respectively Finally the Aurignacian IIIa or E Solutrean D and Magdalenian Ia or B levels complete the sequence The intricate topography of the cave and the enormous surface excavated explain the discrepancies between the two series nearly all of which are concentrated in the basal part of the deposit where Barandiar n only excavated a small side area whereas the modern excavations have succeeded in discovering a new and older sequence For the same reasons the deposit at Lezetxiki includes intensely leached outer sediments wellprotected areas inside the cave and intermediate transition or rock shelter areas The lateral changes in the conditions of the sedimentary ll and the state of conservation of the archaeological materials are consequently very large This has equally caused great dif culties for the precise dating of the levels Falgu res et al 2005 2006 despite the numerous attempts with different methods such as radiocarbon U Th ESR AAR According to geochronological and biostratigraphic crite Universidad del Pa s Vasco UPV EHU Tom s y Valiente s n 01006 Vitoria alvaro arrizabalaga ehu es 105
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  could be dated in this level. Furthermore, the industries located in it are particula...
106 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD working strategy meant the tunnel was excavated from wall to wall Figure 1 Mandible fragment of a Barbary macaque from Level J in Lezetxiki II Reference Casta os et al 2011 ria explained in several publications the base of Lezetxiki II has been attributed to Isotope Stage 6 while Level R in Lezetxiki the deepest level currently being excavated probably corresponds to Isotope Stage 7 3 Interpretation of the deposit and signi cant aspects of the new eldwork The most recent eldwork has obtained interesting information enabling a reappraisal of the deposit at Lezetxiki Some additional research is required and it is therefore likely that in the coming years a series of results of studies and dates will achieve an even better understanding of the site Consequently many of the observations made below should be considered provisional and pending veri cation in an exhaustive report 3 1 Stratigraphic con icts This refers to monitoring the stratigraphic circumstances in the excavation opened on the southern side of Barandiar n s excavation A surface area of about 20 m2 has been opened continuous variations in the surface area are caused by changes with depth in the bands 18 20 22 and 24 by projecting the grid system of the original excavation A square in what would be Band E has been started which will leave a North South section not obtained in the classic excavation as the Our experience has shown that the stratigraphy of the deposit is quite clear and continuous It is clear in the sense that the interfaces between the levels which are nearly always thick or very thick are quite visible and can be identi ed during the eldwork Alternating levels with and without artefacts have been documented and these helped Barandiar n to follow uniform criteria for the assignation of levels in most of the excavation It is continuous from the sedimentary point of view as the sedimentary characterisation is very homogeneous thick layers of very compact clay occasionally with calcareous lumps of different sizes between the new Levels A and L as far as Barandiar n s VI inclusive and no erosional contacts are seen breaking this uniformity except perhaps between Barandiar n s Levels IIIa and IIIb Phenomena of stratigraphic alteration bio and cryoturbation are only seen in a few places The most common of these alterations is mechanical deformation caused by the plasticity of the clay when saturated in water There has been speculation about the dip of the original levels at Lezetxiki Our observations have con rmed that they dip signi cantly towards the south on the north south axis resulting in a difference in depth of 3m over the 15m of this axis in Barandiar n s excavation However in our northsouth section in Band E this dip has disappeared and the levels are nearly horizontal It seems that this phenomenon is connected with the opening in the tunnel along a breach on its eastern side in Band 18 the site was accessed along this breach during the excavation on the very limit of the area currently being excavated This breach may have caused mechanical tension on the clayey levels in Lezetxiki causing the fall of sediment and archaeological materials towards the ravine on the east of the cave Beyond this point the lower parts of the tunnel would not have been affected so much by this tension and maintained an approximately horizontal position Unfortunately this hypothesis is dif cult to verify as the sedimentary record in the affected parts of the tunnel are missing However the presence of particular archaeological objects in different levels in the deposit such as objects incorrectly attributed to the osseous assemblage and in reality the result of a post depositional alteration known as charriage sec means that it should be taken seriously
106  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  work...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE In contrast precise information is available about the dip of the levels in the east west axis In the area we have been able to study the dip has been seen to be extremely complicated and it is impossible to describe a simple pattern for it Some levels are sub horizontal whereas other dip slightly or not so slightly towards the east or the west In contrast with what used to be thought the latter dip in the most frequent Undoubtedly the effect of the rock shelter that originated the rock wall makes the sediments accumulate in larger amounts against it and then slope off towards the wall in the west on an incline It is very likely that this effect occurred in other parts of the tunnel in the bands with even numbers where the disappearance of the overhang led to the characteristic sedimentation of a rock shelter and not of a cave Similarly although Lezetxiki is obviously a karst cave its post depositional development has been very similar to an open air site as most of the sediment is located outside the rock overhanging the tunnel or the rock wall For these reasons three separate records should be considered when interpreting the ll and the evolution of the deposit as a cave as a rock shelter and as an open air site These circumstances have caused us to correct our previous assessment of the industrial attributions of the different levels at Lezetxiki Apart from the central bands in the site which were excavated rst of all and in which the absence of archaeological materials in the surface layer presumably caused a shift in the numbering of the levels in comparison with the bands to the north and south we have opted to fully respect the attributions of the archaeological materials to the levels established by the excavator during the eldwork Precisely because of the lack of xed parameters in the dip of the levels a drawing of the stratigraphic assignation of the materials may have led to an error in the de nition of the industrial assemblages Some remarks should also be made about industrial characterisation in the sequence at Lezetxiki particularly in the transition sub levels between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Without wishing to prejudge the chronology that will nally be assigned to sub levels IVc IVa and IIIa the presence of a heterogeneous lithic assemblage with components of ambivalent cha nes op ratoires has always struck the attention This duality in the appearance of the industry has variously been attributed to the archaism of EUP assemblages in northern Spain cultural and technological mixture of models the result of severe post depositional alteration and careless excavation techniques etc Our observations cast doubts on the latter suggestion as we have veri ed the main anomalous situations detected by Barandiar n s excavation and assessed the possibility of post depositional disturbance Thus as occurred in squares distant from Level IVc in Barandiar n s excavations where blade industries were found together with Levallois points we have located very similar tools to those that suggested the putative stratigraphic mixing Equally when the large number of raw materials other than int had been stressed we have been able to increase the proportion of these even more This is in stratigraphic series often over a metre thick and where it is not easy to nd a simple explanation In short in our opinion industrial characterisation at Lezetxiki requires cultural and technological explanations and the suspicion of mixing between levels over a metre in depth away from each other separated by industrially barren layers should not be raised over and over again depending on the results when they are dated In this respect Levels III and IV at Lezetxiki require a new approach to their study as clich s about the typical characterisation of the Mousterian and Aurignacian contribute very little at this and other sites 3 2 Geochronology The dates currently available for Lezetxiki are for several reasons not determinant although they mark some interesting trends in that they suggest the levels are older than was initially thought Falgu res et al 2006 One of the main objectives of the modern research at Lezetxiki is to provide the sequence with a geochronological framework allowing the levels to be interpreted in a wider regional context During the recent eldwork nine charcoal and bones samples have been taken for radiocarbon dating The four samples analysed conventional and mass accelerator C14 have given unsatisfactory results as the dates are much younger than would correspond to their archaeological context and therefore they are thought to be aberrant The paper cited above gives the principal data currently available However there are also some new results involving the use of the racemisation technique and based on bio stratigraphic criteria described at length in the latest publications 107
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  In contrast, precise information is available about the dip of the levels in the east...
108 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD As described on other occasions and explained below in the absence of sedimentary or archaeological materials to provide a context for the famous Lezetxiki humerus Fig 2 the true context of the human fossils found in the old excavation will hopefully be located in Lezetxiki II As has been pointed out there is a certain lack of de nition in the position of the three fossil human remains found in the classic excavations at Lezetxiki Whereas the Neanderthal teeth found between Levels III and IV can easily be positioned with their coordinates among all the points in the archaeological levels and additionally offer no dif culties in their phyletic attribution this is not possible in the case of the humerus We know exactly where it was found but there still are problems in three different lines of interpretation 1 The phyletic attribution of the humerus is confusing as in the scienti c literature it has been compared both with Neanderthal remains and pre Neanderthal human types such as Homo heidelbergensis Fig 2 2 The humerus was found in a volume of sediment with no lithic or osseous remains Once that sediment had been excavated it became impossible to date any elements in that context or obtain the palaeo environmental information In addition as the bone is highly mineralised it cannot be dated directly and this would in any case be very debatable from the methodological point of view 3 Since 1998 a small cave we have called Lezetxiki II has been excavated and this is heading towards Cueva de Leibar This small cave was explored during the original excavations at Lezetxiki precisely when the human humerus was found in Cueva de Leibar but because the position of the sieve had made access more dif cult it was not investigated further We have always suspected that this cave might represent the actual context of the Lezetxiki humerus As a consequence of all this we have slowly removed the pile of sediment sieved by the previous excavation to locate the original oor of the cave and open trench as in some places the sediment had lled the cave to the roof Each year we have advanced between half a metre and one metre The 2012 eldwork completed the excavation of Squares J15 K15 L15 and M15 in a trench one metre wide four metres long and 320cm deep In this we have identi ed a sequence consisting of Chalcolithic barren Early Upper Palaeolithic layer of calcite barren possible Mousterian and levels attributed to the MIS5 and MIS6 In 2004 a detailed survey of this cave xed the stratigraphic relationship between Lezetxiki II and the central passage in Lezetxiki and Cueva de Leibar As well as a small passage now inaccessible directly connecting the central passage in Lezetxiki with Lezetxiki II it seems clear that there is a direct connection between Lezetxiki II and Leibar If we continue the trench another metre Square I15 towards the west and descend 50cm from the current oor level we should reach the roof of Leibar Cave in the approximate area in which the Lezetxiki humerus was found The connection between the two caves therefore seems to be granted and their stratigraphic link is very likely It remains to be seen whether in these circumstances more fossil human remains have been conserved in Lezetxiki II In any case the new stratigraphy in Lezetxiki II parallel to the oldest occupations in the main cave is of the greatest interest in providing a context and geochronological background for those occupations 3 3 Neanderthal symbolic behaviour Figure 2 Human humerus from Level VIII in Cueva de Lezetxiki J M Barandiar n s excavation Even when it was not known whether opening a small excavation area would obtain any signi cant archaeological materials to modify the over
108  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  As d...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE all understanding of Lezetxiki some impressive malacological remains have been recovered Fig 3 Arrizabalaga et al 2011 providing an assessment of the symbolic behaviour of the last Neanderthals who occupied the cave These are two shell fragments at the base of Level III and a further two in Sub Level IVc The former one possibly from a warm climate marine mollusc and the other a freshwater bivalve were found precisely in the same context as the two teeth attributed to Neanderthals in Bands 16 and 18 in the excavation Although it is very dif cult to determine whether or not the shells were modi ed by humans it is clear that the shells of inedible molluscs were intentionally selected and taken to the site Both remains are polished and one of them which is brightly coloured was obviously selected for strictly aesthetic reasons The case of the two marine shells found in Level IVc is even more striking because rst there is no doubt that Neanderthals brought them to the site the teeth were found nearly a metre above the relative level of this nd and second it is easier to determine that they were modi ed by humans possibly complementing natural processes These are two fragments of snail shells probably marine species One of them conserves the central column and a section of the outer shell wall so that it could easily be used as a pendant by threading a cord through the gap The other appears to be a fragment of the helical column of an even larger shell through which a cord could be threaded so it could also have been suspended as a pendant Although the cord could easily have come loose through the inverse path of an open spiral this may have been solved by blocking it with a large quartz grain which does not come from the site in the canal In both cases simple microscopic observation can identify striations over the natural polishing and other abrasions compatible with the use of these shells as pendants following the procedure described above The presence of these malacological remains in levels where it can be understood that they were brought by Neanderthals suggests that it is necessary to re ect on the symbolic behaviour of this species Although Neanderthals have traditionally been attributed extremely simple behavioural patterns including gathering fossils and minerals that struck their attention and taking them to their dwellings in recent years more sophisticated situations have been identi ed It is currently believed that the last Neanderthals at least occasionally displayed behaviour and attitudes towards ornamental and symbolic elements similar to those recognised in modern humans in the Early Upper Palaeolithic The debate appears to be focused on why the Neanderthals displayed this behaviour either because it was apprehended and copied from the rst modern humans in Europe or because it represents cultural evolution intrinsic to the phyletic development of the Homo genus Figure 3 Fragment of a red Spondylus shell from Level III at Lezetxiki Reference Arrizabalaga et al 2011 109
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  all understanding of Lezetxiki, some impressive malacological remains have been recov...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 110 Manuel R Gonz lez Morales Lawrence Guy Straus Cueva del Mir n Ramales de la Victoria Cantabria Cueva del Mir n Fig 1 is a large cave situated in the second foothill chain of the Cantabrian Cordillera in eastern Cantabria very near the border with Vizcaya Located at 43 14 42 N and 3 27 9 W and 260 m above sea level on the west facing cliff of Monte Pando about 150 m above the valley oor of the As n River at its con uence of the Calera and G ndara the 16 m wide x 20 m high cave mouth dominates the broad intermontane Valle de Ruesga It is near the crossroads of major north south and east west avenues of communication respectively connecting the Cantabrian coast with the Castilian meseta via the As n and 920 m Los Tornos Pass and the Basque Country with the central coastal zone of Cantabria now partly occupied by the Bay of Santander via the Carranza and Ruesga valleys and 674 m Alisas Pass El Mir n is surrounded by summits of 1000 m in elevation yet is only 20 km from the present shore at the mouth of the As n about 25 km from the pleniglacial shore Probably more or less continuously utilized by humans for residence and since Neolithic Figure 1 El Mir n Cave s view photo Alejandro Garc a Moreno Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistoricas de Cantabria 39005 Santander Espa a Department of Anthropology University of New Mexico Albuquerque NM 87131 USA
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  110  Manu...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE times for sheltering livestock Cueva del Mir n was identified as an archeological site by H Alcalde del R o and L Sierra at the same time September 1903 that they discovered Covalanas directly above Cueva del Mir n and La Haza below and ca 300 m north of it the second and third Paleolithic cave art sites to be recognized in Spain Written off by archeologists as being disturbed by modern human activity the only known but unpublished testing of this site a trench dug across the middle of the inner cave gallery was done by workers on the orders of civil engineer and amateur archeologist A Garc a Lorenzo during his construction of the road up the mountainside to Covalanas in the 1950s Visited in October 1973 by LGS the cave s potential as a major site left an indelible impression The authors directed large scale excavations in Cueva del Mir n between 19962013 Straus and Gonz lez Morales 2012 Cueva del Mir n Fig 2 consists of a large dry sunlit vestibule measuring 30 m deep x 7 11 m wide x 12 13 m high a dark 7 8 m wide inner gallery that is accessible for about 80 m after which it is filled to the ceiling with alluvial deposits and travertine and a narrow 3 4 m wide connecting passage that is 20 m long and contains a ramp of colluvial alluvial sediments an erosional face of the inner cave s alluvial infilling The cave has obviously undergone several cycles of deposition and erosion by running water studied by the late W R Farrand 2012 Indeed the inner cave trench cleaned and deepened in 1996 revealed a sequence of Medieval Bronze Age and Lower Magdalenian visits occupations whose sediments fill an ancient channel that cut through the alluvium remnant terraces of which survive along the edges of the inner cave Above the top of the ramp in the connecting gallery breccia under a travertine remnant adhering to the cave wall yielded flakes and faunal remains dated to the Azilian period and the sedimentary infilling of a niche in the cave wall above there present erosional surface about two thirds of the way down the ramp produced artifacts and bones dating to the Initial Magdalenian The vestibule where geophysical prospection has shown there to be some 9 m of sedimentary deposits down to bedrock was probably emptied of deposits by running water and progressively refilled mainly with sediments washed down from the in ner cave alluvium but also with others washed and blown in from the exterior via the vast cave mouth together with material deposited by humans and animals over thousands of years Excavations were conducted in three areas of the vestibule the Outer Vestibule 9 5 m the Vestibule Rear maximally 17 m depending on the level and the Mid Vestible Connecting Trench maximally 7 5 m Included within the Vestibule Rear area is a large looters pit from which some 25 m of mixed sediments were removed and dry screened This pit had reached the base of the culturally and organically rich Magdalenian sequence stopping at the top of the Solutrean and thus allowing excavation of a 2 1 m sondage through Solutrean and Gravettian age levels down to a horizon at the foot of the buried ramp deposit that dates to 41 uncal kya Final Middle Paleolithic Sampling of the Solutrean levels was later expanded to a total of 4 m after excavation of overlying Magdalenian layers in two more contiguous squares in Vestibule Rear Also in the Vestibule Rear excavation in a minimally connected area of 4 m between the cave wall and a large engraved block yielded a secondary human burial of Lower Magdalenian age sandwiched between layers of the same period The site has been dated by 84 AMS and conventional radiocarbon dates Straus and Gonz lez Morales 2003 2007 2010 Straus et al n d a ranging from AD 1400 to 41 000 uncal BP The culture stratigraphic sequence revealed in the Outer Vestibule includes Lower Magdalenian 16 6 15 0 uncal kya possible Middle Magdalenian ca 15 14 6 uncal kya Upper Magdalenian 13 12 uncal kya Azilian ca 12 11 uncal kya extremely poor Mesolithic with hiati 9 5 8 4 uncal kya Neolithic 5 7 4 7 uncal kya Chalcolithic 4 1 3 8 uncal kya and early Bronze Age 3 7 uncal kya levels The Mid Vestible Trench cuts through possible Solutrean or Initial Magdalenian 17 4 uncal kya Lower Magdalenian 15 9 uncal kya Upper Magdalenian 12 5 uncal kya Azilian 11 6 10 3 uncal kya Neolithic 5 8 4 9 uncal kya and possible disturbed Chalcolithic and or Bronze Age deposits The Vestibule Rear includes traces of Terminal Mousterian 41 3 uncal kya Gravettian 27 6 uncal kya Solutrean 19 2 18 4 uncal kya Initial Magdalenian 17 6 17 0 uncal kya Lower Magdale 111
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  times  for sheltering livestock, Cueva del Mir  n was identified as an archeological ...
112 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 2 Stratigraphic pro le of Cueva del Mir n nian ca 17 14 9 uncal kya possible Middle Magdalenian ca 14 1 13 4 uncal kya possible Upper Magdalenian 12 5 12 uncal kya possible poor Azilian and Mesolithic It is likely that sloping Neolithic Chalcolithic and Bronze Age deposits had originally existed in the Vestibule Rear but had been removed by shepherds to level the area for use as a corral still in existence in 1996 The fumiers that characterize much of the Holocene sequence have yielded an importance series of paleomagnetic results Carrancho et al 2013 The complete sequence of nearly 40 000 years has provided detailed micromammalian evidence of Late Pleistocene and Holocene fluctuations in climate and vegetation Cuenca Besc s et al 2008 2009 as well as a less continuous palynological record still under study by M J Iriarte While the Mousterian and Gravettian Gonz lez Morales and Straus 2013a levels only suggest minor human visits at least to the Vestibule Rear area the Solutrean levels seem to indicate repeated archeologically but somewhat more visible visits probably by parties that moved up into the mountains in summer from base camps in the coastal zone and that were heavily involved in ibex and red deer hunting as suggested by the relatively large numbers and relative frequencies of foliate and shoulded points made on diverse kinds of lithics accompanied rather enigmatically by large numbers of perforated shell tooth bone and stone beads Straus and Gonzalez Morales 2009 Straus et al 2011a 2013 Cueva del Mir n has one of the most important sequence of Intial Magdalenian levels in the Cantabrian region characterized by the eventual disappearance of Solutrean points and the prsence of large thick round section antler points and both large flakes and archaic tool types on local non flint raw materials and bladelets unretouched retouched and backed on excellent quality non local flints but without the diagnostic tools of the somewhat older
112  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE French Badegoulian It is with this period that the cave began to witness massive long term multi purpose human occupations as attested by the masses of faunal remains lithic debris and tools hearths fire cracked rocks and dark brown black charcoal rich sediments Straus et al n d b A broken slate pendant with the engraving of a horse head comes from this period Gonz lez Morales and Straus 2013b Such intensive occupations continued throughout the classic Lower Magdalenian with thick palimpsests of living floors very similar to those of El Juyo Altamira Santimami e and El Castillo on or at the edge of the coastal zone Remains of red deer ibex under study by J M Geiling and salmon are extraordinarily abundant as are stone and osseous artifacts including large numbers of bladelets nucleiform scrapers on bladelet cores Straus et al 2008 sagaies of many types including iconic quadrangularsection ones with geometric or tectiform engraved decorations eyed needles and an antler spearthrower remarkably similar in form and dimensions to ones from sites in SW France Gonz lez Morales and Straus 2005 2009 There are also macrolithic tools made on local nudstone quartzite and limestone but the flints used especially in bladelet manufacture mostly come from Upper Cretaceous outcrops in the coastal zone of western Vizcaya and eastern Cantabria at distances of at least 40 50 km from the site Rissetto 2009 The Lower Magdalenian levels contain many often repeatedly re used hearths filled and surrounded by fire cracked rocks some previously used as anvils and masses of heavily fragmented long bones suggestive of processing for grease rendering via stone boiling Nakazawa et al 2009 Notably these levels have yielded engraved fragments and one whole red deer stag scapula with the engraved and striated image of a hind head and the outline of a bovine head The style composition technique and hind subject are virtually identical to engraved scapulae from several Lower Magdalenian sites in central Cantabria and eastern Asturias notably Altamira El Castillo and El Juyo as well as closely resembling images on the walls of the former two and other caves thereby defining a regional cultural marker Gonz lez Morales and Straus 2009 The DNA studies of salmon and red deer from this and the other Paleolithic horizons of Cueva del Mir n show that this region served as a refugium for these species as it did for humans during the Last Glacial Maximum and hence was a source area for the repopulation of more northerly regions of Europe beginning during Oldest Dryas the time of the Initial and Lower Magdalenian Consuegra et al 2002 Meiri et al 2013 It is to the Lower Magdalenian that belongs the secondary human burial and the fall and at least intial engraving of the 2x1x1 m limestone block behind which the mandible and some 100 other bones of the human were deposited after they had naturally lost their flesh and then been stained with red ochre Straus et al 2011b The sediments used to cover the bones were also stained with red ochre and glitter with hematite cystals R Seva personal communication The engraved block adjacent to the bones is also stained red and the walls of the vestibule rear are covered with masses of engravings including the image of a horse all possibly of Lower Magdalenian based in part on their height above the ground surface at the time Garc a D ez et al 2012 It is known that the block had fallen atop a layer 110 dated to 16 uncal kya a few centuries before the burial was done behind it and was engraved on its sheered off flat surface during subsequent years before being covered over by dated Middle and Upper Magdalenian Azilian and Mesolithic age levels The ungulate faunal assemblages of the Middle and Upper Magdalenian and Azilian levels are dominated by red deer and ibex all hunted during the warm season suggesting a mobility pattern that included winter residential bases in the coastal zone Mar n 2009 2010 Unlike the nearby cave sites of El Valle and El Horno located on the valley floor the Upper Magdalenian and Azilian occupations of El Mir n seem to have been of low intensity and frequency with relatively few artifacts though these do include an antler harpoon and an ochre stained pebble respectively Gonz ez Morales and Straus 2012 The cave was only fleetingly visited during Mesolithic times when settlement was concentrated at shell middens around the newly formed As n estuary Quite abruptly locally well made undecorated ceramics studied by C Vega 2012 domesticated sheep goat cattle and pig studied by J Altuna and K Mariezkurrena 2012 and 113
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  French Badegoulian. It is with this period that the cave began to witness massive, lo...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 114 wheat studied by L Pe a Chocarro 2012 appeared in El Mir n as it was reoccupied intensively ca 4650 cal BC making it one of the earliest known Neolithic sites in northern Atlantic Spain Unlike most cave sites dating to the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age in Cantabrian Spain which are funerary loci Cueva del Mir n was a major residential place for both humans Juan Carlos L pez Quintana Amagoia Guenaga Lizasu Cueva de Santimami e Kortezubi Bizcaia Stratigraphy and human occupations 1 Cueva de Santimami e Kortezubi Biscay Geography and rst excavations in its archaeological deposit Cueva de Santimami e is in the Oka River basin a coastal valley on the eastern side of the northern Spanish coast in the Province of Biscay Its location on the southern slopes of Mt Ere ozar 446 5m is in a strategic position over the valley The cave entrance at an altitude of 137m faces south southeast and leads into a large entrance chamber lit by daylight The entrance and the chamber contain a stratigraphic deposit with an environmental sequence ranging from late isotope stage MIS 3 to about the middle of MIS 1 Santimami e also contains a Palaeolithic art ensemble discovered in 1916 and later studied by H Breuil 1917 who found further engravings and de ned the main graphic units in the decorated chamber The archaeological deposit has been excavated in two stages rst from 1918 to 1926 by T Aranzadi J M de Barandiar n and E Eguren Barandiar n 1976 11 344 and second from 1960 to 1962 by J M de Barandiar n Barandiar n 1976 345 419 The excavation in the cave entrance reached a depth of over 8m with a stratigraphic sequence covering the period from the Aurignacian to the Roman age and later Barandiar n 1976 421 475 and livestock increasingly cattle with numerous large pits some with fire cracked rocks masses of ash ceramics a pair of arrowheads in the Chalcolithic and a copper pin plus possible slag in the Bronze Age There are hints of later visits to the site and indeed it was inhabited by people as recently as the early post Civil War period 2 The 2004 2006 study of the archaeological deposit stratigraphic sequence After 42 years without studying the deposit at Santimami e in 2004 a new series of archaeological research began 2004 2014 with the aim of reexamining and updating the stratigraphic record at this Basque site The research was framed within a full study and development programme initiated by the Culture Department in the Foral Deputation of Biscay This programme includes the re exploration mapping and environmental monitoring of the cave as well as a reappraisal of the archaeological deposit and the Palaeolithic art ensemble The archaeological work has involved 25 months of eldwork since 2004 supervised by J C L pez Quintana and A Guenega Lizasu The rst three years 2004 2006 were spent revising the stratigraphy of the deposit and a rst monographpresentation of the site has already been published L pez Quintana and Guenaga 2011 from 2007 to 2014 the human occupations in the Holocene and Late Pleistocene have been the subject of a larger scale excavation This reappraisal of the stratigraphy at Santimami e has studied a sequence 6m thick which has been analysed and interpreted in accordance with the principles of Analytical Stratigraphy Asociaci n de Arqueolog a AGIRI C rculo de Estratigraf a Anal tica Apartado de Correos n 208 48300 Gernika Lumo Bizkaia E mail arkeoagiri hotmail com
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  114  whea...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Figure 1 Frontal stratigraphic section of the deposit in Santimami e and an analytical matrix of the sequence Laplace 1971 S enz de Buruaga 1996 This sequence consists of 27 stratigraphic units grouped into four series according to geoclimatic and paleoethnological criteria L pez Quintana and Guenaga 2011 These four stratigraphic series will be described from the base to the top Fig 1 Lower palaeontological series MIS 3 MIS 2 The lowest part of the stratigraphic series at Santimami e is 1 05m thick and consists of four stratigraphic units Lsm Sa Arb o Arp and Arg o The sediment is mainly ne material clays and silts in proportions always reaching above 95 attesting decantation processes in a wet environment Areso and Uriz 2011 However the Arg o unit has yielded some indicators of a cold environment suggesting open vegetation with the presence of reindeer The absence of evidence of human occupation is one of the traits of this series which contains two levels with palaeontological remains Arb o and Arg o The faunal repertoire 115
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Figure 1. Frontal stratigraphic section of the deposit in Santimami  e and an analyti...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 116 of the former is greatly altered while the accumulation in the second evidences the site was used as a shelter by carnivores Radiocarbon determinations1 AMS situate the series between the late isotope stage MIS 3 Arb o Unit 26 890 180 BP Beta 259132 and the early isotope stage MIS 2 Arg o Unit 20 530 110 BP Beta 240906 Flooding Complex MIS 2 The Flooding Complex is a layer of sediment 2 3 2 6m thick formed by four stratigraphic units Avp Sj Lrg Arp Sa and Lsr Ap They are all predominated by the ne fractions silts and clays and coarse components are absent The complex is barren from archaeological and palaeontological points of view and it formed during a mild and wet oscillation which can be dated in the GI 2 interstadial in the NGRIP climate sequence Rasmussen et al 2008 between ca 20 000 and 18 800 BP Cryoclastic Middle Upper series MIS 2 The Middle Upper series 1 8m thick consists of 12 units with certain stratigraphic complexity 8 levels with archaeological content 1 barren level 2 layers of calcite T4 and T5 and 1 erosion phase V Almp The sedimentary trait de ning this series is the evidence of cryoclastic processes mainly in Units Csn Camr Slnc and Arcp These three levels have provided indicators of a cold climate of differing intensity which have been associated with the cold phases GS 2 GI 1d and GS 1 in the NGRIP sequence Rasmussen et al 2008 This series includes the Balm and Almp levels which almost certainly correspond to the NGRIP phase GI 1e In M Hoyos s regional late glacial climate sequence this would be equivalent to his Cantabrian Phase VI Hoyos 1995 Holocene Upper series MIS 1 The rst stages of the Holocene are represented by the erosional hiatus V Arcp and slight evidence of human activity hearth facies H Sln included in the calcite layers T2 and T3 dated to 7580 50 BP Beta 240899 Above this the stratigraphic unit Slm Lsm is 0 5m thick with a preponderance of the ne fraction The lower part of this group Slm level contains evidence of a Neolithic occupation between ca 5500 and 5000 BP After this time human presence at Santimami e becomes increasingly occasional although the cave was used for burials in the Chalcolithic Bronze Age Lsm level 3 The sequence of occupations at Cueva de Santimami e landscape and environment exploitation strategies from the lower Magdalenian to the Chalcolithic Bronze Age The stratigraphic sequence at Santimami e hosts seven phases of human occupation above the ooding complex and corresponding to the climate events GS 2 GI 1 GS 1 and MIS 1 3 1 Red deer hunters in the late lower Magdalenian The rst human occupation at Santimami e Csn Camr Unit took place during a cold phase assignable to the late GS 2 stadial in the NGRIP sequence Rasmussen et al 2008 or the early Cantabrian V Hoyos 1995 From its base to the top intensi cation in human activity in the cave can be seen parallel to the deterioration in environmental conditions This took place during a short period of time judging by the two available C14 AMS determinations 14 670 80 BP Beta240904 and 14 650 80 BP Beta 240905 This series contains the rst human occupations in the cave coinciding with the three phases of climate deterioration The rst occupation at Santimami e Csn Camr took place in the late lower Magdalenian in around 14 700 BP according to data from the new excavation Therefore the reappraisal of the stratigraphy at Santimami e has not found evidence of Early Upper Palaeolithic occupations L pez Quintana and Guenaga 2011 56 The Csn Camr archaeozoological record is polarised towards the hunting of red deer which make up 91 4 of the total ungulates captured Casta os and Casta os 2011 The percentages of chamois and ibex are surprisingly low 4 6 and 3 2 respectively in this landscape of crags and steep hillsides The scanty evidence of shing or the gathering of molluscs as food supports this idea of an extraordinarily specialised subsistence strategy All the C14 dates in the text are given in uncalibrated years BP conventional C14 age The lithic assemblage displays the highest percentage of retouched tools in the sequence and equally the lowest proportion of debitage prod 1
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  116  of t...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE ucts which means that lithic reduction tasks are scarcely represented at the site The lithic raw materials include 23 2 of exotic int in the total Tarri o 2011 with sources located between 70 and 180km away Urbasa Trevi o Tercis and Chalosse This is indicative of the great territorial mobility of lower Magdalenian red deer hunters The taphonomic study of the large mammals proposes an occupation specialised in processing the game essentially red deer which were taken to the cave whole to be skinned butchered de eshed and nally broken up to obtain the bone marrow San Pedro and C ceres 2011 Antler and boneworking were other important activities at the site which has yielded a large collection of bi pointed assegai points with triangular trapezoidal crosssections 3 2 Evidence of human occupation during the formation of Almp stratigraphic unit After the time of the lower Magdalenian red deer hunters a layer of calcite Balm was dismantled possibly by erosion related to an increase in humidity The back of the entrance chamber again suffered ponding and displays no sign of human presence until the humidity decreased relatively in the middle and upper part of Almp allowing occasional human occupation events This level re ects cool wet conditions probably in the interstadial phase GI 1e of the NGRIP sequence or on a regional scale in Hoyos s Cantabrian VI phase ca 13 300 12 700 BP In this section of the sequence some stratigraphic alterations have been detected as material was disturbed by the overlying Slnc level This means that the archaeological record obtained should be assessed with caution L pez Quintana and Guenaga 2011 33 36 If the faunal assemblage from Almp is examined as a whole a signi cant change is seen from the underlying Csn Camr level The Almp unit has provided a diversi ed assemblage in which ibex Capra pyrenaica is more abundant than red deer in proportions of 50 3 and 40 4 The results of the ichthyological study are in agreement with this new strategy of diversi cation in the consumption of resources Almp reveals an increase in shing mainly of salmonids as the total of the ichthyological series in the sequence goes from 2 37 in the Csn Camr Unit to 28 4 in Almp Rosell and Morales 2011 3 3 The Upper Final Magdalenian diversi cation and full use of natural resources The following episode in the stratigraphic sequence at Santimami e is the most intense human occupation at the site coinciding with the coldest and driest phase in the deposit Slnc Climatically it can be included in the GI 1 interstadial of the NGRIP sequence possibly in the GI 1d cold oscillation Rasmussen et al 2008 In Hoyos s late glacial sequence Hoyos 1995 it clearly corresponds to the Cantabrian VII dated between ca 12 700 and 11 700 BP The pollen record reveals the worst conditions in the stratigraphy with 2 tree pollen pine birch and juniper while Compositae dominate in the herbaceous shrub layer together with the appearance of Artemisia Iriarte 2011 A C14 AMS determination is available for the lower part of Slnc 12 790 70 BP Beta240902 Another C14 AMS determination obtained in the underlying Almp level 12 250 70 BP Beta 240903 and regarded as intrusive may have come from the disturbance of the upper part of Slnc H1 Slnc and closely matches the coldest and driest phase of the Cantabrian VII stage The archaeozoological assemblage in Slnc is diversi ed in the hunting of ungulates Red deer 49 1 is more common than ibex 30 7 while some rarer species in earlier periods such as roe deer and large bovids become more common Fish almost exclusively salmonids are indicative of the model of a diversi ed resource use as this level contains the largest number of remains with 58 58 of the whole ichthyological assemblage at the site Rosell and Morales 2011 As regards food processing a sandstone slab may have been used as a refractory surface in the context of a hearth Delgado Raack 2011 The most common plant species used as rewood is juniper as well as a large number of indeterminable conifers Euba 2011 The Slnc archaeological record re ects a subsistence model aimed towards a full use of natural resources This diversi cation in subsistence strategies is associated with a relative reduction in the size of the territory being exploited and an extension in the cycles of cave occupation Within the River Oka basin the different ecosystems were used more exhaustively from the valley bottom and steep crags to the rivers and estuary and even the shore although less intensively because of its distance from the site In accordance with human occupations of greater intensity and in longer cy 117
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  ucts, which means that lithic reduction tasks are scarcely represented at the site. T...
118 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 2 Selection of backed points and bladelets from the Slnc level Upper Final Magdalenian
118  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE cles during this phase the reappraisal of the Palaeolithic rock art by C Gonz lez Sainz and R Ruiz Idarraga is of interest In their study the art at Santimami e is interpreted as a synchronic ensemble which was probably produced during the time of the occupations in the Slnc level They reject the theory that the ensemble is an accumulation of gures produced between the middle Magdalenian and the Azilian Gonz lez Sainz and Ruiz Idarraga 2010 150 151 are prismatic which were used to obtain bladelet blanks The bone assemblage consists of harpoons with a magni cent example of a Cantabrian harpoon with a single row of barbs and a pierced base Fig 3 as well as assegai points spatulas rods awls ne points or stilettos pins and needles Gonz lez Sainz 2011 The Slnc level has also yielded the largest lithic assemblage in the deposit Indeed 62 88 of the total lithic assemblage recovered during the 20042006 eldwork comes from this level where it re ects a specialisation in backed bladelets Fig 2 which make up 38 36 of the retouched elements in the level L pez Quintana et al 2011 In coherence with this the most common cores The late glacial sequence at Santimami e concludes with the Arcp stratigraphic unit assignable to the nal part of the NGRIP GS 1 stadial Rasmussen et al 2008 or Cantabrian IX phase in the regional sequence Hoyos 1995 Two C14 AMS determinations are available for the bottom and top of the level 10 060 60 BP Beta 240901 and 10 100 60 BP Beta 240900 respectively The pollen re 3 4 The Azilian level the last Ice Age hunter gatherers Figure 3 Selection of harpoons from Santimami e 1924 3 and 6 1961 5 2005 2 and 4 2007 7 and 2008 1 eld seasons 119
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  cles during this phase, the reappraisal of the Palaeolithic rock art by C. Gonz  lez ...
120 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD cord shows an increase in tree cover with hazel and oak appearing in the sequence for the rst time Iriarte 2011 The climate has been de ned as cold and wet with the conditions improving in its most recent phase Murelaga et al 2011 perhaps announcing the onset of isotope stage MIS 1 one of the main changes in the new climate conditions the proliferation of open air sites whose clearest example is the site of Pareko Landa but also at Goienzabal 1 Sollube Txikerra 1 Katillotxu Garbola and Landabaso L pez Quintana and Guenaga 2009 110 and 117 The archaeological data suggest a more occasional occupation that in the previous levels L pez Quintana and Guenaga 2011 439 Red deer is once more the most hunted ungulate 63 7 while the hunting of ibex 21 9 roe deer and large bovids both 6 1 decreases The shing of salmonids also declines signi cantly with a change from the 58 58 of the total ichthyological assemblage in the underlying Slnc level to 7 99 in this unit Marine molluscs are not found in this level either the number of sea urchin remains increases but they do not represent an important food resource since the 437 remains belong to a minimum number of only two individuals Guti rrez Zugasti 2011 The stratigraphic reappraisal from 2004 to 2006 found evidence of the use of malacological resources in the estuary with a predominance of taxa gathered in rocky and muddy zones Ostrea edulis 37 and Scrobicularia plana 32 Guti rrez Zugasti 2011 The diversity of usable resources in the estuary increased signi cantly in the Holocene The industry in the Arcp level has been de ned as a critical transition episode within the Santimami e deposit L pez Quintana et al 2011 103 The components of the osseous assemblage disappear In turn the lithic assemblage is diverse characterised by a signi cant number of denticulates and a decline in the backed bladelets The percentage of exotic int is signi cantly smaller than in the lower Magdalenian Csn Camr Unit as it decreases from 23 2 to 7 8 The Urbasa 70km away and Chalosse 180km in a straight line varieties are found but in comparison with the lower Magdalenian the Trevi o and Tercis types disappear Tarri o 2011 3 5 The early Holocene the use of estuary resources The area excavated in 2004 2006 yielded some Mesolithic remains malacology fauna and lithics in the H Sln Unit and dated to 7580 50 BP Beta 240899 In contrast the old excavations documented a thick shell midden layer nearly 1m thick whose lower section Level IV without pottery was attributed to the Mesolithic and yielded a rich collection of archaeological material Barandiar n 1976 429 431 With the Holocene MIS 1 a changed is perceived at Santimami e in the way the cave space was used with the human habitat now mostly in the entrance and outer area which was excavated in last century s eldwork Barandiar n 1976 This is in accordance with 3 6 The middle Holocene Neolithic farming groups The climatic conditions for the Neolithic farmers were the wettest in the sequence at Santimami e The formation of the Slm level has been dated by C14 AMS to 5450 50 BP Beta 240898 and 5010 40 BP Beta 240897 in the late Neolithic The pollen study shows the signi cant spread of tree cover 53 in the middle part of Slm with a predominance of birch 37 accompanied by hazel and oak Iriarte 2011 The archaeozoological series is quite poor although domestic species cattle sheep goats and swine predominating over wild ungulates mainly red deer although ibex chamois and roe deer have also been recorded Casta os and Casta os 2011 It is noteworthy that like the lithic assemblage and the pottery two thirds of the ungulate assemblage is found in the upper Lsm level which indicates the occupation in the entrance chamber in the early Neolithic was very tenuous At the same time this level attests the most intense exploitation of marine molluscs Guti rrez Zugasti 2011 Gathering was focused on muddy zones in the estuary and rocky areas to a lesser extent The peppery furrow shell Scrobicularia plana 86 MNI is the most common species followed by the grooved carpet shell Ruditapes decussatus 5 5 and oysters 3 In contrast evidence of shing declines drastically the level provides 2 66 of the ichthyological assemblage at the site with some changes in taxonomical representation particularly a decrease in salmonids Rosell and Morales 2011 Evidence of charred wood increases remarkably with a clear predominance of oak followed by Rosaceae Prunus sp Euba 2011 In the lower Slm level the two main species oak and
120  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  cord...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE hazel are accompanied by testimonial evidence of strawberry tree birch heath ash Pomoideae willow poplar buckthorn and pine as well as an exceptional fragment of wild olive tree Olea europaea The archaeological content of the Slm level is limited but coherent with a Neolithic assemblage The best represented lithic typological groups are the denticulates and endscrapers and in second place backed bladelets L pez Quintana et al 2011 However qualitatively double bevelled retouched segments including a triangular bi truncated piece in the style of a Sonchamp point are of particular interest Some 95 9 of the int is the local Cretaceous Flysch variety available within 20km of Santimami e Exotic int is limited to 4 1 and represented by solely the Urbasa variety as those from further a eld Chalosse and Tercis disappear from the record This suggests a gradual reduction in the areas covered by the rst farming groups timami e In the neighbouring site of Kobaederra barley and emmer wheat have been identi ed in the Neolithic levels with a date of 5375 90 BP AA 29110 obtained for a barley grain from Level IV Zapata 2005 557 3 7 Funerary use in the Chalcolithic Bronze Age After the Neolithic human occupation of Santimami e becomes increasingly occasional although in the middle and upper part of the Lsm Unit dispersed human remains indicate a possibly very sporadic funerary use of the cave Fig 4 The anthropological study of the human remains Herrasti and Etxeberria 2011 which also included nds made by the old excavations determined an MNI of six individuals One of these discovered in the 2004 eld season has been dated to 3710 40 BP Chalcolithic Bronze Age while its genetic study showed that it was a bearer of the T2b mitochondrial line Cardoso et al 2011 One novel point is the identi cation of six shell fragments with signs of being used as tools four of Ostrea edulis and one each of Mytilus galloprovincialis Ruditapes decussatus and Patella sp the rst objects of this kind to be published in Cantabrian Spain Guti rrez Zugasti et al 2011 In general they were used in transversal scraping actions in some cases interspersed with longitudinal cutting tasks Except for the Ruditapes decussatus fragment possibly used to process plant matter the other shells were used to work a soft or medium hard animal substance In short in the middle Holocene in mild and wet climatic conditions the cave of Santimami e was used perhaps occasionally and repeatedly by farming communities who additionally exploit the environment by hunting ungulates and gathering molluscs in the estuary For comparison 1 5km from Santimami e in its Levels III and IV dated between ca 5800 and 5600 BP the cave of Kobaederra displays a predominance of domestic fauna which makes up 70 2 of the archaeozoological assemblage Altuna and Mariezkurrena 2009 762 To date no cultivated cereals have been found in the stratigraphic reappraisal at San Figure 4 Copper chisel with an antler handle found in Level II Chalcolithic Bronze Age in 1924 121
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  hazel  are accompanied by testimonial evidence of strawberry tree, birch, heath, ash,...
