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AP Human Geography

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Table of contents

World Continents and world regions...........................................................................................3

Introduction...............................................................................................................................4

Tectonic Plate Movements..........................................................................................................5

Climate Map...............................................................................................................................7

Elevation Map............................................................................................................................8

Transportation Infrastructure.....................................................................................................9

Linguistic Diffusion Map.............................................................................................................10

Land Use Map.............................................................................................................................11

Population Density Map..............................................................................................................12

Political Boundaries Map............................................................................................................13

Writer-Editor Forward...............................................................................................................14

Absolute Locations of States Map................................................................................................15

Xienega.......................................................................................................................................16

Deciduo.......................................................................................................................................32

Verbena......................................................................................................................................47

Viridia.........................................................................................................................................72

Equitoria.....................................................................................................................................83

Introduction

In the beginning, Nunc started out with a large land mass that eventually separated into four different plates. The first area of separation includes the regions of Koiler and Lafayeet of modern Pervenche against Doux and Bête of modern day La Cloche and West Marshes of Tripolar. The second area of separation includes the regions of Koiler and L'Noce of Pervenche and Bête of La Cloche against South BLT of PB+J. The last area of separation of the four continents includes the regions of L'Noca and Viribena of Pervenche against Coast Coast of Hruska and Klain of Florin. The plates continued to diverge, and the leftmost and rightmost plates began their splits into two different land masses each, resulting in the individual continents of Hruska, Florin, and La Cloche. The regions included in this split are Avec and Doux of La Cloche, Desert of Florin, and Far Point of Hruska. The remaining land mass containing North Desert, which split off from La Cloche in the Second Movement, finally diverged in a later time into two separate continents, Concord and Tripolar. Concord experienced a "slingshot" effect, hitting Pervenche at the foot of Lafayeet at Norcord. 

There are many toponyms at play with these continents and their regions. PB+J's earliest settlements sent explorers out to discover the remaining land and its natural resources. On their way, the explorers found each other by chance and shared their own names and settlements, ultimately uniting them and bringing them all to a consensus with a continental name. PB+J is a manufactured toponym from the first letters of each leader's name. A great example of a commemorative toponym is of Hruska, in memory of their supreme leader who fell from the sky and became their superior by gaining a following over time. With regard to regions, a descriptive toponym includes Ash Lands of Hruska, describing the island's ash-covered grounds. Klain of Florin received its associative name from the observation made on its small amounts of precious materials found within the ground and nearby caves. "Klein" in the people's language meant small, so they altered the word slightly to give the region its name.


Feature concept

Organization of Political Space

            My concept was political space and boundaries. To convey this I wrote music with four instruments per instrumental section. The opening is brooding and apprehensive with a bass minor chord to symbolize the beginnings of disputes. Then the woodwinds come in with a pleasant choral major progression, then they are cut off by a brass march. The music goes back and forth between the sections and the brass ‘wins’. This is a bit obvious that it represents war and a winner. Then the percussion come in with some more sweet major chords and percussive dynamics then the brass come in and ‘obliterate’ the percussion, leaving nothing left but the brass. In this, the brass are a country that war over ‘musical’ boundaries and take back their ‘musical’ space.

Deciduo

By Jessica Heintz

Super Continent and Continental Drift

Over a long, long period of time, Aegnap, an alternative version of the supercontinent Pangea, broke into seven plates that all diverged from each other. Our continent, Pervenche, experiences continental drift and drifted toward the east (a cardinal direction) as another continent impacted our southeast (an intermediate direction) “leg” and created a fold. This resulted in a convergent boundary. The impact caused the formation of a mountain adn increased pressure up the side of the continent that has created a coastal mountain range. Also on the coast is a line of volcanoes, which is due to the faulting of the supercontinent and subductino of the adjacent oceanic plate and our continent. Now there is a “Ring of Fire” along our east coast and the coasts of four other continents. Pervenche’s two “legs”, passing through the Equator and almost reaching the 23.5º latitude line, are separated by a large bay area that would experience abrasion and erosion. Areas that would also experience this include the top and side points that jut out of Pervenche. The east side of our continent is slightly resemblant of California with ocean currents and location, while the east side is similar to India in shape and climate. As the mathematician, group members were given assistance with their parts. Figuring out the ratios of Aegnap to the paper version was slightly difficult, but trying to discern where the ocean currents would go and how they would be placed was enjoyable. At first, there was a major lack in communication within the group. Later, the group was able to discuss and compromise on ideas and what would be most accurate and appropriate for the continent.

Site and Situation

The settlement of the Deciduons is situated at a lake at the end of a river and in a deciduous forest, hence the name. The absolute location is 35ºN, 6ºW. This location is slightly hilly, not very rocky (in terms of soil and ground), and very dense (with a lot of vegetation in the forest). This area has abundant water sources, which can be used for irrigation or transportation. This area also includes lots of vegetation, which can serve as shelter or food and shelter for other animals. That means hunting won’t be so difficult (as there are animals that live in the forest). Hunting is also a source of fur, which can be made into clothing. Summers are pretty cool and not too long, but winters are pretty cold, which will require heavier fur clothing. People can use remnants of animals (i.e. bones), plants, and rocks to start building shelter. Animals will pose a danger to the Deciduons. The Deciduons can swim or make toys from leftover animal parts for recreation. The main concern for the people would be animal attack or river flooding. Place is the uniqueness of a location, or in other words what makes it special. The gradually inclining land, dense deciduous forest, and access to a lake and river all make up a combination of factors that will allow my settlement to thrive. With these features and the right climate, the Deciduons will be able to live on for ages to come.

Linguistic Developments

There are five settlements on Pervenche: Xienega, Equitoria, Deciduo, Viridia, and Verbena. Of these five settlements, Verbena and Viridia share a common root language. The hearth of this root language (like Nostratic in comparison to this case) would have been located between 0-23.5*N, 20-45*W near the four rivers that branched off of the main river that runs across the continent.

Root language words include:

  • Sun: lucix
  • Eat: vom
  • Happy: laeta
  • Animal: orsisit
  • Mom: mam
  • Dad: caeci
  • Danger: orsesistus

For Verbena, their words include:

  • Sun: lucit
  • Eat: um
  • Happy: laetia
  • Animal: orsis
  • Mom: mam
  • Dad: caeceli
  • Danger: orsesies

For Viridia, their words include:

  • Sun: luximus
  • Eat: um
  • Happy: lautus
  • Animal: orsit
  • Mom: mane
  • Dad: caeculum
  • Danger: worstisitimus

The sound shifts that occurred over time with these two settlements includes the lowering of tone in the dialect of Viridia, seen in the heavy use of “us” and “um” sounds. Verbena’s dialect consists of harder consonants as well. The vocabulary of the two dialects are fairly similar, and the sound shifts were inevitable due to the language divergence from the hearth.


