Practical work of cities
Is the capital of France and its most populated city.The city, within its narrow administrative boundaries, has a population of 2 273 305 inhabitants in 2015.
It is also known as the City of Light, is the most popular tourist destination in the world, with more than 42 million foreign visitors per year. It has many of the most famous and admired monuments of the world: the Eiffel Tower, Notre Dame Cathedral, Avenue des Champs Élysées, Arc de Triomphe, Sacré Cœur Basilica, Invalides Palace, Pantheon, The Arc de la Defense, the Opera Garnier or the Montmartre district, among others. It also houses world-renowned institutions: the Louvre, the Musée d'Orsay and the National Museum of Natural History of France, as well as an extensive system of higher education of international prestige. Paris occupies an important place in the field of fashion and luxury.
The region of Paris is along with that of London, one of the most important economic centers in Europe. With 607 billion euros (845 billion dollars), it produced more than a quarter of France's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011. La Défense is Europe's main business district, home to almost Half of the large French companies, as well as the headquarters of twenty of the 100 largest in the world. If it were a Country, this region would be the seventeenth largest economy in the world, with a GDP larger than that of the Netherlands and Turkey, and almost as large as that of Indonesia.
Although in terms of population, the urban area of Paris represents less than 20% of the urban area of France, the GDP reaches 28.4% of the total. In terms of urban areas, according to the United Nations, its GDP is the fifth largest in the world after Tokyo, New York, London and Los Angeles, and the first in Europe.29 Its GDP is comparable to the GDP of small countries of the first world.
Nearly half of the GDP of the Paris Region is generated by the business sector and financial services. The country's financial sector is concentrated in this city. The Paris region remains one of Europe's manufacturing powers, due to the large size of its economy, with a shift from traditional industry to high technology. Its economy is mainly based on the manufacture of machinery of all kinds. It is also worth noting the production of luxury items, such as haute couture, jewelery and perfumes. In its port on the Atlantic in the city of Le Havre, mobilizes the fourth largest volume of tonnage in Europe. The French agricultural sector moves mainly in this city, which owns the largest bodega of agricultural goods of the world.
Paris has been a relevant cultural and artistic center in Western history. In it were born, formed or developed their careers French figures of the stature of René Descartes, Molière, Voltaire, Victor Hugo, Émile Zola, Alexandre Dumas, son, Edgar Degas and Claude Monet among others. From the beginning of the 19th century until the end of the 1960s, Paris was the world center of art. This period received its brilliance of emblematic representatives of French art like Braque, Duchamp or Matisse and several foreign artists as Beckett, Brancusi, Brecht, Bunuel, Hemingway, Joyce, Kandinsky, Mondrian, Picasso and Stravinski. At this time there was a progressive movement of the creative centers through different districts of the city: from Montmartre, cradle of Cubism, to Montparnasse, scene of the bohemia of interwar and surrealism, to Saint-Germain-des-Prés, center of the movement Existentialist associated with Jean-Paul Sartre, and finally to the Latin Quarter, scene of the French May. All these nuclei retain their pre-eminence within the cultural life of the city.
The Parisians, a Gallic people from which the name of Paris was derived, dominated the sector when the troops of Julius Caesar besieged the place. It is believed that the Parisians founded the city between 250 BC. C. and 200 a. C., although it is not known the exact place of the site of the Gallic city; Although there are several indications that they established themselves in what is now the Ile de la Cité , especially for reasons of strategic defense as the settlement is protected by the arms of the Seine River that embrace the island.
In 52 a. C. when the Romans take the city, rename it Lutecia (Lutetia) and reconstruct it during the first century on the left bank of the river Sécuana (Sena). In the fourth century the emperor Flavius Claudius Julian established his headquarters during a winter in the Isle of France.
Middle and modern ages 
Paris takes its present name in century IV and Clodoveo, king of the francs makes its capital in 508, after its victory over the Romans. During the 9th century walls of protection were built on the right bank, while the left was destroyed by the Normans in 885.
When the Capetus won the throne of France in 987, Paris is one of the two great cities of their personal domain. With Philippe Auguste (1190-1220) Paris becomes the capital of the kingdom. A new wall is being built to protect a larger area. In the fourteenth century, Charles V (1371-1380) creates an even greater wall than the aforementioned.
Between the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, Henry IV built the first modern architectural complexes, such as the Place des Vosges. His successor Louis XIII extends the wall of Charles V on the right bank. Louis XIV destroys that wall and orders to build in its place the first great boulevards.
Contemporary age:At the end of the eighteenth century, the capture of the Bastille fortress, which was in the east of the city, became the symbolic start of the French Revolution, a process of profound transformation of the country that had begun in Paris Before, during the States General of 1789.After proclaiming Emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte decides for Paris like capital of its Empire, after having contemplated to Lyon for such privilege. Under the reign of Luis Felipe, the city accelerates its rate of growth. At this time, Pierre Daunou drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII,The transformation of Paris during the Second Empire of Napoleon III (1852-1870) gave the city its present appearance.15 The emperor commissioned Baron Haussmann to carry out the necessary changes to make Paris the most modern city in the world in his time. A large part of the medieval and ancient city was demolished and the great boulevards and modern buildings were made, the most outstanding of which was the Opéra Garnier. Water pipelines and other important developments in public works were constructed. This period came to an end after the fall of the emperor as a result of the defeat suffered by his army in the Franco-Prussian war, after which, the city witnessed the formation of the Paris Commune, in which the Citizens of the city, sought to found a government run by the people, this movement was blown up, after a heroic popular resistance. The decades of the eighties and nineties of the 19th century continued to give the city its best known physiognomy.
Twentieth century:The 2nd division of General Leclerc parades in the Champs Elysees after the liberation of Paris.In 1940 the city was conquered by the Wehrmacht (Army of Nazi Germany) within the framework of World War II. Paris was administered by the occupying forces, which abandoned it after four years without causing any serious damage to it, compared with the damage suffered in other European cities in that war. For the allies, Paris was not a place of strategic importance and so they preferred to avoid the liberation of Paris, since their aim was to quickly pass the Rhine. However, General de Gaulle managed to convince them of the need to liberate Paris in the fear of That a communist regime would establish itself in the republic if resistance defeated the Germans. After liberation, the Parisians suspected of collaborating with the Germans were humiliated and shaved.