122 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Marco de la Rasilla Antonio Rosas Juan Carlos Ca averas Carles Lalueza Fox David Santamar a Sergio S nchezMoral Almudena Estalrrich Antonio Garc a Tabernero Pablo G Silva Enrique Mart nez Gabriel Santos Luc a Mart nez Elsa Duarte Rosa Huguet Markus Bastir Javier Fern ndez de la Vega Paloma Su rez Ana Bel n D ez Beatriz Fern ndez Casc n Soledad Cuezva ngel Fern ndez Cort s Elena Garc a Ant n Concepci n Mu oz Javier Lario Pedro Carrasco Pedro Huerta Puy Ayarza Fernando lvarez Lobato Loreto Rodr guez Inmaculada Pic n Bego a Fern ndez M Standing Carmen Ses Trinidad de Torres Jos Eugenio Ortiz Hel ne Valladas Norbert Mercier Nadine Tisn rat Laborde Rainer Gr n Stephen Eggins Thomas Higham Rachel E Wood Ram n Juli Vicente Soler Ernestina Badal Antonio Tarri o Domingo Carlos Salazar Jes s Alonso El Sidr n Pilo a Asturias In memory of Javier Fortea P rez 1946 2009 Manuel Hoyos G mez 1944 1999 and Olvido Otero Gonz lez 1908 1938 The well known eponym El Sidr n has a very special history Fig 1 It started with the development of a karstic system between two types of rock sandstone and Neogene conglomerates as a result of the ow of a small stream It continued with the use of the cave as a refuge and a hiding place during the Spanish Civil War and the aftermath and with the presence of some endemic species of bats and cave insects It ended up as the Universidad de Oviedo mrasilla uniovi es Grupo de Paleoantropolog a Dpto de Paleobiolog a MNCN CSIC Madrid arosas mncn csic es Universidad de Alicante jc canaveras ua es Inst de Biolog a Evolutiva CSIC UPF Barcelona carles lalueza upf edu Dpto de Geolog a MNCN CSIC Madrid ssmilk mncn csic es Universidad de Salamanca pgsilva usal es Universidad Rovira i Virgili Tarragona rhuguet iphes cat UNED Madrid javier lario ccia uned es Dpto de Paleobiolog a MNCN CSIC Madrid c sese mncn csic es LEB ETSIM Universidad Polit cnica de Madrid trinidad torres upm es LSCE IPSL CEA CNRS UVSQ Francia helene valladas lsce ipsl fr Australian National University Canberra Rainer Grun anu edu au ORAU University of Oxford UK thomas higham rlaha ox ac uk ICTJA CSIC Barcelona rjulia ictja csic es IPNA CSIC Tenerife vsoler ipna csic es Universidad de Valencia ernestina badal uv es Universidad del Pa s Vasco antonio tarrinno gmail com Max Planck Institute EVA Leipzig domingo_carlos eva mpg de FASE Asturias jesusalonso002 gmail com Javier Fortea P rez fue investigador principal del proyecto hasta el a o 2009
122  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Marc...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Figure 1 Top Development of the karstic system and location of the entrance and the Osario Gallery Bottom Osario Gallery oorplan and excavated sectors 2013 container of non gurative scarce and enigmatic rock art Pinto 1975 Rasilla et al 2011 189 191 and above all a signi cant number of Homo neanderthalensis fossil remains associated to the Mousterian lithic industry Its incorporation into archaeological and paleoanthropological research was inevitably linked to the devastating war episode referred to above because for obvious reasons the discovery of two jaws in 1994 led to legal proceedings a police report and administrative proceedings that after it was proved that they belonged to the Neanderthal species Prieto et al 1998 2001 Rosas and Aguirre 1999 ended in 1999 with the design and immediate implementation of a research project The project posed a key question at the beginning whether the material that appeared in the Osario gallery Fig 1 actually came from that place and whether the existing record had been removed Both cases were proved to be true during the early stages of archaeological excavation The project also tackled new questions how did the remains get to this gallery What is their chronology What are the physical and paleobiological characteristics of the human fossils What is the relationship between the fossils and artefacts associated with them Fortea 2003 2007b 2007c Rasilla et al 2011a 2011b Rasilla et al 2013 Obviously at the outset it was dif cult to predict that the archaeological and anthropological record obtained would greatly exceed expectations as this is an exceptional site due to the amount and quality of the remains and the results inferences and interpretations obtained and obtainable From 2000 to the present several parts of the karst system were excavated as the aforemen 123
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Figure 1. Top  Development of the karstic system and location of the entrance and the...
124 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD tioned questions were answered and according to the requirements that the study itself imposed The intensity of activity in the Osario Gallery has been constant GPR techniques even being used from the beginning to verify the burial theory and act accordingly and it was con rmed that the materials were in secondary position concentrated almost entirely in the area within sectors 2 and 3 from strip 10 to the north with some remains in sector 4 Fig 1 and 2 Therefore there was no funeral activity in this gallery After answering the question of how the record got there the questions pointed in a different direction i e outside the system Its character provided clear indications that the original place of deposit was not a settlement in use Therefore the area where the human fossils lithic industry and few examples of associated fauna were deposited would need to be searched in addition to the archaeological site To answer this question two complementary activities were carried out Firstly geophysical analysis gravimetric analysis and mechanical boreholes and archaelogical test pits were used to try to nd out about the subsoil in the vertical exterior of Osario Gallery and identify shelters galleries and channels in the karst system directly related to it and currently covered up Fig 2 Secondly various boreholes were made in two shelters in the system which had a high probability of containing the site in La Caba ina and La Tumba In addition data was collected on the archaeological map made in the council and to survey the surrounding area The results are different In relation to Osario Gallery and its vertical exterior a hypothesis on the ller model has been established by implementing geological and geophysical data from both sites Ca averas et al 2011 Silva et al 2011 while archaeological boreholes in the shelters have not offered anything related to Mousterian Neanderthal although La Caba ina has delivered an interesting but modest collection of lithic material bones pottery and fauna wild and domesticated according to the stage from the late Upper Paleolithic Mesolithic Chalcolithic Bronze Iron Roman and Medieval that support the presence of these groups and in some cases the use of caves for their settlement Rasilla et al 2011c Similarly the study of the lithic industry that was being carried out in El Sidr n from 2005 and a little later in La Vi a rock shelter Santamar a 2006 2012 revealed an interesting fact related to the raw material that in parallel also required prospecting of this abiotic element There is a type of int in the area and even in theconglomerates inside the cave of which much of the lithic industry of El Sidr n is made but which also appears in small amounts in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic levels of La Vi a This had an immediate corollary as it was necessary to check whether this int could be found in other sites and Paleolithic levels in Asturias and Cantabria and at the same time develop a speci c line of research regarding siliceous raw materials Fortea et al 2010 Santamar a et al 2010 2011 The information collected has allowed this raw material to be named S lex de Pilo a and from now on studies of prehistoric lithic industry must take into account this type of siliceous rock as its proven travelling quality makes it a region wide lithologic trace Although the Cantabrian region joined these studies late we are gradually discovering the siliceous raw materials present in Asturias and that could have been used by our ancestors Duarte et al e p Tarri o et al 2013 Inferences from different disciplines and analysis techniques 1 The arrival of the archaeological record S nchez Moral et al 2007 Silva et al 2011 Ca averas et al 2011 Santamar a et al 2010 2011 2012 Rasilla et al 2011a Santos et al 2012a and b After the primary position had been discarded and the Osario Gallery deposit had been buried it was necessary to explain how the accumulated material had got here as it invariably came from an area outside this one Initially the contributions must have come from the southern area following the direction of the strati cation and of the water that coming from the runoff and the drips happens in winter and spring inside the gallery However the data questioned this hypothesis and transferred the vehicle to channels located in the ceiling This was because the vast majority of the material is concentrated between frames E H 10 E H 4 and there are a few remains with a slight increase in the number of fauna which is always scarce in squares D E F 20 23 Fig 1 Even if we project the archaeological evidence onto the oor
124  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  tion...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Figure 2 Top Interpretive geological cut of Osario Gallery The geological features and the most signi cant geomorphological levels are shown in relation to the geophysical anomalies detected the mechanical boreholes and the pro les of Osario Gallery GO and Main Gallery of El Sidr n cave P Bottom Dissolution mesomorphology in the oor of Osario Gallery A Details of how the partitions and shovel shapes control the texture and geometry of the deposits area F G 9 B Detail of the partitions exposed in area E F 8 9 C View from the north of the centre of the gallery September 2010 and diagram of the stratigraphic series 125
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Figure 2.Top  Interpretive geological cut of Osario Gallery. The geological features ...
126 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD plan we see a cone shape in both cases which supports an entrance from the outside This phenomenon can be explained because outside on one of the edges of a karst polje there was a rock shelter where the archaeological record was deposited and a streamsinks a few metres down as currently occur in La Caba ina rock shelter For some reason the system got blocked coinciding with a storm or a stage of signi cant rainfall the water rising up to the level of the rock shelter When it became unblocked at a later stage the deposit suddenly and very quickly entered the cave via channels getting trapped in the Osario Gallery Fig 2 In this nal position there was a post deposition process focused mainly on the eastern wall favouring the ow of the aforementioned water and in a sinkhole that affected area E 9 Then the rock shelter broke apart and covered the quaternary sediment but its position has been located using geophysical analysis gravimetric analysis and the corresponding topography We are trying to access this place in order to check if there are any remains and if there are what the deposition process was like as this would re open the hypothesis that it had been a burial site Furthermore we can probably deduce based on the position of the record inside the gallery the arrangement of the elements fossils tools and fauna in the original exterior rock shelter The majority of the material was located in a speci c area that entered via a channel that took it to sectors 2 and 3 of the gallery and a little of the material particularly the fauna was in a different area but nearby and entered via another channel that took it to sector 4 of the gallery Fig 1 2 Chronology of the fossils and lithic tools Torres et al 2010 2011 Wood et al 2013 Both the taxa and the techno complex to which they belong make it necessary to use different absolute dating systems as at best since 55 000 BP 14C cannot be used and because depending on the result we could be in the centre of the current debate on the Middle Paleolithic Upper Paleolithic Homo neanderthalensis Homo sapiensor the debate on the persistence of Neanderthal groups in the Iberian Peninsula up to chronologies around 25 24 000 BP It is important to point out that rstly for various reason not all of the procedures chosen have returned satisfactory results e g Uranium Tho rium and secondly problems have been brought to light that could arise according to the methods used by the laboratories and also problems related to subsequent archaeological interpretation To minimise this impact several remains were dated using various procedures AARD ESR and 14 CAMS the dates of the rst two coinciding quite well and those of the third being very different and out of range Geochron Laboratories As the dates could fall within the C14 range and in order to clear up the doubt generated samples were sent to another laboratory Beta Analytics The results between 35 000 and 41 000 BP placed the El Sidr n record within the aforementioned debate However there was news of the dates obtained from a sample sent in 1998 to the Gif sur Yvette laboratory 48 500 2600 and 49 200 2500 BP that signi cantly changed the vision and interpretation of the El Sidr n record At the same time samples were taken to date the sediment using OSL into which the archaeological and anthropological materials t quite well to the ceiling and wall and they were correlated with those obtained using other procedures Finally for the project led by Oxford University various unique European sites including El Sidr n were dated and the date of 48 400 3200 BP was returned As maybe easily inferred there is a disagreement between the dating of Geochron Beta and Gif Oxford and the main reason for this is the pretreatment used to eliminate any contamination Geochron Beta used the conventional system whereas Gif Oxford used more sophisticated protocols ninhydrin and ultra ltration respectively For this reason it is more sensible to take on the older dating values the average value of these is 48 800 1600 and are generally more in agreement with the AAR ESR and OSL values 3 The nature of the anthropological collection and its paleogenomics Rosas and Aguirre 1999 Lalueza 2011 Lalueza et al 2005 2011 2012a and b Rosas et al 2006 2007 2011a 2011c 2012 2013 Bastir et al 2010 Dean et al 2013 Hardy et al 2012 Engelken et al 2014 Castellano et al 2014 What is perhaps more worthy of noteis that the existence of thirteen individuals and the practice of anthropophagy has been proved Fig 3 This has been possible because various speci c molars
126  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  plan...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE and other speci c bone parts have appeared and also due to the reliable presence of cut marks and deliberate fracturing of various human bones We have other examples from the discovery of a large number of Neanderthal individuals in the same site but in this case it has been possible to study the mitochondrial DNA of twelve of them which provides a new view of some of their behaviour such as the movement of females and the higher stability of males patrilocality in Nean derthal groups Various lines of research are open that will explore the interpretation of this family on a scale unseen before now helped by the good general state of preservation of the fossils Seven adults 3 3 1 three teenagers 2 1 two juniors 1 1 one child 1 and a total of 2100 items give an illustrative source of information about laterality righthandedness the use of the mouth as a third hand by all adults and teenagers grooves in the front Figure 3 Top left Side view of a jaw and maxilla in anatomical connection Top right Cut marks on a humorous Bottom Photo and sketch of one of the reconstructed assemblages with a total of twenty one pieces 127
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  and other speci   c bone parts have appeared and also due to the reliable presence of...
128 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD teeth episodes of physiological stress malnutrition at least one hypoplasia coinciding with weaning and in some cases two or more a mandibular abscess on adult 2 that must have caused chewing problems and pain calculus present in all individuals with traces on a specimen of bitumen and consumption of medicinal plants estimated height between 164 171cm and between 153161 cm an average of 164cm a neurocranial morphology tending towards brachycephaly a slight anatomic variation depending on the geographic area those from the south tending more towards a wider face and less prognathous than those from the north and their skeletal characteristics correspond to those known as classic Neanderthal In addition one adult female was red haired and fair skinned one individual was blood type 0 variant 001 Neanderthals had language although at the moment we do not know how complex it was one specimen could detect bitter taste but needed to eat a large quantity of the product to notice it and the mitochondrial lineage of twelve individuals could be established Thus four adults 1 3 two teenagers and one junior belong to lineage A one adult female belongs to lineage B and one adult one teenager one junior and one child belong to lineage C What is signi cant is that each adult female has a different lineage A B C and that all adult males belong to the same lineage A Therefore at some time a culinary practice was carried out on a group that was related to one another to some extent which gives a very accurate snapshot of not only a biological fact but also a cultural one their remains being left in the aforementioned rock shelter in a way that they were not affected by carnivores or rodents and could smoothly fossilise until they were discovered 4 The qualities of the material culture and of the biotic and abiotic resources Fortea et al 2003 2007a 2007b 2007c 2009 2010 Rasilla et al 2011a 2011b Ses 2011 Sanchiz and Mar t n 2011 Santamar a 2012 Santamar a et al 2010 2011 Duarte et al e p Tarri o et al 2013 Associated to the human fossils around 400 lithic artefacts with unmistakable Mousterian type technology conditions and a few fauna remains have been found The type of raw material Pilo a int used in general stands out the re tting of various lithic pieces that currently represents 20 but this will increase with new yearly incorporations Fig 3 the arrangement of the archaeological record and the scarceness and properties of the macro mammal fauna deer large bovid chamois horse wolf and bear The presence of Cretaceous int in primary and secondary position in the Neogene conglomerates is of signi cant interest because the Neanderthals used this raw material and some pieces of quartzite to make their tools in direct relation to the priority activity deduced from the data exposed tools for processing their conspeci cs This is based on the fact that this material entered Osario Gallery at the same time and the fossils and the re ts also show that cores were collected from the immediate surroundings they were knapped different elements were used akes denticulate tools etc and they were left in the same place A key food element such as fauna in principle does not have any relation to the activity considered because it only has marks from carnivores and therefore in this case it was not directly related to humans It reached this deposit through the activity of carnivores and when the aforementioned event occurred allof the material that was in this part of the site entered at the same time getting trapped in the natural traps of Osario Gallery Data suggests that it is a unique cultural fact and occurred quickly over time focusing on a prominent task therefore it is vital to discover and we are working on this other Mousterian sites near El Sidr n to document this other part of human activity that is not re ected in the present one
128  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  teet...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE Ana Cristina Pinto Llona 25 000 years of Palaeolithic occupation at Sope a Asturias Spain Introduction Sope a Sope a was discovered in 2001 It has provided an ancient and intact sequence of layers that reveals an intense Middle and early Upper Palaeolithic human occupation Due to the wealth of ndings and the sophistication of recording techniques the excavation progress is relatively slow Much of what we know so far about Sope a comes from the analyses of archaeological materials and features uncovered in a small 2x1 test excavation These advances have been published in different works Pinto Llona et al 2005 2006 2009 2012 Here I will summarize published aspects of Sope a and the work that I see as most relevant that has been carried out thus far and is currently in Sope a is located in the On s county of northern Spain bordering the Picos de Europa National Park at 450 m above sea level It opens to the southwest Fig 1 and affords an unobstructed view of the valley of the river G e a It appears as a limestone shelter of modest dimensions The entrance is protected by collapsed limestone blocks covered by thick successive owstone layers Observations in situ and current studies Ground Penetrating Radar suggest that the observable oor and the exposed stratigraphy are the top part of much deeper sedimentary in llings and thus that the cave is much larger than it appears to be now All the levels are very archaeologically fertile and lay almost horizontal Adjacent to the owstones several limestone blocks of about 2 metres high close the rockshelter to the northwest On the upper surface of these there are deep linear engravings of the type that is sometimes assigned to the Aurignacian Fortea P rez 2000 2001 On the side of one of these blocks there is a pecked ithyphallic anthropomorph that is thought to be Neolithic in age Looking at the plan map of Sope a its sediments clearly split in two different units An imaginary line in the middle of the site from east to west vertically cuts the sediment like a knife would a pudding The strati ed archaeological levels on which we are working are south of this line they completely disappear north of it In the northern part there is a massive ow of yellowish and unstrati ed sterile sediments We are currently digging a small test excavation in this area to better understand the sedimentary history of the site It remains to be seen if this is a natural or a prehistoric man made feature The test excavation Figure 1 Plan map of Sope a The shaded area indicates the test excavation In 2001 a 2 x 1 m test excavation was carried out Fig 1 The rst archaeological layer Level 0 appeared under more than one metre of cat c o J Villar as ILLA CCHS CSIC c Albasanz 26 28 28037 Madrid acpintoll gmail com 129
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  Ana Cristina Pinto Llona   25.000 years of Palaeolithic occupation at Sope  a  Asturi...
130 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD tle dung Rockshelters in the area were used and are still used as cattle barns Regularly the dung is raked and carried to the nearby pastures as fertilizer This practice might have scrapped away some upper deposits although the total absence of anachronistic remains does not support this idea The test excavation was dug under the main fault in the limestone of the rockshelter This excavation reached 3 metres below Datum and 16 archaeological levels were exposed Each exhibits well de ned differences in colour and texture and in the type size and density of other materials in it Fig 2 We stopped the test excavation given the friability of the sediments and also because of the presence of collapsed blocks in the lower levels that could not be removed without damaging the exposed sequence Pale levels alternate with darker some rich in charcoal the sedimentation is almost horizontal and the stratigraphic and archaeological sequence doubtlessly continues to greater depths In view of this neat colour alternation and horizontality and also of the micro sedimentary analysis I do not believe that there are inverted sequences in Sope a The test has been dug by the east wall which dips further to the east as we go deeper on the upper levels it is not possible to Figure 2 Stratigraphic pro le of the west wall of the test excavation LEVEL LITHIC Lithic Animal remains Animal remains TOTAL Total 0 95 43 38 124 56 62 219 0 53 I 417 26 77 1141 73 23 1558 3 78 II 400 24 43 1237 75 57 1637 3 97 III 1153 20 62 4439 79 38 5592 13 56 IV 41 11 71 309 88 29 350 0 85 V 104 15 27 577 84 73 681 1 65 VI 115 13 79 719 86 21 834 2 02 VII 436 16 50 2206 83 50 2642 6 41 VIII 202 4 57 4220 95 43 4422 10 72 IX 662 7 91 7711 92 09 8373 20 30 X 276 7 78 3271 92 22 3547 8 60 XI 1232 48 52 1307 51 48 2539 6 16 XII 187 18 17 842 81 83 1029 2 49 XIII 130 16 09 678 83 91 808 1 96 XIV 90 7 95 1042 92 05 1132 2 74 XV 319 5 42 5567 94 58 5886 14 27 Table 1 Number of nds per level in the test excavation
130  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  tle ...
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE stand up and the sediment adjacent to the wall is loose enough Therefore dates on materials from this area could offer aberrant results Although we have tried to select samples from the area furthest away from the wall within test excavation there is little doubt that dates obtained from materials recovered during the excavations now in course will give a fuller picture The great abundance of nds compensates for the small size of the site In the 2 x 1 x 2 metres of the test pit more than 40 000 remains were retrieved This fact suggests a frequent or even intense use of the site during the Mousterian the early Upper Palaeolithic and the Gravettian Table 1 shows the number of nds per level in the text excavation bone fragments are more frequent in all the levels We did not identify any Transitional type tool in this sondage although they might appear elsewhere in the site The transition Mousterian EUP at Sope a seems abrupt as some dates and also the neat qualitative difference in the lithics which are present suggest The lithic assemblage consists chie y of debitage by products and few formal artefacts especially in the Upper Paleolithic levels Regarding faunal remains most bone fragments recovered are not taxonomically identi able Although not frequent cut marks on bone have been noted and also carnivore action We have not identi ed any human remains which contrasts with the nearby site of El Level Sidr n Rosas et al 2012 where the same time frame has provided many cannibalized Neanderthal remains Stratigraphy archaeological attribution and absolute dates Levels I to XI can be assigned to the Upper Palaeolithic levels I to VII to the Gravettian and levels VIII to XI to the early Upper Paleolithic Levels XII to XV are Mousterian Although few in number we have several absolute dates listed below that suggest a relatively rapid sedimentary accumulation for the Gravettian sequence and a slower one for the Middle Palaeolithic Pinto Llona et al 2012 One AMS 14C date from level XII points to this as the most recent Mousterian of the northern Iberian Peninsula Maroto et al 2012 and this is followed almost immediately by the early Upper Palaeolithic The dates obtained for level XII could suggest a Mousterian occupation of some 10 000 years We consider these chronologies as a guide while more absolute dates are obtained and the current excavation progresses towards the deeper older levels The excavation method The excavation of the sondage was conducted recording the depth of each level with a home made Lithic culture Method Dating Lab Ref Date BP ky CalPal online CalBC III Gravetian C14 AMS Beta 198144 21 020 100 25 168 377 X EUP C14 AMS Beta 198145 23 550 180 28 496 393 XI EUP C14 AMS Beta 171157 32 870 530 37 359 857 XI EUP C14 AMS GrA 39 760 34 470 650 450 39 726 891 XI EUP ESR LU Williams 2005SP02 40 300 4 800 XII Mousterian C14 AMS GrA 35 500 35 500 650 460 40 336 975 XII Mousterian C AMS Beta 198146 38 630 800 43 052 741 XII Mousterian ESR LU Williams 2005SP03 49 300 5 300 XIII Mousterian ESR LU Williams 2005SP05 57 100 12 500 XIV Mousterian ESR LU Williams 2005SP08 50 400 8 700 XV Mousterian ESR LU Williams 2005SP10 57 200 12 300 14 Table 2 Absolute dates of Sope a Level XI is the earliest Upper Paleolithic level Level XII is Mousterian 131
CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS AND COASTLINE.  stand up, and the sediment adjacent to the wall is loose enough. Therefore, dates on ...
132 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD water level As a rule no vertical positions were taken of individual nds However in the larger surface currently in excavation we have always used state ofthe art technologies We dig by discrete stratigraphic units within each level using a 50 cm grid Using a Total Station we map in three dimensions every individual nd The position of the Total Station is rechecked and corrected several times a day so the average error is of about 2 mm This machine is connected to hand held computers equipped with GIS software ArcViewtm ArcGistm in the cave and also connected to a barcode scanner that transmits the correct number of the nd to the database All the archaeological nds bigger than 2 cm have been 3D mapped using this method It allows the vertical and horizontal mapping of nds in real time as they are dug All the sediments are carried to the eld laboratory oated sieved and sorted Despite its accuracy and due to the abundance of nds this method is slow and the excavation progresses relatively slowly After 10 years of work we have barely started to excavate Gravettian Level IV in a 6 x 2 metres trench Concluding remarks There can be no doubt of Sope a being a site to be taken into account in the debate about the Neanderthal to Cro Magnon transition in north em Iberia Whether with transitional industries or without them continuous stratigraphic sequences in situ that document this time period are scarce in the north of the Iberian Peninsula Aside from the excavation and scienti c works I have made a great effort to highlight the value of the site in the perception of the locals doing everything possible to protect it and to change the idea that Sope a is only valuable as an occasional cattle or much worse goat barn Local awareness is necessary a consciousness of the true value of our Heritage and of the effort that we archaeologists carry out to bring it to the light The returns will always be local and social Acknowledgements Our thanks to the Consejer a de Cultura del Principado de Asturias Concejo de On s National Geographic CRE Wenner Gren Foundation Institute of Human Origins ASU Wings World Quest Foundation Programa Ram n y Cajal del Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci n to all the scienti c collaborators of the Sope a Project and to all excavation participants Also to Dr Carbonell for inviting me to participate in this volume and to the Editors for their work in coordinating it
132  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  wate...
3 ebro valley pyrenees and pre pyrenees NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS 133
3  ebro valley, pyrenees and pre-pyrenees  NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  133
Site Map numbering Abauntz 25 Arrillor 26 Atxoste 27 Cova del Parco 28 Roca dels Bous 29 Cova Gran de Santa Linya 30 Cova de l Estret de Trag 31 Fuente del Trucho 32 Fuentes de San Crist bal 33 Gabasa 34 Kanpanoste Goikoa 35 Forcas 36 Nerets and Cova de les Llenes 37 Martinarri 38 Mendandia 39 Montsant valley ensemble 40
Site  Map numbering  Abauntz  25  Arrillor  26  Atxoste  27  Cova del Parco  28  Roca dels Bous  29  Cova Gran de Santa Li...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Pilar Utrilla Carlos Mazo Rafael Domingo The Abauntz cave Arraitz Navarre Spain Introduction Close to the village of Arraitz the cave lies at around 30 metres above the left hand bank of the Zaldaza n River The site has long been known about it was mentioned by J M de Barandiar n as early as 1956 Hydrographically speaking the cave is located in the Ebro Valley but the proximity of the Cantabrian Region and the prevailing climatic conditions act as a link between the two watersheds The cave is strategically positioned between the atlands to the south and the more rugged and wooded country to the north lying as it does at 650 metres above sea level close to the Velate Pass which enables an easy crossing of the Pyrenees It is a highland area made up of rounded rolling hills Heavy rainfall approximately 1 800 millimetres per year is distributed across all four seasons The site has been excavated over two phases between 1976 and 1979 under the direction of Pilar Utrilla Utrilla 1982 and again in 1988 1991 and 1993 to 1996 when Carlos Mazo joined the team to co direct the dig Since then the team has focused on laboratory studies some of which have been of great interest and made a considerable impact in the media The site s ten archaeological levels document 50 000 years of recurring visits paid by peoples with different cultural traditions and needs the cave served as a hunting lodge during the Solutrean as a permanent settlement during the Mousterian Middle Magdalenian and Neolithic was sporadically settled towards the end of the Magdalenian and during the Azilian before being used as a burial ground in the Chalcolithic and as a hideout from the invasions following the collapse of the Roman Empire thereby providing us with one of the most complete and complex stratigraphic sequences found anywhere in the Ebro Valley Fig 1 1 The Acheulean Tradition in the Mousterian Bears and Cleavers Signs of the oldest human presence correspond to level h which was found in 1994 inside the cave two metres below the preceding archaeological stratum Solutrean with around 8 m2 of it be ing excavated It contains no structures or hearths although scorched bones were found The thickness of the level is approximately 50 centimetres Mazo et al 2013 A number of bear teeth were dated by amino acid racemisation T Torres and E Ortiz at 47 7 ky which would coincide with the date of AMS GrA 16 960 45000 both dates correspond to those of the industry in which the relative abundance of cleavers suggests an MTA type facies Some 2 000 recognisable and extremely wellpreserved animal remains were found Of these 81 4 are of Ursus spelaeus without signs of anthropic activity which appear to be an accumulation linked with hibernation and death by natural causes Of the rest 10 correspond to carnivores Panthera pardus Canis lupus Vulpes vulpes hyenas and only 7 to ungulates Human consumption is documented cut marks on the bones of Cervus as is that of carnivores gnawed bones of Rupicapra which follows a pattern similar to that detected in the Moros de Gabasa Cave Far fewer remains have been found of bovids reindeer ibex horses or rhinoceros Almost 90 of the faunal remains are due to the cave being naturally used as a shelter by bears and other carnivores Of the 42 lithic remains the most abundant are 11 cleavers 26 of the total Fig 2 which were found alongside 2 hand axes 2 racloirs 2 scrapers 3 truncations and 4 retouched akes The cleavers are manufactured using limestone basalt and other volcanic rocks whereas int was the raw material of choice for hand axes and other pieces just as it was at Najerilla Utrilla and Mazo 1996d This brings the Abauntz cave into line with other sites found in the hinterland of the Bay of Biscay coast line Castillo Mor n Pendo Olha and so forth where cleavers were manufactured using identical technology Mazo et al 2013 which entitles us to revive the term of Vasconiense Basque proposed by Bordes and which has today been reinstated by several authors 2 Passing Solutreans and Gravettian Echoes Some of the materials found in the disturbed level Gravettian and Vachons projectile points enable rea de Prehistoria Universidad de Zaragoza C Pedro Cerbuna 12 50009 Zaragoza rea de Prehistoria Universidad de Zaragoza Pza Constituci n s n 22001 Huesca 135
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Pilar Utrilla  , Carlos Mazo  , Rafael Domingo     The Abauntz cave  Arraitz, Nava...
136 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 The stratigraphic sequence documented in the Abauntz cave indicating the archaeological levels most signi cant materials dates and cultural allocation one to suggest the possible presence of a Gravettian level in the cave that has since disappeared due to karst activity Fig 3 1 With respect to level f altered following the sedimentation thereof it still contains residual elements that would appear to date back to the Upper Solutrean though the settlement of the site is by no means intense or especially fertile The highlights of the limited number of nds are a thick at retouched perforator and some beautiful notched projectile points most of which are broken which leads one to believe that the site was used as a temporary hunting camp where broken weapons were replaced and repaired Fig 3 This at retouch is found alongside two projectile points featuring abruptly retouched notches that look like they could have come from the Cave of Salpetriere thereby af rming the hinge like nature of the site that links it with both Bay of BiscayAtlantic and Mediterranean in uences This is the westernmost nd as regards this morphotype which is known in the foothills of the central Pyrenees Chaves Trucho where the projectile points are more like those found in the Cave of Salpetriere than those of the coastal regions such as those with a curved peduncle found at Ambrosio or Parpall This lends added further weight to the idea of a communication route with the north of the Pyrenees via the central passes such as that of Cerda a as well as via the more logical coastal route Bocaccio and Utrilla 2013 Domingo et al 2012 This technical duality found at Abauntz would re ect contacts between the peoples of the Ebro Valley with a tradition rooted in the Cave of Salpetriere and those moving along and settling the Cantabrian Bay of Biscay corridor running between Aquitania and what we now know as Asturias in northern Spain 3 Trans Pyrenean Hunters of the Middle Magdalenian Level e the best known and preserved of the stratigraph represents the only well documented human presence during the Middle Magdalenianin the Ebro Valley although it is clearly linked with the Cantabrian Aquitanian world It is dated bone AMS at 13500 160 OxA 5983 16413 423 cal
136  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES BP Identi ed during the rst campaigns Utrilla 1982 Mazo used it to support his theory of the functionality of the Magdalenian lithic tools which threw up a number of surprises The burins had never been used for notching on the truncated types the active part was the selfsame truncation which was used for scraping skins the blunt end of the burin was used to make the tool easier to grasp Dihedral burins and perforators found in the same area had perforated skins on the double burin scraper implements the active part was the scraper blade with the burin only being used for grasping purposes Mazo 1989 Microspatial studies palynology and functional analysis have made it possible to propose a reconstruction of the activities performed in the two main chambers of the cave Utrilla and Mazo 1992 Utrilla et al 2003 Signi cant concentrations were documented dihedral burins and perforators in the entrance area in front of the hearth scrapers and truncated burins in the right hand side of Room 1 around a hearth spears and other bone projectile points in the intermediate passageway and in Room 2 On the other hand within the northernmost angle of the cave hardly any lithic materials were found but there was abundant pollen from plants suitable for the preparation of rest areas bracken and rushes Regarding the activities performed we would suggest that the int was reduced near the entrance that is in the best lighted area further in were the spaces used for working the skins perforation and scraping and right at the back the rest area The interior room could have been a rest area where the weapons were stacked against the wal lor another work area used for the processing of skins which could be sheared and or smoked there Several small sized postholes were found between the passageway and Room 2 which leads one to imagine a structure for hanging skins consisting of a framework of posts that would have separated one area from the other Altuna and Mariezkurrena 1996 documented the only remains of Saiga tatarica found on the Iberian Peninsula thereby con rming the relations between Abauntz and areas of the northern Pyrenees 6 bones barely 1 of one level and dominated by Rupicapra and to a lesser extent Cervus and Capra The authors state that Saiga tatarica reached its maximum extension in Western Europe during the Magdalenian especially the Middle Magdalenian when they were to be found in places as close to Abauntz as Isturitz and Dufaure The remains 5 phalanges and 1 central tarsal lead one to believe that the animal was not hunted close to the site but that these bones were attached to a skin brought in by people who came from Aquitania Figure 2 Cleavers found in level h of the Abauntz cave Navarre Spain 1 to 4 compared with other of the Najerilla River site La Rioja Spain 5 to 8 Figure 3 Vachons projectile point No 1 and Solutrean materials from level f 137
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  BP . Identi   ed during the    rst campaigns  Utrilla, 1982 , Mazo used it to supp...
138 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD The large number of bone industry remains could be seen as con rmation that Abauntz would appear to have been dependent upon the large settlement of Isturitz although it also presents similarities with communities of western Cantabria The complex decorative motifs that embellish the stag horn rods of Abauntz are almost identical to those found at sites such as Caldas and La Vi a in Asturias Isturitz in Pyr n es Atlantiques or La Madeleine in the Dordogne which went to make up a Magdalenian koine along the entire coastline of the Bay of Biscay and in the southeast of France Abauntz is located at a key strategic point it is close and with easy access to large settlements such as Isturitz We are able to point out three other decorative motifs found at different sites a series of triangles framed within parallel lines chevrons emboit s reversed parentheses and bison heads in pro le Utrilla and Mazo 1996 a and c Utrilla et al 2013 Duarte et al 2012 The level also provided two bones engraved with marks in multiples of seven which evoke calendar counts referring to lunar phases that are relatively simple to follow with a minimum observation of the night sky Utrilla 2004 Utrilla and Mart nez Bea 2008 Mazo et al 2008 one hyoid horse bone perforated for suspension and a mammoth ivory pendant The hyoid has two series of 13 and 14 deep incised in its sides The ivory pendant bears ve series of marks with the sequence 10 14 14 14 14 This type of pendant has also been found at sites such as La G elga and Tito Bustillo 2 at each also in multiples of seven or at the faraway cave of La Marche in the French Department of Vienne where at least three perforated hyoids bearing marks of this type have been found 4 The Late Magdalenian of Level 2r Dated using C14 at 11760 90 OxA 5116 13643 151 cal BP this is one of the less productive levels with barely a few dozen lithic remains being found The most important discoveries regarding this period of settlement are three pieces of portable art namely three stone blocks engraved with diverse gures After an intense period of study Utrilla and Mazo 1996b and c Utrilla et al 2004 and 20072008 in 2009 an article that was to have great media impact was published in the magazine JHE claiming that one of them contained Western Europe s oldest map Utrilla et al 2009 Included on one of the faces of block 1 is what we interpret as being the oldest representation of a map showing the immediate surroundings of a prehistoric settlement A number of engraved lines show what would appear to be the landscape as seen from the cave a mountain streams and ravines running down from the hilly area to the plane and some of the Figure 4 Horse engraved on block 3 animals that inhabit these places extremely schematic ibex bodies in pro le head front on indicated using two superimposed V shapes places around the mountain two young bovids on what would appear to be the plane Then there are marks that have been interpreted as paths and fords on what would appear to be a guide to the immediate area for the group of humans living there or given that the block was left abandoned there for other hunting parties On the same face a large stag is accompanied by a series of spiral markings which could represent the noises or odours of its bellow In contrast to the other two blocks a natural hollow in block 2 could well have been used as a fat or bone marrow lamp Its most eye catching feature is the representation of a horse accompanied by several goats that repeat the schematic model found on block 1 Other marks similar to those interpreted as being symbols of the landscape can also be observed a possible watercourse a path Block 3 bears the most carefully executed representation artistically speaking Subtriangular in shape it shows the engraving with a profusion of anatomical details of a protome of a horse the animal that most characterises both static and portable Magdalenian art especially in the area of the western Pyrenees Fig 4 Due to the frequency of its representation is could be seen as being the clan symbol of a human community with strong links to Aquitanian settlements such as Isturitz where L Mons 1996 identi es 180
138  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  The ...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES horse or gures or Duruthy where the symbolic value of the horse is evident Cleyet Merle 1996 5 The Last Hunters The Azilian of Level d This level only appears in Room 1 Its formation is linked with currents of water that washed materials from the Magdalenian levels down into it Snail shells abound in a level that is archaeologically poor in which around 70 retouched pieces and cores were found Small reverse blades account for almost 41 of the nds and unguiform scrapers and Azilian projectile points are also documented for a level dated using conventional C14 at 9530 300 Ly 1964 10858 405 calBP This brief human occupation of the site forms part of a complex chronocultural panorama that has yet to be fully de ned Soto et al i p 6 The Neolithic of Level b4 Level b4 bears witness to a notable period of human occupation with abundant structures a number of holes and large hearths A sterile layer of angular stones b3 sets this level apart from the one below it It produced blades marked by use and featuring abrupt retouches smooth crudely made pottery alongside nely crafted vessels that are black in colour with the surface having been worked with a spatula and burnished a small polished stone axe head and two abruptly retouched and double bevelled geometric microliths Five holes were identi ed in the central area of Room 1 One could have been used for disposing of the ashes from the adjacent hearth and another contained diverse objects and materials a pebble based hammer pestle smoothing tool a small polished hand axe less than 3 centimetres in length a retouched blade and fragments of smooth pottery that once formed part of at least two vessels one with a rough and the other with a spatulated nish The level is carbon dated using the conventional C14 technique at 5390 120 I 11309 6158 129 cal BP thereby placing it the Late Neolithic The area around the cave could well have been a place of temporary residence for groups of Neolithic peoples possibly linked more with animal husbandry than with crop cultivation 7 A Large Collective Tomb Chalcolithic Burials It is impossible to ascertain the exact number of burials carried out at the site due to the fact that many of the bodies were later moved and intentionally burned the result is a thick layer of scorched bones covering a good part of the surface area The total would exceed one hundred These remains have been studied by J I Lorenzo D Turb n and D Campillo and it was E Fern ndez 2005 who carried out ge netic analyses and detected the presence of MiddleEastern and even African lineages It has been possible to identify four types of burial The oldest are the shaft tombs individual or double which usually include bone spatulas being placed close to the femur of the deceased One tomb named Alberto contained a mature individual curled up and accompanied by two bone spatulas a at retouched projectile point and two stone barrel beads This type of shaft is more frequently found in the passageway and in Room 2 A human bone taken from one of the shafts was dated at 4370 70 CSIC 785 5012 124 cal BP The burned remains occupied a uniform surface area of around 16 m2 in Room 1 It would appear that incinerating the bodies did not form part of the burial ceremony but that it was carried out some time later perhaps for reasons of hygiene Around this large area of scorched bones shafts were found that look like they had been sunk to avoid it The archaeological material found in these included leaf shaped projectile points many with heat cracks and a number of necklace beads The level was dated at 4240 140 BP Ly 1963 4798 205 cal BP almost contemporary with the shaft tomb burials A third type of tomb consists of a stone cist structure composed of blocks sunk vertically in the ground and covered with a large slab of non local sandstone It contained the remains of two adult males two young women and two children all with their legs folded Remains that might have been related with the aforementioned individuals were found in nearby graves two adult males a woman of over 30 an infant a child and a young woman They were dated at 4025 35 BP The last type of burial is that of the deceased being deposited without any visible structure These are the most recent interments and must have been distributed throughout the entire cave Near the entrance of the cave the recently deceased were laid on top of the burned human remains The materials found with them differ insofar as they include peduncle and nned projectile points alongside their leaf shaped equivalents An outstanding feature is that of the presence of pendants made from wild boar tusks together with diverse adornments as well as the almost complete absence of ornamental objects in Room 2 which contrasts sharply with the profusion found in the area around the entrance Those in the entrance were dated at 3975 35 BP and those of the second room at 3900 35 BP Fig 5 8 Romans Sheltered in the cave during the Fall of the Empire The last human presence recorded in Abauntz cave occurred during the period of instability and social violence towards the end of Roman rule when uncon 139
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  horse or    gures, or Duruthy, where the symbolic value of the horse is evident  C...