Linguistic Developments

As for the Deciduo settlement’s language, it is completely separate and isolated, and there has been neither any contact with the other settlements on the continent nor contact with the root language’s hearth. The settlement’s language’s words include:

  • Sun: loh
  • Eat: ohm
  • Happy: eah
  • Animal: pitta
  • Mom: naná
  • Dad: babá
  • Danger: “k-k-k” (clicking noise)
  • Plant: chaka
  • Weapon: pow
  • Lake: waka
  • River: wishka
  • “Quiet!”: ché

Plant, lake, and river are words connected with the physical features that surround the Deciduo settlement. Weapon and “Quiet!” are both connected with the danger that comes with being settled by a forest. Slight alterations in the language history of the Deciduons can be found through backwards reconstruction, like the change in the hardness of consonants and faster paced speaking rhythm that comes with the constant dangerous encounters in the forest. This is similar to the example of “vater, vader, father”, which shows the slight sound shifts over time.

Religion and Philosophy

Wishkamism is a monotheistic religion that exists within the Deciduon society. Quickly after the settlement of the Deciduons, the oldest member and leader, a man by the name of Jamah (huh-MAH), passed away. Following his passing was the peculiar appearance of a Koi fish in the near side of the lake (in respect to the Deciduo settlement), which sparked the Deciduon people’s interests. Every evening, the Koi fish would make an appearance, and the Deciduons came to agree that this Koi fish had to hold the spirit of Jamah. This makes the small lake the origin of the Wishkamah religion. The ultimate goal in Wishkamism is that one proves themselves worthy of reincarnation into a safe life while keeping a balance of favorable traits. The Wishkamists follow the Four Koimahs, (a similar idea to the Five Pillars of Faith in the Islam religion). Each Koimah represents a trait: strength, intelligence, agility, and courage. One must successfully complete the ultimate test to achieve a Koimah. Once the four Koimahs are reached, one is guaranteed reincarnation into a safe second life, where their spirit will live on protected from danger. A Wishkamist must also say a prayer and burn incense at the Koiler Lake at least once every two months. There is one taboo in Wishkamism. A Wishkamist mustn’t kill and/or eat a Koi fish. This is believed to bring total chaos into the consumer’s life, and they will never be able to achieve the Four Koimahs. 

The Koiler Lake (the lake of which Jamah’s Koi was found) serves as the origin and a holy site. The Wishkamists come to Koiler Lake for their incense burning and praying. Wishkamists have also built a large stone temple in honor of Jamah and the Koi fish. Each time a Wishkamist visits the temple, they put a sacrificed item at the feet of Jamah’s statue. The Wishkamah holy book is the Jamabaila (hah-muh-BI-luh), the “Book of Balance”. The Jamabaila is often compared to the Taoist book covering “The Way”. Adult Wishkamists formed a committee and wrote different standards and philosophies on the way the Wishkamah society should be. There is not a hierarchy in the Wishkamah society. The Wishkamists are very strong believers in balance, and a social hierarchy will only impose a more stressful spirit amongst the people. Similar to the Christians, the main clothing restriction is that private areas of the body are not exposed and are covered and clothed. However, Wishkamists often times wear hand-crafted Koi fish accessories to show their pride and joy in their religion.

Settlement Demographics

As a new settlement on Pervinche, The Deciduons attempted to organize themselves as best as they could, knowing they still had a lot of improving to do. The people did not live long, reaching up to thirty years of age at the maximum, mid to late twenties on average. With such poor technology and education coming into the world, they were highly prone to bacteria, leading to infections, viruses, diseases, and even natural disasters like tornadoes, floods, strong storms, and more. Knowing that they must arrange themselves in the most advantageous way possible, the entirety of the population’s adults, ages 15 and over, assembled and agreed on the formation of a capitalist republic, where those who have reached the four Koimahs of the people’s religion (Wishkamism) were given the authority to make group executive decisions.

The Deciduon government served to control the settlement’s money and taxes, aid in the public education, elect religious leaders, regulate the extraction and usage of resources, and ensure civilized conduct and manner in all citizens. The government also wrote laws outlining the ideal practices of an adult Deciduon. Of these laws, the first stated that one with a child of age five must send their child off to attend the Deciduon Wishkamist School. On a similar note, one must have received at least ten years of education. If this was not already completed prior to adulthood (age 5-15), one must finish their studies (although this law was rarely put into effect because of the first). The other two laws were that one must pay the declared taxes and one must be employed by the age of sixteen. Additionally, the government would provide each adult and their family a uniform-size plot of land, most easily done by the river.

A group of Deciduons were sent off to search the land and gather items of seeming use when they found natural mines located just north of the settlement. In these mines, they found coal, uranium, and copper, which would all eventually contribute to the process of hydroelectric energy generation. In the meantime, the Deciduons found powdering coal, burning it for fuel, and incorporating copper into utensils and tools most effective. Another advancement was made when the Deciduons discovered the opportunity for successful, organized agriculture. A second settlement was established through the approval of the government along the riverside in a long-lot village form, allowing each homeowner to cultivate land behind their property and irrigate the crops being grown. These crops included rice, wheat, barley, potatoes, beans, squash, and millet.

Industrialization 

The Deciduo area has great access to coal, copper, and uranium, which have all been used most generously to run nuclear power plants, cement manufacturing, metal manufacturing in the generation of electricity and production of cement and different metal parts and alloys. The textile industry has become electricity dependent instead of reliant on the water wheel, and it now relies on the electricity produced by the nuclear power plant. The main agglomeration in occurrence is with the transportation and manufacturing industries, including the interaction between businesses in production of cars and metal parts and alloys. This industrial belt has formed along the northern borders of the Deciduo territory, where the richest mines have been located. In the Demographic Transition, this would put the Deciduons in stage 3, where because industrialization is high, death rates are low, birth rates have lowered, and the demographic momentum is present. 

Five real world places in stage 3 include India, Costa Rica, Morocco, Columbia, and Mexico. Of these five places, the one that is most similar to the demographic transition standpoint of Deciduo is Morocco. Deciduo is still expanding at a considerably fast rate. The other four real world places have more stabilizing populations compared to that of Morocco, and each of these four places no longer appear to have rapidly expanding populations at this stage. Morocco’s patterns between the younger dependents and working force most closely resemble that of Deciduo, and Deciduo’s population percentages on each side of the pyramid most closely resemble that of Morocco’s pyramid. 

Stage three of the Demographic Transition model places the majority of the adult population (aging from mid-twenties to mid-fifties) into an industrialized working force with the remainder of the stabilizing population comprised of the youth and elderly in the dependents group of society. In the real world, children were used for a good portion of labor in factories, textile mills, farms and plantations, and more. Adult and elderly employment levels in the past have remained more similar to their present day levels in comparison to the child employment levels from the past and current-day. Since education is such an important, institutional part of Wishkamist Deciduon youth, the work force is mainly be made up of adults that have finished their education. The same applies with the Deciduon society, as the youth is mostly busy learning in school.

Urbanization and Economy

In order to restrict and lower birth rates, Deciduo is increasing production and marketing of contraceptives as well as implementing a restrictive antinatalist policy that discourages births after the age of 40. Despite the country only having reached stage 3, the birth rates are rapidly growing at a high exponential rate. Currently, the population experiences a high number of vehicular accidents and many fall victim to suffering from various diseases spread by insects. Women and men play an equal part in society. They share the same household responsibilities and occupational status opportunity, making for a generally equal distribution in society. Women can be found doing any job that a man could handle as long as the individual is fit and capable for the work cut out for them, even after bearing children. Most mothers choose to take a year’s leave from further education or work following the birth of their child(ren) and receive 55% of their regular monthly income during leave.



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Services like auto repair and medical attention are big in Deciduo today. Citizen reliance and trust in the overall growth of biological knowledge and medicinal practice results in the constant high demand for this service. Also due to an established citizen reliance is the auto industry and its repair services. With the natural resources providing abundantly for car production, the majority of citizens own a car and therefore need to visit an auto repairman.

Urbanization and Economy

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Agriculture in Deciduo is still prominent in the structure of society, yet it has achieved a high level of technological advancement within its mechanisms. Manual labor has been greatly reduced by the forward development of machines, allowing work to be done more efficiently to yield higher product levels.

Urbanization and Economy

The pie charts serve to represent not only the demographics of the country but the different laboring sectors and their population densities as well. More people involved in agricultural labor shows as the pie chart’s high portion of the circle and on the cultural landscape as more dense in rural areas farther out from the city. A decent amount of citizens involved in the industrial sector reveals that the suburban to further outskirting regions of the city are densely populated with working/middle-class residents, keeping in mind that gender roles do not apply.

Deciduo does not receive help building infrastructure because of its exceptional isolation and the hassle preventing other countries from reaching out and helping (although at any offer, Deciduo would gladly accept). Currently, Deciduo is partnering with neighboring countries that include Klain, Verbena, Conqueria, Viridia, and Perosiliience in participation of the National Nunc Network of Trade (NNNT) and the National Nunc Network of Healthy Hardworking Humans (NNNHHH), supranational organizations similar to the WTO and WHO, where extra efforts are being made to improve national wealth and permit a smooth trade system across different countries as well as ensure generally widespread health, disaster relief, and proper nourishment.

Urbanization and Economy

With urbanization, the city appears to be very segregated in terms of income levels. There are different neighborhoods of wealth and areas of commerce that target diverse crowds, such as the mall being centralized in between elite neighborhoods. The traditional market, however, is depended on by all citizens and has been a very successful distributor of produce and small, miscellaneous household items, which is why there are working-class citizens diffusing in through the areas of disamenity towards the city center and to the market. Urbanization has caused the overall majority of lower-income citizens to spread outward away from the CBD, despite efforts to keep connection to the market. 

Featured Concept

Geographers study the causes and effects of the layouts that are seen in cities today and use urban models to organize associated theories and phenomena. Within these urban models, areas of the city are separated into zones, in which housing, income level, and business all differ. There are different neighborhoods of wealth and areas of commerce that target diverse crowds, such as the mall being centralized in between elite neighborhoods. Working class citizens tend to be housed near or around the city’s central business district, while middle and upper class citizens are generally located further from the CBD and own more land. Housing for the working class is usually less structurally sound and smaller in size, unlike the more luxurious homes that middle and upper class citizens reside in that reflect their higher incomes. However, an exception exists for cities that follow the Latin American City Model, where people typically reside illegally on land along the outermost ring of the city. This particular model’s traditional market, however, is depended on by all citizens and has been a very successful distributor of produce and small, miscellaneous household items, which explains the diffusion that occurs from the areas of disamenity and in towards the city center and market. Urbanization has caused the overall majority of lower-income citizens to spread outward away from the CBD, despite efforts to keep connection to the market. This still allows for growth in the city center, which will last out for years to come.

Featured Concept

Directly to the right of the shanty home is a middle-class residency, which is much more mature than the periférico housing but not a fully developed area. Continuing to the right, this fine-detailed house is an elite residential sector home, situated right next to the shopping mall, concluding the outer ring of the model’s urban organization. Moving inward, the building behind the shanty home can be identified in the zone of in situ accretion. Centrally located near the back of the city is a factory in the industrial park. The two buildings behind the mall complex are commercial headquarters that would be located in the central business district.

In this two-dimensional urban area setup model, various buildings are featured as markers of the different zones and classes present in the typical Latin American city. As one observes the urban model, the layout of the illustrated buildings has been designed to place them in areas that symbolize the spatial distribution of the zones and can be observed in areas that correlate with where they would lie in the actual city. On the left is a shanty homes, which in relation to the shopping mall is furthest away. 

Verbena

by Ginger Hudson

Super Continent and Continental Drift

The world started out as the supercontinent Pangea and transformed into the countries we know today. The alternate world we made started as Pangea and the plates moved and became isolated. Then the rest of the continents broke away and drifted farther out. Then, a movement to the east of our continent caused another plate to slingshot around the ring of fire into the southeastern “leg” of our continent. The slingshot like projections caused our continent Verbena to have mountains and volcanoes around the ring of fire and cascading hills along the middle and bay areas. 