140 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 5 Types of Chalcolithic Burial trolled armed groups bagaudae or bands who were struggling for power sowed terror among the population either for political or purely subsistence purposes It was during these hard times that a series of holes were dug a hoe was found on the site dating back to this activity into which objects of value were put including silver rings and more than 300 coins that enable these events to be dated at between the reigns of Constantine and Arcadian the minimum post quem date is 408 the year in which the most recent coin found was minted A hiding place used during the barbarian invasions is another viable interpretation 9 Conclusion The surroundings of the Abauntz cave which is geographically located in the Ebro Basin clearly link it with the settlements of the coastal areas of the Bay of Biscay Aquitaine It was used with different functions and intensity by numerous human groups for a
140  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES period of fty thousand years The rst of these were Neanderthals Acheulean Tradition Mousterians whose occupations alternated with those of bears and other carnivores that sheltered and hibernated in the cave The cave was sporadically used by groups of hunters during the Upper Palaeolithic perhaps during the Gravettian and most certainly although without dates during the Upper Solutrean by a human group that combined Atlantic and Mediterranean in uences The Middle Magdalenian period of Abauntz up until now the only contemporaneous level in the Ebro Valley is the most intense and signi cant occupation It has provided microspatial information activity and rest areas functional information the anomalous use of truncated burins and scraper burins used for scraping and data about regional contacts via the decorative motifs of its bone industry that strongly bind Abauntz not only with settlements such as the super site of Isturitz and others of the Aquitanian area but also with sites such as La Vi a and Caldas in Asturias At the end of the Magdalenian there was a sporadic yet extremely interesting occupation that left us with three magni cent blocks engraved with portable art a map of the surrounds block 1 a lamp decorated with similar subjects block 2 and an isolated representation of a horse that could be the symbol of the Isturitz Clan block 3 The last hunters to visit the cave were people of the Azilian tradition the low intensity of this particular human occupation is matched by the poor sedimentological condition of the level The rst non hunter gatherers present were Neolithic people who possibly used the cave for purposes of animal husbandry Andoni S enz de Buruaga Arrillor cave Araba Basque Country Climatic and industrial evolution during the Upper Pleistocene 1 Geographical settings Arrillor cave is situated in the southern slope of the Basque Mountains topographical ridge that During the Chalcolithic the cave was used as a burial ground for several centuries and features three main interment methods single shaft cist or simply depositing the deceased on the surface with at least one hundred people being laid to rest there Some bodies were later intentionally burned probably for hygienic and not ritual purposes The last speci c use to which the cave was put dates back to the beginning of the 5th century AD when some individuals hid objects of certain value there silver rings and several hundred coins against a backdrop of great insecurity and social violence when the rst groups of barbarians entered the Iberian Peninsula From 1976 to the present day our team has been working on the Abauntz cave both in the eld and in the laboratory As we have seen this is one of the most notable prehistoric sites due to its stratigraphic strength and importance in southwest Europe A monograph regarding the rst archaeological campaigns Utrilla 1982 and dozens of references made in speci c or general articles bear witness to the importance of the discoveries made and the conclusions reached A summary of all of these will appear shortly in Quaternary International as part of the minutes of the Conference held in Bilbao at the end of 2013 All this research has been made possible thanks to the subsidies received from the Regional Government of Navarre and to the help received from successive research project grants awarded by the Spanish Ministry for Economic Affairs and Competitiveness MINECO one of which is still in force namely HAR 2011 27197 Broadening New Horizons Rethinking Ancient sites in the Ebro Valley The signatories form part of the Consolidated Research Group The First Settlers of the Ebro Valley H07 of the Regional Government of Aragon divides the Cantabrian drainage to the north and the Mediterranean drainage to the south in the middle of the Gorbea Massif north of the Araba province Administratively Arrillor cave is located C rculo de Estratigraf a Anal tica Departamento de Geograf a Prehistoria y Arqueolog a Facultad de Letras Universidad del Pa s Vasco UPV EHU andoni buruaga ehu es 141
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  period of    fty thousand years. The    rst of these were Neanderthals, Acheulean ...
142 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD framed in a broader research programme aimed at discovering Paleolithic sites in the territory of Araba Since then seven archaeological campaigns focused on the cave entrance have been undertaken between 1989 1994 and in 1997 The excavated area was divided using a 22 m2 grid and in some parts reached 5 metres deep On that substantial archaeological deposit a signi cant number of human occupations particularly Mousterian evidence occurred along different climatic episodes of the rst half of the last W rm glaciation Also some data from Magdalenian occupation were even registered in one level S enz de Buruaga A 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1997 In 1997 regular excavation was terminated Figure 1 Geographic settings of Arrillor in the municipality of Murua in the Zigoitia valley Fig 1 Its geographic coordinates are X 521 057 Y 4 761 540 and it is located at 710 metres a s l The entrance cave has an eastern north eastern orientation and lies in Urgonian limestone formation The cave is 150 metres long and its axis is east west oriented The site is situated at the southern end of a rocky spur on the con uence of two ravines Asunkorta from the west and Errkaseku from the east both ow together into the Zallas River 25 metres in a straight line from Arrillor cave and 12 metres down the slope This orographic context provides a strategic location because of the hydrographic resources available and its privileged position to monitor game movements 2 Research on Arrillor cave The rst archaeological research was conducted in 1959 by J M Barandiar n and D Fern ndez Medrano who excavated a test trench 3 5 m2 and 1 metre deep at the entrance of the cave Barandiar n and Fern ndez Medrano 1959 The excavation provided a small collection of lithic artefacts and faunal remains of prehistoric appearance but results at that time did not provide any precise chrono cultural diagnosis Thirty years later in 1989 A S enz de Buruaga set up a systematic study project on Arrillor cave 3 Sedimentary strata dynamics Sedimentary stratigraphy deposited at Arrillor cave correlates with isotopic stages 3 to 1 and represents diverse events between the W rm II and the W rm IV according to the chronostratigraphic alpine denomination The sedimentology study is in progress but the paleoclimatic correlations and the subsequent interpretation established during the excavation is still valid Hoyos et al 1999 Moreover the identi cation and de nition of the levels at the archaeological sequence followed the theoretical basis of Analytical Stratigraphy Laplace 1971 S enz de Buruaga 1996 S enz de Buruaga et al 1998 The stratigraphic sequence of Arrillor has a depth of ca 5 metres It can be divided basically into three sedimentary complexes one in the bottom part with cryoclastic and alluvial deposits one in the middle of uvial origin and one in the upper part also of cryoclastic formation with severe postdepositional alterations in the middleupper section Fig 2 and Tab 1 The lower sedimentary complex encompasses a series of levels with cryoclastic origin Cag Blm Car Clmg Cglm and Clm coexisting with other levels of uvial origin Lgj Ln and Lj This sedimentary complex is about 50 to 115 cm thick The presence of this type of deposits with well differentiated sedimentary components and its stratigraphic position in the general sequence suggest its formation was probably during a more advanced cold temperate phase of W rm IIa in the climatic transition from W rm IIa to W rm IIa b
142  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  fram...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES ers of this material sometimes thicker and sometimes thinner compose the deposit At the base silts replace sands On this arranged succession of yellowish sandy layers designated Sa greyish plastic clays layers designated Agp and other reddish sandy compacted layers designated Srk 10 sedimentary units SU have been identi ed Though in general Sa layers and Agp layers are archaeologically sterile Srk layers have yielded diverse archaeological evidences basically faunal remains and lithic artefacts that might be related with Mousterian techno complexes The most remarkable assemblages have been recovered at the Amk structural assembly composed by layers Amk H Amk and I Sa 8 in the lower half of this uvial formation and in its upper third at level Smk l Fig 3 Figure 2 Sedimentary deposits in the anterior frontal sector of the central area of the excavation In these cryoclastic levels several Mousterian lithic artefacts associated with some faunal remains were found The middle sedimentary complex is clearly of uvial origin It is 245 to 305 cm thick In general this part formed as a result of cyclical succession of mechanical weathering transportation and erosion and analogous processes of deposition generated under temperate climatic conditions which in the end can be correlated with an interstadial phase probably W rm IIa b Sand is the prevailing sedimentary component Lay Table 1 Analytical Matrix of the stratigraphic sequence at Arrillor cave 143
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  ers of this material, sometimes thicker and sometimes thinner, compose the deposit...
144 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD The W rm IIb strata initially maintains a ne brown sand composition with an increasing presence of gelifracts rst as cobbles Smc and later on as boulders Smb corresponding here with a particularly cold phase of the stadial Afterwards a change in the matrix is registered sands are replaced by brown silts in a new stratigraphic episode Lmc While Smc and Smb have yielded a discrete number of faunal and lithic Mousterian evidences Lmc provided a more substantial archaeological assemblage of Mousterian af liation This lower phase ended with stratigraphic unit Lam somewhat representative from a cultural point of view Furthermore a new sedimentary hiatus VLam originated by a soli uxion owstone occurred in a Holocene episode removed on the one hand most of the W rm III and IV deposits from the central cave area and on the other hand piled up a new yellow silty clay deposit Ala Only in a small lateral part the stratigraphic evidences of advanced stages of W rm were preserved rst in a level of cobbles and boulders Labc which are archaeologically sterile and that can be related with middle and late phases of W rm III and later in a yellow silt deposit La formed in the W rm IV that contains lithic evidence of the Magdalenian period Fig 4 4 Human occupations at the cave Figure 3 Stratigraphic posterior frontal pro le at Arrillor upper and middle deposits on the central area of the excavation The upper sedimentary complex is in general of cryoclastic origin It is 65 and 95 cm thick After a net erosive contact on the base V Sa 1 an in ll piles up Two phases must be differentiated at this deposit a one in the lower part which should be related to the stadial W rm IIb and b another one in the upper part formed in the W rm III and IV On top a post Pleistocene episode is superimposed Various archaeological references have been documented in the total 22 stratigraphic features differentiated on the sedimentary deposit of Arrillor cave Before proceeding further it is necessary to brie y address two issues about these particular archaeological levels 1 with the exception of one level considered Magdalenian the rest refer to different parts of the Mousterian period and 2 in most of the archaeologically fertile layers the amount of artifacts is scant and with very low diagnostic value insuf cient to provide a precise morpho technical characterization only layers Amk Smk l and Lmc from bottom to top gather the most signi cant and solid evidence of human occupation In that sense besides lithic artifacts a very interesting collection of faunal remains has been properly identi ed Casta os Ugarte 2005 This data enhances the information regarding the environmental context of each deposit
144  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  The ...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES precisely in this particular context the human molar AR 1740 of a young hominid aged 9 13 years old was found Berm dez de Castro and S enz de Buruaga 1999 Fig 5 Also from this stratigraphic formation two charcoal samples were AMS dated 45700 1200 B P OxA 6084 and 45400 1800 B P OxA 6251 setting it chronologically in the middle interstadial W rm IIa b Concerning the faunal remains there is a predominance of ungulates red deer and bison being the best represented species on the contrary goat and equus remains are scarce and roe deer and rhinoceros are very rare Figure 4 Upper deposits in a central area of the excavation On the bottom after a net erosive contact the upper section of the yellow sands belonging to the middle sedimentary complex The Smk l deposit situated in the upper third of the middle uvial complex offers an interesting batch of lithic tools of Mousterian tradition sidescrapers point etc and illustrative of the levallois debitage method knapped almost exclusively on lidite It could be asserted that the collection is specialized in the exploitation of this raw material Fig 6 Its particular techno typological composition refers to Mousterian industries which are fairly specialized at sidescrapers and points on large sized and at blanks and using the levallois method The structural ensemble Amk placed on the bottom third of the middle uvial deposit includes the following stratigraphical units from bottom to top Amk HAmk and I Sa 8 In this group a signi cant and varied set of lithic artefacts knapped on int and quartzite was recovered Among others typical Mousterian artifacts such as sidescrapers points denticulates and other pieces that are more morpho technologically evolved such as scrapers truncations and burins These typological trends allow characterization as a polymorphic Mousterian enriched with leptolithic performs of short size pieces The upper part of this sedimentary complex presents a horizon of hearths of very dark colour accumulated over the whole area H Amk This horizon contains a large amount of charcoal and bones More Figure 5 Molar of a young Neanderthal retrieved at the stratigraphic deposit H Amk and dated around 45000 years B P Picture Archaeological Museum of Araba Bibat D F A 145
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  precisely, in this particular context the human molar  AR-1740  of a young hominid...
146 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 6 Types in lidite from level Smk l Picture Archaeological Museum of Araba Bibat D F A The faunal spectrum still shows the predominance of ungulates although together with bison and red deer goat becomes more important Equus on the contrary remains very scarce One AMS radiocarbon date of a bone gave 43100 1700 B P OxA 6250 setting the last human occupation preserved in the middle uvial complex at a later time in the interstadial W rm IIa b Level Lmc is situated in the bottom half of the upper cryoclastic complex From a typological industry point of view this level includes a more substantial lithic collection which is well differentiated typologically from the previous repertory of the underlying levels Smb and Smc correlated with a new cold climatic stage on W rm IIb and associated with Mousterian industrial complex of denticulates carenage blanks and preferably aking of black int which is locally available and mediocre in quality Thus in level Lmc there are also Mousterian industrial complex artefacts sidescrapers points denticulates together with some evolved morpho technical types endscrapers burins of acceptable quality of int and also of other local raw materials quartzite quartz This industrial complex can be de ned as Mousterian of sidescrapers and short sized at blanks The faunal assemblage is still characterized by ungulates clearly prevailing red deer followed by the chamois and bison and in lesser extent rhinoceros roe deer and equus The AMS radiocarbon date on a bone from this level provided 37100 1000 B P OxA 6106 which situates the occupation on a later phase of W rm IIb immediately previous to the moister and temperate episode of W rm II III
146  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES 5 Concluding remarks Systematic excavation carried out for 7 campaigns between 1989 and 1997 on this cave situated in the northern area of the Araba province have provided a rich sedimentary deposit that includes signi cant lithic and faunal assemblage from Upper Pleistocene as well as a Neanderthal tooth This deposit that is ve metres thick goes from an early phase of W rm II or W rm IIa to the Late Glacial of W rm IV The most signi cant sedimentological and archaeological deposits concern the Mousterian period particularly stratigraphic levels Amk Smk l and Lmc although less representative isolated Magdalenian evidences were documented From bottom to top three sedimentary complexes have been de ned Figure 7 Mousterian hearth form level Smk l on the upper section of the middle sedimentary complex of Arrillor a The lower complex of cryoclastic and uvial origin includes some levels with Mousterian industries Regarding climate conditions this complex is related with the cold stage of the W rm IIa b The middle complex with a uvial genesis that preserved a considerable number of Mousterian levels and horizons This complex developed within the moister and temperate phase of the interstadial W rm II a b Some sections of this complex have been dated between 46000 and 43000 B P Fig 7 c The upper complex of cryoclastic formation contains the last Mousterian industries and preserves a small number of Late Magdalenian evidence The sedimentary sequence seems to have been formed from different deposits associated to cold stages of W rm II or W rm IIb of Pleniglacial or W rm III and the Late Glacial or W rm IV One radiocarbon date from the middle bottom deposits situates it in the late phase of W rm IIb around 37000 B P The Arrillor Cave deposit addresses some key questions regarding the evolution process and the climatic and environmental transition from the Early W rm to the Late W rm in the inner territories of the Basque Country Particularly worth mentioning is the preserved part around ca 55000 and 35000 B P that offers quite remarkable sedimentological evidence This meaningful sequence should be contrasted with other Mousterian sites nearby such as Axlor Bizkaia and Lezetxiki Gipuzkoa all of them in the same environmental unit of the Basque Mountains forming a triangular arrangement where sites are separated by hardly 20 linear km S enz de Buruaga 2000 62 147
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  5. Concluding remarks Systematic excavation carried out for 7 campaigns, between 1...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 148 Alfonso Alday The site at Atxoste V rgala lava Atxoste is a rock shelter located by the river Berr n south facing in the middle of an extremely varied landscape with valley and mountain resources It gave shelter to late Upper Magdalenian communities and although its roof collapsed at the beginning of the Holocene the conditions of the site resulted in its occupation throughout the Mesolithic all of its phases are represented the Neolithic the deposition of burials being its nal use in the Metal Ages The stratigraphic sequence is more than six metres thick and it is subdivided into several sections where only the base layer clay and the surface vegetable matter are not of archaeological interest We distinguish two major sedimentary units the rst from the late Pleistocene of rapid formation and the second from the Holocene of slower constitution The internal coherence of the sediment the absolute dating and its cultural context guarantee the viability of the deposit that is for the chronocultural environment in which it is encompassed the most signi cant site in the Ebro basin at least Excavation of the shelter was carried out without interruption between 1995 and 2006 under the direction of A Alday Stratigraphic sequence Level VIII sedimentary base of humid plastic and compact clays from Maestu diapir Its initial light brown colour turns orangey It has no archaeological interest Level VII 80 cm thick with a dark loam clay and organic material matrix which incorporates large blocks encrusted at different times compressing the soil Cold and humidity caused waterlogging and frost weathering which fractured the blocks Thus the level will evolve internally with different colourations textures and higher fracturing Culturally it corresponds to the late Upper Magdalenian its lithic retouching is characterised by an extensive representation of back edged arrowheads and blades and scrapers It has no noteworthy bone industry and the fauna is very fragmented Level VI dense one and a half metre thick unit whose formation was affected by the collapse of the canopy and subsequent breaking of the blocks causing various dispositional situations Its considerable thickness can be separated internally from its base to 320 characterised by the signi cance of major fracturing and the compactness of the soil from 320 to 270 where the soil becomes lighter and takes on a looser texture from 270 to the top with more compact gritty and organic sediments This separation is coupled with the individualisation of three cultural units the lower from the laminar Mesolithic where back edge tools are the most abundant retouched objects the intermediary Sauveterrian style where the evolution of back edge arrowheads and the introduction of geometric microliths and splintered pieces is noticeable the top which offers a signi cant industrial change as its industry rests on lithic ake and denticulate tools made from irregular materials racloirs perforators or other prototypes tools that de ne the Mesolithic of notched and denticulate tools Level V with a thickness of 15 20 cm with a loam structure brown red colour and constant presence of white and black carbon specks There is a signi cant proportion of land molluscs and numerous hearths Culturally it adheres to the Mesolithic of notched and denticulate tools offering a morphotechnological evolution compared to the previous episode Level IV its thickness ranges from 20 to 25 cm with clari ed soil a noticeable fall in Helix cepaea nemoralis and elements with higher fractioning They are more compact and humid sediments Culturally its retouched industry adheres to geometric Mesolithic with more trapezoids than triangles a presence of mircoburils back edge blades rea de Prehistoria Universidad del Pa s Vasco EHU UPV Tom s y Valiente s n 01006 Vitoria Gasteiz a alday ehu es
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  148  Alfo...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES and a good selection of substrate elements with a certain inheritance from lithic ake tools Level III of continuous formation but where several units can be distinguished The lower IIIb2 of 20 cm of ne black loam where helix colonies are represented that give a gritty feel to the soil the intermediary IIIb1 of 20 cm with a horizontal disposition with somewhat lighter loam soil and less granularity the top which is 20 cm thick with ner soil and dark grey loam This level stands out for being unctuous and greasy Its base responds to the characteristics of geometric Mesolithic now with a higher presence of triangles compared to trapezoids The other two sections correspond to early Neolithic segments Figure 1 Stratigraphy of the site at Atxoste in double bevel among the retouched lithic industry being very signi cant Boquique style patterns among others on pottery the discovery of a large windmill for grinding vegetable matter the pro le of sickles and the identi cation of wild and domestic fauna Level II of varying thickness between 15 and 35 cm it presents a mixture of soils and archaeological products from the burial phase level I and from the last period it was occupied as shelter level II The soil is loose and loamy brown in colour and with lithic elements from the Chalcolithic Level I it conserves part of the organic matter from the surface level in dry and loose brown soil without a clear separation with respect to the 149
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  and a good selection of substrate elements  with a certain inheritance from lithic...
150 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD next horizon Of the burial character ascribed to the Metal Ages where a couple of bodies were arranged in foetal position some in partial anatomical connection and the rest disorderly Surface level organic matter with a grainy texture dry and dusty in place with an irregular presence of blocks It has no archaeological interest Fig 1 Level Code GrA 9786 3360 40 I GrA 9787 3470 40 GrA 24684 3680 50 GrA 24683 4980 50 GrA 6846 4730 50 GrN 22739 4560 110 GrA 9789 6220 50 GrA 13414 6050 40 GrA 13415 6940 40 GrA 13468 7140 50 GrA 13418 7340 50 GrA 14419 6970 40 GrA 13447 7810 40 GrA 13448 8030 50 GrA 15700 8510 80 GrA 15699 8760 50 GrA 15858 9550 60 GrA 35142 9510 50 GrA 22865 11720 70 GrA 22866 11760 70 GrA 23107 11690 80 GrA 22900 11800 60 GrA 13473 8840 50 GrN 26663 9650 150 GrA 35141 9450 50 GrN 26664 9510 150 GrN 26665 9820 150 GrN 26666 11910 170 GrN 26667 11960 180 F2 GrA 19554 12070 60 G GrA 19502 12200 90 H GrA 19870 11730 80 H2 GrA 19503 12540 80 II III IIIb1 IIIb2 IV V VI VIb1 VII D E E2 F Table 1 Carbon dating 14 BP Date Cultural assessment Atxoste is an archaeological deposit that contains information almost without interruption over 10000 years of prehistory it has a rich inventory of material int pottery and bone and abundant recordings of fauna and carbon Fig 2 In the Late Glacial Maximum Palaeolithic populations over ow their traditional environments of shelter to occupy more interior areas In the Iberian Peninsula the phenomenon results in new settlements in for example the Ebro basin in this context Atxoste re ects the settlement of populations in the upper reaches The choice of the place and repeat visits demonstrate the interest of the communities in exploiting an environment where valley and mountain ecosystems coexist This results in the wide spectrum of fauna recovered during excavation stag deer horse boar goat chamois wolf plus smaller fauna and anecdotally turtle However the territory does not have int the material used almost exclusively for making stone tools It is collected in the outcrops of Urbasa 30km north east Trevi o and Loza both at 30km south west from the Cantabrian Flysch at least 100 km and in Neolithic times evaporite was collected from the Ebro around 100 km south east The percentages vary from one variety and another according to the characteristics of each episode re ecting in any case the will to exploit the region further The cultural stages represented refer us to various stages of the late hunter gatherer The Traceology de ne hunting practices butchering working hides wood bone Over time the presence of groups settling in the site stabilised they extended their activities and in the late stage they built a cabin next to the wall of the shelter as another sign of their geographic settling This model lives on in the early stages of the Neolithic with certain innovations renewal of lithic tools the introduction of pottery crop and livestock domestication according to the identi cation of direct taxa or from indirect evidence associated to these practices
150  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  next...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 2 Archaeological materials at the site in Atxoste 151
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 2. Archaeological materials at the site in Atxoste  151
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 152 Javier Mangado Jos Miguel Tejero Josep Maria Fullola Maria ngels Petit Marta S nchez Cova del Parco Al s de Balaguer La Noguera Lleida The Magdalenian sequence Cova del Parco is located in the pre Pyrenees at Lleida in the village of Al s de Balaguer in the Noguera region coord UTM 31 T X 329322 Y 4642202 The archaeological site is placed 420 m above sea level and 120m above the Segre River with a north south orientation A single 10 5 long by 4 5m wide gallery of triangular shape at the entrance forms the cavity laterally communicates with a large shelter of 5 5 m by 30 m is enclosed by a masonry wall of historic period The discovery of the archaeological site dates back to the middle 1970 s when the rst excavations were carried out by professor Joan Maluquer de Motes in 1974 1981 and 1984 which included almost the complete digging of the upper stratigraphic sequence containing ceramic levels Ten years after the discovery in 1984 a 3 m2 trench allowed Dr Maluquer de Motes to establish a stratigraphic sequence in six strata nding in the deepest one a set of lithic materials of the Final Upper Palaeolithic Maluquer de Motes 1983 1984 1985 Fullola et al 1988 Dr Fullola restarted excavation activities in 1987 starting excavation campaigns which are still annually conducted and headed by several investigators from the Seminari d Estudis I Recerques Prehist riques at the University of Barcelona Figure 1 Location and archaeological site plan SERP Seminari d Estudis i Recerques Prehist riques de la Universidad de Barcelona rea de Prehistoria Departamento de Prehistoria Historia Antigua y Arqueolog a Facultad de Geograf a e Historia Universidad de Barcelona calle Montalegre 6 E 08001 Barcelona
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  152  Javi...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES respond to rock falls levels XV and XIV being sterile from an archaeological point of view From level XIII to VI low intensity runoff processes with a high human induced activity are produced Climatically the levels between XI and VII present a wet environment except from level IX where a colder pulse is detected From a palynological point of view the presence of oak and fern spores in level XII demonstrate warmer and wetter conditions as in levels VIII and VII where the presence of hazel and willow are recorded for the rst time and the presence of oak remains However levels X and IX are cold and dry highlighting the presence of conifers Pinus and Juniperus always in low percentages Fullola et al 1997 Figure 2 West sequence stratigraphy of the Dr Maluquertrench analysed by Bergad M M Bergad 1998 1 Sedimentary Sequence and Palaeoenvironmental Evolution The detailed analysis of the sedimentary sequence and the establishment of the palaeoenvironmental evolution from the West stratigraphic sequence led by Dr Maluquer trench were possible thanks to the studies of the PhD of M M Bergad in which a sedimentary sequence in fteen levels was established one of the rst scienti c contributions from Cova del Parco to the Upper Palaeolithic in Catalonia Bergad 1998 46 51 Bergad et al 1999 In the analysis of the sedimentary sequence two processes were observed sedimentary as runoffs and rock falls and post depositional humidity and biological activity The lower levels cor Sedimentation in levels VI to I presents high intensity runoffs and rock falls due to the break up processes of the wall and roof cavity Also from level VI to IV sedimentary crust formations can be observed pointing at arid conditions and colder pulses than the former ones In levels III and II especially in the rst a gravel deposit limestone blocks and conglomerates in cracked states were observed related to periglacial conditions coming up from the cavity s wall and roof breaking up In level II an increase in humidity was recorded In level II contact large limestone blocks and fallen conglomerates can be seen as a consequence of climatic process Finally sedimentation of notable strength in level I is due to different intensity runoff processes in the water ow In the higher part of level I clastic evidences are located small rock falls and wall break up The environmental conditions would be semi arid with humidity pulses and cold temperatures In short locates in levels XI and VII is a wet and warm environment with a cold pulse From level VI a semi arid ambience is detected storm rainfall regime with cold pulses Later in level III cold conditions still rule however in level II humidity increases In level I an increase in storm rainfall eroding the slopes is produced high sedimentation rates in semi arid conditions with humidity and cold episodes Bergad 1998 79 80 2 Cova del Parco archaeological Sequence Archaeological materials at Cova del Parco found during the excavations of Dr Maluquer de Motes and housed in the Montsec Museum at Ar 153
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  respond to rock falls    levels XV and XIV    being sterile from an archaeological...
154 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD was the rst time that the presence of a classic Epipaleolithic sequence in western Catalonia de ned by Fortea was recorded with some microbladelets levels to which geometrical levels with triangles and segments were overlapped together with many microburins The excavation allowed the establishment of its corresponding cultural and chronological sequence Under a very ancient Epipaleolithic geometrical horizon level Ia2 into depths of about 175 200 cm dated from charcoals coming up from two combustion structures henceforth EC Estructuras de Combustion in Spanish EC11 and EC12 in 10930 100BP GifA 95562 and 10770 110BP GifA95563 respectively and with an industry in which micro bladelets and geometric elements of Sauveterrian type are documented triangles and segments Fullola et al 1998 a micro laminar Epipaleolithic moment had appeared levels Ib and Ic into depths of about 200 230 cm this was dated with charcoal from the EC15a in 11430 60BP OxA 8656 Fullola et al 2004 Figure 3 Some of the Magdalenian hearths at Cova del Parco tesa de Segre show the different Neolithic settlements from Cardial to Recent Neolithic as well as the III millennium Bell Beaker Culture and the Early Bronze Age Petit 1996 The excavations carried out by our team from 1987 have allowed the recording of a cultural sequence presenting three stages Firstly in the Neolithic levels remain almost inexistent the basal part of a storage structure silo was recorded dated with charcoal remains in 6120 90BP GrN 20058 the ceramic content placed the abandonment in the Epicardial Neolithic a moment in which it was reused as a land ll with plenty of manure and ashes Petit 1996 Secondly the excavation and the register of Epipaleolithic levels in the archaeological site were developed from 1993 to 1999 the presence of which had formerly gone unnoticed This Finally under this microlaminar Epipaleolithic and after an abandonment period we document a very precise stratigraphic moment a depth between 230 240 cm dated in 12605 60 BP OxA 10796 corresponding to the last Final Upper Magdalenian settlement level II it was separate from the rest of the Magdalenian settlements sequence due to a huge rock fall about 240 260 cm After this moment the Magdalenian settlements sequence still being excavated today was developed 3 Radiocarbon dating of the Magdalenian levels at Cova del Parco The sedimentary sequence analyzed by M M Bergad 1998 was dated from charcoal samples removed from the same section she described During these years new dating carried out from recovered charcoals during the excavation process of different EC have allowed us to establish the chronological sequence that we present hereunder all radiocarbon dates are uncalibrated Thus we have distinguished a Final Upper Magdalenian dated in 12460 60BP OxA10797 z 269 cm and 12560 130BP OxA10835 z 271 cm the date 13175 60BP corresponding to OxA10798 from charcoal recovered in the inner part of the EC19 z 273 cm is not considered valid from an Upper Magdalenian placing its beginning in
154  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  was ...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES depths between 280 285 cm based on the elongated scalene triangles documentation with different dating 12995 50BP OxA13597 z 285 cm 13025 50BP OxA13596 z 280 cm and 13095 55BP OxA17730 z 293 5 cm The progressive disappearance of these lithic elements as well as the appearance of different technological changes for example in the laminar support modules typological new spear point types and functional in the settlement dynamic as well as the last radiometric dating obtained 13255 50BP OxA29336 z 322 cm and 13475 50BP z 318 cm establish the hypothesis of detecting the Middle Magdalenian settlements 4 Cova del Parco Magdalenian settlements main features We are now presenting a synoptic summary about what archaeological excavations at Cova del Parco represent in the Magdalenian This production will be incomplete as the eld work still continues 4 1 Intrasite dynamic We want to point out that the excavation over a 40m2 extension of the Magdalenian settlements at Cova del Parco is not casual One of our main priorities in the moment of dealing with the Magdalenian study in this archaeological site has been to develop it from an socio economic perspective and human behaviors This is why we carried out an excavation in extension which allowed us to observe the spatial relations between the multiple traces artifacts and ecofacts and the evidenced structures The combustion structures EC deserve a special mention from us as we consider that the majority of the productive social and cultural activities of those communities were carried out around them this being why they have received special attention throughout these years However we must not obviate that our work faces an important problem the trench survey carried out in 1984 by Dr Maluquer de Motes longitudinally divided the archaeological site by its central part affecting the whole archaeological sequence This is why we cannot establish with absolute certainty the stratigraphic continuity among the activities developed in each area in which the site has been divided namely on the right side the space properly de ned as a cave and on the left side the outer eld considered a shelter Furthermore the trench suffered the irremediable loss of the contextual information attached to the archaeological materials recovered during their excavation nally forming only a material collection The Magdalenian settlements at Cova del Parco are characterized by great complexity highlighted by different elements Firstly by the number and diversity of the discovered and excavated structures we also have the ECs at and not delimited or delimited by a stone crown or a pave in a bucket simple or double and we have the Knapping Remains Deposits KRD or DRT in Spanish Dep sito de Restos de Talla de ned as carving remains accumulation in a very small surface coming out from a concrete technical process Mangado et al 2009 2010 Secondly the complexity has been proved from several activities recorded thanks to the typological and functional lithic tool diversity Calvo 2004 and over hard animal materials Tejero 2005 Both the production and repairing of lithic tools Langlais 2004 2010 osseous tools Tejero and Fullola 2008 and the leatherwork in different stages of the operational chain Calvo 2004 attest to this Regarding the Final Upper Magdalenian the spatial distribution studies of the traces as well as the analysis of the combustion structures main features typology micro stratigraphy and content show us an important and multifunctional settlement of the cave s central area where together with the hearths culinary functionality attached to many faunal burned remains other activities arise mainly of the working type lithic works intknapping bone leather In this way those areas closer to the walls show their functional marginality and are mainly reserved as buildup of waste areas as faunal remains of little or void nutritional value and lithic traces which were rejected for manufacturing are recovered in them Mangado et al 2006 2007 The outer area or shelter area is also characterized for this marginal behavior in which working activities were hardly developed such as the possible smoking of skin or food Bergad 1998 77 79 This behavior so different in the use of spaces regarding the activities recorded in them will be modi ed as we break into the Upper Magdalenian Thus the EC attached to this moment increase in presence and reuse in the outer area The shelter s 155
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  depths between    280    285 cm. based on the elongated scalene triangles document...
156 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD EC shows at the same time a higher typological and functional variability In this way together with the activities of purely signaling and lighting lithic carving work activities attached to those structures emerge which have allowed even technological re tting among different lithic elements The other structures showing the settlement complexity carried out by the Magdalenian hunter gatherers are the already mentioned KRD which allow us to rebuild the mobility intrasite Mangado et al 2006 2007 4 2 Resource Management Throughout the Magdalenian at Cova del Parco The studies carried out throughout these years have allowed not only a certain intrasite perception towards the Magdalenian occupants working and life space system at Cova del Parco but also a certain perception towards the outer area extrasite beyond the archaeological site to know the territory s management and its resources by these communities Accordingly we have also observed some differences between the Final Upper Magdalenian and the Upper Magdalenian 4 2 1 Abiotic Resources Along the analyzed period we have documented the presence of concrete int types being the object of detailed petro archaeological features which progressively reveal the way a decrease in the int types used is variably produced as these further varieties are not represented during the Final Upper Magdalenian the result of which we may consider a certain regionalization process of the exploitation of the resource In this way for the most ancient stages of the studied sequence so far Upper Magdalenian we have proved little presence of materials coming from long and or very long distances exceeding widely the regional state displacement these materials were introduced in the archaeological site in both engraved bladed supports and con gured cores This discovery which forms part of one of our ongoing PhD MS and which will shortly be launched brings to light a behavior of siliceous materials supply over the long distance axis enclosing both the Pyrenees slopes and some neighboring territories not strictly Pyrenean a circumstance showing us a wide mobility of these Upper Magdalenian groups This mobility will gradually be reduced along the Final Upper Magdalenian during which the recorded materials are of a regional support adopting a local resource regime during the last hunter gatherers settlements from very Early Holocene The C O L for the tool manufacture attached to these siliceous resources also reveals along the studied sequence a progressive adaptive behavior both to the metric features and to the raw materials knapping used in tool manufacturing Thus during the Upper Magdalenian the bladed module presenting both blades and bladelets produced in the archaeological site from the core reduction sequence of high quality raw materials mainly pyramidal and prismatic morphologies and at the same time part of the core maintenance elements akes and cortical akes for the diverse domestic tool making endscrapers side scrappers burins becs etc is recovered Progressively we observe minor module exploitation of raw materials and therefore a larger number of bladelets rather than blades is produced on the site the former seeming to be produced as supports or even as nished tools some endscrapers and burins highlight this while at the same time the con guration and maintenance activities of the bladelets cores are simpli ed since the volume exploitation of smaller size raw materials and from poorly modi ed cores are usually invoked Langlais 2010 Consequently the tool technology is affected by this circumstance and the local int of a minor knapping quality is progressively used for manufacturing different lithic tool types Mangado 2005 Lithic tools of Magdalenian levels at Cova del Parco are widely dominated by the projectile elements throughout the exhumed sequence Backed bladelets and backed points predominance reveal a wide typological variety in which the presence of truncated backed bladelets highlights an element we used as a cultural marker to point out the transition between Final and Upper Magdalenian stage The hunting set is supported by domestic tools showing wide diversity of working activities developed at the archaeological site both referring to scraping hammering and leather work Calvo 2004 and to osseous tool production and maintenance Tejero and Fullola 2008 4 2 2 Biotic resources The industry in osseous raw materials at Cova del Parco includes two large subsections The rst one is referred to as domestic and hunting equipment made of bones and deer antlers Secondly we have a set of objects of personal ornament
156  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  EC s...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 4 Upper Magdalenian settlements Lithic and bone industry at Cova del Parco graphics R lvarez 1 10 16 endscrapers 2 bec 3 backed bladelet 4 9 scalene triangles 11 13 burins 14 15 bladelets cores 17 retouched blade fragment 18 Dentalium sp 19 Nasarius sp 20 Homalopoma sanguineum 21 Theodoxus uviatilis 22 pendant of deer s atrophied canine tooth 23 needle 24 spear point distal fragment 25 spear point pointe de sagaie 157
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 4. Upper Magdalenian settlements Lithic and bone industry at Cova del Parco...
158 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD which with the exception of two pendants made of atrophied deer canine tooth were made from different mollusks species shells Both entities of the Cova del Parco archaeological material register form an important set from the numeric point of view and above all from a qualitative perspective as they include not only objects but also other technical elements wastes pieces being processed blanks These last ones are essential to rebuilding the technical operative sequence of the exploitation of organic material of animal origin This feature constitutes exactly the largest osseous industry bone and antler contribution in Cova del Parco to the knowledge of the site s Magdalenian settlements and by extension of the Iberian Magdalenian Although the osseous industry development is fairly recently related to the lithic technology its huge capacity has been widely demonstrated for the better knowledge of the paleoethnographic aspects of the hunter gatherers in the Upper Palaeolithic Averbouh 2000 The analysis results show that the operative sequence of the bone and antler exploitation is driven to the production of the rod or baguette type blanks through the double longitudinal grooved procedure Tejero 2005 Tejero and Fullola 2006 2008 Tejero et al 2010 In the bone s case the blocks to be exploited are plausibly selected among the bone remains removed from the food chain without observing speci c fracture patterns of technical nature The fauna recovered in the Magdalenian levels at Cova del Parco are mainly goat s remains Nadal 1998 The exploited antlers always from deer Cervus elaphus probably come up from shed antler collections if we abide by their modules of thick cortical tissue and the lack of deer presence among the fauna hunted at Parco The bone and antler blanks are transformed by an overall scraping respectively by needles and spear points projectile elements This correspondence between raw material and type of object not limited to the Magdalenian is related to the structural properties of every material making them more ef cient in transformation tasks bone or as projectile elements antler Christensen and Tejero i p With reference to the personal ornament objects Cova del Parco has provided a set of more than one hundred pieces with an important presence of marine gastropods Homalopoma sanguineum and Cyclopeneritea and uvial gastropods Theodoxus uviatilis Tejero 2005 Estrada 2009 Estrada et al 2010 The shells of the different mentioned taxa some of them keep ochre remains were perforated probably through an indirect percussion The use of this technique to perforate the shell of very small and relatively thin species requires very precise control of the process This fact shows a high degree of technical expertise in the Magdalenian inhabitants of Cova del Parco At the same time the selection of a few varieties dif cult to work with among the wide range of mollusks available to the Magdalenian populations at Cova del Parco shows an election guided by cultural criteria and not by a technical availability and or ef ciency However most parts of faunal elements recorded during Magdalenian at Cova del Parco corresponds to hunted and consumed faunal remains Its conservation status is usually fragile as it appears really fragmented Despite that cut marks identi cation has been possible in many occasions showing an intensive prey exploitation of mainly Capra pyrenaica 5 Conclusions The excavations during more than a decade of the Magdalenian levels at Cova del Parco by the SERP of the UB team has been the key for the understanding of the Final Upper Pleistocene settlements in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula Both for the large sedimentological and paleoenvironmental sequence and for the quantity and quality of the cultural traces and the exhumed human structures this archaeological site is an essential reference point for the global study of the Magdalenian settlements in both the Pyrenees slopes 6 Acknowledgments In recent years research work has been carried out as part of programme SGR2014 108 of the Generalitat de Catalu a and programme HAR2011 26193 of the MINECO
158  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  whic...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Rafael Mora Jorge Mart nezMoreno Xavier Roda Gilabert Ignacio de la Torre Alfonso Benito Calvo Miquel Roy Sof a Samper Susana Vega Jezabel Pizarro Javier Plasencia The Mousterian site of Roca dels Bous Lleida Pre pyrenees In a 1973 review Emili Sunyer mentions an important Mousterian sequence in the rst slopes of Pyrenees of Lleida This short letter which brought us to Roca dels Bous Mora 1988 constituted the origin of our investigation of the human settlement located in the Eastern Prepyrennes Fig 1A During these years the eld work carried out at Roca dels Bous Trag Cova Gran de Santa Linya and recently at Abric Pizarro show this area to be key to analyse the human presence in the Upper Pleistocene and the Holocene in the Iberian Northeast Deconstructing Palimpsests Roca dels Bous X 321 266 Y 4 638 067 UTM H31 N ETRS89 is located at Cingle de la Cascalda an Eocene limestone and Oligocene conglomerates cliff more than 40m high on the right edge of the Segre river 275m A S L Fig 1B This slope s deposit is 20m thick and has a uvial terrace that is minted on its basis over the substrate Fig 1C The excavation is focused on the upper platform Fig 1C where a rst level R3 arose dated by 14C AMS in 38 8 1 2 ky BP AA 6481 The excavated sequence reaches 1 5m deep In a sedimentary level it is a sequence of little consolidated breccia of sand and shale plenty of angular medium small size debris and large autochthonous blocks coming from the weather erosion of the shelter s limestone Up to now 100 m2 of levels N10 and N12 have been excavated Other levels have been Figure 1 A Roca dels Bous Cova Gran de Santa Linya and Cova del Estret de Trag topographic location silexand metamorphic rocks deposits topographic location at Noguera Prepyrenees B Roca dels Bous Centre d Estudis del Patrimoni Arqueol gic de la Prehist ria CEPAP Universitat Aut noma de Barcelona 08193 Bellaterra Spain cepap uab cat ICREA Academia Program Becario Programa FPI MINECO Institute of Archaeology University College London 31 34 Gordon Square WC1H 0PY London United Kingdom i torre ucl ac uk Centro Nacional de Investigaci n sobre la Evoluci n Humana CENIEH Paseo Sierra de Atapuerca s n 09002 Burgos alfonso benito cenieh es FI DGR Generalitat de Catalunya Fellowship 159
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Rafael Mora  ,  , Jorge Mart  nezMoreno , Xavier Roda Gilabert  ,   , Ignacio de l...