The processes that lead to out topography included some slight shifting and movement, but the main movement came from the other continents moving. Folding, faulting and subductions and convergence of our plate boundaries caused mountains and volcanoes to form around the ring of fire and bay area. The movement to the east caused a continent to slingshot into our continent that caused a convergence and folding. 

As my job as cartographer, I sketched the continental drift of Pangea. One challenge I faced was making sure making sure my cardinal and intermediate directions of the continent I sketched proportionally and accurately depicted the photographer's pictures. Also, I had trouble drawing the continents the right size and and the right latitudes and longitudes on all the maps. I worked with group mates by using the photographers pictures who took pictures form the mathematicians calculations. 

This relates to the real world because this is how the continents could have actually moved and still do today. It helps you understand how Earth’s continents got to the absolute locations. As well as how the Earth is changing at this moment and the processes it takes to move massive land and water plates. Our eastside has similar currents and climate to California and the west side is similar to India’s currents and temperature.


Site and Situation

My settlement is called Verbena and its absolute location is 32 degrees N, 45 degrees W. My settlement got its name from the flower Verbena. Verbena grows abundantly in the temperate region and my settlement. Verbena is located in a temperate deciduous forest and hilly region. 

The physical characteristics of this region include a the deciduous forest located in a hilly region. There are many tall trees located in the forest, but also lots of open areas of arid farming land. The settlement is about 1 mile from a major river. 

Advantages

My location has so many advantages, such as in the deciduous forest there are many species of deer, wild boars, foxes, marmots, badgers, bears and lynx. This is a great advantage because the settlers can hunt the animals for meat and pelts. The animals can provide meat and a healthy sustainable diet. The pelts can be used in trade or as clothing. In this forest there are also many edible foods such as berries, nuts and mushrooms. The temperate region also is greatly suited as farm land. The elevation is also factor because it provides a good view to see what around the settlement. The river near my my colony is the main water source, travel hub and we have control of it. The one mile distance also allows for there to be flooding without destroying Verbena. 

Shelter

The Verbenians use the wood from the oak, beech and chestnut trees to put together shelter. They use hand tools such as axes and man power cut the trees down and put together the houses. 

Dangers 

The dangers the Verbenians face are brown bears, snakes, falling trees, flooding and even field fires. Domestic dangers such as opposing colonies may be dangerous if they are surprise attacks. Most danger is able to be detected from the elevation but some are unavoidable. 

Entertainment 

The people use the meadows as a meeting ground and play area for younger children. A common toy for a Verbenian child is carved and made of wood. In designated areas hunters can target practice with bows and arrows and knifes.  



Conclusion

Verbena is located in a temperate deciduous forest. It has many hills and flat grasslands. There is large deciduous forest adjacent to the settlement and in the forest there are tall deciduous trees, plant and forest animals. Hunters kill the animals and the animals are used for food, clothing, weapons and tools. Verbena’s location has all the key factors to survival: food, clothing, protection and a water source. 

Linguistic Developments

On the continent Pervenche, Verbena (my settlement) and Virdinia have the same root language. The hearth would have developed around the middle of the 4 major rivers split. That would be around 0-23.5 N, 20;-45 W on Pervenche. All the other settlements Xienega, Equitoria, and Deciduo are isolated so they are they are their own hearths. 


Root Language Terms (Root Family)

sun= lucix

eat= uom

happy= laeta

animal= orsisti

Mom= mam

dad= caeci

danger=  orsesistus


Sound Shifts

The language of Verbenians comes from the root family. To get to our language from the root family there was multiple sound shifts. The hard consonants such as T, softened and became not as harsh. The words became shorter and more fluid. The words became easier to say faster and quieter. For backwards reconstruction you can easily see how Verbenish comes from the root and how the consonants softened. Such as orsestistus (danger) shifted to orsesies, it became not as harsh and quicker to say. 

System of Language Family 

Verbensish is a quick speech and it sounds sophisticated and somewhat english. It comes from a root family and so does Virdininan because they came in contact at some point and split. The root family came from a branch of Nostratic. Verbenish and Virdininan slightly changed as they left the root language. The other settlements languages are their own hearths because they are isolated. 




Unique Words to My Settlement 

forest= timbs

weapon= shwing

water= wheosh

quiet= shus

wood= bleck


Common Words

dad= caeceli

Mom= mam

sun= lucit

eat= um

happy= laetia

animal= orsis

danger= orsesies

These words are unique to Verbenish because it relates to the culture of my people. Because they live in a deciduous forest they need words for forest and wood. There are many animals for them to hunt so they need words for weapon and to be quiet. Also there is a river near so they would also need a word for water as well. 

From the root family to Verbenish, the dialect changed. The words dialect is more proper sounding (english almost). The syntax is similar to Latin with a subject before a verb. For example, Ginger clarinet plays. The language is also faster than the root. The words are fluid and come of the tongue fast, which helps hunters and in quick communications. 


In real life, developments of languages start at a root and the words consonants soften and change slightly as they move away from the hearth. Also, as the languages come together and have a language divergence you can see traits of the language form many roots. Verbena’s language developed just like in the real world. The consonants so center, it changed slightly as it moved from the hearth and as many people converged at Verbena it changed the language slightly as well. 



Religion and Philosophy

The settlement Verbena’s religion is Verbin.  Verbin is a monotheistic religion that has a single God, the Arb. The origin comes from the story of the boy named Arb. He was young boy and he was going through troubles and hardship with the others in the village. In the forest he lived in were many trees but one seemed special to him, a small aspen. The small tree was struggling to grow with all the trees towering above it. Arb felt his story was similar to the tree so decided to care for it. After he started to care for the aspen, his life forever changed and he no longer had any struggles or problems. Quickly he rose above his peers becoming stronger, more successful and more powerful than them all. They could not believe that it could be from the tree, but Arb showed them that they too could achieve success through harmony and balance with nature.  


 The goals of Verbin is to achieve success with the incorporation of nature in one's life. The tranquility of a plant or garden in one's home will bring the state of calm desired. The goal is to use the patterns and beauty of nature to an advantage to lead you to self discovery and prosperity. To achieve this state there are only a few rules. For one, followers must have plants and any type of nature in the living spaces at all times. For example, near a bed or in pocket. You must also visit the holy site, the aspen forest and plant a new tree there. Lastly it is forbidden to disrespect nature such as the trees and plants, by destruction or taking but not using it to help you survive or putting it to use.