160 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 C Archaeological site pro le detected in several surveys N14 and S9 which could be extended by similar surfaces The complex site formation processes of the deposit make it dif cult to follow these archaeological units dispersion Two alluvial fans are located in the deposit s ends one on the E side which articulates the sediments income with a slope of 10 15 to the southwest the other on the W side is sub horizontal 5 sloping to the southeast These riverbeds form a depression covering an important part of the excavated area These carbonated surfaces homogenize the sediments colouring To surmount the lack of visibility we assume that lithic and bone remains are sedimentary particles Their systematic coordination de nes accumulations with horizontal and vertical dispersion separated by sterile delineating surfaces with inclinations and depressions derived from the sedimentary accretion of the lateral cones Fig 2A The large excavated combustion structures show the regular use of re and con rm the archaeological geometry of these units Similarly they allow detection overlapping which involves the settlements sequence These fusion ssion phenomena indicate that the sedimentary rhythms are not homogeneous Fig 2A The archaeological levels are added to short term events which were staggered during a term scale that is dif cult to evaluate Mora et al 2008 Mart nez Moreno et al 2010 Artefacts and Behaviours Contextualizing these processes is essential to analyze the variability observed in the Mousterian artefacts Determining the origin of raw materials is a priority and silex and quartzite outcrops feeding Roca dels Bous have been identi ed They basically manage metamorphic rocks which abound in the uvial deposits in this area Silex rocks are not a local resource although they appear in two regional outcrops 1 the Garumnian formation which extends by Montcl s and Trag mountains 2 Serra Llarga Oligocene Fig 1A Roy et al 2013 There is no lack of rocks in this area to produce artefacts so the changes in the composition of raw material and how this affects lithic assemblages describes the techno cognitive and techno economic environment of these Neanderthal groups This conception can be evaluated in levels N10 and N12 resulting in remarks which affect the debate about Mousterian variability causes Mora et al 2008 In N12 excavated along 105m and 20cm thickness 22 hearths and the accumulation of 90 kg of rocks shaping a set of more than 23 500 artefacts are identi ed of which all the segments related to the knapping process are present The metamorphic rocks constitute 80 of the assemblage Fig 1C However retouched and small expediently knapped int fragments are selected These behaviors suggest the transport of nished pieces and small blanks from which little supports are obtained from 15 20 km Retouched quartzite pieces are large with denticulate edges while the int ones are small and instruments shaped with continuous fronts Fig 2B N10 suggests remarkable differences This level follows along 95 m2 with 10cm thickness where 20 hearths were excavated A radical decrease in artefacts can be seen about 2100 pieces which represent the transport of 11 kg of raw material Sixty six percent of the instruments are int manufactured although from the weight the distribution between metamorphic rocks and int is well balanced suggesting that the int artefacts are small as seen in N12 There are more int cores than quartzite cores although they likewise point out a managing from the expedient methods as well as centripetal recurring methods which conform volumes under 5 cm Fig 2B The retouched are preferably shaped of int 80 the denticulate being more frequent than the continuous edge pieces as well as the quartzite supports Mart nez Moreno et al 2010 Mora et al 2008 The retouched pieces are usually fragmented and some remounts suggest that they are repaired
160  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 2 A N10 s excavated hearths distribution Vertical projection E W up and N S right in which the hearths overlapping and fusion ssion phenomena inside the level can be discerned In the N S projection the sterile between N10 and N12 can be seen B Cores trends on silex and metamorphic rocks extensively exploited until con guring small volumes up retouched tools down 161
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 2. A  N10  s excavated hearths distribution. Vertical projection, E-W    up...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 162 instruments de la Torre et al 2012 Many retouched pieces suggest their recycling The double patinas identi ed in some pieces could correspond to artefacts recovered on the site or in the surrounding landscape which are reactivated to obtain new supports Mora et al 2008 This intense management does not obey the lack of this material in the area allowing us to approximate these groups techno cognitive environment Likewise especially N10 suggests short term activities the archaeological site served as a stop in the movements between residential displacements If so Roca dels Bous represents a web of Neanderthal settlements inside this regional environment in the Prepyrenees of Lleida and Huesca Mora et al 2008 Future prospects These arguments discussed in other contributions Casanova et al 2009 Mart nez Moreno et al 2010 de la Torre et al 2013 point out that these techno typological tendencies do not re Rafael Mora Torcal Alfonso BenitoCalvo Jorge Mart nez Moreno Ignacio de la Torre Susana Vega Bolivar Miquel Roy Xavier Roda Gilabert So a Samper Carro These behaviours related to int management must be attached to a fragmented chaineo peratoire along a wide techno temporal scale converting Roca dels Bous into a privileged place in the movement of Neanderthal groups Mora et al 2008 de la Torre et al 2013 The settlement s strategic position allows an effective control of the seasonal animal movements especially equids horse and wild ass and deer between the Ebro Depression and the Pyrenees This short term settlement pattern should be attached to annual cycle short periods in which the environment offered opportunities to obtain prey and transport them to the archaeological site The inferences from Roca dels Bous and in general the pre Pyrenees settlements at Noguera suggest that this area will have a prominent role in the investigation of the Middle Palaeolithic in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula A key sequence in the Western Mediterranean Prehistory Cova Gran de Santa Linya Pre Pyrenees in Lleida This large rock shelter was discovered in 2002 during a survey program coordinated by the Centre d Estudis del Patrimoni Arqueol gic de la Prehist ria CEPAP This settlement contains a large chrono cultural sequence covering Middle Paleolithic Early Upper Paleolithic Magdalenian Neolithic and Chalcolithic The use of this site by hunter gatherers and farmer shepherds turned the spond to techno economic factors such as the lack of raw materials in the environment N12 notes the option of using local rocks place into a key location for analyzing human settlement of the Pyrenees during Prehistory Geographical situation Cova Gran X 318541 Y 4643877 UTM H31N ETRS89 is located in the eastern PrePyrenees in Lleida see Fig 1A in Roca dels Bous Centre d Estudis del Patrimoni Arqueol gic de la Prehist ria CEPAP Universitat Aut noma de Barcelona 08193 Bellaterra Spain cepap uab cat Programa ICREA Academia Centro Nacional de Investigaci n sobre la Evoluci n Humana CENIEH Paseo Sierra de Atapuerca s n 09002 Burgos Spain alfonso benito cenieh es Institute of Archaeology University College London 31 34 Gordon Square WC1H 0PY London United Kingdom i torre ucl ac uk Becario Programa FPI MINECO Becario Programa FI DGR Generalitat de Catalunya
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  162  inst...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES paper 385m A S L and in a lateral valley of the Noguera Pallaresa river where the ravine of Sant Miquel digs into the limestone of the Upper Cretaceous creating a shelter of over 2000 m2 Fig 1A The chrono stratigraphic sequence of the sedimentary and cultural processes of the deposit is made up from the sectors Ramp Transition and Platform which are correlated from 40 14C AMS and T1 dates Fig 1B We do not reject the appearance of new chrono cultural segments Cova Gran is relevant for contextualizing last 50 000 years of the human presence in the Western Mediterranean Mora et al 2011 The longitudinal pro le of the shelter permits appreciation of the deposit shaped from two large juxtaposed platforms Fig 1B The sequence of the rst one point west and external to the rockshelter is de ned in the Ramp sector Transition and Platform sectors record the sedimentary development under the visor The Ramp Sector Archaeo Stratigraphy of the Outer Platform The Ramp sector R is a 200 m2 platform with a 20 east gradient The dug area extends 120 m and some levels go on outwards In this area of 2 5 m thickness the sedimentary units S1 and 497 are differentiated originated by different climatic processes Fig 1C The basal unit S1 is a set of 2m made by medium and coarse gravels sand clayey matrix and limy angular debris of a gravitational origin which indicate cold conditions Unit 497 0 5m is composed of granular sediments affected by water ow indicating relatively milder environmental conditions Relevant sin post depositional processes are not detected Benito Calvo et al 2011 indicates several implications In these stratigraphycally overlayed levels recovered lithic assemblages correspond to different cultural traditions with changes affecting raw material knapping systems blanks and the retouched tools Fig 2A This technological change redirects to the debate about the Middle Upper Paleolithic transition and the possible extinction of H neanderthalensis in parallel to the dispersion of H sapiens in Western Europe S1B summarizes the general trends of the Mousterian in Cova Gran Mart nez Moreno et al 2011 Mora et al 2012 Cores are reduced to obtain centripetal akes similar to those observed in Trag and Roca dels Bous de la Torre et al 2013 The int coming from the Garumnian formations adjacent to the site is the most used raw material in all levels Similarly metamorphic rocks are transported con guring large pseudoLevallois blanks elaborated outside the site Fig 2B In other words whole materials are obtained in the immediate area see Fig 1A article about Roca dels Bous Regarding the retouched tools denticulates are more common than pieces with continuous edges Mora et al 2012 497D shows important differences Metamorphic rocks disappear and although the Garumnian int is the main resource the contribution of con gured supports from Serra Llarga 20 km far away increases The knapping system is intended to obtain blade elongated supports with a low morpho technical standardization degree This includes end scrapers and burins on blade backed and points on bladelet artefacts unknown in the In sector R 8 archaeological levels are strati ed punctuated for being sterile Unit S1 contains levels S1E S1D S1C S1B1 andS1B which correspond to Mousterian and 497D assigned to an undetermined Early Upper Paleolithic Sedimentary unit 497 levels 497C and 497A are attached to other stages of Early Upper Paleolithic cycle All levels are rich in lithics bones and hearths Marine ornaments especially Nassarius incrassatus Mart nez Moreno et al 2011 have been recovered in 497D 497C and 497A These artifacts are considered markers of the irruption of H sapiens in Western Europe The techno typological change detected between S1B and 497D on the roof of the unit S1 Figure 1 A Cova Gran de Santa Linya 163
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  paper , 385m A.S.L., and in a lateral valley of the Noguera-Pallaresa river where ...
164 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 2 B Archaeo stratigraphic sequence A shelter s oor where the dug sectors are located Platform Transition and Ramp B Longitudinal transection of the deposit C Sectors R T and P chrono stratigraphy see Mora et al 2011
164  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Mousterian Although an important component of scrapers denticulates and notches on ake persist Fig 2B These features do not match with the trends described in the rst techno complexes of the Upper Paleolithic in Western Europe Mart nez Moreno et al 2010 Some anomalies are appreciated in the dating of this sector which can be related to the protocols used in C14 laboratories However the dates provided for 497D from charcoal coming from a hearth place this level in the interval 40 38 5kacalBP The archaeo stratigraphic resolution and the chronometrical intervals of these levels contribute to the debate about of Middle Upper Paleolithic transition Mart nez Moreno et al 2010 Archaeo stratigraphy of the inner platform Transition and Platform sectors The central platform is a surface extended under the visor of the shelter of about 2000 m2 This delineation restricts the most ancient archaeological levels to sector R Fig 1B This sequence is known by the Transition sector T a survey of 2x2 m and the Platform sector P which embraces a dug area of 32 m2 Two units are identi ed in both sectors unit N corresponds to the Holocene unit P is attached to the nal of MIS 2 Fig 1B The most ancient human presence is detected during the Last Maximum Glacial LMG in the sedimentary unit P of the Platform sector made by very angular debris and falls from large blocks with limited ne sediments Fig 1B Levels 4P 5P 6P and 8P take place in this sequence with 1 7 m thick dated between 20 4 18 ky calBP stage Gs2b Points and backed bladelets burin and endscrapers on blade are associated with massive antler projectiles needles and perforated gastropods These artefacts can refer to the Early Magdalenian Sector T is a survey of 3 5 m depth in which several levels with different technical features from sector P take place Fig 1B A dating on the survey s basis 17 16 8 ky calBP allow sector T to be attributed to Middle Magdalenian and possibly Upper Magdalenian levels Mora et al 2012 The Holocene sequence N erodes levels P in sectors T and P creating complex geometries over which farmer shepherds communities settled from the Early Neolithic just as it is identi ed in the Platform sector Fig 1B The most intense settlement moment occurs during the Late Neolithic 5500 5100 calBP recording 30 domestic structures hearths post holes and pits Mora et al 2012 Above these settlements this area is used for stabling sheep goat during the Late Neolithic 5000 4600 calBP Calcolithic and Late Bronze Age 3950 3000 calBP These accumulations each 0 5 m thick include several stages of intentional burning in order to condition the place for future visits These appreciations open new perspectives to analyze the origins of pastoralism in northeast Iberia Polo et al 2014 165
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Mousterian. Although, an important component of scrapers, denticulates and notches...
166 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 2 A N S and E W projections of 497D triangles and S1B points separated by sterile B Lithic artifacts of S1B Middle Paleolithic on top and 497D initial Upper Paleolithic below Future prospects Cova Gran de Santa Linya articulates several important research questions in the current scienti c debate the disappearance of the Neanderthals and the appearance of modern humans hunter gatherer adaptations during the LMG and the emergence of the rst farmers These issues are essential to analyze human presence in the southern Pyrenees an area in which important progress is taking place We think that this is a privileged place to analyze the course of different human groups which occupied this shelter for 50 000 years
166  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Joel Casanova i Mart Rafael Mora Torcal Xavier Roda Gilabert Jorge Mart nez Moreno Miquel Roy Susana Vega The Middle Paleolithic sequence of Cova de l Estret de Trag Lleida Pre Pyrenees Cova de l Estret de Trag was discovered during surveys in the Noguera Ribagor ana river conducted in 1990 by the IEI Diputaci de Lleida see Fig 1A in the article Roca dels Bous This rockshelterhas a surface of 14 x 10 m and is part of karst limestone Fm Bona X 301856 Y 4644190 UTMH31N ETRS89 to 390 m Fig 1A This position in the rst Prepyrenees of Lleida plays a key association between the Ebro Basin and the Pyrenees Mart nez Moreno et al 2004 Casanova et al 2009 Geographical Context and Chronostratigraphic Eight archaeological units from Middle Paleolithic are identi ed in Trag They are interbedded with sterile sediments allowing individualized analysis The archeostratigraphy of the deposit is Figure 1 A Cova del Estret de Trag currently ooded by the Santa Anna marsh B Sequences of the inner rock shelter 78 23 survey and the excavated area on the deposit platform The Upper Unit UU Middle Unit MU and Lower Unit LU are positioned C Thermoluminescence series sequence Centre d Estudis del Patrimoni Arqueol gic de la Prehistoria Facultat de Lletres Universitat Aut noma de Barcelona 08193 Bellaterra cepap uab cat Programa ICREA Academia Becario programa FPI MINEC Becario Programa FI DGR Generaltitat de Catalunya 167
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Joel Casanova i Mart    , Rafael Mora Torcal  ,  , Xavier Roda Gilabert  ,   , Jor...
168 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD established from the sequences obtained in the survey on the square78 23 and the excavated area 25 m2 and it can be de ned in three units Mart nez Moreno et al 2004 Casanova et al 2009 Fig 1B Lower unit LU high energy of uvial deposit from Ribagor ana Noguerariver containing medium and large size cobbles within a carbonated sandy matrix This terrace constitutes the base of the site Middle unit MU low to medium energy environment composed of clayey sand and silt resulting from the alternation of ooding causing vertical migration of carbonates that precipitate on archaeological material At this level of 1 5 m thickness archaeological units UA3 UA1 and UA2 are excavated Upper unit UU residual breccia xed to the shelter wall dismantled in the rest of the deposit In this survey 1 m2 and 1 10 m deep S4 S5 S6 and S7 levels follow It has not been possible to correlate the archaeological levels of the Middle unit with the Upper unit Fig 1C Eleven Thermoluminescence TL dates are available generating chronometric ranges that frame the occupation of the settlement The S5 S6 and S7 from the Upper unit levels are assigned to MIS 3 between 43 4 6 and 52 1 6 7 ky The date of UA1 41 7 4 5 ky suggests this Middle unit level may be related to the Upper unit The four dates obtained from UA2 are staggered in the range 75 3 7 8 110 12 ky indicating this level of 60 cm thickness is formed on the MIS 5 The UA3 has two dates and we accept the corresponding to MIS 5e stage 126 15 ky This series makes Trag a key site to analyze the Upper Pleistocene Mousterian settlement in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula Casanova et al 2009 Archaeological record Levels excavated can be considered low resolution palimpsests with thousands of lithic and bones imbricated without apparent order Table 1 These accumulations would be the result of repeated visits to the shelter at different time periods interrupted by abandonment phases There are not identi ed hearths but regular re use in the entire sequence can be recognized by the presence of abundant charcoal and burned bone and artefacts Bone carbonation and dif cult anatomic and or speci c bone identi cation are not able to calculate indices of their presence The species identi ed are Vulpes vulpes Sus scropha Cervus elaphus Capreolus capreolus Bos sp Capra pyrenaica Equus caballus and Equus cf hydruntinus This eurythermal association describes an environment that integrates meadows with wooded areas insertedin alow medium mountainous but sharp landscape Abundant helical fractures on diaphysis denote intense marrow recovery Mart nezMoreno et al 2004 The lithic assemblage composed by over 20 000 artifacts is essential to characterize the Upper Unit Middle Unit S4 S5 S6 S7 UA1 UA2 UA3 Surface m2 0 5 1 1 1 23 35 13 Thickness cm 20 30 15 15 10 60 15 Hammers 0 4 1 1 3 75 38 Cores 1 10 14 11 15 423 229 Flakes 33 315 184 152 496 6564 2303 Flakes frag 70 406 502 328 777 7895 2275 Chunks 15 76 185 88 73 947 452 Retouched 16 163 140 41 143 791 274 Table 1 The excavated surface and the average thickness of the archaeological levels from the Upper and Middle Unit with the number of artifacts recovered
168  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  esta...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Mousterian in this area Metamorphic and siliceous rocks proliferate in the environment see Fig 1A in the article Roca dels Bous Flint present in the Montes de Trag and Serra Larga 10 km refers to local sourcing At diachronic levels the metamorphic rocks are the most important in lower units UA3 and UA2 This trend is reversed in UA1 and S4 S5 S6 S7 where the int is the majority Casanova et al 2009 De la Torre et al 2013 Figure 2 A Macrotools from UA3 related to percussion activities B Variability of organized knapping systems showing the con guration of small volumes C Expedient cores 169
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Mousterian in this area. Metamorphic and siliceous rocks proliferate in the enviro...
170 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD All categories related to knapping including microdebitage are represented The debitage is structured from organized expedient technical systems Fig 2 Organized systems allow management from schemes referred to as Levallois and discoid methods The expedient methods are applied to volumes obtaining few blanks These strategies present in each sequence denote the application of complementary technical behaviors depending on speci c needs Casanova et al 2014 The cores usually measure less than ve cm and intensive management of consumption it is observed Fig 2 This behavior cannot be explained by the lack of raw materials in the environment we consider it a technical choice focused on elaborating small artifacts Casanova et al 2009 The most common blanks are akes points and blades are rare Blanks were obtained with hard hammers generating accidents like broken pieces Siret burins and double bulbs This continuity in the knapping methods derived several re ections In the Middle Unit levels the expedient methods are mainly against structured methods a pattern that persisted in the Upper Unit This notion of technological stasis denotes a cognitive arrangement in the transmission of technical knowledge that could imply that in this area a stable cultural tradition was developed Casanova et al 2009 In UA3 25 cobbles of metamorphic rocks and granite were knapped by fa onnage for shaping macrotools artefacts Fig 2 In these pieces modi cations over the edges can be seen relating to percussion activities Casanova et al 2014 In the sequence the retouched percentage is low Table 1 selecting the int to retouch pieces although in UA3 and UA2 metamorphic rocks are more abundant The most common blanks are short akes retouched on a single edge lateral or transverse while double retouch edges are scarce Denticulate and notched pieces with simple or abrupt retouch are more numerous than sidescrapers with continuous retouch Preponderance of denticulate pieces is constant along the sequence Although pseudo Levallois retouched el ements are identi ed most of them are made on regular akes or fragments Trag in the Middle Paleolithic Context of Northeast Iberia The repeated use of this area during the Upper Pleistocene between MIS 5e MIS 5 and MIS 3 should link with the control available from the settlement on the strait of Noguera Ribagor ana river and oodplains currently ooded by the Santa Ana reservoir This strategic point would not be unnoticed by the Neanderthal population The rock shelter centralizes prey acquisition and their passing through the corridor allowing ambush in the wooded areas around the river Similarly displacement to the rocky outcrops adjacent to the settlement can be identi ed Even though the radiometric record is inaccurate it cannot con rm their occupation in the MIS 4 This gap could be related to climatic crisis causing the abandonment of this environment The cyclic occupation abandonment of the area as a result of environmental factors should be retained as a possibility The technical continuity from the combination of technical methods expeditious and organized present throughout the entire sequence is relevant We stress the importance of technological stasis notion identi ed in other sites of the Pyrenean foothills Likewise we warn that these technical options articulate a cultural tradition extended into the Upper Pleistocene northeastern Iberia A number of attributes of this entity are the panoply of knapping methods orientation to obtain small blank and the denticulate preferred con guration Casanova et al 2009 de la Torre et al 2013 Under this perspective Cova Estret of Trag is a relevant settlement to investigate the Neanderthal lifestyle in the Iberian Peninsula Acknowledgments We dedicate this article to Joel Casanova i Mart These lines are a demonstration of our respect affection and admiration
170  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  All ...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Pilar Utrilla Miranda Vicente Baldellou Martinez Manuel Bea Martinez Lourdes Montes Ramirez Ram n Vi as Vallverd The cave of Fuente del Trucho Asque Colungo Huesca 1 Location The cave of Fuente del Trucho is located in the Arpan ravine on the left side of the river Vero next to the spring that gives it its name The Paleolithic art of the mentioned cave and the Levantine and schematic art of the Arp n shelter 870 m long an exceptional case in the Iberian Peninsula are located in the same ravine The river Vero runs among canyons throughout 10 km in this course there are only two natural entries crossing the vertical walls to access to the riverbed Villacantal Bridge and Tozal de Mallata There are Prehistoric paintings in both of them A shallow cave with a large 22 m wide entrance facing the southeast gives access to a wide room 24m deep divided into two dissymmetrical lobes The smallest one at the left has a spherical dome blackened by organic matter and haze and an oval window allowing sunlight to enter with zenithal lighting The oor falls into an oblique calcite ow several deeply drawn engravings made on it receive direct sunlight at dawn The second lobe in semi gloom presents its walls and roof covered with paintings most of them red The oor today presents naked rock in a great part of the room with the exception of the right side of the cave under the tri lobed signs where a messy deposit presents lithic materials which correspond to the Upper Paleolithic and the Mousterian Towards the exterior moving out from the painted area the levels present a larger sequence although in this case they seem to only be attached to the Mousterian 2 Investigation History The rst explorers of Sierra de Guara ravines particularly Pierre Minvielle illustrated the archaeological deposit contained in the cave However the cave paintings were discovered in 1978 by a team of the Museum of Huesca and the University of Zaragoza headed by Vicente Baldellou He entrusted the ex Universidad de Zaragoza utrilla unizar es Museo de Huesca IPHES cavation of the Mousterian levels of the outside area to Anna Mir who worked in ve campaigns from 1979 Mir 1987 and the areas corresponding to the Upper Paleolithic were entrusted to Pilar Utrilla who in 1980 did the rst survey of the bottom of the external engravings disrupted by the presence of a very hard crust In 2005 she restarted the excavation in cooperation with Lourdes Montes as codirector proceeding into the right inner area of the cave at the bottom of the tri lobed signs Montes et al 2006 Utrilla et al 2010 A new campaign is expected to be started in the summer of 2014 V Baldellou director of the cave art surveys in the river Vero for many years coordinated from the begining the different procedures at Fuente del Trucho taking care of the study of the parietal exhibitions rst in cooperation with A Beltr n in the progress of the Altamira Symposium Beltr n and Baldellou 1981 Beltr n 1993 and some years later with R Vi as elaborating direct calques between 1989 and 1991 In the year 2000 S Ripoll and F J Mu oz made photo documentation of the roof Ripoll et al 2001 and since the year 2011 V Baldellou M Bea and P Utrilla have carried out digital treatment and calques assembling within the project HAR 2011 27197 Reconsidering ancient archaeological sites Expanding into new horizons in the Middle Valley Prehistory of river Ebro For this purpose all the old photos which systematically covered every cave s wall have been digitalized treated with the D Stretch application for Image J and Photoshop CS5 and collated with the original calques of Baldellou and Vi as In the Gravettian convention celebrated in Altamira the two main sets of the cave were published the roof panel XV and the frieze panel VI and VII Utrilla et al 2013 In this convention session A11a the dating results made by U Th about the cleanest crusts covering some gures hands points horse and tri lobed were presented Hoffman et al 171
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Pilar Utrilla Miranda , Vicente Baldellou Martinez  , Manuel Bea Martinez , Lourde...
172 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 Roof oor left indicating the painted panels and ground oor indicating archaeological pits and the engravings location Topography J Ang s Scanner 3D Patrimony and Industry i p while the Candamo convention focused on the relationship between the archaeological site and the paintings Utrilla et al 2014 The nal study is pending on the projected haze cleaning of the dust mucking up the wall now a splendid white support which would highlight the hundreds of paintings most of them red which cover the surface of the roof and the walls for decorative purposes There are two wellde ned areas in Fuente del Trucho the paintings in a semi gloom at the large right cave Fig 1 1 and the external engravings placed on the slanting oor of the small left lobe Fig 1 2 3 The paintings The provisional paintings stocklist Ripoll et al 2001 records 22 panels with a hundred gures Series of points tri lobed signs hands and horses are the four main painted items to which a small goat a deer an unde ned animal a bear a bovid or a horse and several signs are added The points series are represented in 8 panels They appear in horizontal lines shaping a 6 m long frieze in panel VI Fig 2 or forming part of more complex motifs represented in both of the walls panel VII and the roof panel XV Fig 3 Panel XI contains red couplet lines also a feature of ancient Gravettian panels usually attached to hands and ngering Gonz lez S inz 2003 Regarding to the complex series of interpretations on the roof in 1993 Beltr n proposed that they probably represent the sky dome constellations of stars maintaining rhythms In another vein in 2005 Utrilla suggested that the routes of the Pyrenean ports dividing Gargas and Fuente del Trucho could have surprised the travelers maybe losing their way or making detours which could be represented by the complexity of some motifs In regards to the lineal series of the vertical frieze in bands of 4 and 5 lines the representation of the same motif in the Levantine art at the closer cave of Arp n draws attention Their Paleolithic parallels are found in many caves of the Cantabrian Coast the
172  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 2 Frieze s calque panels VI and VII Below detail of the listing horses the deer hands and points where the dating samples by U Th were taken most part of them in an ancient chronology Candamo Llon n Pindal Mazaculos II La Meaza Chu n Porquerizo Castillo la Pasiega La Garma Castillo or Cullalvera the French Pyrenees Niaux Marsoulas Trois Fr res Bedeilhac or the South of the Peninsula in this case attached to horses Las Palomas Atlanterra El Moro The date U Th obtained for the crust covering the series of points in panel VII more than 31 000 years the most ancient of the painted set places this motif in the Aurignacian Gravettian transition Hoffman et al in XVII UISPP World Congress The hands about forty negative hands which could reach one hundred once the walls are cleaned are recognized Fig 3 At least 13 are left hands and 6 are right hands In some case the forearm also appears to be painted and in two more cases the ngers rise so short and separate that they seem to be a bear claw panel VII Fig 3 2 Children s hands are frequent Highlighted by its size is a baby s hand at the bottom of the cave as is also found in Gargas Sahly 1975 The calcite crusts overlapping several hands can be seen Fig 3 4 allowing the dating of six cases by U Th establishing the most ancient date higher than 27 500 years and being placed in the same dating state as all the Gravettian hands Hoffman et al i p Its location presents a concentration in two areas of the vertical wall the bottom of the cavity with 18 samples grouped in 3 panels I II and III and the right wall with 16 samples in another eight panels VIII IX XIII XIV XVIII XIX XX and XXI However the most interesting core is placed in the centre of the roof panel XV There three black hands from children with incomplete ngers appear together with 2 red hands which could be related to the complex series of red points presenting radial motifs Seen as a whole the hands at Fuente del Trucho present two peculiar features which make them different from the known hands in the Cantabrian Coast and that on the other hand approximate them to the French representations of the Pyrenees north side 1 there are painted hands in black and 2 a great deal are incomplete lacking the third nger In fact among 173
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 2. Frieze  s calque    panels VI and VII   . Below, detail of the listing h...
174 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 3 Calque of the points and hands series placed in the centre of the roof panel XV together with several hand photos Notice the incomplete ngers in hands 1 3 and 5 the bear claw appearance of hand number two and the chalky crusts over hand number four where the samples for U Th were taken Photos treated with D Strech
174  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES the hundreds of hands represented in the Cantabrian Coast caves mostly at Castillo 56 the Garma 32 and Fuente del Sal n 14 and in minor cases at Altamira Tito Bustillo and Cud n just two are painted in black one negative from Gran Techo of Altamira and other positive from Fuente del Sal n and only the hand at Cud n presents incomplete ngers Instead in the south of the Peninsula we nd two black hands with incomplete ngers at Ardales M laga and with an alteration of the little nger in red at Maltravieso C ceres However on the French side black hands are predominant and at the same time the majority of the incomplete hands are located in the Gargas and Tibiran caves in the same vertical as Fuente del Trucho on the other side of the Pyrennes This fact makes us suggest as a hypothesis that real nger loss especially the longest middle nger could be due to freezing when crossing the Pyrenees with a higher incidence occuring in the weaker people the children Utrilla 2005 Valuing the classic interpretation of Leroi Gourhan as a hunting code with bent ngers is not possible at Fuente del Trucho as most of the incomplete ngers appear on children s hands There are some doubts about the superposition between black hands and red points In Ripoll s opinion both red hands and the black ones in panel XV are infra placed to the red points series Ripoll et al 2001 However Beltr n and Baldellou observed in 1981 that a black hand is over the red points It is not easy to solve this issue as in the left part of the little nger some red points seem to be hidden under the black hands halo while in the index nger the red points appear over a colorless black Fig 3 5 At the moment the U Th dating Hoffman et al i p would lean toward a greater point antiquity although as it is an ante quem dating both issues could be contemporary The Gravettian crust dating recovering the hands would come after the dates about 26 000 which have been given the cave Cosquer or the 26 860 460 BP of a bone in Gragas as the ones calibrated cal BP give dating around the 32 000 which are the ones compared to the U Th at Fuente del Trucho A similar dating to ours is given by the charcoal found at the foot of the panel at Fuente del Sal n calibrated about the 27 000 Garc a Diez and Garrido 2012 Regarding the hands at Castillo where the same technology has been used by the same team the most ancient dates reach the 37 630 in the sample 0 82 Pike et al 2012 The horses seven clear samples and two doubtful ones all painted in red are recognized in the in ner room Three of them two in panel VI and one in panel VIII are placed in the same frieze lling an intermediate space between two bands with hand gures and a fourth sample in panel IV is placed in the left of the opposite edge of the frieze in the roof They seem to be attached to a linear series of points panel VI or to digitations panel VIII presenting on the two horses heads a high compositional similitude both with stiff horsehairs and listed lines on the neck Fig 2 This presence of this detail could date them in the Evolved Solutrean as could be indicated in the manes on listed necks of an engraved horse on stone in the Petite Grotte de Bize which Sacchi 1986 attached to the Upper Solutrean but according to Djindjian 2013 it comes from an ancient excavation Genson with mixed materials so it could belong both to Solutrean and Gravettian In panel VIII associated to 5 digitalization a fth horse head with the long nape and nostril of a horse appears from which a crust shaped on its back has been dated showing a possible performance before the 29 000 that is to say in Gravettian chronology On the other hand the total similitude of this gure with the one represented in sector C2 of the Pasiega is surprising the same long and fallen nape a forward curved bow in the horsehair and a double line on the back Utrilla et al 2012 g 7 This sample is attached to two series of point curves and to a triangular sign Gonz lez S inz and Balb n 2002 In panel XII on the roof two opposite horses appear one of them is a complete gure wounded by a lance or a dart The lack of details in the inner part the pronounced cervical dorsal curve and the legs in open parallel lines shaped like brackets could classify it into the Middle Solutrean according to the sequence of Parpall Villaverde 1994 The other sample only represented by a small elongated head and a long curved neck would t better with the Gravettian Utrilla et al 2012 Deer goat and bear In panel VII a colorless headless horse was published Ripoll et al 2001 but the digital treatment of the gure throughout the DStrecth application shows a small elongated head a recognizable deer horn and a short tail Fig 2 This fact excludes its cataloging as a horse in spite of presenting an identical morphology to the horse in panel VI with massive hindquarters and legs in open parallel lines Utrilla et al 2012 In panel XXI a little goat with an upright open nose and small parallel horns appears framed by s 175
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  the hundreds of hands represented in the Cantabrian Coast caves    mostly at Casti...
176 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD sures and attached to hands and three or four trilobed signs Utrilla et al 2012 g 9 This little goat is similar to a zoo morph at Nerja Sanchidri n 1994 g 66 for which a pre Solutrean chronology according to the lighting traces is proposed given the dating of 24 130 140 BP 28 532 27 832 calBP and 20 980 100 BP 25 600 25 060 cal BP Medina et al 2010 This would match with the TL and U Th dates proposed for other similar goats in panel IV 6 of the Garma about the 26 000 Gonz lez S inz 2003 or the female deer with trilinear head at Antoli a in a stone of a Gravettian level dated in en 27 390 320 31 942 30 840 calBP Aguirre 2007 There is another little goat coming from the Solutrean Gravettian II of Parpall number 18 100 g 156 although it corresponds to the TNT type triple naturalist trace more frequent in the initial Solutrean Villaverde 1994 Finally in the very centre of the line of points in panel VI a large head is represented which could belong to both a bear and a bovine or a horse Fig 2 The tri lobed signs appear in a highlighted position in two panels with the shape of a pointed tri lobed in the frieze of panel VI attached to the listed horsehair horse Fig 2 and in panel XXI with the shape of three or four signs of semi circular forehead apparently attached to the little goat two hands and a point series Utrilla et al 2012 The pointed tri lobed presents several well visible crusts on its line over which four datings the most ancient close to 26 000 have been obtained by the Pike and Hoffman team con rming again the proposed Gravettian chronology Regarding its reading the existence of an elongated sign crossing one of the lobes led Beltr n to identify it in 1993 as a vulvar sign although it could also correspond to the horse s belly The vulvar shapes of Castillo the scutellum would be distantly similar motifs or Micol n with an inner trace in both cases or the triangular signs of ancient sanctuaries as Pasiega La Lluera II Lloseta Chu n o Maltravieso However Eric Robert has not documented on his Franco Cantabrian Corpus of signs 2006 any sample of the same type as the ones at Trucho personal communication In the opinion of Casado 1979 triangular shapes are more common in the central area of the Peninsula with the most important core at Ojo Guare a and Maltravieso in this case related as in Trucho to hands and digitations A last fact to report is the topographic distribution with a main and well visible position in the panels of Fuente del Trucho which separates again the prevailing trend of the full Cantabrian signs quadrilateral and oval performed in diverticulum lateral camarines to the communication routes or in the main composition edges frequently noting a quest for hiding which contrasts with the wanted visibility for the animal gures Gonz lez S inz 2005 4 The engravings panel In a central position and in a preferential location a large bear gure appears in a ball like hibernating position shaped by a technique combining excision for the body and incision for the head Also documented is an engraved head of a second bear and a claw and a foot of the same animal both from an excision technique Utrilla et al 2012 g 2 number 1 to 4 On the right of the bear three herbivorous heads in the same vertical can be distinguished From top to bottom a horse and a deer looking left and a second horse with a rectangular nose looking right maybe a feline according to Beltran s reading 1993 are identi ed It is also dif cult to identify the species of the deer the starting of the webbed horns forward and next to the forehead excludes a deer on the interest of both a reindeer Beltr n 1993 Ripoll et al 2001 or a Megaceros an animal tting into the ancient chronology and of which engraved samples in the Meseta Siega Verde Cueva del Reno have been documented Alcolea and Balb n 2003 The typical hump we saw in the Cougnac samples is not discerned although the very small head ts with the Megaceros The set is clearly atypical both for the performance technique the excision on the bear and the claw and for the subject matter of the animals represented there are neither female deer of tri lineal heads nor headless bison nor wild bull although the bear nds parallels on the engraved claws in Niaux or in external sanctuaries such as Venta La Perra Arias et al 1998 5 The archaeological deposit The archaeological material was obtained from two different places during the excavation carried out by Utrilla and Montes in the 2005 campaign 1 at the bottom of the tri lobed signs of panel XXI an altered level emerged indicating through the classic fossil director of the lithic industry and some absolute dating the existence of real people from the Initial Upper Paleolithic and the Solutrean Fig 4 Other
176  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  sure...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES wise with some doubts it might come from the Magdalenian with typological echoes of the former period 4 multiple borers two of them en toile or Final Upper little circular endscrapers others unguiform and two small points with a marked central peduncle as the Teyjat type On the other hand a thermoluminiscent date of 13 244 945 obtained from an endscraper crackled by re would suggest the presence of hearths in the Middle Magdalenian but there are no signi cant bone materials from this period The bone industry has only provided one sub circular section of a spear fragment and a longitudinal section shaft fragment with a rounded and polished edge similar to a sample found in the Gravettian at Reclau Viver 2 at the bear s bottom in the deep trace engravings area outside the cave Two areas are distinguished there one modi ed by the Late Middle Ages structures in shape of circular buckets and hearths paved with stone and another adjacent one hardly explored which in principle could be intact something we expect to con rm in the 2014 campaign The rst one provided some wheels and glazed pottery and a date of the hearth s coal of about 1 235 35 BP GrA 29918 which calibrated to 68 supposing a 776 63 a C This fact brings the settlement to the beginnings of the Muslim presence in the upper Vero and may be related to the moment in which Abderram n I started a well documented punishment campaign in this area 781 after Charlemagne s expedition in the year 778 to Zaragoza The second area provided altogether six backed bladelets one of them a hump backed piece Recently we have dated a single bone in 31 880 220 BP Beta 365760 Cal BC 34 560 whose chronology is Auragnician in any case we cannot discard it belonging to an underneath Mousterian level that could re ect a rejuvenation produced by the roots Together with them there are 6 endscrapers 2 borers and 4 scrapers Our objective for the 2014 campaign is to check if the area is really intact what comes up from the bone and how they t with the next sample of Anna Mir excavation which provided two fertile levels with Mousterian materials produced The typological stock list of the pieces attributable to the Upper Paleolithic from the messy level of the inner survey provides 14 at 8 carenated and 4 nosed endscrapers These last ones lead us to suggest together with the existence of 15 retouched blades some of them strangled the presence of Aurignacian people in the archaeological site As Gravettian elements or Magdalenian 21 points and little backside leaves among Gravette micro Gravette Vachons points and other short peduncles more like the Teyjat type than the Font Robert type could be included Among the 12 backed bladelets some present an oblique truncated not getting scalene There are also 4 caill es shapes which are present in Gravettian contexts There are 7 dihedral burins and 8 truncated one of them multiple as the burins in Noailles although they are really large Four at invasive retouched pieces and 4 notched points of the Mediterranean type should be attached to the Solutrean one of them identical in its typometry to the ones found in the close cave of Chaves dated in 19 700 BP a moment tting suitably with some horse styles A more detailed study of the lithic materials can be seen in Montes et al 2006 Montes and Utrilla 2008 Utrilla et al 2010 and Domingo et al 2012 6 Chronology In short the parietal art of Fuente del Trucho is framed within the ancient moments of Paleolithic art at least within the Gravettian as the U Th dating of the crusts overlaying the points series hands tri lobed and some of the horses with elongated and fallen nose shows The stylistic sequence of the rst Llon n horizon remains like this Fortea et al 2004 and of the archaic panels nal part of the Garma Gonz lez S inz 2003 The horse with the elongated neck and small head in panel XII would be also archaic according to the examples of Parpall and the small goat with the upright and open nose similar to the zoomorphals dated at Antoli a Nerja Parpall or la Garma An AMS dating of 20 800 100BP 25 41424 640 calBP from a bone removed from aremanied level at the small goat s bottom could place this occupation in Late Gravettian or Early Solutrean However the lithic typology of some fossils heading the deposit also attests to a later Solutrean presence at the cave highlighted by at retouched pieces or cutting points which would indicate a Middle and Upper Solutrean Due to stylistic criteria xed at Parpall Villaverde 1994 the Middle period would correspond to some horses like 177
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  wise, with some doubts, it might come from the Magdalenian with typological echoes...