There are only few clothing requirements. The coloring must blend with nature and not stand out. Such as greens, browns, yellow, red, grey and black etc. The material must be created by hand. It is similar to Hinduism, because the dress is not as important the values.  Also all members get a necklace with a tree pendant when they are born and it is required to be worn at all religious meetings. The clothing can identify the religion because the look of the clothing is typically thin material, but in layers and simple patterns if any. The colors are not flashy or bright, they are plain. The necklace is a major indicator of the followers.


Some taboos of Verbin include the unwritten rule of use only what you need. The people are hunters and gatherers, but they only kill or take what they need. It is not accepted to kill any more animals than you would possibly need or chop down anymore trees than you could need or take more water, or materials than the others. It is rude to take more than you need until everyone has gotten some. These are taboos because the primary focus of Verbin is respecting nature and working with it to achieve goals.


The holy site is located in the middle of the aspen forest. The same place where Arb helped the single aspen grow to a forest. In the middle of the forest is Temple called the Temple of Arbien. It resembles the structure of bark and leaves and blends into the surroundings like camouflage. 


The holy book is called the Temb. It was written and created by the people who Arb first shared his success with and was revised by the followers from then on.  

 

In the Verbin religion there is no hierarchy. It is believed everyone starts equal and you can reach a more respectable status through being a involved member of society. Similarly to Christianity, all men and women are equal.  



Settlement Demographics

The settlement Verbena was founded on the continent Pervenche. This settlement is located a couple miles from a river in a temperate climate. The landscape is green, plush, hilly and great for growing crops. The colony started small. There wasn't much food or resources readily available. The life expectancy was short but over time and discovery it grew higher.

When the people first built up a colony it was decided the government would be a representative democracy. That means the citizens will vote in officials whom will make make and execute laws. The founders of Verbena set the requirements of citizenship are as follow: Must have a job, or had a job in the last six months (starting age 18), pay all dues within 6 months, have a criminal record of less than 3 offenses, and you must live in Verbena for at least a year. If you meet the requirements stated you can become a citizen. Anyone of any age can become a citizen if they meet the requirements, and if they are under 18, they don’t have to a job until they turn 18 and become an adult. Once you are a citizen, as an adult you must also participate actively in voting and be a contribution to society, such as having a job and bringing new knowledge to Verbena. 

Once the government was set up, leaders were elected by the people to start committees to help advance the society by finding resources and starting orderly farms. The farming committee sent by the government, sectioned land around the cluster village into even portions. The land was then open for the first settlers and their families to come. After exploration, it was discovered that wheat, barley, potatoes, beans and apples could grow naturally in Verbena. The farms run by families produced all of the food available to eat in Verbena and the water from the river near was used to irrigate the farms. When the agriculture that was discovered could grow in Verbena, small farms were cultivated with crude tools.

Verbena began a mine with simple wood tools, and then stone and until they found better resources, the tools got better. Over many years the resources mined were iron-ore, oil and diamonds. The resources were found after trial and error and continuous mining until they found something useful over the course of decades. The resources were found right beneath Verbena and in the complex tunnels that were mined out. Since the diamonds were found in such abundance they were used as a form of currency, they were also used a precise cutting tools. The iron ore was used later on to make tools by melting the ore to turn it into steel. The oil was used a lubrication in tools such a sheers, and wheels and a fire starter. Later on it this resource will play a major role in making mechanical things run. These resources mined helped make better tools to harvest and plant crops. After finding these resources the life expectancy grew significantly in the following years because the farms become easier to grow with better tools. 

The government involvement is not overpowering. They are involved in only what is necessary. The government officials are elected by citizens and the leaders will write the laws to protect citizens and make the best judgement for the better of the people. Aside from electing the committee to section farm land and a mining committee the government’s main job is to insure citizen safety and make and execute laws. When Verbena became an official colony, a document similar to a constitution was made with the founding policies of what Verbena stands for and is used in reference of how the government should be run. 



After Verbena stabilized as a colony with substantial food supply and resources, a new exploration committee was sent out to survey the land all around. The group found a place to build the second outpost settlement 50 miles north of Verbena. This settlement is walled. The resources found here are almost exactly the same as in Verbena, except the land has more trees and isn't as open. All the principles of the government are exactly the same and it is run the same. The government in Verbena 1 sets up the committees for mining and farming in Verbena 2 so there is  clear instructions and no confusion among the two colonies. The reason this settlement is walled is for a safe escape if needed. If invasion is ever an issue, Verbenians have a place to go. Not only that but it is a place for safe keeping of resources. The government is based in Verbena 1 but it has control over all the interactions in Verbena 2. Since the distance is quite close, messengers can send information back and forth. 

Lastly, the life expectancy of a Verbenain is 30 years old. It may seem low, but for a settlement with no modern technology, it is normal. For example, if a disease is brought into Verbena, finding a cure will be very hard and it could kill a lot of people. Also, if a farming season isn't great, that is the Verbenians only food source and they would suffer.  That is why the life expectancy is 30, because of disease and famine. 


Verbena Pre - Industrial 

Before industrializing, Verbena had all the necessary things people need to survive. Verbena was self- sustaining, and then came along population growth. The population growth makes the demand for food a necessity. So, Verbena had to reach out to regionally and globally to provide food and be trade partners Verbena needed to provide for a growing population. 

Vervain Pre - Industrial

Continent Population Dispersion

Industrialization

Industrialization has influenced our stage in demographic transition because we can provide for a larger and healthy population and are expanding our knowledge of efficient tools, medicine, and agriculture. Like the Industrial Revolution, our movement to Stage 3 is key to expansion and longer life expectancy. Currently, the countries Botswana, Colombia, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico are all in stage 3 of the demographic transition model. In comparison to real life places, Verbena and Vervain closely resembles present India. 


In my settlements Verbena and Vervain, they have connections to Deciduous and Viridia. At Verbena, we already produce iron-ore, diamond, oil, potatoes, apples, beans, wheat, and barley. With the access to these other settlements we can acquire and trade for coal, uranium, copper, titanium, squash, millet, and rice. As our settlements mechanize, the mines are shifting to drilling machines and mechanical carving instead of hand digging. Also the crop fields are shifting to use sprinkler system to water the crops efficiently, quicker and more even. Harvesting as well is turning to steam powered engines to reap the crops and threshing machines to remove seeds from heads and stalk. In terms of agglomeration, the mining industry has located itself near the mines and iron, oil and stone factories to benefit from the proximity and laborers from the work pool. The shops have also located themselves near to the fields to decrease shipping cost and allow the field workers to own businesses near to  directly sell their merchandise. The fields that produces crops are near the places who process foods. The industrial belt Verbena and Vervain is located at is called the Virbou industrial belt. 





Real Places: India

India is most like Verbena because it has a slight increase in population from a slight decrease in death rate and birth rate. The reason for fall in births is family planning, education, low infant mortality rate, industrialized life, want of material things and females wanting jobs. India is generally considered a developing nation which means it is slowly industrializing which is similar to Verbena. 

Trade with Decidou



Agricultural Village 


Manufacturing Belt


This social class is from real world countries in a democracy. In real world cities industrializing, the men 15-50+ are the working class. But then women, enter the workforce as cheap labor. The working class around the ages 15-50 is the biggest percent of population and major money producers. The lower class has small jobs and not huge profit incomes. The middle class are typically the workers who make enough money to support families. Lastly the upper class is the officials and wealthy plantation and farm owners. The social classes in Verbena is changing from everyone is equal to the work and money you make sorts you into specific classes. The men are they main workers of the society just like in early industrialization, but over time all genders will enter the workforce as cheaper labor. This chart above represents the new classes coming to effect in Verbena. The social life of the Verbenians is changing with the industrial revolution. The women are the main workers and the bread winners while the men stay home to maintain the households, farms and children. Typically it is the young women in the factories and the older women in the mills. The women aren’t home as often and spend long hours away. The young men stay home while the men with older children work in the factories and heavy lifting jobs. The children stay at home and help their fathers. And when they get older, school is their new life change. Males and females can all get the education they want and add on with higher education as individuals see fit. As the world as a whole, the lifestyle is changing drastically in the industrial revolution. The new technology is making it easier to gain contact with other nations and build trade and economy with others. Travel has been way more efficient and many more products are available to sell. The farming worldwide has started to combine the products of other nations to build a compound product. Such as milk, and cloth. As well as trade for minerals and products to sell back home. 



Global Trade Partners

Urbanization and Economy

In my country Verbena, the birth rates are being slowed by restrictive population policies. A rule that states no woman can have more than 2 living children at any time, was put into place to manage the population and keep in within the carrying capacity. The birth rate is also declining do to improved economic conditions, an increase in women’s status and education, and access to contraception. The death rates are declining due to newer medical technology, education, increased food supplies and distribution, better nutrition

improvements in medical and public health technology (such as immunizations and antibiotics),improved sanitation and personal hygiene, and safer water supplies (which has curtailed the spread of many infectious diseases). The workplace consists of women and men. The men and women work in agriculture, industry and service industry. When the women have children, the women will use days allotted to them when it is necessary. Then they will come back when they can. Sometimes the men or women of the family don’t work and then they stay at home to care for children. 





These pictures picture represent a country in stage 3 of demographic transition. Agriculture in stage 3, is moving from subsistence farming to more commercial business. The tools and machines are moving towards manual and not physical labor. Above in the pictures you can see the machines like tractors and reapers assisting in quicker harvesting. The crops are being sold for profit and not just for one family. For example the many rows of crops you see in the pictures show how large of bulk is used to sell. In Verbena, crops such as the wheat and barley will be harvested like above. They will be mass farmed and harvested using mechanical devices. 



In stage 3, the service industry is expanding. The health care system is preparing for longer life span. Women are getting help with children and access to contraceptives. The retail service is expanding to accommodate for the desire of material things. Restaurants and food services are becoming more common from urbanization. Sanitation is becoming more advanced in the trash disposal and water sanitation and general cleanliness of the cities. Lastly, public transportation such as trains, are more prevalent as the cities get bigger and there are more jobs. 


Regional Connections

The information in the pie charts is showing a relatively high number of dependents. The advancing technology of the health service industry allows Verbena to support them. Because Verbena is still in stage 3, agriculture is still a big part of the economy is takes up 46% of the population. The ages working in the agriculture sector are also the highest in the population pyramid, 34-54. Women and men population are about equal, because moving into stage 3 women are getting my support health wise and in education. The service industry is expanding for the want of material things so the population reflects that in the typical age of people working in jobs that don’t need higher level education, 15-30. 


Verbena is not going to accept multinational corporations in the economy. Verbena wants to build its own stable economy without the help of others. They want to keep the money in the country and not get money from outside sources.  Not only to build the country from within, but also the make a strong sense of nationalism. 


Verbena is involved with the supranational organizations NNNT and NNHHH. NNNT (National Nunc Network of Trade) is similar to NAFTA and TTP. It regulates the free trade among specified countries and what qualifies to be bought and sold in these areas. NNHHH (National Nunc Network of Healthy Hardworking Humans) is similar to Red Cross. It assists in crisis situations and national health outbreaks. These agreements are only between the countries Verbena, Decidou, Perosiliience, Viridia, Klain, and Conqueria. 




As Verbena urbanized, transportation, living, and service is reflected in the city scape. Transportation is becoming more broad with longer roads stretching to further places and different modes of transportation. Trains and buses are becoming more sufficient to get around. Living spaces and homes are being incorporated into cities as well. Typically the upper class get homes closer to the core of the city and the middle class span out from that. There are becoming fewer and fewer of the poor populations as economic stability for the country is getting better. Service industry is more common in suburban and CBD areas. People are needing the health and transportation services near to home and in the city and don’t want to travel far to get the daily essentials.


Spatial Distribution in the City Model

concentrations of total population

Supra National Organizations


Verbena is not going to accept multinational corporations in the economy. Verbena wants to build its own stable economy without the help of others. They want to keep the money in the country and not get money from outside sources.  Not only to build the country from within, but also the make a strong sense of nationalism. 


Verbena is involved with the supranational organizations NNNT and NNHHH. NNNT (National Nunc Network of Trade) is similar to NAFTA and TTP. It regulates the free trade among specified countries and what qualifies to be bought and sold in these areas. NNHHH (National Nunc Network of Healthy Hardworking Humans) is similar to Red Cross. It assists in crisis situations and national health outbreaks. These agreements are only between the countries Verbena, Decidou, Perosiliience, Viridia, Klain, and Conqueria. 