178 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 4 Lithic industry of the 2005 excavation Numbers 1 to 17 materials found in the messy level of the inner sequence 1 to 3 nosed endscrapers numbers 4 to 9 backsides and peduncle points 10 to 12 possible Solutrean pieces 13 lissoir on bone 14 to 17 Magdalenian typology pieces numbers 18 to 23 little points and backsides from the excavation at the bottom of the engravings the one with legs in parallel open lines in panel XII the one in panel IV or its twin the deer in panel VII and maybe the Upper Solutrean could be applied to the listed horses of the frieze with well marked details on the horsehair although Bize smoble parallel results now insecure Djindjian 2013 It has not been possible to determine if the horse in panel VI is overlaid on the dated tri lobed whose chronology was better indicated In conclusion once the presence of the Gravettian and the Aurignacian at Fuente del Trucho is con rmed we would stand before an archaeological site in an intermediate location between the forceful seat of Seri at Girona La Arbreda ReclauViver and the Cantabrian Coast sites Fuente del Trucho would as a result be a main point in the east west mobility of the South Pyrenees
178  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Jordi Rosell Ard vol Antoni Canals Salom Las Fuentes de San Crist bal Veracruz Huesca Las Fuentes de San Crist bal was located on the left margin of the Isab na river passing through a narrow gorge of the same name formed in the sandstones of the Areny Formation south of the town of Veracruz Huesca Its coordinates were 42 19 36 6 N 0 34 13 2 E The site was located at the base of the old A1605 road between the towns of Serraduy and Beranuy 820 m above sea level and just 20 m above the present river bed It was precisely the route of this road which cut the shelter section leaving only a witness to the north of 2 m wide and 5 high known as Pro le 3 or P3 thus a hall of 15 20 m2 surface by 2 m high in the south direction P1 and P2 Fills on both sides had similar characteristics a low uvial section and an upper dominated by the contributions of slopes Part of P1 P2 sediments were used during the construction of the road so the archaeological work developed between 1998 and 2002 was limited to excavating the witness P3 and the entire surface of the lower levels of P1 P2 Following this work the site was destroyed by the redevelopment of the existing road The stratigraphic section log of the site was described from the Pro le 3 Later work consisted of making connections between the two sectors of the settlement Thus in P1 P2 5 archaeological levels were discovered named A G from top to bottom and ten different levels in P3 were called consecutively M V Fig 1 Subsequent correlation work revealed correspondence between the two basal levels P1 P2 F G and level V from P3 From an archaeological point of view the higher levels of P3 included within the slope sediments were characterized by slightly denser accumulations of artifacts stone tools bone fragments and charcoal The arrangement of these scored elements seeming paleosurfaces They could have originally been spread over the surface of the shel ter Basal levels placed on the uvial sediments were thicker and characterized by high density anthropogenic objects and some hearths The raw material used to produce most of the lithic industry was int 73 5 distantly followed by micritic limestone 11 3 The other materials porphyry quartzite sandstone and quartz were used in a testimonial way Men ndez 2009 The 2 199 elements studied show a representation of all categories of the operative chain suggesting these knapping activities were performed on the site Flakes are the most exempli ed products being 95 overall Cores 0 8 are usually in very advanced stages of exhaustion showing discoid reduction strategies and to lesser extents the Levallois Retouched elements are rare and account for only 2 2 of the recovered lithic elements Denticulate and side scrapers are the most common elements along with some isolated notches Regarding the faunal remains the degree of fragmentation is very high which prevents a greater degree of taxonomic identi cation Ungulate remains corresponding to deer Cervus elaphus and horses Equus ferus were recognized Evidence of rhinoceros Rhinocerotidae indeterminate has also been recognized The relationship between humans and faunal remains is determined by the presence of some cut marks on bones The appendicular elements clearly dominate different levels with occasional dental fragments representing cranial skeletons We have not identi ed remains from the axial skeleton vertebrae and ribs Neither was the action of carnivores recognized in the cavity All these elements relate the presence of ungulate traces in the cavity with hunting activities of human groups and also explain the differential carriage in favor of the limbs of prey and the consequential abandonment of other post cranial axial parts in the catching eld The identi ed taxa rea de Prehist ria Universitat Rovira i Virgili URV Avinguda de Catalunya 35 43002 Tarragona Espa a IPHES Institut Catal de Palaeoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social C Marcel l Domingo s n Edi ci W3 43007 Tarragona Espa a 179
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Jordi Rosell Ard  vol ,   Antoni Canals Salom   ,    Las Fuentes de San Crist  bal...
180 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 The geographical localization of Las Fuentes de San Crist bal in the Pyrenees context Overview of the site and stratigraphy of P3 suggest hunter preferences to open environment resources such as the plains near the bottom of the valley Even though the steep dominates the landscape nothing indicates its use by these human groups Several series made with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS and 14 C datings were performed using coal from different levels Table 1 All of them gave consistent results placing the eld in a framework that covers the Middle Up FSC Level Location Method Data Lab Ref Bibliography Ref E P1 P2 C AMS 38 650 600 OxA 19145 Maroto et al 2012 F P1 P2 C14 AMS 39 290 490 410 GrA 33817 Maroto et al 2012 37 330 490 410 GrA 33904 Maroto et al 2012 36 200 350 OxA 19933 Maroto et al 2012 38 550 450 OxA 19934 Maroto et al 2012 14 P1 P2 G P1 P2 C AMS 14 P1 P2 M P3 C AMS 20 220 380 OxA 8591 Rosell et al 1998 O P3 C14 AMS 27 200 1 000 OxA 8589 Rosell et al 1998 P P3 C14 AMS 36 000 1 900 OxA 8591 Rosell et al 1998 14 Table 1 Datings obtained from different levels of Las Fuentes de San Crist bal
180  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES per Paleolithic transition Likewise the lower levels F G in P1 P2 and the correlation of V in P3 are placed near 39 ky The P level from P3 where a Mousterian point was recovered represents the last assemblage of the site associated with Middle Paleolithic technological complex Fig 2 Unfortunately the O and M levels dated to 27 and 20 ky respectively did not provide any diagnostic information allowing us to assign them to a speci c chrono cultural period Although the attachment to the Middle Paleolithic level P was initially taken with caution Maroto et al 2005 Vaquero et al 2006 this level demonstrates the existence of human communities in inland areas of the Pre Pyrenees with some temporal continuity between 40 and 35 ky The discontinuity appears to have occured after the P level as the data gap spanning a time frame of about 9 000 years displays This lack of population could be related to the disappearance of the Middle Paleolithic human populations in the region and a late re occupation of the territory by groups of the early Upper Paleolithic Figure 2 Point recovered in the P level dated to 36 ky Lourdes Montes Pilar Utrilla The cave of Los Moros 1 at Gabasa Huesca 1 Presentation and history In the 1980s a joint project was undertaken between the University of Zaragoza and the Archaeological Museum of Huesca Between 1981 and 1983 Pilar Utrilla and Vicente Baldellou excavated the well known cave of Moro de Olvena with Neolithic and Bronze Age levels and in 1984 their joint interventions in two unique sites got underway the Mousterian cave of los Moros 1 at Gabasa and the cave of Chaves which in ad dition to Upper Palaeolithic levels also contained an extraordinary Neolithic deposit which is now totally razed The site at Gabasa ve cavities with Prehistoric and Medieval remains was located in 1982 by M Bad a and visited by Olvena s team in the same year In 1983 permission was requested from the Ministry of Culture to excavate all of the cavities but the excavation could not be undertaken until the summer of 1984 Utrilla directed the team that worked on the Mousterian cave and Baldellou directed the excavation of the other rea de Prehistoria Universidad de Zaragoza lmontes unizar es and utrilla unizar es 181
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  per Paleolithic transition. Likewise the lower levels, F-G in P1-P2 and the correl...
182 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD cavities whose deposits showed signi cant alterations From 1985 the campaigns 7 in total over 10 years focused exclusively on the Mousterian site and in 1986 L Montes replaced Baldellou in the joint direction until the last campaign carried out in 1994 Although it was fenced off the cave has undergone continuous clandestine interventions which have led to the almost complete disappearance of the control balk respected by excavations for further research The cave is located on the pre Pyrenean foothills of Huesca at the foot of a limestone cliff which is located to the north of the small town of Gabasa currently the municipality of Peralta de Calasanz The cliff is an Eocene limestone syncline that dominates one of the headwaters of the Sosa a tributary of the left bank of the Cinca and on which the karst of the network of caves has developed which is currently inactive The Mousterian cave or Gabasa 1 consists of two small chambers when it was discovered the outer chamber contained very little sedimentary deposit while the inside a chasm partially lled with debris housed the site Fig 1 and 2 closed on the outside by a dry stone wall The upper layers of soil have been repeatedly removed to be used as a fertiliser for the crop terraces that extend along the foot of the cave in the outer chamber which has the best living conditions the deposit has been removed down to a thick stalagmite crust more than a metre thick In the inner chamber with a depth of almost three metres the site is conserved although the ll presented a disturbed surface particularly in the central area In its vertical development this chamber is a bell type cavity whose walls maintain carbonate stone edges of varying diameter at different heights the footprint of water erosion For this reason in the site we are presenting the excavated area greatly exceeds the contour of the walls drawn at the height 0 in the reference plan The place had been used until recently as a cattle fold and its mouth directed eastwards partially L Montes s PhD thesis 1988 summarised the techno typological study of the lithic remains ex Over the years there have been various publications about partial aspects of this site but a monographic report has not yet been released The rst presentation on the site in Bolskan extracted the rst excavation campaigns Utrilla and Montes 1986 Figure 1 Location of Gabasa1cave at the foot of the cliff that dominates the town
182  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  cavi...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES tending the stratigraphic context of the site to the 1987 campaign In the same year the rst attempt was made to reconstruct the chronostratigraphy of the cavity Azanza et al 1988 and an initial approach to the microfauna Gil and Lanchares 1987 which was subsequently corrected in unpublished documents Guill n 1994 Cuenca 2002 The rst international presentation on the site was given at a conference on Neanderthals in 1986 in Lieja Utrilla and Montes 1989 With work more advanced a new sediment and paleoclimate study was published Hoyos et al 1992 whose data was used in a proposal on the end of the Middle Palaeolithic in the Ebrovalley Utrilla and Montes 1993 A little later M Fernanda Blasco published her thesis a key study on the fauna of Gabasa and an interesting summary of its taxonomic and taphonomic analyses Blasco 1995 and 1997 Between the two came the presentation at the meeting in Capellades in 1995 on the remains of level g which analysed in depth the differences between human prey and the contributions of other carnivores Blasco et al 1996 the accumulation of remains of hyena during the last excavation campaigns led to a speci c study on this animal Blasco and Montes 1997 In the meeting in Foz Coa the human remains and AMS dating were presented for the rst time with new re ections on the Transition Lorenzo and Montes 2001 and Montes et al 2001 The study of pollen preserved in hyena coprolites allowed percolation problems to be solved in the paleoclimate Gonz lez Samp riz et al 2003 and 2005 M D Garralda 2005 included the Neanderthal remains in this cavity in her review of the Iberian Peninsula for the tribute to J Altuna it had been previously included in M Haber s 2003 PhD thesis on Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula A review of the Ebro Boundary was presented in Lieja 2001 at the14thUISPP Congress Utrilla et al 2004 and a revised and updated version was included in the volume that commemorated the centenary of the excavations of Monte Castillo Utrilla et al 2006 In 2006 the tribute to V Cabrera was published this presented a review of the Middle Palaeolithic in the Ebro basin which included a summary of the data on Gabasa Montes et al 2006 A detailed technology study of the levels of Gabasa based on a wide collection of the lithic remains from all of the campaigns was presented Santamar a et al 2008 taking advantage of the meeting on technology variability organised by the UAB A review of the hyena remains accompanied by a new dating of level h based on racemisation in dentin was presented at the meeting on the dens of hyena and other carnivores Utrilla et al 2010 Other authors have used and published some speci c remains from the cave in other studies Hern ndez Carrasquilla 2001 published a new species of vulture identi ed among the bird remains and R Garc a Gonz lez 2011 focuses in Gabasa in two separate studies on liation of the Capra pyrenaica 2 Stratigraphy The archaeological levels of Gabasa all of them of Mousterian chronology were named during the excavation using lowercase letters from the most recent level a to the deepest level h Fig 2 The latter was presented as an open framework consisting of boulders and stone fragments in which the ne fraction only remains in situ at the top and it is accumulated loose through percolation in some points at the bottom supported by the sub horizontal walls of the bell shaped chamber when closed The colour and texture of the rest of the layers were very similar in appearance and the only signi cant difference was the size of the clasts The following proposal summarises the stratigraphic data based on a sedimentology study Hoyos et al 1992 a basic count of the lithic remains Montes 1988 and Santamar a et al 2008 and of the remains of fauna Blasco 1995 and the dates available Montes et al 2001 Utrilla et al 2010 The sedimentology study allows the ll of the cave to be associated to the limestone lithology in which it opens formed by sub aerial and underground contributions except for the fauna remains and the materials contributed by human groups Its detritus and loose nature favoured occasional percolation of pollen and some ne fraction The stratigraphic units were identi ed using Roman numerals and the archaeological levels with lowercase letters Unit I level h Up to almost 2 metres thick it is characterised by the abundance of thick elements and within these by the dominance of great boulders over minor blocks whereas 183
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  tending the stratigraphic context of the site to the 1987 campaign. In the same ye...
184 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 2 Stratigraphy and site at Gabasa the ne fraction only appears in the top area It seems to have formed under cold and dry conditions in which freezing signi cant in duration but not intensity was responsible for the gravitational contributionand boulders and stone fragments detached from the walls The presence of ne fraction in the top is interpreted as a change towards wetter conditions Mixed in with this rocky framework in level h 300 lithic and 1390 fauna remains were recovered The bones were apported both by humans and carnivores Dating based on aminoacid racemisation in dentine of a total of 15 horse s teeth returned an average age of 140000 43000 LEB 8538 8558 The measurement as it is inaccurate puts this section from the deposit in phase OIS 6 taking it out of the dates managed up until then for the entire site Unit II levels g f Arranged without sedimentary discontinuity with the former the sedimentology grouping of levels gand f an average 50 cm thick shows a matrix of brown clays with gravel and sand that contain small stone fragments Level g was distinguished from level f during the excavation by the dis appearance from the matrix of the small calcareous concretions and scattered charcoal that appeared in it Regarding the archaeological remains there is a signi cant difference between the two layers while more than 1200 lithic remains correspond to level g level f yielded just 550 with an excavated area of one quarter smaller Something similar happens with the fauna 4194 remains in f compared to 8741 remains in level g In the latter level the presence of a hyena den is noteworthy partly accounting for the large number of animal remains For level g an AMS date was obtained that only speci ed an age earlier than 50700 BP OxA 5675 Its immediate superposition over Unit I without erosion traces or stratigraphic discontinuity suggests an old chronology for this series of levels also in the Middle Pleistocene Unit III level e This level was formed in the outer chamber from which in a clear process of soli uction it entered the inner cavity resulting in partial erosion of level f over which it settled The clay matrix with gravel and calcareous sand is very similar to the previous
184  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES one but this includes large stone fragments and boulders Its structure is responsible for the varying thickness from 70 cm in the areas connecting the two chambers to an average of 30 cm on the two sides of the expansion fan The lithic remains add up to almost one thousand whereas fauna remains amount to 4795 Although an AMS dating speci es only dates prior to 51900 BP OxA 5674 a conventional C14 dating would put it in the late OIS 3 despite its wide deviation 46500 4400 2200 BP GrN 12809 Unit IV levels d c This sedimentology unit is characterised like the previous two by its clay matrix which in this case includes an abundance of stone fragments platelets and boulders The difference between the two archaeological levels was established by the higher compactness of level d and its lower clast content compared to the overlaying level c The lithic remains recovered reached 531 in level d whereas in level c 253 remains were counted besides other 215 were attributed to a c in some areas where the lack of level b prevented these two layers from being distinguished vid infra The same happens with the fauna remains which amount to 1862 in level d and 2133 in a c In this unit the upper section level c has two AMS dates 47800 BP OxA 5673 and 46900 BP CAMS10290 Beta 68391 Perhaps the carbon dating obtained for level a c could also be related to this layer c given the similarity of the result 45900 OxA 5672 Unit V level b The only archaeological level identi ed was sterile a carbonate crust with little development and discontinuous whose absence creates the aforementioned problem to distinguish between c and a Unit VI level a Another clay matrix with numerous stone fragments platelets and boulders whose only difference with level c according to the sedimentology the stones edges were sharpener we were unable to identify during excavation As we said in some areas which did not have level b the material from a care considered as a whole 478 elements from the total of a c can be singled out for de nitely belonging to this level a as aforementioned 215 elements had to be attributed imprecisely to a c In the fauna the total of a c amounted to 2133 elements Regarding its chronology in addition to the generic AMS dating prior to 39900 BP OxA 5671 we must remember the one obtained from another charcoal from a c which we have indicated in level c 3 Paleoclimate characteristation of the record from Gabasa The attempts at paleoclimate reconstruction of the Gabasa deposit were corrected in the aforementioned subsequent studies qualifying the interpretation of the site After the initial merely climatic estimate made using provisional data on the fauna pollen and sedimentology in the early campaigns Azanza et al 1988 a revision of these was undertaken proposing two options based on the sedimentology analysis Hoyos et al 1992 which determined cold conditions for the bordering levels a and h whereas the centre of the deposit was considered warm in general with some cooler oscillations in levels g f and particularly in e and with varying humidity the rst option put the development of the sequence in the W rm II based on the dating of level e the only one available at the time whereas the second placed the central unit levels c g in the interstadial W rm II III with two bordering levels level h at the base placed in W rm II and level a at ceiling level as the start of W rm III The subsequent study of the fauna carried out by F Blasco 1995 backed the majority of these observations particularly in relation to the dryness humidity of the conditions that affected the levels of the deposit except a dry according to the fauna assemblage The testimonial presence of Cuon and Leopard con rmed the warm nature of the central unit of the sequence but being aware of the low determining value of the macrofaunain identifying the oscillations in climate that could have arisen during the period in question A brief microfauna analysis of a random sample carried out by P Guillem rati ed the determination of the macrofauna and the sedimentology as regards the warm dryness of the deposit coinciding with the fauna as regards level a also dry Blasco 1995 60 A little later the series of AMS dates obtained by R Hedges at the Oxford laboratory and another by Beta Analytic although inaccurate between 39 9 ky BP for level a and 50 7 ky BP for level g steered us towards the rst paleoclimate proposal mentioned 185
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  one but this includes large stone fragments and boulders. Its structure is respons...
186 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD earlier which put the entire sequence at least in the W rm II Montes et al 2001 However new results from a pollen study of hyena coprolites in this site Gonz lez Samp riz et al 2003 and 2005 quali ed this proposal keeping the entire Gabasa deposit in W rm II with permanent conditionsof dryness and cold or cool temperatures except at the top level a The proportion of Quercus t ilexcoccifera in level a dated at an inaccurate 39900 BP would suggest milder and warmer conditions however that could be related to the start of the interstadial W rm II III as documented in the apparently contemporary levels of Beneyto X Carig ela V or in the base of Arbreda The top of the Gabasa sequence could therefore be included in the globally warm conditions of OIS 3 distinguishing it from the rest of the site The warm nature that the palynology study would assign to this level is not consistent with the cold nature assigned by the sedimentology based on the proliferation of frost weathering inside stone fragments including frost weathering of platelets As the study showed Gonz lez Samp riz et al 2005 593 this difference could be resolved by considering the presence of platelets as an occasional occurrence and not as something from the general environment We currently live in a climate considered warm but on some winter days with heavy or prolonged frost frost weathering of platelets can be generated in the cave at Gabasa At the start of some excavation campaigns we noticed these types of platelets on the surface of the cave and the consequent scar on the roof of the cave which proves that it is of recent origin This could have been normal in the area the Ebro valley where marked continentality is one of the most signi cant characteristics of the climate Later the earliest settlement level h was dated by T Torres and J E Ortiz at 140 43 ky LEB 85388558 by aminoacid racemisation in the dentine of horse s teeth Utrilla et al 2010 This dating except for the problem posed by its very wide range a priori placed the old thick deposit of level h in the early Middle Pleistocene The new date offered was a surprise and led us to evaluate a more extensive chronology with longer hiatuses in the lling process clear discontinuity between units II g f and III e interruptions in the sediment in the core of IV d c viscous and mass transport to the inner chamber of levels III e and VI a This meant considering a chrono stratigraphy review of the deposit and suggested that the lower part lithological levels I and II or archaeological level sh and g f corresponded to an older chronology from the Middle Pleistocene The discontinuity that marked the base of level III e would represent the start of a new sedimentary phase whose chronological distance from the previous one we cannot identify using the vague prior to dates that we have for the site The upper units III to VIII could be immediately posterior but also more recent if we would accept the conventional date of level e 4 The lithic and bone remains and the interpretation of the site In Gabasa 6 human bones attributed to the Neanderthal have been recovered Utrilla 2000 Lorenzo and Montes 2001 Garralda 2005 a rst upper premolar P3 from level f attributed to a young person a lower right molar M2 also from level f perhaps from a female adult and another lower right molar M1 from the remained sediments this one with a toothpick groove and probably from a male adult Corresponding to level e are a right clavicle without its apophysis and a rst toe phalanx from a left foot and nally the remained sediments also included a rst metatarsal from a adult right foot The magni cent collection of fauna studied by Fernanda Blasco 1995 and 1997 presents more than 23 000 remains over half of which can be determined From these 23 species of mammal have been distinguished 9 ungulates Equus caballus Equus hydruntinus Bos sp Rhinocerotidae Cervus elaphus Capra pyrenaica Rupicapra rupicapra Capreolus capreolus Sus scropha 10 carnivores Ursus spelaeus Crocuta spelaea Panthera spelaea Panthera leo Panthera pardus Canis lupus Cuon alpinus Vulpes vulpes Lynx spelaea Felis sylvestris 2 mustelids Meles meles Mustela putorius and 2 lagomorphs Oryctolagus cunniculus Lepus sp In addition 20 species of bird and a very signi cant collection of microfauna were identi ed Almost half of the remains allow the species to be identi ed which suggests extraordinary conservation of the collection and a low bone processing index M F Blasco s PhD thesis expressed very cautiously due to the chronological estimates available at the time of the study suggests the possible presence of older types of horse and hyena among the remains possible dating of the lower levels f g h in the Middle Pleistocene would t into these approaches The taphonomic study of these fauna remains their distribution over the site and the relationship with the human artefacts suggest alternating use of the cave between humans and carnivores Therefore
186  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  earl...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 3 Gabasa scrapersand Mousterian point no 10 from levels a c 1 4 d 5 8 and e 9 12 Figure 4 Gabasa scraper and limace no 4 from levels f 1 4 g 5 8 and h 9 11 the Neanderthals who mainly hunted horses and red deers must have occupied the cave in the summer whereas the carnivores whose prey marks are present on ibex s bones always adults would occupy the cave at other times We know that the foals and fawns were hunted by humans from the clear marks slits grooves left by the int instruments on the bones while processing the prey However it is not currently possible to determine the pattern in the same year or in different years this alternate occupation followed Blasco 1995 Blasco et al 1996 lithic akes in addition to a few but very good points and slightly exploited cores Fig 3 and 4 In the two more recent levels a and c the technology and typology change an increase in certain backed knives which is re ected in an arti cial increase in the group of tools from the Upper Paleolithic and which could t into the type B Mousterian Acheulean tradition Montes 1988 Utrilla and Montes 1993 Regarding the instruments recovered the lithic remains currently analysed typologically relate these assemblages to the facies typical rich in scrapers of the Mousterian they are basically assemblages with many scrapersand untransformed The lithic assemblage of Gabasa 1 show a high level of technological homogeneity throughout the sequence Santamar a et al 2008 The main operating sequence in all levels is discoid However two secondary operating sequences have been identi ed Levallois and Quina whose reconstruction and individualisation require more detailed study Raw 187
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 3. Gabasa  scrapersand Mousterian point  no. 10  from levels a c  1-4 , d  ...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 188 materials would have been supplied from the surrounding area of the site the selected nodules were tested in situ and then brought into the site Production of supports was mainly done using simple albeit very economical and fast discoid knapping methods and techniques The supports obtained cortical products akes dos d bordant ordinary akes and centripetal ones were mainly transformed into scrapers and to a lesser extent denticulated and notched tools and used along with unretouched akes to process prey fawn and foals The low incidence of retouched akes in the assemblage suggests that some of the tools were brought into the site The typological differences of level a c are related to changes in the transformation of supports into tools characterised by a signi cant decrease in the group of scrapers and different treatment of the akes dos d bordant which are not so much transformed into scrapers but are used in a raw state To summarise it is a magni cent site that considering the type of fauna found ibex horse and deer dominating over other herbivores and a variety of carnivores including cave hyena and the lithic industry recovered is interpreted as a hunting camp specialising Alfonso Alday Kanpanoste and Kanpanoste Goikoa sites V rgala lava Basque Country Two shelters are presented together due to their geographic proximity roughly 200m apart and their shared stratigraphic sequences resulting from the same activities by Meso Neolithic communities parallel to the neighbouring Atxoste site The shelters are in the southern foothills of Az ceta Pass Kanpanoste faces west and Kanpanoste Goikoa west northwest The rst next to Berr n River retains a visor measuring almost 12 m long and 2 m wide The second more dif cult to reach provides better shelter with a 13m long x 3 m wide roof although originally it was larger As usual at sites from this period and zone their features include a good strategic location in fawn and foals which contradicts the clich of peremptory and indiscriminate hunting with a lack of specialisation of the Neanderthals Subsequent processing of the prey cutting deboning and preparation of the skins would be done using the unvaried but abundant lithic material recovered which would explain the extraction of akes from cores in situ and the minimum transformation of these supports into speci c tools points and scrapers which would be brought along already nished Some big tools knapped on pebbles hammers choppers and chopping tools could have been used in butchery tasks Humans would alternate occupation of the cave with other predators from season to season particularly the cave hyena and wolf which would use it as a den and whose prey would have been mainly ibex Seasonal occupation of the site would explain the minimum preparation of the site there are barely any stable hearths although there is a lot of charcoal in the sediment the failure to remove the angular clasts some of which were very big and would have made the settlement very uncomfortable and the conservation of the fauna truly extraordinary given that a minimum amount of the prey hunted was consumed in the cave which facilitated surveillance and access to the open spaces of the Arraia Valley and the mountain landscape in the immediate hinterland Kanpanoste Archaeological work by A Saenz de Buruaga in 1990 distinguished three sedimentary units in a 1 m deep sequence one of which contains two distinct sections Fig 1 Lanh Level 45cm deep dipping south north consisting of a ne compact silt clay matrix blackish in colour with fewer larger fraction ele rea de Prehistoria Universidad del Pa s Vasco EHU UPV Tom s y Valiente s n 01006 Vitoria Gasteiz a alday ehu es
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  188  mate...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 1 Top Stratigraphic section and ecological features of Kanpanoste Bottom Stratigraphic section of Kanpanoste Goika ments and a major component of Helix nemoralis It is divided into two units for sedimentological and archaeological reasons The upper unit Lanhs includes blocks while the lower level Lanhi does not The lithic industry in both units is predominated by campi oide style notches and denticulates on akes followed by denticulates sidescrapers denticulates endscrapers and awls The lack of microliths on the lower horizon and their presence on the level indicate a differential nuance in a changing industry This unit also contains an interesting collection of perforated nasaridas and an atrophied deer canine which were probably part of a personal adornment The inventory is completed with a set of stone macrotools for use as hammers retouchers scraping or processing plants The scarce fauna includes wild boar the predominant species followed by roe deer red deer and chamois Culturally the material can be identi ed with Mesolithic notches and denticulates Clag Level The de ning feature of this 18 cm deep level is the considerable volume of edged 189
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 1. Top  Stratigraphic section and ecological features of Kanpanoste. Bottom...
190 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD clasts associated with a greyish ash like silt clay fraction with a loose structure It is in erosive contact with the other two strata at both the wall and the ceiling It is poor in archaeological material with visits during the Chalcolithic Neolithic and the late Mesolithic identi ed from a few denticulates two geometrics a speartip with at retouch and a few at ceramic fragments Clam Level With an average depth of 20 cm this level contains many angular clasts in a ne brown silt clay matrix loose but rough to touch with a major input of present day organic matter This level lack archaeological interest Level Lanhi Lanhs Code BP Date GrN 22441 8200 70 GrN 22442 7920 100 GrN 22440 7620 70 Table 1 Radiocarbon references of Kanpanoste Three other analyses have yielded rejuvenated dates due to sample mineralization Kanpanoste Goikoa Archaeological work by A Alday in 1992 and 1993 detected four sedimentary units some of which contain several cultural episodes in a one meter thick sequence Level III bottom This level rests on the rocky base of the shelter limestone with weathering processes which enriched the section with small sized gravel Average depth of 20cm lying on a southnorth dip and also more gently east west Fine silty compact matrix with no large components except for the base Dark brown colour The retouched lithic industry is not large but signi cant Half are notches and campi oide style denticulates on ake accompanied by endscrapers and sidescrapers in the same style Red deer auroch and wild boar clearly predominated the identi ed game Culturally ascribed to Mesolithic notches and denticulates Level III top A more gradual process than the previous level with a 20cm potential a lighter brown soil with a homogeneous silty matrix and an increased proportion of angular clasts detached from the wall and ceiling of the shelter Colonies of gastropods mainly Helix cepaea are mixed with the sediment and similarly numerous charcoal remains resulting of different res In fact a hearth consisting of two rings of limestone blocks organises most of the space The sedimentation is interrupted by one large and several small blocks which became detached from the roof Although the notches and campi oide style denticulates are the most numerous typological group in the retouched lithic industry by this stage these items had lost much of their role replaced by geometric reinforcement triangles and trapezoids accompanied by microburins and backs Flakes with minimal retouch also made a major contribution The same fauna spectrum remains with a slight increase in deer and chamois This level is culturally ascribed to the geometric Mesolithic Level II A steep dip makes its potential 20cm average vary from one point to another although it is homogeneous with very silty soils in a loose ash coloured structure with not an excessive amount of angular clasts and limestone slabs Colonies of terrestrial gastropods were isolated in some sectors and there is evidence of lit res in the associations of charcoal and slabs The worked stone industry has a greater in uence than akes with a tendency to use simple akes with marginal retouch and backs as the predominant tools although geometric items are also present 13 of triangles trapezoids and double bevel segments accompanied by microburins as are endscrapers 10 Small pottery shards a few pebbles and slabs and a grinder for plant processing complete the record Wild animals combine with ovicaprids cattle and domestic pigs Although the homogeneous sediment hinders an internal breakdown of this level a detailed vertical analysis of the materials has revealed three cultural horizons geometric Mesolithic at the base with an industry that has evolved from the top of Level III Early Neolithic in the middle with some ceramics double bevelled segments a sickle for cutting vegetable and mill and initial Chalcolithic at the top indicated by small tips with at retouch Level I The current oor level 20 cm deep has a wedge layout with a dry dusty silty matrix in the rst few centimetres light brown tending to yellow and a quite uneven component of blocks and clasts in its 20 cm depth There are few lithic items 10 retouched tools ceramics 19 frag
190  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  clas...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 2 Selection of prehistoric materials of Kanpanoste de A Cava 191
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 2. Selection of prehistoric materials of Kanpanoste  de A. Cava .  191
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 192 ments one with Boquique decoration or faunal remains 10 fragments Level Code BP Date III lower GrN 20215 GrN 20455 7620 80 7860 330 III upper GrN 20214 GrN 20289 6360 70 6550 260 II GrN 20213 GrN 20267 3430 60 4350 60 II domestic cereal GrA 9790 4550 40 II domestic ovi caprid GrN 202738 4190 100 Table 2 Radiocarbon references for the Kanpanoste Goika site The laboratory divided the sample into two carbonaceous and collagen Due to the small amount of collagen available and hence the breadth of the standard deviation the dating for the upper Level III should be accepted with some reservations given the regional context Carlos Mazo Pilar Utrilla The discrete amount of the material inventories for Kanpanoste Goikoa and Kanpanoste Fig 2 would rank these sites in a modest position if they were analysed individually However their strength lies in their complementarity They are part of a system of territorial occupation which also involved the Atxoste Mendandia and Fuente Hoz shelters as well as several open air sites in Entzia Urbasa and a few valleys in today s Alava province In fact the Kanpanoste assemblage was used as a basis to describe the Mesolithic notch and denticulate techno typological unit The roots of this territory date back to 8600 BP and remained in place for a millennium The presence of seashells from both the Cantabrian and the Mediterranean and the circulation of siliceous materials suggest a thoughtful articulation of the space The features of the lithic industry ake blanks tending to be carenated and in pieces denticulate fronts often resulting from recycled material loss of microlithics apparent roughness in items which actually follow preset patterns in which there is a notable lack of hunting equipment are shared by many sites in the Ebro River basin and the Mediterranean fringe which shaped a break in the evolution from the early Holocene micro ake assemblages to those which characterize the geometric Mesolithic Forcas I and Forcas II sites The Sierra de Castillo de Laguarres and the Sierra de Tor n form a pre Pyrenean structural unit split by the river sera where it passes through the Alto Aragon village of Graus At this point rise Pe a del Morr n 599 m and Pe a de las Forcas 635 m on either side of the river and up to 300 m above the current riverbed The latter located on the left bank of the sera and of its tributary the Is bena represents the most western point of the Sierra del Castillo de Laguarres The place which stands on the Aqui Cultural material rea de Prehistoria Universidad de Zaragoza tanian Miocene conglomerates records the presence of two prehistoric sites Forcas I and Forcas II whose stratigraphic deposits show prolonged occupation almost continuous from the Lower Magdalenian up to the Late Neolithic with two subsequent occupations in the Chalcolithic and early Roman Empire Fig 1 In both cases occupation took place under the protection of narrow very shallow rock shelters generated at the base of the conglomerate by the action of the river The coordinates of Forcas I are X 280 125
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  192  ment...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Y 4 673 241 and those of Forcas II are X 280 242 Y 4 673 709 and the height is 471 m and 470 m respectively It cannot be said that they are sites with a clear archaeological sensitivity indeed Forcas II is oriented to the north and almost on the shore of a river that ooded it at times as shown by the levels of sand and silt in the deposit However the geography and topography give the site an advantageous position because the sera narrows there and the place becomes a checkpoint and obligatory pass between the mountain and the Barasona valley now covered by a reservoir because the location provides access to various biotope resources and because the Is bena acts as a transversal pass that connects the sera valley with Noguera Ribagorzana to the east Forcas I was discovered by Jean Vaquer in 1990 and excavated by Carlos Mazo and Pilar Utrilla between 1990 and 1992 It was seriously affected by aggregate mining which restricted its extension unknown to just a narrow 23 linear metre strip of stratigraphic deposit that stuck to the wall of the conglomerate which at this points runs North to South In this deposit 14 stratigraphic units have been recorded from 4 to 17 with 9 fertile archaeological levels and more than 8000 lithic remains have been recovered The assemblage represented by the bone industry is very inconspicuous and there are also very few identi able fauna remains Occupation starts at level 15 corresponding to a Lower Magdalenian of the classic Cantabrian type with a date of 14440 70 BP typologically well authenticated by the presence nucleiform endscrapers and rabots and which would t in well with the Lower Magdalenian of the area particularly with the neighbouring Alons cave with which it shares not only similar radiometric dates but also a similar technology in laminated cores d bitage sur tranche transversale encoche which are also present in contemporary levels on the other side of the Pyrenees Moving up the sequence levels 14 and 13d are classi ed as Upper Magdalenian while levels 13a and 11 correspond to the Late Magdalenian The rst two share the aforementioned laminar core technology while the second two offer clear typological similarity as regards group indices and even primary types with a variety of scrapers the presence of burins in a similar proportion and retouched laminar ake From level 10a the surface conserved decreases signi cantly and consequently also the number of elements recovered Despite the chronological difference between levels 10 and 9 the typological similarity between their industries is almost exact Figure 1 Stratigraphy of the two rock shelters at Forcas In both levels the lithic industry although scarce is based on thumbnail scrapers consistent with a generic Epipaleolithic or Azilian Occupation of the site ends at level 7 which was con ned to a very small space and offered very few retouched components Its industrial characterisation is not categorical Its stratigraphic position and chronology 9360 140 BP correspond to a microlaminar Epipaleolithic and the laminar and microlaminar components which account for more than one third and a good representation of laminar cores would certainly support this but if we look at the retouched pieces only two microgravettes would only t in with it and a 193
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Y  4.673.241 and those of Forcas II are X  280.242  Y  4.673.709, and the height i...
194 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD scalene triangle which would go well in Sauveterrian industries of the Preboreal Forcas II is 560 m north of Forcas I at the con uence of the river Is bena with the sera It was discovered in 1991 and excavated in two phases during 1991 1992 and 1996 1997 It is also a long shelter which offers more protection than Forcas I but it also has a very small overhang and faces north This orientation and its immediate proximity to the river which ooded it several times as shown by the ood silt levels make the site seem like a place that is not suitable for continued occupation but it is suitable for a temporary settlement in the summer as a hunting ground which was the proposed interpretation The site had also undergone some destruction and clearing processes and three very different areas are distinguishable the western area of the long shelter records a stratigraphic sequence consisting of 8 levels 6 of which are archaeologically fertile The base unit is I consisting of ne sand from the river Between levels Ia and Ic sterile is the rst occupation of the site level Ib which corresponds to a macrolithic Mesolithic with notch and denticulate tools 8650 70 BP with a poor industry as is common in old macrolithic contexts prior to 8500 BP like those observed in nearby sites such as Legunova and Pe a 14 An industry of crude instruments made with local raw materials such as quartzite and limestone Levels II 7240 40 and 7150 40 BP and IV 7000 40 BP correspond to a geometric Mesolithic with rough retouched instruments and microburins and they are separated by a sterile level of sand from the river level III In level II always with balanced modules although there are some long pieces asymmetric trapezoids and concave sided trapezoids dominate along with scalene triangles and scalene triangles with a small concave side In level IV the symmetric and asymmetric trapezoids appear equally followed by trapezoids with a small retouched base Scalene triangles dominate among the triangles The trapezoids include micro trapezoids and the triangles include obtuse and both types include some with inverse retouch Fig 2 A few segments also appear either as curved back edge blades or as rough retouch segments In general level IV differs from level II in the range of sizes types and positions of the retouches perhaps the result of a possible ultra Pyrenean in uence This level also includes a plaquette engraved with precise geometric designs In the peninsula Mesolithic similar laminates are found in Cocina II lo cated in the same chronological and stratigraphic time as the one in Forcas that is at the end of the geometric Mesolithic at a time immediately prior to the cardium and in a level layer 6 in unbroken contact with level 5 now with cardium pottery However they differ in the support of the plaquette that of the Alto Aragon site is smaller atter and tabular and the engraving is very shallow compared to the deep lines of the platelets at Cocina However the nearest plaquette with the most similar decoration are in southern Italy on the plaquette of Grotta delle Veneri In Forcas II the chronology of the geometric Mesolithic is later unlike Bajo Aragon and Alto Ebro and it is not so deeply rooted There are only 250 years between its appearance in level II and the rst pottery in level V which appeared very early furthermore there is no break in the stratigraphy and therefore levels IV and V are in direct contact closely linked and with no transition Levels V 6940 90 and VI 6900 45 and 6740 40 represent the moment of old Neolithic transition As in the previous phase in level V triangles dominate over trapezoids and in addition double bevel retouch appears which would be exclusive in level VI Both contain the oldest pottery in the Ebro valley cardium or impressed ware undoubtedly exchanged or borrowed from Neolithic groups perhaps from SE France through the valleys of Tet and Aude and the valley of SegreCinca but all within a hunter gather economy After a moment of abandonment which corresponds to sterile level 7 consisting of silt level VIII the most recent area of this rock shelter is clearly Neolithic with drills sickle elements with a cereal patina and domestic fauna In the pottery productions the decoration is restricted to straight cords In the central area the most affected by the clearance a wall canvas consisting of 5 layers of irregular ashlar some fragments of terra sigillata and a thin walled glass were recorded The TSH materials offer a dating corresponding to I III century and the structure might have been used to control the transport routes during the early Roman Empire and more speci cally the river crossing which has historically been crossed at this point where there is an old bridge today Finally in the eastern area the evidence of occupation starts in level 7 and continues through 6 and 5 and the three levels could belong to the same cultural horizon considering the high level of coincidence in the technology and forms of the pottery remains particularly in levels 6 and 5 At the base of level 7 there
194  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  scal...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 2 Evolution of the geometrics in the Mesolithic Neolithic transition of Forcas II are human remains some of which are among the ashes of a circular structure and inside a crack closed with stones next to a wall and which are related to a single burial time around 4430 40 BP These remains were accompanied by pottery fragments including some examples with elongated and parallel mammae like lumps Veraza style similar to others that appeared in the Early Bronze age levels at the nearby cave of Moro de Olvena The limit between level 7 and the neighbouring level 6 is dated at 3920 30 There are few decorations and the Beaker decorations are included in the Pyrenean group contemporary in a large part of its development with Ciempozuelos or Salam phase II of Aragon although they could also be placed in phase III late Beaker which would coincide with the Pyrenean barbel type contemporary to the Tarragon group of Arbol as is the case with the cave at Moro de Olvena 195
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 2. Evolution of the geometrics in the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition of Fo...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 196 Jordi Rosell Xose Pedro Rodr guez Ruth Blasco Edgard Camar s Maite Arilla Andrea Picin Eneko Iriarte Nerets and La Cova de les Llenes archaeological sites Pallars Juss Lleida Nerets and Cova de les Llenes archaeological sites are located in the Pre Pyrenean area of the Pallars Juss Lleida The current con guration of this area rises from the Alpine Orogeny which formed an important fold of cretaceous materials resulting in two anticlines one in the south represented by Serra del Montsec 1700 m above sea level and another in the north with the Serres de Sant Gerv s and Boumort 2200 m above sea level From the geomorphologic point of view the syncline forms a sedimentary basin known as Conca de Tremp Conca de Baix and Conca de Dalt where the tertiary landings show several Mesozoic outcrops The whole area is crossed by an important hydrographic network from north to south whose two main rivers are the Noguera Pallaresa and its af uent the Flamisell Both rivers rise from glacier valleys of the Axial Pyrenees The Nerets archaeological site is located in the central part of this basin speci cally in the Mesozoic sandstones of the Ar n Formation located to the east of the town Talarn This site was discovered by chance in 1989 by a local amateur thanks to the discovery of surface archaeological material Rosell and Rodr guez 1991 Rodr guez and Rosell 1993 Nerets hill has a height of 625 meters above sea level with good visibility over the river Noguera Pallaresa In 1995 an archaeological intervention was carried out directed by Jordi Rosell The aim was to conduct a systematic recognition and survey of areas with greater concentrations of lithic materials on the surface An excavation took place in the lower part of the hill affecting 6 m2 initially later expanding to 16 m2 During this intervention some lithic industry was recovered but no faunal remains were located The stratigraphic sequence described during the excavation of 1995 was formed by a pack of conglomerates of large heterometrical pebbles and very rounded polygenic with a matrix of slimes and ne sands from the base to the roof Fig 1 Most of the lithic industry was found in this level A higher metric pack of ne to medium sized sands with clays was also identi ed This layer also provided lithic industry At some points this sequence was covered by a carbonate crust dating to U Th en 75 ky The current ground was placed on a higher level The total described sequence was 60cm high The 1009 lithic objects recovered at Nerets come from the non systematic survey of 1989 and mainly from the systematic survey and the excavation of 1995 Rodriguez 2004 Table 1 All the material displays great consistency In this assemblage sequences of systematic production of akes and of tool con guration have been identi ed The shortage of debitage remains could be due to the fact that most part of the recovered material was recovered on the surface Among the raw materials a clear predominance of quartzite is identi ed almost 80 Tab 1 Also noted is the use of hornfels sandstone and quartz The rest of the raw materials do not even reach 1 The presence of some knapping int objects could be the result of a different dynamic from the rest as the features of these objects are quite different from the other items The most used raw materials appear in the present riverbed of the river Noguera Pallaresa or in some of its ancient terraces which are very close to the archaeological site A differential management of the raw material has been observed the quartzite is used in both processes of production and instruments con guration on the other hand the hornfels is mainly used for shaping large size instruments of pebble Fig 1 1 This rock is used in exploitation processes as it does not offer skills as good as the quartzite rea de Prehist ria Universitat Rovira i Virgili URV Avinguda de Catalunya 35 43002 Tarragona Espa a IPHES Institut Catal de Palaeoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social C Marcel l Domingo s n Edi ci W3 43007 Tarragona Espa a The Gibraltar Museum 18 20 Bomb House Lane Gibraltar Neanderthal Museum Talstrasse 300 40822 Mettmann Alemania Departamento de Ciencias Hist ricas y Geograf a Universidad de Burgos Villadiego s n 09001 Burgos Espa a
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  196  Jord...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Bn BN1G BN1GC Quartzite 52 Hornfels 17 6 5 41 BN1GE 5 2 53 6 7 BP BN2G BN1G Ind BN2GC 3 0 4 424 53 3 67 FRAGS INDET TOTAL BN2GE 8 4 5 0 6 146 18 4 4 0 5 795 78 79 18 7 14 15 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 24 26 4 5 5 5 0 0 22 24 2 4 4 4 91 9 02 Sandstone 14 28 6 9 18 4 1 2 1 2 9 18 4 2 4 1 0 0 12 24 5 1 2 49 4 86 Quartz 6 23 1 0 0 2 7 7 0 0 8 30 8 0 0 0 0 9 34 6 1 3 8 26 2 58 Schist 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 42 9 0 0 0 0 4 57 1 0 0 7 0 69 Limestone 1 20 1 20 0 0 0 0 2 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 20 5 0 50 Slate 1 12 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 50 0 0 0 0 3 37 5 0 0 8 0 79 Porphyry 2 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 20 Flint 0 0 0 0 1 9 1 0 0 4 36 4 4 36 4 0 0 2 18 2 0 0 11 1 09 2 13 3 1 6 7 0 0 3 0 0 4 26 7 2 13 3 15 1 49 Indet 3 Total 96 20 9 5 67 6 6 61 6 0 6 0 6 481 20 47 7 78 0 0 7 7 5 0 5 202 20 0 13 1 3 1009 Table 1 Raw materials and structural categories of objects in Nerets archaeological site Rodr guez 2004 Nb Natural bases pebbles cobbles or blocks selected in order to ake them or use them as hammers NB1G Negative Bases of rst Generation NB1gc Negative Bases of rst Generation of Con guration tools on pebble NB1GE Negative Bases of rst Generation of Exploitation cores on pebble PB Positive Bases akes NB2G Negative Bases of second Generation NB2GC Negative Bases of second Generation of Con guration retouched akes NB2GE Negative Bases of second Generation of Exploitation cores on akes Frags Fragments Indet Not determinable objects The most common exploitation strategy to produce akes consisted of a bifacial centripetal knapping prioritizing one of the sides aked side over the other the one of preparation with the aim of pre setting the nal morphology of the products Levallois method Fig 1 3 1 5 Bifacial centripetal cores were also recovered without predetermination The resulting akes of these centripetal strategies have also been located in the archaeological record Fig 1 4 1 6 Operational Themes exploiting transverse planes of thick pebbles by using extractions based on horizontal planes are also implemented To carry out this kind of process quartzite is used mainly when the method chosen requires a predetermination of the nal product The objects produced are medium format akes with dihedralshaped or trihedral shaped edges In the most representative exploitation strategies all the Operational Units involved in the production processes are present The existence of cortical objects and akes to prepare the exploitation of cores show this On the other hand cores which were left in different stages of exploitation from the initial stages to almost exhausted cores have been recovered Fig 1 5 All of these features suggest that the exploitation was developed in the archaeological site smaller pieces In the pebble tools dihedral edges in the distal transversal area are usually con gured with an upright and or convex delineation choppers and chopping tools Fig 1 2 The con guration of lateral transversal dihedrals and trihedrals are also important pick Fig 1 1 Transversal dihedrals are the largest part among the retouched akes In these kinds of instruments the second aim is the con guration of lateral dihedrals followed by the con guration of trihedrals and denticulate From the typological point of view the side scrapers are predominant among the retouched akes with 13 elements Fig 1 7 followed by denticulates n 11 and isolated notches n 5 There are ve featureless abrupts two denticulates and three continuous Three end scrapers two truncates and one burin have also been found It does not seem to be a selection of a speci c type of ake to be con gured In fact both cortical nonfaceted products of quartzite and hornfels and bi faceted or multi faceted platforms of quartzite with an established morphology are con gured It seems to be a type of selection related to the size of the retouched blanks the average sizes of retouched akes are 24 mm longer than the non retouched ones The con gured items pebbles and akes are 18 3 of Nerets lithic industry except for the If we add the effectives of instruments of pebble and of ake we observe that in 68 of the items 197
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Bn  BN1G BN1GC  Quartzite 52 Hornfels  17  6,5  41  BN1GE  5,2  53 6,7   BP  BN2G ...
198 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 Nerets stratigraphic and lithics Rodriguez 2004 1 9 and Cova de les Llenes 10 1 Quartzite handaxe on ake 2 retouched ake with a dihedral transversal edge cleaver 3 Quartzite ake Levallois 4 Bifacial Core of quartzite Levallois 5 Flake of quartzite Levallois 6 centripetal bifacial core of quartzite in the nal exploitation stage Levallois 7 unifacial angular of hornfels with distal trihedral pick 8 Unifacial pebble of quartzite chopper 9 Quartzite ake with a side scraper retouch on the left side and a notch on the right side 10 Quartzite handaxe
198  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES dihedral edges of upright or convex delineation have been con gured Adding concave dihedrals notches the percentage of dihedral edges reaches 72 The con guration of transversal dihedrals must be noted Distal trihedrals have been con gured in almost a fth of all the items Denticulate edges are not very large they are present in 6 9 of the items There are four objects classi ed as hand axes 3 4 of the items Fig 1 8 and eight items 6 9 t into the cleaver morphological type Fig 1 9 The absence of faunal remains makes an interpretation of the archaeological site s role impossible Nevertheless with the available lithic record we can suggest that Nerets due to its easily accessible location on a hill controlling a narrow passage of the river Noguera Pallaresa was a place usually visited by human groups to develop processes of production and con guration of items potentially usable for processing tasks of faunal resources Unfortunately there are hardly criteria except from the morphotechnical which assign this site to a determined chronology According to these criteria Nerets could be placed in an advanced stage of the Middle Pleistocene with technology including pebble tools with some operational standards characteristics of Mode 2 and complex production strategies Levallois method Rodr guez 2004 Accordingly we could place Nerets in a phase of transition from Mode 2 to Mode 3 Recently similar deposits have been discovered in other basin locations The industry recovered in these places presents important similarities with the industry discovered at Nerets which shows an important ow of human groups in this area during the end of the Middle Pleistocene which may be related to warm periods Unfortunately these kinds of deposits have not recovered any information about the climatic or ecological context in which human occupation was developed This has made prospections move towards the anticlines looking for caves that have allowed the preservation of other kind of registers beyond the lithic But the erosion caused by both the in uence of glaciarism at the end of Pleistocene and a very active river network has caused the previous sedimentary deposits to be conserved only in some caves with very particular features or in those placed in high points far from the rivers One of these cavities is La Cova de les Llenes Conca de Dalt This cave is a 250 m long karstic tube The current entrance is placed on a cliff of 180 m over the river Flamisell and through the Congost d Eriny The height is about 750 m above sea level The cave was archaeologically studied for the rst time at the end of the 1940 s by Professor Juan Maluquer de Motes 1951 who conducted just one excavation campaign at the entrance of the cave looking for Neolithic materials The only existing description of the stratigraphic sequence of the cave which discusses a basal layer made of Pleistocene materials where remains of cave bears appear is the fruit of this campaign This description caused the cave to be visited by the current investigation team and after carrying out a preliminary archaeological action in February 2013 resulted in the rst excavation campaign in August 2013 This rst campaign was focused on the entrance of the cave where the sample and the stratigraphy of Professor Maluquer de Motes were recovered and an excavation of 25m2 was initiated The stratigraphy shows a higher strata of anthropic origin levels 1 to 6 with a high content of ash and charcoal related to industrial or pre industrial cremation activities of an unspeci ed date Below level 7 is formed by yellowish brown shales presenting a mixture of Pleistocene materials and ceramic elements from the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Level 8 is the rst intact guring it is formed by green to brownish shales with some blocks of sandstones from the breakage of walls and the roof Many faunal remains have been recovered on level 8 as well as lithic items corresponding to the beginning of the Middle Paleolithic with very similar features to the items from Nerets The preservation of level 8 is related to the development of some stalagmite crusts which blocked the cave entrance These crusts today in dating process were probably formed before the maximum development of the glaciers at the Pyrenees during the MIS 3 Their presence preserved the sediments until the beginning of the Holocene when they were dismantled due to the regression of the cave s mouth allowing the entrance of human groups during the Neolithic Currently remains of these crusts in the entrance walls can be seen but at the end of the cavity they remain intact covering all the Pleistocene deposits The lithic industry in level 8 is mainly made of quartzite and other metamorphic rocks from the Flamisell river and from the Paleogene conglomerate formations of the area Fig 1 10 The akes are the predominant elements and together with the few recovered cores show both Levallois and discoidal reduction sequences The faunal spectrum is mainly composed of bear remains Ursus spelaeus hyenas Crocuta sp tares Hemitragus sp horses Equus ferus and 199
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  dihedral edges of upright or convex delineation have been con   gured. Adding conc...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 200 deers Cervus elaphus The relationship between the faunal remains and lithic industry is determined by the presence of some cutmarks as well as anthropogenic fractures However the most important activities developed in this cave seem to be related to carnivores Pending geochronologic and paleo ecological information the faunal composition and the lithic industry seem to be consistent with the end of the Middle Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula In conclusion Nerets and La Cova de les Llenes are part of a regional project with the aim of studying Neanderthal groups from the Late Middle Pleistocene in an area placed at the gateway to the Pyrenees The study of these kinds of archaeological sites is important to understand the capacities of these human communities and their development in marginal areas far from places with great Alfonso Alday Acknowledgements This research is nanced by the projects CGL2012 38434 C03 03 CGL2012 38358 CGLBOS 2012 34717 and HAR2010 18952 C02 01 of the Ministry of Science and Innovation of the Spanish Government Ruth Blasco is a post doctoral fellow of the Beatriu de Pin s A program of the Generalitat de Catalunya co nanced with the Marie Curie Actions EU FP7 Edgard Camar s is a pre doctoral fellow FI in the Generalitat de Catalunya co nanced with funds of the European Social Fund We would like to thank Jordi F bregas for the help provided with his comments and all the members of the Tritons team for the logistic support during the eldwork Martinarri rock shelter Ob curi Trevi o Martinarri is a south facing rock shelter with a roof that rises almost 3m above the current oor and a 15m long and 3 4 m deep area followed by a large terrace where prehistoric archaeological work has detected prehistoric activity It lies in a large basin now covered by dense forest on sandy hilly terrain where sandstone outcrops containing shelters are the exception This suggests that the prehistoric communities which settled here had detailed knowledge and control of the zone as they chose the shelter with the best conditions in the district The relatively monotonous catchment area consists of gentle hills and gorges 80 lying between 700 and 900 m asl which does not match the usual landscape patterns at Meso neolithic sites a possible reason for the smaller potential of the stratigraphic and cultural sequence The int supply points were probably the chert outcrops in Loza and Trevi o 20 km away Urbasa 30 km and the coastal Flysch 100 km genetic ows of the same period which the Mediterranean corridor might be The site is still under excavation with four annual digs since 2008 directed by A Alday in a small area which has nevertheless yielded a high density of archaeological material and de ned the complete stratigraphic sequence Stratigraphic sequence and archaeological content Five sedimentary layers have been identi ed in the shelter supplemented by several more on the adjacent platform Each unit is practically horizontal and basically composed of the substrate sands Postdeposition phenomena erosion gullies landslides have not affected the strata laid down in continuity without sterile units Several negative structures mainly post holes enter each layer Fig 1 Surface A thin layer of humus and loose sands with seemingly recent carbonaceous stains and rea de Prehistoria Universidad del Pa s Vasco EHU UPV Tom s y Valiente s n 01006 Vitoria Gasteiz a alday ehu es
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  200  deer...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 1 Martinarri stratigraphic sections costra crust a herbaceous layer covering the outer quadrats Few archaeological materials including faunal remains knapping debris the odd core a various blade akes two endscrapers retouched blades and an abrupt retouch Level 100 15cm deep with a compacted sandy texture and weathered sandy sections broken off from the shelter Fifteen small diameter circular oval holes have been interpreted as the product of inserted stakes possibly related to the prehistoric level where ceramic material was found on the adjacent terrace One thousand lithic items have been recovered from this level the majority knapping debris and blade akes along with two dozen backs a dozen scrapers notches and denticulates and several micro triangles and a few segmentiforms There are over 1000 faunal fragments Culturally this layer is attributed to the Mesolithic microindustry of Sauveterrian inspiration Level 101 Up to 23cm deep with light brown soil enriched with material of increasing size with depth Evidence of lit res which reached high temperatures Abundant prehistoric material over 5 000 lithic items including 300 blade akes and over 200 retouched items half of them blades and backed points four dozen endscrapers two retouched blades and a series of abrupt 201
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 1. Martinarri stratigraphic sections  costra  crust .  a herbaceous layer c...
202 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD retouches burins notches and denticulates The assemblage also includes the presence of micro triangles and segments There are at least 3 000 small faunal fragments The level shows cultural similarities to the higher level and is ascribed to the Mesolithic microindustry of Sauveterrian inspiration Fig 2 Level 102 20cm deep characterized by compacted sand and an increasing larger fraction many clasts and a few blocks Its excavation revealed two large sandstone slabs which were part of a hitherto unde ned anthropic structure This is E U 4 with an oval area of dark soil associated with blocks interpreted as a hearth The level has an extraordinary archaeological record consisting of over 6 000 lithic items the majority knapping debris many cores and approx 200 blades without retouch Amongst the tools n 250 the majority are backs approx 200 followed by scrapers n 60 retouched blades drills burins endscrapers notches and abrupt retouches Once again microlithic triangles were collected The presence of sandstone slabs and cobbles usually in horizontal association is also signi cant One atrophic deer canine used as a pendant gures amongst more than 4 000 faunal items This level is ascribed culturally to the Mesolithic microindustry of Sauveterrian inspiration with typometric and formal variations from the other assemblages Level 103 This 15 cm deep layer is lled with dry sandy sediment with no organic elements Its grainy texture is either compact a hard to dig breccia or darker and lenticular rich in archaeological material The presence of blocks is irregular The remarkable material record includes 3 300 lithic items including almost 100 blade akes 35 backed akes 12 endscrapers and fewer abrupt retouches sidescrapers and denticulates 1 300 faunal fragments were recovered This level is ascribed culturally to the Upper late Magdalenian Fig 2 A test pit on the open air terrace revealed an even deeper stratigraphy exceeding one metre which can be subdivided into six units The most notable feature here is the ceramic material including decorated fragments in Unit B possibly from the end of Metal Age We have associated this episode with the above mentioned posts on level 101 The lower levels maintain the features outlined for the interior of the shelter with minor nuances Level Code BP Date 101 Beta 314962 340 30 102 GrA 46014 8455 45 103 GrA 45940 11890 50 Table 1 Radiochronological references for the Martinarri site The dating for level 101 based on a charcoal specimen collected in one of the holes does not match the cultural material recovered but rather the action of possibly contemporary shepherds Cultural overview Although fieldwork in Martinarri is still in progress the material recovered to date shows the quality of the site due to both the richness of its contents and the chronological cultural periods involved Martinarri has confirmed an integrated exploitation of today s Alava province at the end of the Pleistocene which signalled the definitive colonization of inland zones Not far from this site are other roughly contemporary shelters Atxoste to the north and Montico de Charratu and Pe a del Castillo to the west Portugain Kukuma Socuevas Berniollo and possibly Bardallo as well the latter two open air sites are a little further away in the same district One of the features of this series of campsites is the lack of a bone industry along with backed akes and endscrapers as the lynchpins of the lithic component leaving burins to one side and the substrate Portugain linked to the exploitation of the Urbasa siliceous outcrop diverges from this pattern The industrial content is compatible with intense hunting In fact it is highly likely that the vast Alava plain whose boundary walls contain other points in this chronology and the valleys that ank it provided shelter for a wide range of large mammals with a biomass apt for consumption Moreover the diversity of occupied spaces and the exploitation of a variety of int indicate detailed knowledge of this territory
202  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  reto...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 2 Selection of prehistoric materials from Martinarri 203
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 2. Selection of prehistoric materials from Martinarri.  203
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 204 and interest in its comprehensive exploitation The settlement dynamics coincide with a pattern found in the neighbouring Aragon part of a late glacial process common to other parts of Europe characterized by settlements in new territories from a base in traditional refuge zones The upper levels reveal a techno industrial line which has only been identi ed relatively recently in this area microblade assemblages with a Sauveterre inspiration Fig 2 The appearance of micro triangles and subsequently segments along with changes in the styles and dimensions of backed tools justify this identi cation By this stage it was no longer unusual to nd double backed tools worked bases items which include Alfonso Alday ne apical retouches opposite the backs or even arched designs A tendency towards microliths more so amongst tips than blades is another striking evolution between the Magdalenian level and those higher up Martinarri is not an isolated case since similar changes have been described at the Atxoste and Socuevas sites which coexisted with other assemblages such as Mendandia and Las Orcillas with industries which seem to follow similar trends Parco Cave at the other extreme of the Ebro River basin a long series of north Pyrenean sites and Cantabrian assemblages such as Ekain must all be taken into account in assessments and interpretations of this collection from Martinarri Mendandia S seta Trevi o The roof of this east facing rock shelter covers roughly 52 m2 Alongside there is a 385 m2 platform on a steep slope overlooking the Ayuda River 40 50m below at a distance of roughly 100m Its strategic position provides commanding views along the river gorge and also immediate access to the midaltitude pastures with a range of local landscapes from valleys gorges plateaus and grasslands to forests and abundant wildlife resources Level V Surveyed in a 70cm cut which only showed prehistoric interest at the top The malleable clayey soil has an orange colour gradually lightening Small coarse fraction The record includes 920 fauna fragments and 196 lithic items including 6 retouched endscrapers 1 awl 2 denticulates 1 abrupt retouch and 1 sidescraper One perforated Nassa reticulata was also found This level is ascribed culturally to the laminar Mesolithic technology Excavated between 1992 1995 and in 1997 by A Alday in a 13 m2 area the site yielded a vast range of material which was classi ed into ve sedimentological divisions and six industrial sections Level IV More than 40cm deep in some areas with a slight dip from west to east Dark brown with blackish tones compact silty structure with little large fraction a wet and greasy aspect small isolated puddles and breccia Colonies of helix and frequent presence of charcoal and re are noteworthy aspects 47 579 bone fragments were inventoried The lithic industry includes 11 284 items with 94 cores and 354 retouched objects 35 endscrapers 58 awls 9 burins 8 abrupt akes 2 composite items 3 backed bladelets 23 short notches 139 short denticulates 4 notches on blades 1 denticulate on irregular ake 4 serrated items 6 abrupt re Stratigraphic sequence This is a continuous sequence with no erosive or infertile phases of eminently human origin and gradual changes in the texture tone and composition of the sediment It spans several Mesolithic and Neolithic periods between 8500 and 6400 BP Fig 1 and 2 rea de Prehistoria Universidad del Pa s Vasco EHU UPV Tom s y Valiente s n 01006 Vitoria Gasteiz a alday ehu es
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  204  and ...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 1 Mendandia stratigraphic section touches 4 geometric items 1 microburin and 57 miscellaneous items The bone record contains few items which includes two nasarids This assemblage is culturally ascribed to the Mesolithic notch and denticulate industry Level III A continuous 25cm deep horizon containing 2 cultural entities dry silty structure ne grained greyish colour Colonies of terrestrial molluscs are common and there is clear evidence of re 15 562 bone fragments were found in the lower part of this level III inf The lithic industry consists of 3 869 items with 50 cores and 237 retouched objects 20 endscrapers 15 awls 3 abrupt akes 11 backed bladelets 11 short notches 56 short denticulates 9 notches on ake 3 denticulates on ake 2 abrupt retouches 33 geometrics 20 microburins and 54 miscellaneous items Adornments include atrophied deer canines Nasa Natica catena and Cypraea Culturally ascribed to the geometric Mesolithic The upper part of level III III sup contained 12 518 bone fragments The lithic industry included 1 282 items with 106 retouched objects 13 end scrapers 6 awls 1 abrupt on ake 22 backed bladelets 4 short notches 11 short denticulates 2 notches on ake 1 denticulate on blade ake 2 serrated edges with abrupt retouch 4 abrupt retouches on blade 18 geometrics 6 microburins and 16 miscellaneous items 343 ceramic fragments were counted with lines and incisions used in decoration Culturally ascribed to the Early Neolithic Level II A 20 cm deep homogeneous level with a brown colour silty and plastic structure some clasts and 4 766 bone fragments The lithic industry includes 953 items including 75 retouched objects 5 endscrapers 3 awls 10 backed bladelets 1 notch on ake 1 denticulate on ake 3 notches on blade 1 denticulate on blade 1 serrated edge 3 abrupt retouches 21 geometrics 6 microburins and 19 sidescrapers There were 794 ceramic sherds several of them decorated with impressions below the lip nger drawn lines and ungulations This level is culturally ascribed to the Early Neolithic Level I is the current oor from 10 to 20cm deep Brown grey matrix malleable silty composition initially dry and dusty then compacted 205
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 1. Mendandia stratigraphic section.  touches, 4 geometric items, 1 microbur...
206 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD moist and more granulous when excavated Abundant small clasts few cobbles and 1 044 bone fragments The lithic industry consists of 182 items with only 8 retouched objects two endscrapers one awl one denticulate on ake 2 denticulate on blade 1 abrupt ake and 1 segment 33 undecorated ceramic shards were found This level is culturally ascribed to the Early Neolithic Level Code BP Date I GrN 22740 6440 40 II GrN 22741 6540 70 GrN 22742 7180 45 GrN 19658 7210 80 Ua 34366 7265 60 GrN 22743 7620 50 GrN 22745 7780 40 GrN 22744 7810 50 GrA 6874 8500 60 III upper III lower IV V Table 1 Radiochronological references for the Mendandia site Lithic and ceramic industry The density of the lithic industry and its coordination with the stratigraphic sequence have played an important role in resolving the evolution of the population at this site The typological groups have a relatively balanced composition at each level only level IV shows a rupture between denticulates and scrapers and between these two elements miscellaneous and scrapers and the other categories Fig 2 The upper horizons I to III inf characterized by the geometric basis of their industries show a sequential evolution double bevelled segments characterize the three most recent episodes Neolithic while triangles and abrupt trapezoids represent the oldest Mesolithic period It is interesting to note the presence of occlusal forms which individualize the geometrism of the upper Ebro River basin in comparison to other areas of the same basin and the Cantabrian coast as an example of a personal stylistic development Level IV has yielded an extraordinary amount of lithic industry with a proliferation of notches denticulates and awls on ake and fragments ake retouch used in the manufacturing process Although this industry seems to be quite rough in fact it was well thought out and organized to shape tools with predetermined faces suitable for woodworking as proven in traceological analyses Its techno typological and chronological concordance with other Iberian sites lends considerable content to the Mesolithic notch and denticulate industry for which the Mendandia phase is major point of reference The small amount of material on level V consists of endscrapers and backed blades indicating its af liation to the laminar Mesolithic industry The inhabitants of Mendandia collected int from outcrops in Loza and Trevi o some 15 km away Urbasa 35 km away Flysch 80 km and the Ebro Evaporite 100 km Most of the ceramic material is from indeterminate parts of recipients 92 5 including edges n 83 a few handles and lids Originally they were simple forms such as bols a few in a closed S shape The decoration shows evidence of technical evolution the motifs are on edges or lips with incision used in the earliest periods and imprints in the most recent The three C14 dates for the upper level III show the surprising antiquity of this record Perhaps for this reason the assemblage is dif cult to identify stylistically while the ceramic material from higher levels concords well with early Neolithic imprinted ceramics Table 1 Lifestyles Hunting was one of the most privileged activities in Mendandia The strategic location of the shelter facilitated the groups capture of a wide variety of species 90 of which were roe deer deer and aurochs followed by wild boar goat horse and chamois and an anecdotal presence of fox wolf marten badger bobcat rabbit and hare The estimated age of the prey shows that hunting was mainly practiced in late spring and early summer The proportion of each anatomical part supplemented with anthracological data suggests that certain items were smoked for their presumed transfer to another campsite A genetic study has suggested that some of the old Neolithic bovids may have been domesticated Altuna and Mariezkurrena also suggest that the age and sex spectrum of the faunal assemblage in this
206  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  mois...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 2 Selection of prehistoric materials in Mendandia 207
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 2. Selection of prehistoric materials in Mendandia.  207
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 208 herd may evidence quasi domestication Palynological data contained the excavation report show that the Neolithic landscape was compatible with agriculture which would concur with the identi cation of int blades used to cut grain Pilar Garc a Arg elles Jordi Nadal Josep M Fullola The Montsant Valley Localities of Valle del Montsant Priorat Tarragona A key core region for Prehistory in the NE of Iberian Peninsula In recent years research work has been carried out as part of programme SGR2014 108 of the Generalitat de Catalu a and programme HAR2011 26193 of the MINECO 1 Presentation The middle course valley of the Montsant River an af uent of the Siurana the nal tributary of the Ebro before its connection to the sea contains a concentration of prehistoric sites speci cally from the Late Upper Palaeolithic and Epipalaeolithic that makes it a benchmark area in the Iberian Peninsula when researching these two phases of prehistory This area is located in the district of Priorato in the province of Tarragona Catalonia Spain in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula Fig 1 The presence of material evidence of the prehistoric population has been known since the 1930s when Salvador Vilaseca prospected the area and discovered different many int artefacts from the El Filador and Els Colls shelters His work in this area practically all of which was in the municipality of Margalef de Montsant continued through to the end of the 1960s with special emphasis on the aforementioned shelter El Filador where he carried out different excavation campaigns until 1968 His numerous publications Vilaseca 1936 1949 1953 1960 1968 1973 demonstrated the vital importance of the sector studied for Epipal Traceology has revealed a wide range of activities performed in this shelter from butchering leather and woodwork linked to the numerous res and int knapping to the use of materials for colouring aeolithic times The work by Javier Fortea in the early 1970s re examining the materials from El Filador for his PhD elevated the site to a preeminent position within the cultural and material evolution of the Epipalaeolithic in the Iberian Peninsula Fortea 1973 Starting in 1978 the University of Barcelona began an excavation programme in the middle course of the Montsant The programme began with the re excavation of El Filador 1979 1997 and the systematic prospecting in the area soon produced results Excavation was done at three other sites the Els Colls shelter 1982 1991 the Boix cave 19831984 and the L Hort de la Boquera shelter since 1998 other surface settlements were located such as L Hort d en Marquet or El Planot the latter with Mousterian materials located in the highest terrace of the river and other settlements already mentioned by Vilaseca and with very positive potential for the future were surveyed such as the cova de la Jaia or Tormos d en Celoni among many others In addition to this in 1981 the only known example of cave art with an engraved Palaeolithic gure in the NE of the peninsula was discovered this was a gure of a deer found in the inner galleries of the cova de la Taverna Fullola and Vi as 1985 Fig 4 2 and while initially this appeared out of place it is much more coherent in light of the Late Palaeolithic chronological context of the sites in the Montsant Valley that we present in this paper In regard to a different matter the construction of a dam required an urgent excavation in Adscripci n de los tres autores SERP Seminari d Estudis i Recerques Prehist riques de la Universidad de Barcelona rea de Prehistoria Departamento de Prehistoria Historia Antigua y Arqueolog a Facultad de Geograf a e Historia Universidad de Barcelona calle Montalegre 6 E 08001 Barcelona Correspondent author garciaarguelles ub edu
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  208  herd...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Figure 1 Location of the Montsant Valley in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula the L Aufer shelter which was carried out by archaeologists from our group in the early 1990s All of these excavations clearly demonstrated the richness of the area in consequence since 1978 the University of Barcelona rst with research programmes directed by one of us JMF and later since 1986 through the SERP Seminari d Estudis i Recerques Prehist riques and with different co directors of the different excavations with special dedication by the other two authors of this paper PG A and JN has been working continuously in the middle sector of the Montsant in the municipality of Margalef de Montsant 2 Geoarchaeological information The Montsant Valley gets its name from the Montsant Range located to the SW of the Central Catalan Depression Geographically the Montsant Range is oriented NE to SW with a total length of 19 km and approximately 30 km from the Mediterranean coast Geologically Oligocene conglomerates predominate reaching thicknesses of up to 300 m with a sandy matrix and calcareous cement Alternating with the conglomerates are layers of red clays gypsum and int nodules which erode much more easily and create rounded shapes which served as shelters under which the Prehistoric peoples lived In the area between Margalef de Montsant and Bisbal de Falset the river loses a signi cant part of its erosion capacity which has protected the different archaeological sites in the area Dr Bergad Bergad 1998 has proposed an evolutionary and chronological reconstruction of the sedimentary sequence of the middle course of the Montsant River Prior to 10 950BP Phase 1 alluvial deposit with signi cant intensity with several m of gravel and sand located 209
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Figure 1. Location of the Montsant Valley, in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula.  th...
210 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD mainly on the concave bank of the river Probably occurred during the Upper Pleistocene which would correspond to terrace level T2 Level IV of L Hort de la Boquera and level IX of the Els Colls shelter Phase 2 period of lower alluvial intensity with sand deposits Level VII of the Els Colls shelter and level II of L Hort de la Boquera Phase 3 time of ooding with local additions falling blocks level IV and V of the Els Colls shelter From 10 950 10 050 BP Phase 4 at ood area bioturbated sandy silts with local additions falling blocks from the ledges of the Els Colls shelter levels IV III and II and from L Hort de la Boquera level II with local runoff contributions 3a El Filador The El Filador site is located in the municipality of Margalef de Montsant to the north of the Priorato district in the province of Tarragona E X 311907 8m N Y 4572589 3m UTM 31N ETR S89 It is a large shelter approximately 100 m long although the archaeological site is located in the central part It is located 15 m above the current level of the Montsant River on the left bank approximately 340 masl just opposite the town of Margalef de Montsant The intermittent news of El Filador given by Salvador Vilaseca were based on prospecting studies prior to the Civil War and in short campaigns during the 1950s and 1960s Vilaseca 1936 1949 1953 1968 1973 Since 1979 the University of Barcelona has been in charge of the excavations Fullola and Garc a Arg elles 1980 directed through the SERP from 1986 to 1997 The environmental conditions were wet and cold based on the data from the Els Colls shelter while L Hort de la Boquera had less moist conditions Runoff processes began to operate level III and IV of L Hort de la Boquera and the slope deposits began to form in a semi arid environment Our stratigraphic survey Garc a Arg elles et al 2005 Fig 2 shows 11 distinct levels characterised as follows From 10 050 9 000 BP Level 2 25 cm thick and also very localized in the northwest zone where it covers 11 m2 On the whole ashen grey with characteristics of intense combustion and consequently signi cant alteration of its composition This corresponds to the rst archaeological level Phase 5 the river began to carve its path T1b with energetic sedimentation of gravel and sand level XII of the El Filador shelter Phase 6 lower intensity levels XI X and VIIIIX of the El Filador shelter Phase 7 at ood area bioturbated sandy silt of this terrace level This would correspond to the rest of the sequence studied in the El Filador shelter The runoff processes triggered the creation of alluvial cones After 9 000BP Phase 8 the river carves its path and forms terrace T1a 3 Archaeological sites In this section we will summarise the principal sites in which we have excavated in the area of the middle course of the Montsant River since 1978 and present the most signi cant ndings Level 1 Thickness of approximately 15 cm consisting of disturbed earth with the incorporation of modern materials In fact traces of the level remained in the northwest zone only Level 3 Very thin with a thickness of approximately 15 cm and located in the NW sector of the shelter covering just 8 m2 Level T This torrential addition overlaid level 4 and covered the entire surface area of the site This addition came from a lateral ow Its thickness decreases from one metre in the SE sector until it disappears on the opposite side It also included materials belonging to level 4 in its matrix of pebbles and gravel Level 4 This level already appeared throughout the entire extension of the site 20 m2 and in some sectors presented interspersing of torrential additions mainly in the SE sector Thickness approximately 25 cm Level 5 6 This is one of the double levels based on the sedimentological study but from the archaeological point of view it was impossible to differen
210  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  main...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES tiate it Thickness between 10 and 20 cm covered 8 m2 and was also concentrated in the NW sector Level 7 This is one of the thickest levels 41 cm and 27 m2 excavated In the SE zone this level was connected directly with level 4 and since they had the same composition it was very dif cult to distinguish between them Level 8 9 Had the same characteristics as level 5 6 and a thickness of 76 cm although just 28 cm correspond to the archaeological level the rest was made up of ood sand Levels 10 and 11 sterile from the archaeological point of view and that reached the underlying terrace of the Montsant River T1 Figure 2 Stratigraphic diagram of the El Filador shelter and cross sections at metres 4 and 10 from Garc a Arg elles et al 2005 69 211
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  tiate it. Thickness between 10 and 20 cm  covered 8 m2 and was also concentrated i...
212 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Culturally El Filador presents a continuous sequence from microlaminar phases which today we tend to assimilate into a transition with the end of the Upper Palaeolithic until the moment of Notches and Denticulates with some ceramic remains at the end of the occupation The lower levels 8 9 are the ones that appear to correspond to the microlaminar phases with radiocarbon dating ranging from 11 000 to 10 880 BP uncalibrated this indicates a range between the twelfth and thirteenth millennium calBC Backed blades 43 and backed points 14 4 predominate These are followed by burins 16 7 denticulates 5 2 and burins 2 There are also two large non delineated structures of soil rubi cated by re as well as different anthropically contributed stone blocks and two knapping zones Fig 3 2 Levels 7 4 and 3 form the largest part of the geometric Epipalaeolithic package Abrupt retouching predominates accounting for more than 80 with few scrapers and even fewer burins Micro burins a clear indicator of the geometric production account for between 30 and 45 of the retouched elements Segments of circles and triangles are the geometric forms present the former predominates over the latter in the initial moments with this proportion re versing in level 3 g 3 3 There are no trapezoids In level 7 four sandstone polishers intended for producing arrow shafts were found There are various pebbles with traces of red paint in one case in level 4 up to six red lines were clearly visible g 4 3 in another from level 7 a red stripe covered the entire perimeter and the other examples were entirely covered in ochre as if they had been submerged in it An anvil stone for knapping made up of two stones appeared in level 7 in relation to two combustion structures Other structures on level 4 in addition to ashes and rubifacted earth at the base presented a ll which included hundreds of shells from Cepaea nemoralis On this same level three slate plates were found intentionally cut in a double bevel two of these included a palimpsest of nely engraved lines with traces of ochre in the grooves the most plausible interpretation is that they were used as supports for cutting soft materials such as skins which had been prepared with ochre Level 4 also produced a bone punch with an oval cross section made of a bovine metatarsal an exceptional case of conservation in soil that has very negatively affected materials of animal origin The datings obtained for this set of levels are centred on the 10th millennium BP uncalibrated Figure 3 1 Materials from the Late Upper Palaeolithic of L Hort de la Boquera 2 Microlaminar materials from the Epipalaeolithic levels 8 9 of El Filador 3 Materials from the geometric Epipalaeolithic levels 4 7 of El Filador
212  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Cult...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES It is also important to highlight the presence of two conical shaped basins lled with int twelve fragments of ceramic that is dif cult to attribute small fragments of bone and charcoal These basins were obviously excavated during a more recent time Two carbon datings place this in the second half of the ninth millennium BP uncalibrated From the El Filador sequence we can infer a series of general re ections which are described below Figure 4 1 Tracking of naturalist gures engraved in a calcareous block from the Late Upper Palaeolithic from L Hort de la Boquera 2 Tracing of the Palaeolithic engraving of a deer in the Cova de la Taverna 3 Painted pebble from level 4 geometric Epipalaeolithic from El Filador 58 x41 x 18 mm Levels 5 6 are interspersed between level 7 and level 4 in one part of the site in an area of just 10 m2 in the NW sector of the shelter Their origins indicate slow periodic ooding based on ner granulometry than in levels 7 4 and 3 The occupations were therefore much more sporadic and localized in one part of the site Culturally however the representation of geometric elements continues to be signi cant 12 5 of segments and 7 5 of triangles along with 42 5 micro burins backed bladelets and backed point accounted for 15 and 12 5 endscrapers burins are still virtually non existent Dated at 9 988 97 BP uncalibrated Level 2 of the El Filador shelter covered only 11 m2 and was located in the NW section of the site Unlike the rest of the sedimentary package it was grey as a result of intense combustion Industrially the high percentage of denticulates especially notches and pines 36 and side scrapers 13 3 along with an increase in burins 11 and the spectacular drop in abrupt retouching barely 3 9 means that this level 2 of El Filador enters into the Notches and Denticulates phase recently de ned in the Ebro Valley Alday 2006 The end of the Upper Palaeolithic culture chronologically merged with the microlaminar complex and makes it dif cult to distinguish the technological identity of some levels or sites through the record Some settlements are attributed to the Late Upper Palaeolithic or the microlaminar Epipalaeolithic depending on the subjective criteria of the researchers due to the lack of de nition of the industry recovered and the vagueness of its chronology In theory this does not affect the records of El Filador itself but does affect other nearby sites such as Els Colls which we will see later in this paper with chronologies that immediately precede or coincide with it Emphasising that it is dif cult to distinguish the oldest microlaminar sites from those of the Late Upper Palaeolithic the microlaminar technical complex probably developed fully with possible earlier roots in the 12th millennium BP and would reach its oruit in the 11th millennium BP depending we repeat on the number of absolute datings to languish throughout the 10th millennium BP a phase in which there are few datings The transition from the microlaminar to geometric complex should not be understood as a break because the appearance of geometric elements does not mean the disappearance of the microlaminar component On the contrary we see that the backed elements continue to be very important 24 in level 7 and 24 2 in level 4 And in fact according to the dating table the geometric complex began at the same time as the maximum expansion of the microlaminar complex in the 11th millennium BP This could lead us to think that the technological innovation represented by the appearance of Epipalaeolithic geometrism would be used initially on certain occasions and in certain circumstances or to carry out speci c functions while for others the preference would be to continue with the backed elements of the microlaminar complex Finally the presence of the geometric component was ultimately super 213
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  It is also important to highlight the presence of two conical shaped basins    lle...