Featured Concept

Artwork Explanation

  1. In this painting on the left side is a small family farm that is living off subsistence agriculture and only growing enough food for a family.
  2. On the right side of the painting is a plantation that is commercial farm. This farm isn’t farming to survive, but to make profit. This farm is predominantly a grain farm. This plantation grows wheat and barley, as well as apples, some beans and potatoes.  The grain produced here is the primary stage in the agribusiness. The plantation is mixed crop and has a large variety of products for the temperate climate. 

This painting represents how in the stage 3 Verbena the major differences between family and commercial farming. The family farms are making little to no income, while the agribusiness farm is overpowering the economy and buying all the land. At this point, agriculture is the main focus and income for GDP. So, the profit is being brought into the farms that are selling the most and leaving the family farms to struggle through. 

Concept: Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use

Impact on Environment, Economics, Cultural Attitudes



Real Places

India

  • 2nd biggest wheat producer in world
  • In stage 3 like Verbena
  • Similar population map
  • Mostly industrialized agriculture





Commercial farm in India


France

  • Temperate climate  
  •  Similar crops, wheat and barley
  • industrialized

Commercial farm in France


Urbanization and Economy

Viridia as a country is acting against overpopulation by offering rewards to whoever has one or two children. If a person wants to have more than two children they have to fill out a waiver and pay a fine of $1,000. People mostly die from cancer, car wrecks, and accidents in factories. The heavy industry factories mostly employ men. However, in offices, agriculture, and virtually everywhere else, women are considered just as effective as men. It is difficult but possible for women to have children and still work. This is because if they were to work they would have to send their young children to daycare, and they wouldn’t be able to have a dinner ready for any of her other children when they came home. Sometimes, as an alternative, the man of the house will stay home and be a “Housewife”. There are some homeschool families, and the Moms in those families are not able to work.

% of GDP

Pie Charts (Apr 17, 2017 2:01:10 PM).jpeg

% of Workforce/People

Pie Charts (Apr 17, 2017 12:21:52 PM).jpeg

These pictures show that agriculture has been mostly industrialized but not at it’s highest level. Viridians use machinery and less traditional forms of farming. However, they have not yet reached the level where everyone is wanting to eat healthy and organic things.

 Image result for agriculture

Image result for watering system agriculture

There are a few computer services for people who aren’t good with computers. Also, for people who want to buy computers.

Image result for computer services

There are also iron factories for refining the iron from Viridian mines. This is important because iron is difficult to impossible to use without refining. Iron is one of the main products of Viridia, therefore a lot of iron goes through these factories.

Image result for iron refinery

Copper refineries are also housed in Viridia. Copper is one of the natural resources in Viridia, but it is not as common as iron-ore. 

Image result for copper refinery

Also, there are regular office jobs for many people. These jobs include designing electronics and other high-tech things.

Image result for office

As can be seen in the pie chart for percent of people working in different industries, more than 50% work in heavy industry. This causes many people to live along the river, because of transportation and the location of mining. Most of the mining is done along the river. Also, some of the population is spread along the coast in popular tourist areas and harbors. This is because some people are in services industry, with tourist destinations. Also, harbors are often places of productivity.

IMG_20170423_142420.jpg

With this new urbanization, however, the Hoyt sector model is still prevalent, because most people live by the river.

IMG_20170423_144435.jpg

Viridia is accepting help building its infrastructure, since they have enough funds to do it themselves. It is, however, accepting multinational corporations, such as the NNNT and the NNNHHH. The NNNT is like NAFTA, it is a free trade agreement for the nations on the continent Nunc. The NNNHHH is like WHO, it is a health  agreement, however, it just between the nation's on Nunc.

Urbanization and economy

These pictures show that agriculture has been mostly industrialized but not at it’s highest level. Viridians use machinery and less traditional forms of farming. However, they have not yet reached the level where everyone is wanting to eat healthy and organic things.

 Image result for agriculture

Image result for watering system agriculture

There are a few computer services for people who aren’t good with computers. Also, for people who want to buy computers.

Image result for computer services

There are also iron factories for refining the iron from Viridian mines. This is important because iron is difficult to impossible to use without refining. Iron is one of the main products of Viridia, therefore a lot of iron goes through these factories.

Image result for iron refinery


Urbanization and Economy

Copper refineries are also housed in Viridia. Copper is one of the natural resources in Viridia, but it is not as common as iron-ore. 

Image result for copper refinery

Also, there are regular office jobs for many people. These jobs include designing electronics and other high-tech things.

Image result for office

As can be seen in the pie chart for percent of people working in different industries, more than 50% work in heavy industry. This causes many people to live along the river, because of transportation and the location of mining. Most of the mining is done along the river. Also, some of the population is spread along the coast in popular tourist areas and harbors. This is because some people are in services industry, with tourist destinations. Also, harbors are often places of productivity.

IMG_20170423_142420.jpg


Urbanization and Economy

With this new urbanization, however, the Hoyt sector model is still prevalent, because most people live by the river.

IMG_20170423_144435.jpg

Viridia is accepting help building its infrastructure, since they have enough funds to do it themselves. It is, however, accepting multinational corporations, such as the NNNT and the NNNHHH. The NNNT is like NAFTA, it is a free trade agreement for the nations on the continent Nunc. The NNNHHH is like WHO, it is a health  agreement, however, it just between the nation's on Nunc.

Industrialization

Viridians are capable of creating;

  1. copper pipes and wire
  2.  a multitude of iron products
  3. jewelry from diamonds
  4. rice products
  5. cane sugar
  6. fresh squash products
  7. wheat products such as flour and other things like that
  8. and stock feed

The production of copper and iron are mechanized, while the rest of the list is not.There is an agglomeration of the copper industry along the river, on the North-East side of Viridia. This is also where the industrial region is. Because of this, Viridia is centered by the river; most of the activity is in the crook of the river. Viridians are in stage three of the Demographic Transition Model. Their iron industry has advanced their technology and accelerated their advancement in Demographic Transition. Other real world countries in stage three include Mexico, Botswana, India, Jamaica, and Kenya. Out of these, Kenya is the most similar to Viridia.

This population pyramid of Kenya is most like Viridia’s agricultural village because of how the pyramid decreases as the population grows older, but there are still old people. However, there are also younger children. It is not like the bustling city, but, as mentioned before, it is like the agricultural village.