214 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD imposed on the microlaminar deposits with no geometric elements at the time of the maximum expansion of the Filador facies which technologically were Sauveterroid in the 10th millennium BP Garc a Arg elles and Nadal 1998 Garc aArg elles et al 2013 This in turn is presented in some sites with a much lower frequency until the 9th millennium BP We need to contradict the assertion by other authors regarding the high percentage of denticulates in all levels of El Filador This is true only in level 2 of Notches and Denticulates Neolithic and we would like to reassert the data on level 8 9 we have 10 denticulate elements on level 7 16 on level 5 6 1 on level 4 9 and on level 3 4 5 8 There is not a high percentage of denticulate tools so El Filador cannot be used to talk about a new facies of Notches and Denticulates located between the microlaminar and geometric which other researchers have located in the Ebro river basin and the Central Plateau at sites such as Forcas Utrilla and Mazo 1997 Mendandia Atxose Pe a 14 or El ngel Alday 2002 El Filador does not have the latest facies of the geometric Epipalaeolithic of the Fortea classi cation which is characterised by the presence of trapezoids and the disappearance of the micro burin technique In our area we have la Balma of la Margineda level 4 and those of the Ebro Valley Pontet Botiquer a Forcas According to the datings of Balma Margineda its chronology would be the 9th millennium coinciding with the most modern and recent datings of the Filador facies Sauveterroid In addition to the lack of data for trapezoidal facies in Catalonia the presence of a series of technical complexes that had not been attributed to the typology established by Fortea has been consolidated and have been cited as sites with atypical industry With an increasingly expanding record this group has consolidated itself as the cultural model for the 9th millennium BP which could explain the lack of sites with trapezoids The chronologies of these sites extend to the 8th millennium BP In any case for the time being the evolution detected in the Ebro Valley does not appear to be reproduced Microlaminar Epipalaeolithic Mesolithic with Notches and Denticulates and Mesolithic geometric with trapezoids Utrilla 2002 The Catalonian record for the 8th millennium BP is still too poor At El Filador we are missing the last two facies which could clarify the transition to a Neolithic without datings and with the small quantity of ceramic of level 2 The southern zone of Catalonia still has a gap as noted by Mart and Juan Cabanilles 1997 237 despite the fact that there have already been signi cant new developments in the Pyrenees areas Petit et al 1996 Pallar s Bordas and Mora 1997 The technological and economic model that we observed in El Filador was successful in the area for just over two millennia After that there is a chronological and cultural hiatus until the arrival of the Neolithic Other sites in the area such as El Aufer Adserias et al 1996 or L Hort de la Boquera corroborate this coherent development and an occupation of the territory that leads to a rational exploitation of the biotic and abiotic resources in one of the few areas in which these spatial distribution studies have been able to be carried out in a geographically limited area 3b L Hort de la Boquera This is a small shelter no more than 9 m long and 4 m deep that has lost part of its ledge and that conserves an excavatable surface area of no more than 20 m2 half of which is below the conserved section of the ledge It is oriented S SE is located on the right bank of the Montsant River approximately 25 m above the current level and approximately 400 masl E X 312108 8mN Y 4573254 3m UTM 31N ETR S89 Its stratigraphy is arranged on 4 levels level I which contains 2 sublevels Ia and Ib was formed by the processes of streams and falling blocks from the ledge This level is archaeologically sterile Level II is made up of a sandy silt matrix It has a thickness of 47 cm and is the only archaeological level at the site in which different habitation moments have been detected as we will discuss later in this paper The stratigraphy of the site is completed with level III which is made up of ne sand that contains some int remains but that do not indicate stable human occupation and level IV made up mainly of pebbles and gravel and which rests on terrace T2 of the Montsant Rivers 24 m above the current level Fullola 1978 Bergad 1993 157165 Garc a Arg elles et al i p In regard to the human activity of level II so far more than 30 000 lithic elements have been recovered mainly made of int but there is also a small number of elements made of slate and limestone
214  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  impo...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES 2 15 of the elements have been retouched and endscrapers and backed elements predominate Denticulates and truncated tools were found in smaller proportions Burins play a smaller role on fracture on retouch and dihedrals Fig 3 1 There are also round slate plates with bevelled edges and markings that are currently being studied In this sense there is a large limestone block on which a gure of a bird possibly a crane has been engraved surrounded by other clearer gures that can be interpreted as anthropomorphic Garc a Arg elles et al i p Fig 4 1 It appears that the presence of portable gurative art begins to be constant in the sites of the Late Upper Palaeolithic in southern Catalonia as in the case of Mol del Salt and Sant Gregori Falset Paleo environmentally the paleobotanical data is limited to the data provided by the anthracological studies conducted by Dr Allu There is a signi cant presence of Pinus sylvestris type and some elements of Juniperus sp In terms of fauna despite the de cient conservation of bone they cannot be said to be scarce Only the presence of Capra pyrenaica and Oryctolagus cuniculus can be cited The group is completed by different Cepaea nemoralis which are abundant in El Filador The gathering of terrestrial molluscs in the Catalonian area is very frequent in the Epipaleolithic sites but not for Palaeolithic occupations In this sense L Hort de la Boquera is one of the rst indicators of the expansion of the dietary spectrum in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula during the Pleistocene Holocene transition The datings of the phases of occupations range from 12 250 60 BP to 11 850 45 BP and 11 775 45 BP which places it along with the cultural characteristics that we just mentioned in a phase that corresponds to the Late Upper Palaeolithic Mangado et al 2010 Fullola et al 2012 3c Els Colls This is a shelter which is more than 50 m long and between 2 and 8 m high and up to 6 m deep in some sectors It is oriented towards the SW and is located on the right bank of the Montsant River 20 7 m above the current level and approximately 400 masl E X 312108 8m N Y 4573254 3m UTM 31N ETR S89 Sedimentalogically 8 levels have been identi ed Bergad 1993 186 191 level I was formed recently Level II is the most archaeologically rich with more than 9 000 lithic elements This occupation is settled on fallen blocks of conglomerate level III During the excavation we observed that the blocks of conglomerate were directly above level IV whose lithic material presented in many cases fracturing of the pieces Bergad 1998 This level IV was excavated in a smaller sector of the shelter and therefore offered fewer lithic elements 1 500 Below level V to the river terrace the levels are sterile Abrupt elements predominate in level II backed bladelets and backed points In terms of simple retouched tools side scrapers are most prevalent and there are also burins which in many cases are double burins and on truncated elements Fauna is not very abundant and appears to be highly fragmented most elements belong to large mammals and are splinters whose size indicates intense activity for the exploitation of hunting products deer wild goat etc In many cases the elements present evidence of combustion processes connected with the appearance of a home on level II There are traces of pollen mainly from Pinus and Quercus t ilex Three absolute datings have been obtained two by C14 10 950 120 BP and 10 050 85 BP and a third by thermoluminescence 13 000 1 000 BP Fullola et al 1993 In the underlying level IV we documented a predominance of simple retouching endscrapers and denticulates followed by abrupt retouched tools such as backed bladelets and backed points The study of the spatial distribution of the archaeological material has determined the existence of an important area of knapping and a combustion structure There are no traces of fauna The archaeological levels of the Els Colls shelter present a series of industrial characteristics that are chronologically and culturally homogeneous The large dimensions of different backed elements could lead us to think of early phases of the Upper Palaeolithic but the rest of the sites in the valley the aforementioned datings and other technological details clearly place the site in the Late Upper Palaeolithic Rodr guez Baylach unpublished 3d La Cova del Boix The cave is an opening in a cliff on the left bank of the Montsant River It has a single chamber approximately 25 m wide by 15 m deep open in the NE direction E X 313992 0m N Y 4573860 0 UTM 31 ETR S89 Garc a Arg elles and Fullola 2002 It was excavated in 1982 83 The stratigraphy is inverted due to the disturbances caused by the use of 215
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  2.15  of the elements have been retouched and endscrapers and backed elements pred...
216 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD No radiocarbon dating is available for this site but its industrial characteristics place it closer to the cases mentioned before of Els Colls and L Hort de la Boquera which involves a chronologicalcultural attribution to the Late Upper Palaeolithic with the characteristic of a higher proportion of endscrapers with respect to burins Garc aArg elles and Fullola 2002 V corresponds to the terrace on which the site is settled which consists mostly of river pebbles More than 20 000 lithic elements were collected almost all int of which 3 4 are retouched with endscrapers predominating followed by elements with abrupt retouching and nally burins Traces of fauna are very scarce and very poorly conserved it can only be said that Capra pyrenaica along with Cervus elaphus and Oryctolagus cuniculus predominate There is one reliable radiocarbon dating which also corresponds to the base of the sequence level V which is sterile The date is 12 317 114 BP and for the reasons mentioned regarding the location of the sample it was not taken into consideration by the excavation directors M Adserias personal communication Nevertheless in our opinion it gives a post quem date for the archaeological package of level III and is similar to the ones obtained at other sites in the area with signi cant technotypological similarities such as L Hort de la Boquera and Els Colls Adserias et al 1996 3e L Abric de l Aufer 3f Other sites in the middle valley of the Montsant River This is the only site that was excavated as an emergency excavation due to the impact of the construction of the Margalef reservoir It was excavated in the early 1990s under the direction of the members of our group Maria Adserias and Ra l Bartol Once again this is a shelter that opens in the southern direction on the left bank of the River approximately 22 m above the current level E X 315173 8m N Y 4574478 8m UTM 31N ETR S89 Adserias and Bartrol 2007 Having presented the principal excavated sites it is important to remember that as mentioned in the introduction that the research by S Vilaseca and our own excavations have identi ed many other sites whether caves shelters or outside in the middle valley of the Montsant River This makes this one of the areas with the highest concentration of archaeological stations in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula the space by carboneros charcoal makers who used the cave as a shelter However the recovered materials indicated that prehistoric occupation had existed Just over one thousand lithic elements were recovered of which 41 are retouched pieces backed elements clearly predominate with some endscrapers which outnumber the burins There are some traces of fauna but it is dif cult to distinguish between the old elements and the modern additions Remains from wild animals such as Cervus elaphus or Capra pyrenaica which can be attributed to prehistoric additions have been recovered In this excavation two sectors were opened In one abundant ceramics were found in the rst level which was one of the few cases of Montsant sites with occupation with Neolithic chronology The most interesting sector is the one described in sector II which contains 5 levels Level I corresponds to the surface level of sandy matrix with a large quantity of gravel from 1 to 3 cm and a signi cant organic component it incorporates archaeological materials from the lower levels as a result of agricultural disturbances Level II is located in the parts protected by the shelter ledge Its matrix is made up of the degraded materials of the wall of the shelter and incorporates archaeological material from the previous level in the contact zone Level III divided into two sublevels presents in its lower section the true archaeological level with many lithic elements but with no ceramic Level IV with a silty matrix only presented a few lithic elements incorporated from the upper level and level L Hort d en Marquet located in 1980 is an area with an abundance of int on the surface and which presents in one of the areas in which lithic material has been found stratigraphy that is currently very degraded due to human activities during historic times In a second level of this sequence with a thickness of approximately 1015 centimetres a concentration of archaeological material was detected This consists of retouched pieces that included scrapers burins and knapped dorsal elements Without absolute dating and with the data from the other excavated sites Els Colls and L Hort de la Boquera it is very feasible that the site corresponds to the Late Upper Palaeolithic Fullola and Garc a Arg elles 1980 El Planot would be another one of these sites This is a surface site the only one located on the upper terrace of the river more than 30 m above the current level on the borders of the municipalities of Margalef de Montsant and La Bisbal de Falset
216  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  No r...
EBRO VALLEY PYRENEES AND PRE PYRENEES Approximately 50 pieces were recovered with side scrapers and denticulate tools predominating For this reason along with its location on the upper terrace the site is supposed to correspond to a Mousterian chronology Fullola and Garc a Arg elles 1982 83 4 Conclusion After describing some of the most important sites we feel that the archaeological importance of the Montsant Valley has been clearly explained especially in regard to the nal phases of the hunter gatherer communities of the Late Upper Palaeolithic and the Epipalaeolithic In this sense beyond this chronological margin for now we have just one site that could be attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic El Planot and two occupations that could be attributed to the Neolithic on the upper levels of l Aufer and El Filador It is quite likely that the geographic and agricultural attractiveness of the area for hunter gatherers was lost at least in regard to agricultural potential The majority of the Montsant sites are very homogeneous in regard to a series of characteristics which include chronology when reliable datings are available Most of them are occupations in shelters located on the second terrace level of the river at heights above the current level that range from 20 to 25 metres They are located on both sides of the Montsant but they all coincide at a position of convergence between the river and the end of cliffs that face it and that mark the start of the ranges between which it runs the Montsant Range on the left and the Llena Range on the right The most recurrent animal species is the Capra pyrenaica The sites normally have a single phase with a single archaeological level Boix L Aufer L Hort de la Boquera or several archaeological levels that correspond to the same chronologicalcultural phases Els Colls The predominant lithic elements are backed elements or endscrapers which are always more abundant than burins Its datings range between the middle of the 8th and middle of the 12th millennia BP which would make them coincide with the nal phases of the Magdelenian Despite this though they do present some speci c aspects such as the aforementioned scarcity of burins and the predominance of endscrapers the lack of bone industry although this may be due to postdepositional biases or in some cases the presence of gurative portable art on lithic supports L Hort de la Boquera which starts to become generalised in the Tarragona sites of this time Mol del Salt perhaps Sant Gregori and that brings them closer to synchronic sites in the neighbouring zone of Castell n Based on all of this we think that it could be attributed to the Late Upper Palaeolithic coinciding with what we know as the Late Upper Magdalenian with some regionally speci c characteristics For now according to the data on the lithic industry fauna and locations of the sites we suppose that these sites from the Late Upper Palaeolithic in the Montsant Valley could present a similar pattern of occupation sites close to the river which would allow the gathering of int which was available in abundance in the river and which were possibly exploited for food resources They would also facilitate access from the cliffs to the higher areas of the surrounding mountain ranges for specialised hunting of mountain goats or that took advantage of the intersection between cliffs and the river to wait for this prey when it descended from the mountains to be captured Finally and although the site currently represents an exception to the model explained before we have the El Filador shelter which thanks to its stratigraphic sequence and its complete dating series as well as the reinterpretation of some of its levels continues to serve as a reference for the systematization of the different facies of the Epipalaeolithic in the northeast area of the Iberian Peninsula with the presence of microlaminar geometric notches and denticulates moments Garc a Arg elles et al 2005 Garc a Arg elles et al 2013 217
EBRO VALLEY, PYRENEES AND PRE-PYRENEES  Approximately 50 pieces were recovered, with side scrapers and denticulate tools p...
4 mediterranean basins north of the ebro river NORTH WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS 219
4  mediterranean basins. north of the ebro river  NORTH-WESTERN ATLANTIC BASINS.  219
Site Map numbering Site Abric Roman 41 La Cansaladeta 42 La Cativera 43 Cinglera del Capell 44 Reclau Viver ensemble 45 St Juli de Ramis Pleistocene ensemble La Selva and Puig d en Roca ensemble 46 Montgr Middle Pleistocene ensembles 47 Cova de l Arbreda 48 Cova del Gegant 49 Cova del Rinoceront 50 Els Vinyets 51 Barranc de la Boella 52 Mol del Salt 53 Map numbering Cova de les Teixoneres and Cova del Toll 54 Vallparad s 55
Site  Map numbering  Site  Abric Roman    41  La Cansaladeta  42  La Cativera  43  Cinglera del Capell    44  Reclau Viver...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER Josep Vallverd Ethel Allu Amelia Bargall Isabel C ceres Gerard Campeny Mar a Gema Chac n Maria Joanna Gabucio Bruno G mez Juan Manuel L pez Garc a M nica Fern ndez Juan Mar n Francesca Romagnoli Palmira Saladi Alex Sol Manuel Vaquero Eudald Carbonell Abric Roman Capellades Anoia 1 Location and research history The l Abric Roman site is a large rock shelter located on the north side of the travertine cliff known as Cinglera del Capell Capellades Barcelona La Cinglera is a 60m thick escarpment made from lacustrine spring travertine mesa formed by a multilayer groundwater springs of the Capellades region Capellades village lies on this travertine mesa at 300 320m above sea level Cinglera del Capell was thoroughly explored by Amador Roman at the beginning of the twentieth century A Roman was a businessman in the paper industry of Capellades and a naturalist associated to the Instituci Catalana d Hist ria Natural in turn associated with the Institut d Estudis Catalans The Abric Roman also known locally as Balma del fossar vell before it was discovered in 1909 is one of the rst sites in the Iberian Peninsula in which Mousterian lithic industries were identi ed The rst excavation campaigns at Abric Roman were sponsored by the Institut d Estudis Catalans rst directed by Father Nobert Font i Sagu and then by mining engineer Llu s Mari Vidal One hundred years after it was discovered three long periods of research activity and archaeological excavations can be identi ed The rst runs until the 1930s and its results are related to the argument over the age and the presence of Neanderthals in Catalonia This phase ends with the publication of the Abric Roman ndings in the Hist ria de Catalunya d Antoni Rovira i Virgili based on the Atlas de Prehist ria made by Amador Roman with a depth of 10m Fig 1 The second period was led by Dr Eduardo Ripoll and the 5th INQUA Congress held in Spain The work of Dr Ripoll was based on reviewing the stratigraphy and extending the studies carried out by Amador Roman There were also speci c studies dedicated to the Upper Paleolithic lithic industries found in the layer two of the nomenclature of Amador Roman by Dr Georges Laplace Professors Henry de Lumley and Eduardo Ripoll published the stratigraphy review and Mousterian lithic industry in various papers in the rst half of the 1960s The last period of excavation work and research started in 1983 and is still going on The early years of this project were led by a work group associated to the Universitat Aut noma de Barcelona and the Centre de Recerques Paleoecosocials CRPES under the direction of Dr Eudald Carbonell Artur Cebri and Dr Rafael Mora The research programme of this last excavation phase adheres to an approach based on the excavation of large surface which are seemingly very well preserved The dating of the travertine based on the Uranium series and the pollen preserved in the calcareous sediments have returned very important results on the paleoecology of the Abric Roman and the region of Capellades The Abric Roman scree desposits are an singular archive in continental settings and IPHES Institut Catal de Paleoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social C Marcel l Domingo s n Campus Sescelades URV Edi ci W3 43007 Tarragona Spain rea de Prehist ria Universitat Rovira i Virgili URV Avinguda de Catalunya 35 43002 Tarragona Spain UMR7194 D partement de Pr histoire Mus um national d Histoire naturelle 1 rue Ren Panhard 75013 Paris France Sezione di Scienze Preistoriche e Antropologiche Dipartamento di Studi Umanistici Universit degli Studi di Ferrara Ferrara Italy Cattedra di Preistoria Dipartimento di Storia Geogra a Archeologia Arte e Spettacolo Universit degli Studi di Firenze Via S Egidio 21 50122 Firenze Italy Visiting professor Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology of Beijing IVPP PR China 221
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  Josep Vallverd   ,  , Ethel Allu   ,  , Amelia Bargall   ,  , Isabel C  ce...
222 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 1 Location of the Abric Roman in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula and sketch of the section of the site with the work carried out by Amador Roman during the rst quarter of the nineteenth century The stratigraphic sketch of the Abric Roman was published in the Hist ria de Catalunya in 1928 in which the execution of shaft 1 is noteworthy complements the global paleoenvironmental archives of the Upper Pleistocene The excavation and research team from the Universitat Rovira i Virgili in Tarragona under the direction of Dr Eudald Carbonell started to work in Abric Roman during the large surface excavation work in level H in 1989 This team is currently continuing with the work within the Institut Catal de Paleoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social IPHES The interest of the research and development of these excavations is based on the spatial documentation on the structures and the archaeological materials The large surface excavation work has occupied 9 archaeological levels form H to P and three monographs dedicated to levels H I and J have been published From archaeological level K the large surface excavation work is complete and it is not affected by the pits of previous phases of archaeological work The thickness of the large surface excavation sediment is around 10m deep In addition Amador Roman s shaft 1 was excavated to an additional 6m deep and its base was dated at 70 000 BP A mechanical borehole from level P has documented another 30 m of deposits which is located around 9 m below the last travertine of the rock shelter Therefore the talus scree deposits accumulated at the foot Abric Roman escarpment is at least 40 m thick This thick places the base of the talus scree at the foot of the escarpment at 260 m above sea level This elevation of 260 m is very close to the elevation of the 20 25 m terrace encaised in the valley of the river Anoia
222  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER 2 Stratigraphy and chronology The Sedimentary Geology of the talus scree deposits at Abric Roman escarpment has an evident zonation caused by the dripline of the carbonate curtains in the roof of the archaeological site In the region of Capellades the carbonate curtains are called Capell These carbonate curtains are formed by plants being encrusted by calcite and develop along the lacustrine travertine escarpment concurrently with the alveolar weathering or tafoni of the cliff wall In some archaeological levels such as levels J and M the distance between the back wall and the dripline of the rock shelter can be more than 12 m Therefore during the fastest growth periods of the carbonate curtain in the Abric Roman there is a wide surface habitable at the foot of the wall protected from the weather by the shelter roof The stratigraphy of the Abric Roman has repeatedly been described during various research excavation projects Amador Roman distinguished sand stratum and stalagmite stratum The work of Ripoll and de Lumley recognises three types of sediments rocks gravel and sand deposits reddish calcareous deposits and calcareous deposits travertine In the stratigraphic descriptions from the start of the third phase of research the attention given to the different variants of travertine lithofacies is noteworthy All of these descriptions are based on observing outcrops of the upper part of the stratigraphic sequence of the rock shelter and they coincide in describing the three main lithofacies described by Dr Ripoll and Dr de Lumley The works of Amador Roman s in the shaft 1 con rmed the volumetric signi cance of the travertine and calcareous sediments in the stratigraphic succession of the Abric Roman rock shelter The travertine was widely dated and published in Nature by J L Bischoff This work details the high chronological resolution of the stratigraphic succesion and the potential of the site to illustrate the latest archaeological assemblages of the material culture of the Neanderthals in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula The high temporal resolution of the sediment of the Abric Roman was characterised by its high sedimentation rate estimated at 0 6m per 1000 years The dates have been established using the uranium series and situate the deposits of the Abric Roman in marine isotope stage 3 40 60 ky BP Later the same geochronologist published the calendar chronology of the travertine containing the Upper Paleolithic industries in the layer 2 or level A of the current archaeological stratigraphy and calibrated the radiocarbon chronology of the carbon in this layer level A The results con rmed a consistent and reliable group of calendar dates of high temporal resolution for the travertine at the top of the shelter sediment sequence and also con rmed the old age of the Upper Paleolithic at Abric Roman 42 6 ky BP Sampling of shaft 1 also offered the opportunity to research the pollen biostratigraphy of the Abric Roman The pollen study was carried out by Dr F Burjachs and Dr R Juli from the Institut Jaume Almera in Barcelona The samples were taken from shaft 1 and different pro les available in the old archaeological pits from the top portion of the stratigraphy of the Abric The pollen record was divided into 5 bio zones which register abrupt climate changes Bio zones 1 2 and 3 show variations in the arboreal non arboreal content in a chronostratigraphy interval similar to the variation in the isotopic content of the oxygen identi ed in the ice core samples from Greenland The upper bio zones of the sediment sequence are more dif cult to correlate However the pollen curve for the Abric Roman shows a singular relation between age models of paleoclimatic change recorded in prehistoric caves and rock shelters and global stratotypes of environmental change based on in marine and glaciological settings From archaeological level K large surface excavation in the Abric Roman started documenting a large area without pits from the old research projects Two stratigraphic pro les were preserved in the centre of the shelter However as the depth of the large surface excavation increased it was clear that the outcrop of the coveta Nord section of the site was the best stratigraphic pannel to explain the Sedimentary Geology of the rock shelter Fig 2 A few years later one of the pro les reserved from the shelter wall was excavated while the volume of the other was reduced in order not to affect the spatial documentation of the archaeological levels excavated in large surface 2 1 The coveta Nord section The roof of the rock shelter presents the carbonate curtain welded with the deposits of the stratigraphy of the rock shelter after the level J This welding determines the increase in the frequency of the endokarstic sedimentary process which forms bio chemical sediments in the strati 223
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  2. Stratigraphy and chronology The Sedimentary Geology of the talus scree ...
224 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 2 Sketch of the coveta Nord section of Abric Roman and its synthetic lithostratigraphic logs Legend a conglomerates and tuffaceous sands b bryophyte bio constructions c crystalline angular gravel d cementation and algal laminated bio constructions e calcareous sands and siliciclastic red muds f recrystallizated stalagmitic massif g boundary surfaces f sequence boundaries Comments on the column I archaeological levels II Uranium series dates III sequence numbering IV Bond cycle boundaries with the D O Greenland event numbers and the Heinrich events of the North Atlantic with the GISP2 temporal scale V pollen zones graphic record of the upper part of the Abric Roman succesion The rest of the sedimentary succesion could be described by the predominance of the clastic processes alternated with the biochemical processes particularly near the wall of the shelter In the dripline the stratigraphy shows the importance of fragmentation of the curtain of the rock shelter These clastic processes were highlighted in the rst stratigraphy studies of the last research period as large blocks in the shaft 1 and used as a criterion to separate stratigraphic ensembles The growth or shrinkage of the carbonate curtain of Abric in uences the location of the dripline The temporal drifting of the dripline results in clear zoning of the deposits accumulated at the foot of the travertine escarpment an interior zone between the back wall and the dripline of the rock shelter and an exterior zone from the dripline to the slope of the talus scree The coveta Nord section t as best stratigraphic outcrop for understanding the talus scree deposits talus d eboulis in a rock shelter setting Many of the facies described as sediments formed by precipitation travertine are quickly buried and recrystallization is relatively limited and allows uranium series dating The coveta Nord section has allowed the stratigraphic description work to be reviewed to set out 5 allostratigraphical units or sequences These sequences are based on hierarchisation of the discontinuities or boundary surfaces of the sedimentary bodies The even numbered sequences contain deposits of dominant clastic facies and indicate shrinkage of the carbonate curtain of the shelter curtain The odd numbered sequences contain dominant calcium carbonate precipitation and represent the Capell accretion It is noteworthy that the collapse of the carbonated curtain is time transgressive it occurs regularly over all sequences
224  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER The upper chronostratigraphic horizon of the sequence is the most recent travertine dated in the Abric Romani averaged at 40 ky BP This discontinuity has a clear lithological change between the most recent travertine and red calcareous and siliciclastic sediments in the coveta Nord section These deposits have been dated using OSL at 29 5 1 9 ky BP The chronostratigraphic horizon of the bottom of sequence unit I which separates sequences I and II has dates measured at 44 9 2 5 and 44 6 1 5 ky BP by Uranium series These dates between the last travertines averaged in 40 ky and 44 9 above level E are close to the Greenland interstadial 12 time span also known as Hengelo interstadial in the pollen biostratigraphy of Grand Pile Greenland ice cores Up until now we have been able to group sediment sequences and chronological intervals for stadials and interstadials 9 to 14 and we are now in the archaeological levels P and Q very close to reaching Greenland interstadial stadial 16 17 The environmental change age model provided by the Abric Roman sequences is independent and the dates measured are calendar dates U series dates These environmental change dates established by a group of dates and stratum delimited by discontinuities show better correlation with the cronology of ice core GISP2 age model than the GRIP age model The chronostratigraphic horizon separating sequence II from III are the travertine in which archaeological level Jb lies and the average date measured is 50 0 1 6 ky BP The bottom boundary of the sequence III has a calendar date of 52 5 1 and their chronostratigraphic boundaries of level K can be correlated with Greenland interstadial 14 also known as Glinde interstadial Dating of the base of sequence 4 has not yet been determined but it contains a date group prior to Greenland interstadial 14 Paleoenvironmental research of the Abric Roman sequence has provided a lot of valuable data for reconstructing the paleoecology of the human occupations The paleoenvironment reconstruction data comes from several proxies that include paleobotany palynology and anthracology and micro vertebrates micro mammals amphibians and reptiles that complement and allow habitat and climate aspects to be understood in order to de ne the landscape in which Neanderthals lived The sediment sequences of Abric Roman show the climatic control in the rhythmicity of the carbonate curtain growth and shrinkage Uranium series dating of the Abric Roman sequences indicate the formation of calcium carbonate precipitation deposits and fragmentation during the abrupt environmental oscillations with a magnitude of the time scale of the Bond cycles or long periods of cooling These long periods of cooling end with a maximum period of cooling correlated with the Henrich events in the North Atlantic Therefore the red calcareous and siliciclastic sediments at the top of sequence II which contains level E shows the aeolian deposits during the chronology of Henrich 5 At the top of sequence I although formed by red calcareous and siliciclastic sediments too from the top with an OSL dating of around Henrich 3 the date determined in the most recent travertine of Abric Roman dated at 40 ky is signi cant as this date is very close to the chronology of the Heinrich 4 event in the North Atlantic 39 ky BP To sum up the chronostratigraphy and the sequences of Abric Roman cover the oscillations described in the Oxygen isotope stratigraphy in the 3 Paleoenvironment The palynological sequence throughout the phases shows a dominance of Pinus that characterises tree formations during the whole period Fig 3 At the base of the sequence between 70 and 67 ky BP the data re ects a warm climate phase with a dominance of tree pollen including Quercus evergreens and Olea Phillyrea Between 66 and 59 ky BP gramineae dominate re ecting a colder phase Between 57 and 50 ky BP and Pinus and gramineae Artemisia and Poaceae dominate with a presence of meso and thermophilic taxa at times indicating climate oscillations during this period Between 50 and 47 ky BP the data re ects the dominance of Asteraceae Poaceae and Artemisia suggesting steppe vegetation and cold conditions Finally around 46 ky a warm climate trend is identi ed with an increase in Quercus and Olea Phillyrea Fig 3 Anthracological data for levels D to O shows a dominant taxon in the anthrocological set which is Pinus sylvestris and represents more than 90 of identi able material The dominance of this species is conditioned by the selection of this taxon for use as fuel Level O presents other taxa in addition to Pinus such as as Prunus and Juniperus and in level D mesophile species in charcoal fragments are identi ed such 225
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  The upper chronostratigraphic horizon of the sequence is the most recent t...
226 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD as deciduous Acer Quercus sp and other unidenti able angiosperms which may re ect a change due to more favourable climate conditions that are consistent with the palynological data Scots pine forests are the dominant tree formations throughout the sequence which are characterised for being forest with many clearings without much taxonomic diversity Microvertebrates at Abric Romani come from the study of levels D E J N and O The species identi ed are insectivores Russula Crocidura Sorex gr coronatus and Talpa europaea araneus Chiroptera Miniopterus schreibersii Pipistrellus pipistrellus Nyctalus lasiopterus and rodents Microtus arvalis M agrestis Iberomys cabrerae Terricola duodecimcostatus T cf pyrenaicus Arvicola sapidus Apodemus sylvaticus and Eliomys quercinus Similarly water environments are identi ed such as Arvicola sapidus The herpetofauna study represents amphibians and reptiles providing 3 anuran Bufo bufo Bufo calamites Rana temporaria and 3 reptiles Lacertidae indet Anguis fragilis and Vi pera aspis Fig 3 This data re ect domination of open forest species and species that require humidity and colder climate conditions than the current ones The paleoenvironmental data on Abric Romani re ects a mosaic landscape forests grasslands riparian forests which are larger or smaller according to the warmer or cooler climate phases In general the sequence data re ects colder temperatures than current ones which is proven by the presence of certain micro vertebrates and the distribution of Pinus sylvestris 4 The lithic industry The general characteristic of all archaeological levels of the Abric Romani is the fragmentation of the operative sequences although re tting studies shows that full or almost full knapping sequences have been found in some levels The main objective of the lithic sequences is to obtain as many knapped products as possible and these are there Figure 3 The biostratigraphy record of the Abric Roman and the habitats identi ed by the disciplines dedicated to paleoenvironmental and paleoecological reconstruction
226  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  as d...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER fore the predominant category in all archaeological levels of the site However cores and retouched objects are scarce in the record not reaching signi cant percentages in most of the archaeological levels except level O where we documented 170 cores In terms of raw materials the most used is chert in different varieties Fig 4 D followed by quartz and limestone and there are a few in quartzite porphyry granite and schist Lithic raw apcaptation is local and semi local in a perimeter around the shelter ranging from a few hundred metres to 20 km Changes in the strategy for raw materials provision within the same environment are observed throughout the sequence The clearest example is chert this raw material is dominant throughout the sequence but the percentage changes from one archaeological level and another In the case of level I this raw material has very low percentages level I 50 compared to the rest of the sequence Secondly there are levels that have signi cantly higher percentages F G L O reaching values of up to 90 and even monopolising all knapped objects such as level H This would re ect the ability of human groups to select the most appropriate strategy from the possible alternatives for supply raw material at any given time Morphotechnical analysis of the cores and knapped products has allowed the different types of operative sequences performed in the Middle Palaeolithic levels of the site to be reconstructed tested cores left without late transformation hierarchical centripetal cores Levallois method essentially recurrent centripetal discoid method polyhedral morphologies and fragments or akes with some isolated retouch without any predetermined organisation or schema The distribution of the different strategies is not homogeneous on all levels Thus in the upper levels level E there is a tendency for hierarchical strategies Fig 4 C However in the intermediary levels levels I J K L M there is a preference for non hierarchical models At lower levels O and P the existence of hierarchical strategies is identi ed again with a high number of cores and knapped products that show the use of the Levallois method In terms of the production sequences there is an almost exclusive operating standard Denticulate morphologies dominate in all levels especially in the lower levels 90 Fig 4 A For this reason after the rst studies of the lithic industry based on the liste types the Abric Romani sequence was ascribed to Mousterian of denticulates Large surface excavation has allowed studies on the spatial distribution of lithic assemblages to be carried out Fig 4 E These studies have permitted reconstruction of the spatial distribution of the lithic technical activities and in particular of movement and transport of raw materials between the lithic activity areas identi ed within the site The spatial dimension of the operative sequences shows an anthropic differentiation in different lithic activity areas of the living oors particularly in the levels made of large lithic assemblages quantity with spaces that act as convergence points for the different operating processes By analysing the spatial distribution of the lithic remains in a large part of the sequence of Abric Roman we have been able to document a very different use of the space indicating highly complex organisation and activity area contemporaneity in the Neanderthal living oors Secondly these studies have also provided diachronic and synchronic data several episodes of independent occupation being documented for the same level which we have identi ed based on the recycling of artefacts A functional analysis of the use wear lithic assemblage using a scanning electron microscope has been carried out on a sample of akes and retouched objects from all archaeological levels in the sequence The results show that the pieces in which traces of use wear have been identi ed were used mainly for transforming animal biomass in butchery activities and in some isolated cases for technical activities related to transforming vegetable remains mainly wood 5 The fauna The skeletal remains of fauna are abundant throughout the sequence of Abric Romani A total of 13 different taxa have been identi ed although deer Cervus elaphus and horses Equus ferus are the most common animals in all levels of the stratigraphic sequence Aurochs Bos primigenius and chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica are also present the former in the lower part of the sequence and the latter at higher levels The presence of specimens of rhinoceros Stephanorhinus hemitoechus has also been documented at various levels although through few remains At level E a femur of an unidenti ed proboscidea was recovered Despite the high prominence of her 227
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  fore the predominant category in all archaeological levels of the site. Ho...
228 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Figure 4 Lithic industry at Abric Roman A Chert retouched objects denticulate tools B Pseudo Levallois lithic ake in limestone C Bifacial centripetal cores discoid and Levallois in chert D Flake and laminar ake in chert E Lithic reassemblages in chert quartz and limestone
228  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Figu...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER bivores in all levels some carnivore remains have also been recovered Table 1 These are most abundant in the upper part of the sequence up to level E where a cave environment allows the presence of these animals to be associated with the establishment of occasional dens Apart from the natural intrusion of carnivores in levels B and O remains of Lynx sp and Felis silvestris have been documented respectively with cut marks and which are the result of the contribution and use by Neanderthals In terms of taphonomy the most abundant modi cations in the bone assemblage are those related to anthropic use cut marks and fractured bones Cremation has also been found very often but it could be related to speci c deliberate activities However it can be said that cremation was possibly carried out using different processes ranging from preparing food to clearing the oor of the living oor Carnivore modi cations are almost absent from the faunal assemblage In addition to the diversity it seems clear that deer and horses were an important part of the diet of the Neanderthals during the settlements at Abric Roman The assemblage stands out for the presence of high survival items craniums jaws diaphysis fragments of long leg bones The rst stud A B Ursus sp D X E The faunal record for the Abric Roman shows that Neanderthals were active hunters and that they used complex strategies to catch and transport the carcasses of large ungulates The low presence of carnivores and their modi cations in the assemblage suggests that these animals were not much competition for the Neanderthals These human groups also developed an intense intake of the entire carcass and combined with the use of re they left few items that could be a target in order to be ravaged by carnivores F G H I J K L X Canis lupus C ies established that this representation was due to the different ways prey was transported According to this model deer was transported whole and the axial skeleton of larger animals was left where it was found Current research indicates that the selective transportation process carried out by Neanderthals was highly complex and variable in terms of anatomy and did not simply involve abandoning the axial skeleton of large animals Thus for example the scarce rhinoceros remains or the single proboscidea remain in level E seems to be the result of this decision The low presence does not mean anything more than selective transport of the skeleton of these animals undoubtedly related with the pro tability of the contribution to the camp of one party or another M N X O P X X X X Panthera leo spelaea X Panthera pardus Lynx sp X X Felis silvestris X X Crocuta crocuta X X X X X Proboscidea indet X X X X Stephanorhinus hemitoechus X X Equus ferus X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Cervus elaphus X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Bos primigenius Rupicapra pyrenaica X X X X X X Table 1 Main fauna taxa in the archaeological levels of Abric Roman X X X 229
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  bivores in all levels, some carnivore remains have also been recovered  Ta...
230 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD new interpretations providing information on the ways of life and social organisation of the domestic space of the Neanderthals The methodology for studying these remains is based on analysing the morphology and stratigraphic and spatial position The preservation of wood in the form of imprints charred wood and charcoal allows us to interpret for the rst time how rewood was gathered the formats collected and how it was used The fuel used for household maintenance consisted mainly of Scots pine and different sizes and shapes were used According to data provided by the characterization of the rewood in the level M the sample from which is the largest and best studied so far there are two fuel collection methods Collection would be based on dead wood therefore that which occurs physiologically twigs would be collected directly immediately and systematically with little investment and effort while larger rewood that occurs more traumatically branches and logs require a greater investment of effort to nd and transport which is offset by the higher performance of these items Different patterns of fuel use have also been observed according to the spatial distribution pattern especially the distance between the wall of the shelter and the human occupation s density Figure 5 A wood imprint located in level N The imprint is clearly de ned aswood and seems to have been modi ed as it does not have any type of branch 6 Wood imprints The wood record at Abric Roman represents a particularly unique case as the context is a prehistoric habitat Wood remains have been identi ed in all of the levels excavated in the large surface excavation from H to P its use for various activities being documented as fuel the wood imprints are documented as charred rewood on the combustion strucutres or as accumulated reserves for structural or architectural applications Fig 5 for wooden objects and for tools The fossils are preserved under very special conditions related to the drip of water from the shelter roof Both charred wood and imprints formed buried very quickly by calcium carbonate precipitation The study of this exceptional record and the possibility of associating it with the other elements of the living oor a various large surface archaeological levels have great potential to generate 7 Combustion structures The record on re use at the Abric Roman is further evidence of the exceptional state of preservation of the archaeological assemblages and particularly the possibility to study archaeological structures in the record on ancient human groups like the Neanderthals The combustion structures have been repeatedly documented in the archaeological levels excavated and their spatial documentation in a large surface excavation allows uncommon problems in the Archaeology of the Neanderthals Use of re is an activity that is repeated in the levels excavated in the shelter and their spatial record can be allow a comparaison analogue with the use of re in others prehistoric and current hunter gatherer contemporaneous localities Studying the combustion structures of the Abric Roman indicated the existence of a number of intra occupational episodes in every archaeological level The spatial distribution of the combustion structures could indicate the juxtaposition of the different activity areas around the re use heart related activity areas The juxtaposi
230  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  new ...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER tion of distinct activity areas is a guide for estimating the site structure in the archaeological record types of settlement number of occupants etc The spatial documentation combustion strucutres in the Abric Roman record supports the argument that the Neanderthals used re for different purposes The inventory of the combustion structure documented at Abric Roman exceeds 200 and these include a range of construction techniques The most common combustion structures 80 are at and without stones There are also at combustion structures with stones within concavities with carved tails in small pits with burned stones and sediments in re excavated holes In our opinion many of these combustion structures could be considered special re use activity areas The spatial distribution of most of the at combustion structures can be described by their distance from the shelter wall according to the each archaeological level In level I we documented combustion strucutres with accumulations of faunal and lithic remains hearth related assemblages without any relationship between them However there are 8 combustion structures connected by a few re tted lithic and faunal remains which describe a circle The combustion structure assemblage in level J shows two modal distances from the shelter wall One places the use of re within 0 to 3m of the wall and the other places the combustion strucutres between 6 to 9 metres Level N combustion strucutres has been arranged based on the principle that certain group of these combustion structures which are one metre apart are the inner zone of the site structure during the prehistoric settlement in the rock shelter This inner zone does not have any lithic or faunal remains and the combustion strucutres are less than 2 metres from the shelter wall The other combustion structures in level N are distributed into two arches to 5 and 9 metres respectively from the inner zone of the settlement Level O contains a large number of combustion structures There are combustion structures in concavities with burned rocks and very few fauna remains and combustion structures with lithic industry between 6 and 12 metres from the shelter wall Large combustion structures are superimposed close to the shelter wall and have elementary hearths 1 metre apart and contain fauna remains and knapped lithic artefacts The study of micro artefacts microstructures and other residue from the molecular scale is relatively limited and is one of the next challenges of the Abric Romani research team Another challenge for archaeological researchers is to characterise the combustion strucutres that have no lithic artefacts or fauna remains Among the micro remains incorporated during the re use determined in the Abric Romani combustion structure record there are coprolites calcium oxalate bre remains pigments etc The thermal modi cation of the combustion structure sediments based on the modi cation of calcite by heat and the combustion residues rich in charcoal indicates re use in which low temperatures are reached Charcoal rich sediments contain little ash The low temperatures estimated are based on observing the size of elementary hearths too observed in the stratigraphic sections of the combustion structures These are charcoal lenses 20cm in diameter with a matching rubi cation band of the same size This size measured in meridional stratigraphic pro les of these elementary hearths indicates use of re in which fuel is limited There are also combustion structures with large carbonaceous lenses and a rubi cation band of more than 40 cm but these are less common in the Abric Romani combustion structure record 231
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  tion of distinct activity areas is a guide for estimating the site structu...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 232 Josep Maria Verg s Andreu Oll La Cansaladeta Introduction The site of La Cansaladeta is situated in the Roixeles canyon a natural pass carved in the PreCoastal Catalan mountain range by the Francol River which connects the Tarragona coastal plain with the interior depression of Conca de Barber The archaeological deposit is located in the upper part of a uvial terrace approximately 45 50 metres above the river at the foot of a small almost dismantled rock shelter formed in the Middle Triassic limestones Muschelkalk deposits at 260 metres a s l Members of the Department of Prehistory of the URV discovered the site in 1998 In 1999 a rst excavation was carried out aimed at assessing the site s potential Excellent results brought its integration in the research project Paleoenvironmental evolution and prehistoric settlement in the Francol and Gai Rivers in 2002 Angelucci et al 2003 2004 Since then archaeological eldwork is conducted annually Stratigraphy The sedimentary deposit is 16 metres thick It is composed of a signi cant succession of alluvial deposits covered by hillside deposits product of mass wasting dynamics under the in uence of gravity forces The alluvial sequence noticeable in the uvial terrace at 45 50 m starts with different sized blocks and gravels transported by the river After that from bottom to top there is an alternation of alluvial gravels and sands alternating with occasional depositions of limestone blocks coming from rocky walls The last phases of alluvial accumulation consist of sandy layers assorted with substantial blocks A rubi ed paleosol is present at the end of the sedimentary cycle opening a steady phase In the upper part the alluvial deposit is cut by erosive processes occurring after the river bed was lled and downcut by the river Subsequent to that hillside deposits were piled forming a limestone breccia in silty loamy matrix The archaeological material appears on the top of the alluvial accumulation close to the limit with the foothill deposits Fig 1 The most ancient evidences of human activity have been found at level M where lithic assemblages were recovered in a sandy layer superimposed on a limestone breccia However the rst traces of importance regarding human occupation have been documented at level L and K During this period the relative height of the site in relation to the bed river protected it from the main stream The developed paleosol indicates Mediterranean environmental conditions Also at that time the rock shelter had still preserved its brow since that level contains cryoclastic breccia materials originally coming from that part These elements point to colder and wetter climate conditions prior to the formation of the paleosol Afterwards the erosive action of the river affected the rock shelter stratigraphy Archaeological levels J and I belong to this phase Lowenergy alluvial deposits from the river ooding and cultural layers result of human occupation during periods with no depositional processes from the watercourse compose the sedimentary sequence Later when the river started to downcut the underlying bedrock its in uence on the rock shelter sedimentation sequence gradually disappeared After a transition phase corresponding to level E the predominance of colluvial hillslope materials and rocks from the wall is documented This is observed in levels D C B IPHES Institut Catal de Paleoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social C Marcel l Domingo s n Edi ci W3 Campus Sescelades 43007 Tarragona Spain rea de Prehist ria Universitat Rovira i Virgili Fac de Lletres Av Catalunya 35 43002 Tarragona Spain
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  232  Jose...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER Figure 1 A Location of La Cansaladeta site on the centre on the top of the uvial terrace 45 50 m of the Francol River B and C Overview of the excavated areas D Lithic assemblages in situ level J hornfels pebble and int akes E Altered bone level K F Stratigraphic sequence modi ed from Angelucci et al 2004 233
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  Figure 1. A. Location of La Cansaladeta site  on the centre , on the top o...
234 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD and A which compose a thick edaphological sequence the result of a large and steady geomorphological period probably developed in Mediterranean climate conditions The rest of the raw material comes from pebbles and cobbles of uvial origin Its morphology in cases such as the quartz the quartzite and the lidite is derived from the original geological formation the Buntsandstein conglomerates Chronology All the raw materials except the granite have been used as blanks for knapping stone objects Granite hornfels quartzite and limestone have been used to make hammers or anvils The presence of all sized cores akes other debitage waste products and some re tting indicate that most of the cha ne op ratoire took place at the campsite One of the rst chronological proxies is the uvial terrace situated on the top of the sequence that has been ascribed as Final Lower Early Middle Pleistocene Another key element providing a relative chronology is the presence in level L of an Hystrix refosa tooth a kind of porcupine that became extinct around 500 000 years in the Iberian Peninsula G Cuenca pers com On top of that two numerical dates are available one ESR US date on a rhinoceros tooth fragment from level J that yielded a minimum age of 340 000 17 000 16 000 years BP C Falgu res pers com and another date by thermoluminiscence method on burnt int form on level D 372 000 34 000 BP Accordingly occupations at La Cansaladeta site can be situated in a chronological span from 300 000 to 500 000 years BP Angelucci et al 2004 Oll et al 2008 Archaeological record Almost all the archaeological materials of La Cansaladeta site correspond to lithic assemblages 7575 items 94 8 of the total whereas faunal remains represent the remaining 5 2 Lithic and faunal assemblages have been retrieved at 8 of the 10 archaeological levels while the other two levels B and A only had lithic material Lithic assemblages Raw materials employed for knapping activities can be found both in secondary position on the alluvial deposits of Francol river at the bottom of the site where they probably were procured and also in primary position within a minimum catchment area with a radius of 10 km Flint was largely the most common rock type used in around 82 of the artefacts followed by hornfels 7 5 quartzite 3 3 and other rock types such as limestone agate granite and lidite with percentages lower than 1 Flint from Eocene deposits appears as nodules of irregular morphology slightly rounded by uvial erosion with a heterogeneous structure and abundant cracking The lithotechnique assemblage presents a large homogeneity between levels Fig 2 Unipolar core reduction strategy together with orthogonal and opposed bipolar core aking strategies has been documented Also centripetal core reduction has been detected which is poorly standardised Flint characteristics caused different knapping accidents that in the end have in uence on the exploitation process Likewise the small size of quartz quartzite and lidite restricted the length of the lithic reduction sequence and favoured knapping on an anvil On the contrary the large size and homogeneity furnish hornfels pebbles as the chosen raw material to shape large tools or aked big blanks Flakes are the most abundant debitage products Due to the above mentioned int characteristics many of them have irregular morphology and present a lot of knapping accidents Direct percussion with a hard hammer contributes to increase the knapping accidents percentage and makes bulbs and marked scars on the core surfaces that restrict the reduction dynamics Because of that most of the debitage products are shaping out or preparation akes with cortical backs Along the whole sedimentary succession retouched pieces have a very low frequency and the morphology variability is scarce Denticulate objects dominate notched denticulate points pines and denticulate scrapers Technical procedures observed at La Cansaladeta lithic assemblages make it dif cult to ascribe it to a particular technological complex Nevertheless the presence of large tools characteristics of Mode 2 such as cleavers and picks is signi cant although they are sporadic and limited to the lower levels On the other hand reduction techniques aimed at getting debitage products with a prede
234  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  and ...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER Figure 2 1 Cores a from level K hornfels b c e from level J int d from level D int 2 Flakes a b d from level D c e f from level J g from level K all made of int except g made of quartzite 3 Retouched int akes a b c d from level D e g h I from level K f from level J j from level L 4 Large tools on hornfels from level J 235
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  Figure 2. 1. Cores  a, from level K, hornfels  b, c, e, from level J,    i...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 236 termined morphology such as Levallois are not documented and retouched akes do not show any standardized or regular con guration Thus the available data broadly interprets the lithic assemblage of La Cansaladeta as Acheulean a collection where large sized tools are clearly in the minority Faunal remains Animal remains were recovered from eight levels being levels J K and L those that gather the vast majority of the faunal record The osteological collection is characterized by two main trends the small size of the fossils and its intense postdepositional alteration Obviously the assemblage represents only a small percentage of the whole animals set that might have been deposited during the occupations This fact limits the information that archeofaunal remains can provide Nonetheless different taxa have been Fontanals Marta Verg s Josep Maria Morales Juan Ignacio Stratigraphy and chronology of occupations The stratigraphic succession is approximately 2 m deep divided into 8 archaeological levels identi ed from base to top as A B Bb C1 C2 C3 C3b and C4 the 7 geoarchaeological units distinguished on the basis of sedimentary and pedo Fire is responsible for the most common alterations in La Cansaladeta faunal assemblages specially al levels D and L With some exceptions intensity of burning damage has been rather medium and did not reach maximum degrees of white calcined bones This heat alteration has also been identi ed in lithic artefacts especially at levels C and D and to lesser extents at levels E J and K as rubi ed areas ne re cracks and thermal debris Although no charcoal fragments or hearths were documented at the site the amount of burned items and their iteration along the stratigraphic sequence suggests that they were the result of human activity rather than natural re effects La Cativera El Catllar Tarragona A Pleistocene Holocene interface site in southern Catalonia The Cativera archaeological site El Catllar Tarragona Fig 1 is in a small open shelter on the left bank of the Gai River roughly 70 m above sea level The shelter at the base of a Miocene calcarenite wall is 23m wide with a maximum height of 3 m and a current depth of at least 3 m identi ed Leporidae remains at levels I J K and L Cervidae bones at levels K and L one Equidae one Rhinocerotidae and one sh remains at level J as well as the above mentioned porcupine at level L Some of these bones present butchering cut marks and intentional breakages that have an anthropic origin logical criteria Fig 1 The top section including levels A B and Bb consists of a calcareous breccia with a silty loam matrix built up from fragments of the ceiling and ne sediment on the slope The sedimentation of the middle and base part corresponding to the rest of the archaeological levels is originated in the cyclical alluvial processes associated with the activity of the Gai River Angelucci 2003 2005 Charcoal sample datings are consistent with the stratigraphic sequence and situate the site s chronocultural sequence between the nal stages of the Pleistocene and the start of the Holocene IPHES Institut Catal de Paleoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social C Marcel l Domingo s n Edi ci W3 Campus Sescelades 43007 Tarragona Spain rea de Prehist ria Universitat Rovira i Virgili Fac de Lletres Av Catalunya 35 43002 Tarragona Spain
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  236  term...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER Figure 1 Frontal view of the Cativera deposit Level Lab Ref Material C14 BP Data A MAD 4645BIN Ceramic 4645 316 A AA 23367 Charcoal 7979 60 B AA 23368 Charcoal 8860 95 Bb Beta 281623 Charcoal 8230 40 C1 AA 23369 Charcoal 10370 100 C2 AA 23370 Charcoal 10660 120 C3 AA 23371 Charcoal 11230 100 C3b AA 23372 Charcoal 11135 80 Table 1 La Cativera site datings Archaeological material The archaeological items found on all levels consist of lithic industry iron oxides not documented on level A marine and terrestrial malacofauna charcoal fauna and mobile art on level C4 However there are signi cant typological differences between the material on level A and the rest of the archaeological levels The int and limestone lithic material is by far the most abundant on the levels although the latter material is in a much smaller proportion Flint is only involved in the tool production and con guration sequences while limestone is functionalized directly without modi cation Despite this homogeneity in the use of raw materials through the levels Level A is predominated typologically by notches and denticulates and thus referred to as con gured items with simple reduction sequences intended for akes Fontanals et al 2009 while in the rest of the sequence the exploitation systems are predominantly aimed at producing blade like products the majority of which were endscrapers and blade backed blades Morales et al 2012 2013 This pro le seems to indicate that in all the occupations the raw materials were supplied from the terraces of the Gai River quite close to the settlement This source was abundant but generally did not provide good quality material The average length of the items was never more than 15 cm and less than 10 cm in the case of good knapping material Fontanals 2001 Abundant remains of marine mollusc fauna were found at the site no doubt in uenced by its proximity to the coast To date 18 different species have been documented This variation is particularly broad on levels B and Bb where specimens were clearly used for at least three differentiated purposes consumption Mytilus galloprovincialis and Patella caerulea ornaments Dentalium vulgare and Cyclope sp and as a container for ochre Glycimeris insubrica and violascens This differentiated use of marine mollusc fauna is less obvious on level A where the documented species judging by their features seem to have been brought to the site for consumption as indicated by the presence of Patella caerulea and Cerasthoderma glaucum the latter quite abundant unlike level B although other secondary uses must not be excluded as in the case of Pecten jacobeus and Insubrica Glycimeris despite the absence in this case of traces of ochre inside the valves found in assemblage B Items from several species of terrestrial mollusc fauna have also been documented On level C3 21 Cepaea nemoralis shells suggest the use of this species as a food source 237
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  Figure 1. Frontal view of the Cativera deposit  Level  Lab. Ref.  Material...
238 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD The faunal record is quite scarce on all levels and the recovered remains are poorly preserved This is probably due to the high acidity of the sediment in the rock shelter and postdepositional taphonomic disturbances to the archaeological remains mainly caused by roots Allu et al 2000 Nevertheless various skeletal parts of Leporiade and Cervidae taxa were identi ed on levels A B and Bb Despite the above mentioned bias in the record due to poor preservation the number of Leporidae items is clearly much higher than others permitting the assumption of its priority for consumption Remains of burned wood fuel have been recovered throughout the sequence although the sample is only representative on the levels excavated horizontally Several species have been identi ed many of them common to levels A B and Bb such as Pinus sp Pinus alepensis Juniperus and Quercus ilex coccifera Their differing degrees of presence on each level and the presence absence of other species such as the presence of Acer sp on level A alone and the abundance of conifers and Juniperus sp on levels B Bb and C1 are proof of climate variations between the different occupation periods Different evidence of the use and processing of iron oxide has been documented in these series with the exception of level A Fragments of this mineral have been found mostly burned or impregnated in the surface of different species of marine mollusc fauna a considerable Manuel Vaquero E Susana Alonso Fern ndez Ethel Allu James L Bischoff Francesc Burjachs Josep Vallverd Conclusions The chrono cultural sequence in the Cativera rock shelter has provided reference data for the study of the cultural processes between the Late Glacial and the early Holocene in northeastern Iberia This period has been subject to reinterpretation since the emergence of new archaeological records which in conjunction with the revision of existing assemblages and datings permits the construction of a scenario in which the apparent persistence of micro blade technocomplexes until the start of the Holocene overlaps with the few sauveterroid records coinciding with the Pleistocene Holocene transition and an increasingly numerous and better de ned sets of notches and denticulates evidence of a clear temporal and cultural break The background to this cultural and chronological discontinuity can only be interpreted with new archaeological data and their social economic and demographic interpretation Cinglera del Capell sites Capellades Barcelona Cinglera del Capell is a 1 5 km long travertine scarp on the right bank of the Anoia River Capellades Anoia District Barcelona Province At this point the Anoia River cuts through Cat number of endscrapers and some natural limestone blocks It also appears in patches in the sediment The use of this mineral has also been detected on level C4 where remains of staining material concentrated in the centre of a limestone pebble has been identified with a set of straight and curved red lines connected physically alonia s pre coastal mountain range in a gorge Capellades Narrows a natural link between the inland districts of the Ebro Depression and the Catalonian Pre Coastal Depression There are rea de Prehist ria Universitat Rovira i Virgili Avinguda Catalunya 35 43002 Tarragona Institut Catal de Paleoecologia Humana i Evoluci Social IPHES Escorxador s n 43003 Tarragona US Geological Survey ms 470 345 Middle eld Rd Menlo Park CA 94025 Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avan ats ICREA Barcelona
238  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  The ...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER several rock shelters in the travertine wall many of which contain evidence of prehistoric occupation Most of these sites were rst discovered and excavated by Amador Roman in the early 20th century Bartrol et al 1995 Many only contain material from late prehistory but in some cases documented sequences contain Palaeolithic and Mesolithic occupation levels The latter are the focus of the Abric Roman Cingles del Capell research project begun in 1983 and still in progress The most important of these sites is undoubtedly Abric Roman the subject of another article in this volume and therefore not discussed here This paper presents three other shelters in the Cinglera area which have been excavated in recent years Balma dels Pinyons Balma de la Costa de Can Manel and Abric Agut Fig 1 The sequences documented at these sites mainly cover the second half of the Upper Pleistocene and the start of the Holocene They provide information about the occupation of Cinglera during the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic thus complementing the Abric Roman stratigraphy and permitting the reconstruction of the sequence of environmental and cultural changes for the period from 100 to 7 ky BP i e from the bottom of Roman to the top of Agut Bartrol et al 2008 Vaquero et al 2013 1 Balma del Pinyons This site was discovered by Amador Roman In 1905 he carried out the rst excavation only at the top of the sequence and identi ed an archaeological level with several stone items Between 2000 and 2001 a 3 x 2 m test pit Vaquero 2004 documented a sequence at least 6 m deep dated by several methods U Th luminescence C14 AMS at between ca 52 ky BP and the start of the Holocene Table 1 3 The stratigraphic sequence includes sedimentary deposits which are not linked to their formation by precipitation of water borne calcium carbonate These levels indicate quite different conditions from the predominant climate in the sequences found in the majority of the Cinglera sites The following units have been distinguished listed in an upward sequence Fig 2 Unit 7 2 m Succession of layers of travertine with a dome morphology interstrati ed with sands and gravels Figure 1 Location of Cinglera Capell sites A and overview of Cinglera B 1 Abric Roman 2 Balma dels Pinyons 3 Abric Agut 4 Balma de la Costa de Can Manel Unit 6 0 5 m Red silty sands Contains archaeological level C dated at 43 185 to 41 745 cal BP Unit 5 0 8 m Poorly strati ed travertine gravel and sand 239
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  several rock shelters in the travertine wall, many of which contain eviden...
240 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Site Lab Cod Stratigraphic level U ppm Agut 00 43 4 4 0 84 2 90 15 7731 370 Agut 00 51 4 4 1 00 2 27 17 9376 453 Agut 00 50 4 6 0 98 2 42 16 9875 390 Agut 00 113 4 6 0 90 2 59 30 10863 326 Agut 00 263 4 6 1 2 2 48 9 10905 375 Agut 01 135 4 8 1 41 2 68 3 14274 200 11064 1480 Agut 00 63 4 8 1 93 1 76 11 13633 527 12672 1200 Can Manel U 238U 234 230 Th 232Th BP date years 01 136 1 1 3 2 85 40 01 134 1 0 6 2 71 3 11900 1600 Can Manel 00 262 2 1 1 2 62 4 13600 700 Can Manel 07 20 5 0 55 2 44 17 33742 260 Can Manel 07 8 6 0 7 2 37 46 35954 239 Can Manel 07 7 Base 0 6 2 33 7 6 39388 264 Pinyons 00 259 1 0 9 2 37 228 8800 600 Pinyons 00 258 1 0 6 2 87 4 9000 2000 Pinyons 00 257 5 1 0 2 15 143 32800 1000 Pinyons 02 15 7 1 7 2 29 96 48100 1300 Pinyons 02 16 7 0 8 2 26 35 9995 650 12700 160 Can Manel BP date years corrected 52700 1900 Table 1 Uranium series dating of travertine samples from Agut Can Manel and Pinyons Unit 4 0 8 m Red silty sands carbonate sands gravels and blocks Unit 3 1 2 m Poorly strati ed red silty sands carbonate sands and weathered gravels Includes archaeological level B Unit 2 0 4 m Red silty sands and fallen blocks Archaeological level A is at the top Unit 1 1 7 m Laminated and strati ed travertine Figure 2 Lithostratigraphic columns in Pinyons Can Manel and Agut showing stratigraphic units described in the text and the archaeological levels a Travertine conglomerates and carbonate sands b Bryophyte bioconstruction c Travertine and angular gravel d Algal laminated travertine e Red sands and silts f Stalagmitic dome g Boundary surfaces h Unit limits In this sequence three horizons with evidence of human occupation have been identi ed although their archaeological content is quite poor in general and composed exclusively of lithic artifacts and charcoal The bone record has not been preserved Level A corresponds to the description by Amador Roman at the top of the site immediately below the early Holocene travertine The excavated area was almost completely plundered by clandestine diggers and only a few isolated items were recovered The second archaeological level level B was identi ed at the top of unit 3 It yielded a small assemblage of lithic remains with evidence of an in situ knapping sequence although some of the
240  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Site...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER material seemed to be in a secondary position The lack of diagnostic elements precludes an accurate chronocultural estimate beyond its attribution to the Upper Palaeolithic on the basis of a few blade elements and the radiometric data There is somewhat more abundant material on level C whose technological and dating features suggest its attribution to the Middle Palaeolithic In any case the available data indicate quite sporadic and ephemeral human occupations throughout the sequence 2 Balma de la Costa de Can Manel Unlike most Cinglera sites this shelter was not documented by Amador Roman It was discovered as a consequence of the new Capellades Archaeological Park Excavations between 2003 and 2006 consisted an 18 m2 survey which yielded a stratigraphic sequence at least 9 m deep As in the case of Pinyons this survey did not reach the base of the site U Th and 14C AMS dating indicate that this sequence lies between ca 12 and ca 39 ky BP Table 1 and 3 The following stratigraphic units were differentiated Fig 2 Unit 7 Poorly strati ed red silty sands ly ing directly above a dome shaped travertine layer Includes archaeological level F Unit 6 1 5 m Carbonated micro strati ed sands travertine with fallen blocks and red silty sands Includes archaeological level E with two AMS 14C dates between 29 805 and 31 485 cal BP Unit 5 0 5 1 m Strati ed carbonate sands and gravels with blocks and travertine blocks Unit 4 0 4 m Strati ed carbonate sands and gravels with red silty sand Includes archaeological level D dated at 18 645 to 18 050 cal BP Unit 3 2 5 m Poorly strati ed gravels car bonate sands and well strati ed blocks and gravels carbonate sands and travertine with blocks The top section contains a microstrati ed layer of red sands with blocks in which archaeological units B C were found with two AMS 14C dates which de ne a chronological range span from 13 940 to 14 880 cal BP Unit 2 2 5 m Set of dome shaped traver tine layers Unit 1 1 5 m Carbonate sands interrupt ed by a palaeosol rich in organic microaggregates The upper part consists of a set of well strati ed travertine layers Includes archaeological level A Site Stratigraphic level Lab Cod Date BP years Material Pinyons 3 MAD 4600R SDA OSL 19962 1402 Sandy sediment Pinyons 4 MAD 4599BIN TL 23702 1591 Brunt sandy sediment Table 2 Optically stimulated luminescence OSL and thermoluminescence dating of sediment samples from stratigraphic units 3 and 4 Balma dels Pinyons Six archaeological units A F have been identi ed in this sequence However with the exception of levels B C the number of items tends to be small and composed almost entirely of lithic remains As in Balma dels Pinyons faunal remains were not preserved in most of the archaeological units with some exceptions such as sea shell fragments Fig 3 2 Level A was identi ed as a result of a stratigraphic analysis in one unexcavated sector of the site and thus did not provide any information The lithic assemblage on levels B C is relatively abundant and is partly consistent with the radiometric data suggesting its attribution to the Upper Magdalenian with the presence of sidescrapers burins and denticulates in the retouched assem 241
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  material seemed to be in a secondary position. The lack of diagnostic elem...
242 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 3 Abric Agut The history of archaeological work at this site dates back to 1910 when Amador Roman conducted the rst excavations Vidal 1911 1912 followed by a second dig soon afterwards in 1914 On the basis of this early work it was attributed to the Mousterian maintained despite subsequent excavations and reviews of the material by several experts In the 1950 s E Ripoll and H Lumley 1964 1965 carried out a short excavation at the site and attributed its lithic industry to a Denticulate Mousterian similar to that documented at the nearby Abric Roman site Meanwhile the human teeth found during excavations by Amador Roman were upon analysis considered typically Neanderthal De Lumley 1973 Figure 3 Archaeological remains found at Balma de la Costa de Can Manel 1 Flint bladelets from level F 2 Fragments of seashells from level E blage However other features of the industry such as a near complete lack of laminar knapping methods are unusual in an Upper Palaeolithic assemblage Level D with an early Magdalenian chronology has not yielded any evidence to clarify its cultural attributes although laminar knapping is better documented here than in the upper units Finally U Th and 14C AMS dates attribute the two lowest levels to different periods of the Early Upper Palaeolithic However the lack of diagnostic elements in this case also prevents a more accurate chronocultural identi cation Fig 3 1 The results of a new excavation in 1976 headed by L Freeman E Ripoll and H Lumley did not change the previous assessments although they did highlight unusual data for the Middle Palaeolithic contexts such as the abundance of rabbit in the faunal record Gonz lez Echegaray and Freeman 1998 Under the Abric Roman Cingles del Capell project in 1985 a test pit was dug in the eastern sector of the site which did not bring to light anything new with respect to what was previously known None of this work led to the questioning of the Middle Palaeolithic adscription of this site most of which had been excavated by 1999 Only one sector at the southern end of the shelter was left to dig which in any case did not contain the entire original stratigraphic sequence as the upper levels had only appeared in the northern half of the site excavated entirely by Amador Roman The results of the work between 1999 and 2001 permitted a reinterpretation of the archaeological sequence in this shelter This work focused on a roughly 35 m2 area at the SW edge of the site Fig 4 The deposit approx 3 7 m deep was divided into three main units from bottom to top Vaquero et al 2013 Unit 3 1 3 m Strati ed gravels carbonate sands and blocks above basal fallen blocks Unit 2 1 m Strati ed carbonate sands and gravels with fallen blocks up to the top
242  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  3. A...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER Figure 4 Overview of excavated area in Abric Agut during the 1999 dig Unit 1 3 m Travertine gravel carbonate sands and organic rich lutites with domeshaped travertine at the top All of the archaeological units 4 5 4 7a 4 7b and 4 7c are in this unit Uranium Thorium and 14C AMS dates Tables 1 and 3 indicate that the chronology of the archaeological levels is between 10 200 and 11 600 cal BP Vaquero et al 2002 thus refuting the site s previous attribution to the Middle Palaeolithic In addition to the consistency of the radiometric data other aspects of the archaeological record support its attribution to a quite different context from the Middle Palaeolithic On the one hand the charcoal record is quite different from the Middle Palaeolithic material documented in Abric Roman Allu 2002 In Abric Roman pine is virtually the only identi ed species throughout the entire sequence while the charcoal at Abric Agut corresponds to a wide variety of taxa The taxa identi ed in the three analyzed archaeological units were on level 4 5 Acer Populus Salix Prunus Rhamnus cathartica saxatilis and Sambucus on level 4 7b Juniperus Acer Populus Salix Prunus Rhamnus cathartica saxatilis and on level 4 7c Juniperus Acer Hedera Populus Salix Prunus Rosaceae Maloideae Rhamnus cathartica saxatilis Rhamnus cf pumila and Sambucus The absence of pine is particularly noteworthy as this taxon was detected in the pollen analysis and is virtually the only species documented in the anthracological record from previous periods at other Cinglera del Capell sites This may be related to a signi cant increase in moisture The presence of Juniperus at the base levels especially 243
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  Figure 4. Overview of excavated area in Abric Agut during the 1999 dig.   ...
244 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Site Stratigraphic level Acheological level Ref Lab BP radiocarbonic data years Years data Cal BP Material Agut 1 4 7a OxA 10049 9185 60 10500 10235 Charcoal Agut 1 4 7a OxA 10064 9660 110 11250 10700 Charcoal Agut 1 4 7c OxA 10050 10085 60 11975 11355 Charcoal Agut 1 4 7c OxA 10051 9895 60 11600 11200 Charcoal Agut 1 4 7c OxA 10074 10060 65 11960 11315 Charcoal Can Manel 3 C Beta 184712 12300 60 14880 13960 Charcoal Can Manel 3 C2 Beta 184713 12290 60 14875 13940 Charcoal Can Manel 4 D Beta 198058 15190 60 18645 18050 Charcoal Can Manel 6 E Beta 209792 25700 220 31045 29805 Charcoal Can Manel 6 Eb Beta 209793 26770 240 31485 30950 Charcoal Can Manel 6 Fsup Beta 221914 29420 250 34655 33380 Charcoal Pinyons 6 C OxA 11249 37900 500 43185 41745 Charcoal Table 3 14C AMS datings for Agut Can Manel and Pinyons Stuiver et al 2000 was followed for the 2s calibration in 4 7c could be related to its tendency to colonize open space This taxon tends to disappear at higher levels giving way to deciduous species Anthracological analysis showed some differences from the pollen data Vaquero et al 2006 and 2013 with quite similar results for the three sublevels of unit 4 7 characterized by the presence of Mediterranean and deciduous taxa along with riparian arboreal taxa indicative of moist conditions The identi ed arboreal taxa were Pinus Juniperus Quercus ilex deciduous Quercus Corylus Ulmus and Salix An increase in shrub species cf Erica Buxus Phillyrea Rhamnus was also detected as well as an increase in Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae In archaeologically sterile unit 4 6 there is a degree of deterioration of the thermo mesophylous tree layer and an increase in conifers Mountain taxa such as Betula and Abies appear with locally persistent forests of pine holm oak and deciduous oak along with hazel elm and willow The herbaceous vegetation suggests meadows of grasses Asteraceae and sagebrush Finally unit 4 5 shows cold conditions in which the thermomesophylous taxa are scarce and the forests are primarily pines The faunal associations differ from the usual in Mousterian sites Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus is the most widely represented animal in all the archaeological units quite common at Mesolithic sites on the Mediterranean side of the Iberian Peninsula No cut marks were found on the rabbit bones but the high percentage of burnt items and breakage patterns point to humans as the main agent responsible for the formation of the assemblages Ib ez 2005 Other identi ed faunal taxa were Cervus elaphus Capra pyrenaica Canis lupus and two turtles of an undetermined species Several species of birds were documented including Alectoris sp Nucifraga caryocatactes Pyrrhocorax sp and Tyto alba The lithic assemblages are characterized by the predominance of flint 70 80 followed by limestone 10 to 20 and much more occasionally other materials such as quartz sandstone granite and porphyry While flint was only identified in reduction and configuration sequences of tools on flake the rest of the material is largely associated with the introduction of cobbles used as hammerstones or crushers without any intentional modification However reduction sequences on limestone and granite are also documented Limestone was used exclusively to shape pebble tools This raw material usage pattern does not necessarily reflect the type of material available in the immediate environment as flint is scarce around the site and significant concentrations are only found 5 km away in the Anoia alluvial formations north of Capellades The rest of the raw materials are strictly local especially limestone which
244  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  Site...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER Figure 5 Large format items on cobble from Abric Agut level 4 7 is abundant in the alluvial deposits at the foot of the site The scarcity of quartz is also curious given that outcrops of this raw material are close to shelter and could be easily collected from the alluvial deposits and the hillside nearby These supply strategies are similar to those documented at the nearby Middle Palaeolithic Abric Roman site The exploitation methods seem to have been aimed at systematic flake production No evidence has been found to suggest blade like strategies Indeed blade cores are completely lacking and the proportion of blades is very small barely 3 Core analysis shows a predominance of bifacial centripetal methods including strategies that do not involve a hierarchy of flaking surfaces in the line of the discoidal knapping and those based on the definition of a preferential flaking surface The latter fits perfectly in the Levallois knapping context The cores are generally very small suggesting maximised exploitation of their potential The distribution of the tools into typological groups shows that more than half of them are denticulates Within this group there is a balanced representation of notches and denticulates although the former are more numerous There is a significant presence of worked cobbles almost all shaped by unifacial removal including a pick found on level 4 7c Fig 5 The rest of the identified typological groups retouched flakes sidescrapers endscrapers borers and items with flat retouch are only occasional There is a particularly significant lack of typical Upper Palaeolithic artefacts However a comparative study of the Mesolithic denticulates from Abric Agut and from the Middle Palaeolithic at the Abric Roman site suggests some differences between the two sets with a few technical features that characterize the Mesolithic denticulates Vaquero 2006 such as inverse removals in a large percentage of the items and a tendency to configure distal trihedrons The Middle Palaeolithic aspect of this industry explains its initial definition when radiometric dating was not available It is important to note the presence of rerelated structures on level 4 5 and also in the units of level 4 7 The record is better preserved on level 4 5 which a considerable number of re ts generally characterized by short connection distances The units in level 4 7 underwent more disturbances due to water ow dynamics Items bearing signs of water abrasion or covered with carbonated concretions are much more abundant There is also a slight under representation of small tools These disturbances seem to be more frequent in the areas furthest from the 245
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  Figure 5. Large format items on cobble from Abric Agut level 4.7.  is abun...
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD 246 shelter wall However the discovery of re ts on these units as well and the preservation of rerelated structures suggest that the original spatial relationships were not completely distorted by post depositional disturbances The palaeoenvironmental technological and subsistence data at hand show that the chronology and culture of this site does not correspond to the Middle Palaeolithic as previously claimed and must lie within the framework of the macrolithic industries characterized by a predominance of denticulates These assemblages grouped as Mesolithic macrolithic or Mesolithic of notches and denticulates are frequent in the early Holocene sequences on the Mediterranean side of the Iberian Peninsula and bear a resemblance to a trend found elsewhere such as the Cantabrian coast southern France and Portugal In the northeast Juli Maroto Localities of Reclau Localities of Reclau Geographic location Localities of Reclau are located in the municipality of Seriny in the Pla de l Estany district province of Girona to the northeast of Catalonia and the Iberian Peninsula It is 4 km north of Banyoles and 1 km south of the village of Seriny on the eastern side of the C 66 motorway It forms part of the right bank of the Serinyadell stream and the travertine ledge with the site located approximately 60 m to the east of the motorway Localities of Reclau are currently part of the Parc de les Coves Prehist riques de Seriny Fig 1 Geological location The Reclau prehistoric caves are located in the lacustrine zone of Banyoles This unit is de ned quadrant of the Peninsula alone this macrolitic context embraces several assemblages including level C at Balma Guilany Casanova and Pizarro 2004 level 4 at Balma Margineda Guilaine et al 1995 level A at Cativera Allu et al 2000 levels SG and ASG at Font del Ros Pallares et al 1997 level II at Roc de Migdia Yll et al 1994 level 10 at Sota Palou C R P E S 1985 level 2 at Cova del Filador Garc a Arg elles et al 2002 and level Sup at Mol del Salt Vaquero et al 2004 The recurrence of this macrolithic episode across a wide geographical area and its chronological coherence suggests that it was not a short term phenomenon linked to the functions of the occupations or the availability of raw materials On the contrary it seems to be a wellde ned stage in the cultural sequence at the start of the Holocene as a moderately depressed sector in the central section of the province of Girona It is located in a strip that marks the point of contact between two clearly distinct units of relief the Catalonian Transversal System and the Empord Depression However despite the abundance of plio quaternary lacustrine materials in the area the travertines on which the Reclau caves are located are not lacustrine and consist of carbon deposits characteristic of rivers or springs known as cascade travertines Juli 1980 Brusi et al 2005 Localities of Reclau are located on the western edge of the Usall plain This is an almost horizontal structural plain that extends between the Fluvi River to the north and the basin of the Banyoles Lake to the south It is oriented north south and measures approximately 5 km long by 3 km wide To the west it borders on the end of the Eocene relief of the Transversal Catalonian Range to rea de Prehist ria Universitat de Girona pl Ferrater Mora 1 17071 Girona julia maroto udg edu
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  246  shel...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER Figure 1 Geographic location of Seriny and the Reclau caves 1 Reclau Viver 2 Pau 3 Cau del Roure 4 Outer Zone of Cau del Roure 5 Mollet 6 Mollet III 7 Arbreda the east on a system of mounds and plains from the Pliocene which form part of the Empord Depression The Usall plain is formed of a Plioquaternary lacustrine limestone covered by fersialithic clay soil terra rossa Description Localities of Reclau are actually complex cascade travertine structures whose morphology forms caves and that have in turn undergone karsti cation Brusi et al 2002 2005 On the western edge of the cave site crossing from south to north is the Serinyadell a tributary of the Ser River The caves are located on the western edge of the Usall plain This sector is signi cantly affected by the river channelling of the Serinyadell during the end of the Middle Pleistocene this stream of bicarbonate rich water today the Musoga stream which originated from a spring in the Usall plain leveraged this ideal topographical feature to build cascade travertine deposits The rapid evolution of this ow of water created a travertinization front that is very simple as a whole but highly complex in its detailed ge ometry The travertine cascade facies on one side which are continuously modi ed by the processes of erosion and by the migration of the active ow resulted in the combination of different deposit and erosive morphologies The general growth of the different morphologies built a ledge that sheltered a series of cavities at its base that were of suf cient size to facilitate human occupation However these cavities and the high degree of porosity of the cascade facies also represented a new element of complexity in the evolution of the deposit because the hollows allowed the development of brechoid facies terrigenous ll and also the formation of interior castings of travertinization that evolved in the opposite direction from the exterior slope of the structure Likewise the processes of karsti cation secondary travertinization and later recrystalization of conduits and cracks were common Brusi et al 2005 The travertinization process took place at least between 215 000 and 134 000 years ago Maroto et al 2012 Today the caves are practically lled and a signi cant percentage of their original roofs have collapsed For this reason the current morphology 247
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.  Figure 1. Geographic location of Seriny   and the Reclau caves. 1  Reclau ...
248 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD of the caves is quite different from their original shape Only the Reclau Viver cave conserves part of its primitive morphology and shows us what it would have been like during the rst human occupation The ll of the Reclau caves is essentially detritic and is made up of clay silt or sand with varying granulometry and percentages frequently accompanied by travertine blocks and pebbles often in abundance from the walls and ceilings of the cavities In the case of some of the bases as in layer 1 of the Mollet cave the deposits were the result of precipitation of the calcium carbonate which is the same process that was responsible for the formation of the site itself The main caves of the site are arranged along a travertine cliff approximately 200 m long 50 m wide and with an elevation of slightly more than 10 metres Fig 1 The Arbreda Reclau Viver and Mollet caves are the sites that have been conditioned to allow visitation and are also the ones that have been excavated most extensively Excavation has recently been resumed in the Cau del Roure and Mollet III caves and the same is planned for the Pau cave within the next few years Another cave has a more modest archaeological record the Arbreda II cave Lastly another eight caves are sterile or almost sterile Soler et al 2001 There are two clearly distinct types of vegetation at the site Mediterranean holm oak predominates on the very rocky travertine slop also with some oak and parasol pines There is a gallery forest beside the Serinyadell made up mainly of ash poplar aspen willow and elm Between these two is a very moist meadow with rushes mint and wild violets Soler et al 2001 History of archaeological studies In the 1940s Josep M Corominas began the archaeological study of the Reclau caves Prior to this there had been no known archaeological interest The rst cave in which he worked was the Reclau Viver which was excavated between 1944 and 1948 During this time he also carried out some excavations in the Mollet and Pau caves In 1958 he resumed excavation in the Mollet cave Between 1972 and 1974 there was enormous excavation activity Mollet Mollet III la Arbreda Pau sectors Cau d en Paquito and Pau III Arbre da II Cau del Roure and once again Pau sector Davant Pau Between 1972 and 1973 a large sunken cavity lled with sediment was discovered The materials from the excavations of J M Corominas with a few exceptions are in the collection of the Museu Arqueol gic Comarcal de Banyoles From 1975 to 1987 the Centre d Investigacions Arqueol giques de Girona initially under the responsibility of the Girona Regional Council and later the Generalitat de Catalunya carried out annual excavations in Arbreda In 1996 archaeological work was resumed in the Reclau caves but this time under the direction of the Universitat de Girona That same year saw the creation of the Parc de les Coves Prehist riques de Seriny and excavation has continued until today Soler et al 2001 Mollet cave Location description history The Mollet cave is a small cave located in a south north direction between the Arbreda and Reclau Viver caves in the lower section of the travertine cliff at an elevation of approximately 200 masl Fig 1 It is a cave which is open to the west and currently measures approximately 9 m north to south by 3 m east to west although the layout is somewhat arti cial because the visible walls are a combination of the cascading travertine of the area with unexcavated sediment concretion The roof is signi cantly eroded although the north end remains intact where a small area slightly larger than 3 m2 is totally closed creating the sector that has been called rac Fig 2 This cave was excavated in the years 19471948 1958 and 1972 by Josep M Corominas with the collaboration of Eduard Ripoll and Llu s Pericot in 1958 and Miquel Oliva Josep M Bedoya and Josep Canal in 1972 Maroto et al 1987 A large part of the sedimentary ll in the cave was excavated during these campaigns Between 2001 and 2005 and in 2010 and 2011 excavation work resumed under the direction of J Maroto Recent campaigns have consisted of the partial excavation of layer 5 the only layer that was partially preserved in order to classify and interpret it
248  PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT  THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD  of t...
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER Layer 5 Yellowish calci ed silty sand equivalent of travertine sand with laminated tuffs and oncolithic gravel Middle Pleistocene Large mammals The nomenclature of the levels de ned by Henry de Lumley Ripoll and Lumley 1965 Lumley 1975 has been maintained For this reason there is no layer 4 because it corresponds to a local facies that cannot be generalized within the ll On the other hand in the west sector the external sector layer 5 is not covered by layer 3 but rather by travertine constructions tuff deposits that connect with the roof and the external cascade threshold The current visible con guration of the shelter is therefore later than the deposition of layer 5 Maroto et al 2012 Layer 1 The upper layer contains minimal archaeological material with only a few lithic ornamental and malacological elements and a small quantity of ceramics It also contains human remains and on the whole appears to correspond to an Early Neolithic burial Tarr s 1986 Figure 2 Mollet cave A Floor plan indicating the excavation grid B stratigraphic cross section Stratigraphy Although most of the sedimentary deposit was removed by the work carried out prior to 1972 it was possible to reconstruct the stratigraphy based on the data from recent excavations in conjunction with the data from the earlier excavations Corominas 1948 1958 Ripoll and Lumley 1965 Lumley 1971 Mir and Salas 1976 Villalta and Est vez 1977 Soler 1986 The thickness of the ll was as much as 3 5 m although in a test pit that has been conserved in one of the marginal areas it is only 1 60 m Fig 2 From ceiling to base it would consist of Layer 1 Red clay Holocene Early Neolithic Layer 2 Brown clay with travertine blocks Upper Pleistocene Upper Palaeolithic Early Aurignacian Layer 3 Brown clay with travertine blocks Upper Pleistocene Middle Palaeolithic Mousterian Layer 2 Layer 2 also contains few archaeological remains although it is not as poor as the preceding layer Dating of a bone sample indicates an age of 33 780 730 BP OxA 3728 Maroto et al 1996 The lithic production is knapped imported silex and consists of 2 good cores one a doubleended laminar prism and the other a single ended laminar pyramid as well as a decent number of sheets and akes The number of retouched tools is very small but a few Dufour bladelets can be observed The technology and morphology of the pieces correspond to Early Aurignacian based on dating they could be from the Classic Aurignacian Soler 1986 Maroto et al 1987 Maroto 1994 The ornamentation is represented by a deer incisor with a perforation in the root The mammal species identi ed with caution and a certain degree of reservation due to the dif culty of correlating the materials from previous excavations to those of the actual levels are Canis lupus Vulpes vulpes Ursus arctos Felis sylvestris 249
MEDITERRANEAN BASINS. NORTH OF THE EBRO RIVER.      Layer 5. Yellowish calci   ed silty sand  equivalent of travertine san...
250 PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HUNTER GATHERERS IN IBERIA AND THE GIBRALTAR STRAIT THE CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Lynx cf spelaeus Oryctolagus cuniculus Lepus sp Erinaceus europaeus Equus ferus Equus hydruntinus Cervus elaphus Bos primigenius Capra pyrenaica and Rupicapra rupicapra Rabbit remains which are the most abundant appear to present some anthropic marks Maroto et al 1996 Layer 3 Rich in lithic industry this layer contains the Mousterian artefacts de ned and studied by H de Lumley and E Ripoll Ripoll and Lumley 1965 Lumley 1971 and analysed later by different authors Its age places it in the classic Upper Palaeolithic because it is later than the last travertine construction facies and prior to the start of the Upper Palaeolithic The lithic industry is mostly knapped quartz 64 5 followed by quartzite and subvolcanic rock There are different cores with varying morphology including some knapped edges as well as some products using the Levallois method which are not numerous but nonetheless signi cant The tools include abundant racloir followed by denticulate tools and indentation tools Maroto et al 1987 With regard to fauna with the aforementioned reservations the following large mammal species may be cited Ursus spelaeus Palaeoloxodon antiquus Equus ferus Equus hydruntinus Cervus elaphus Rangifer tarandus and Bos primigenius As always the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus is abundant Exterior tuff deposits The overlying tuff deposits on layer 5 and that connect to the existing roof of the shelter and the cascade threshold indicate a U Th age between ca 163 ky and 134 ky the most recent coincides with the outermost part of the cascade facies dating done by Ramon Juli in the Institut de Ci ncies de la Terra Jaume Almera Barcelona CSIC Maroto et al 2012 Layer 5 The lower layer has a paleontological association that is rich in large mammals The results obtained using uranium series dating 215 ky indicate an approximate age of 215 ky Ref Lab 3103 215 092 12 926 11 668 Maroto et al 2012 Figure 3 Mollet cave layer 5 First molar M1 upper right human mouth view Scale 10 mm It contains very few elements of anthropic activity some quartz lithic remains and a few burned travertines However it is rich in animal remains that were not contributed by humans In addition to the presence of carnivores and ungulates the human molar found in the 1972 excavation campaign belongs to this level The tooth in question is an upper right premolar of a juvenile with morphological and morphometric characteristics that match those of Pre neanderthals and Neanderthals Cortada and Maroto 1990 Fig 3 The list of fauna that corresponds to this association which includes this human molar Homo sp includes 12 other species of medium and large mammals one lagomorph seven herbivores and four carnivores the most abundant of w