                         Bustling city                                                            Agricultural Village






Most of the population in the city is elderly people, not many children live in the heart of the city because it is harder to raise them there. Another reason that there are more adults in the city is because they can work while children cannot. The workforce is made up of men and women. This is like the real world in that children do not work in the industrial facilities, but mostly men and a few women do. It is not acceptable for youth to work in factories. Although, the population in the agricultural village is younger than the bustling city. It is alright for children to farm and things such as that. Some people in developing countries are having trouble adapting to modern life. The population of Botswana, particularly, is unhappy with how there is alcohol and other things happening in young societies. The social life of the Viridians will change, They will have more technology and connection with other cities. Also, their agriculture will advance and they will be able to grow plenty food for most of their inhabitants. 



Industrialization: Continued



                         Bustling city                                                            Agricultural Village


Most of the population in the city is elderly people, not many children live in the heart of the city because it is harder to raise them there. Another reason that there are more adults in the city is because they can work while children cannot. The workforce is made up of men and women. This is like the real world in that children do not work in the industrial facilities, but mostly men and a few women do. It is not acceptable for youth to work in factories. Although, the population in the agricultural village is younger than the bustling city. It is alright for children to farm and things such as that. Some people in developing countries are having trouble adapting to modern life. The population of Botswana, particularly, is unhappy with how there is alcohol and other things happening in young societies. The social life of the Viridians will change, They will have more technology and connection with other cities. Also, their agriculture will advance and they will be able to grow plenty food for most of their inhabitants. 



Settlement Demographics


In Viridia, people usually live 30-35 years. This is because children are allowed to go anywhere they please, and this makes it easy for alligators to pick them off. This usually happens between the ages of 2 and 7. At 8 years old, they have to take on adult responsibilities and they don't have enough time to get eaten. They don't get killed by alligators; they often die in the mine. One of their new responsibilities includes being on the Town Council. The Town Council is their form of government; it is like a democratic oligarchy. Another responsibility of the adults is to work the mines one week out of every month. The current location of the mines was discovered by a fisherman who went farther than intended due to a strong current. He ended up in a canyon, and, to keep himself from floating away entirely, climbed ashore. He noticed a cave and went inside. On the walls was a shiny substance that was later found to be diamond. As they dug for diamonds, they found copper and iron-ore too.

The Viridians found that the iron could be melted in a fire and molded into different shapes. After a council meeting where they thought of things they could use these resources for, they started using copper and iron to make arrowheads and other weapons, and also tools for farming. Since they couldn't find anything to do with the diamonds because they couldn't be shaped, they used them as decorations on hats. Every full moon the council would meet and decide where to focus most of their efforts. Eventually, the council decided to start a second settlement in the mine since it was far enough that it was hard to travel there in the morning, work there all day, and return at night. So they created a wall at the entrance to the mine to keep alligators and other creatures out. Every few days, a small boat brings fresh food and new people and takes the tired people back to the main settlement. As mentioned before, all adults have to do this at least once a month. While the men are back at the main village they farm, make tools, hunt, and fish.

Religion and Philosophy

This religion is animistic. Viridians believe that alligators are devils sent by the god of 

death to take them to his lair. They worship the river as the goddess of life, but she can get 

angry and hurt them sometimes. Since the alligators killed them they assumed that they were 

went, or on a mission to do this act. The reason that the river is a goddess of life is it gives them 

life, but it floods every spring.

One day a man, now called “Caeci Laetluxala,” or “Father of Good Light,” was fishing 

with his knife when an alligator attacked him. He fought it off and survived with minimal injuries, 

but it got him thinking. He created the basic life-and- death gods and goddesses, as well as less 

important gods. The goal of this religion is to please the goddess of life to earn a life with her 

forever. The way to earn favor with the goddess is to not destroy her or her inhabitants, and to 

keep all the taboos. One of the taboos is you are not allowed to eat after dark, if you do the 

devils of death will come and get you. It is also taboo to sleep on the ground, you must sleep in 

a tree or a tent. There is a large tree by the river which is believed to be a path for 

communication between people and the river, it is a sacred site. Also, the spot on the bank by 

the river where Caeci Laetluxala was fishing is considered a place where the river goddess gave 

him her wisdom about her “good light” so that Viridians could follow her, it is therefore sacred. 

Caeci Laetluxala had the Viridians plant a circle of trees with a bush in the center for the 

goddess to come to when she wanted as a home, like a temple. There is no holy book, the 

religion is passed on verbally, and by the children watching and observing the elders, slightly 

like Buddhism was passed down. Children are regarded as being important, but not as close to 

the desires of the goddess as the older people are. There is always one man who is the 

successor of the original Caeci Laetluxala. They all take the title “Caeci Laetluxala” as their 

name when the precious one dies Other than by age, everyone is equal and performs the same 

duties. The Caeci Laetluxala wears a hat made of alligator skin and dried river weeds to 

ceremonies. Every child, once they have slayed their first alligator, wears one of the alligator 

teeth from that alligator tied into their hair to protect them from the god of death, like a good-luck 

charm.



Linguistic Developments


Viridia and Verbena have a common root family. Some of the words they have are almost identical while others are hardly related at all. The hearth of these settlements’ languages is in the first fork of the Great Unnamed River, south of Verbena and north of Viridia. The root language words for sun, eat, happy, animal, mom, dad, and danger are sun-lucix, eat-uom, happy-laeta, animal-orsisit, mom-mame, dad-caeci, and danger-orsestus. After the languages diverged, or “mame,” has softened m into an n, creating the Viridian dialect word “mane.” The word for dad has lengthened into “caeculum.” Luximuls, the terminology for sun, has gotten softer, it no longer has a hard c but is softer. To make it easier and shorter, “uom,” the word for eat, has had a sound shift to “um,” a shorter and more convenient word. Happy has changed from “laeta” to “lautus,” a softer and gentler word. Orsisit, the root language word for animal, has shortened, in fact, it has dropped a whole syllable and become “orsit.” Finally, the word for danger, “orsestus,” has gotten longer and more identifiable, becoming “worstisitimus.” Many of the words end with “us,” with a gentle sound.

As Viridia has a very long word for danger, “Worstisitimus,” it indicates that they regard it very seriously, taking great precautions to make sure the word isn’t mistaken for a different one. If backward reconstruction were to be used, it would be found that Viridians talk slower and with hard consonants than the root language. This change in getting softer is similar to the German “Vater’ softening to the Dutch “cader” and eventually into the the English “Father.” Viridians are now no longer hunter-gatherers like the Nostratic people; they have a settlement.



Featured Concept