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Nutrition Booklet

Valentina Perdomo

3rd Hour

Health

 We should consume around 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of our body weight, or 0.36 grams per pound.


If you exceed the amount of protein that is recommendable, it could cause negative effects on your body and increase the risk of: dehydrationfatigue, weight gain, deficiencies of fiber, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants found in plants, passing out more calcium in the urine. 

Protein

Proteins are molecules that our body needs to function properly. They are made of compounds called amino acids and they are essential nutrients that the body needs for the maintenance and building of body tissues and muscles. It is also important for growth and repair of body cells.

Main sources of protein are animal products like meat, fish, milk, cheese and eggs and vegetable sources like legumes (beans, lentils, dried peas, nuts) and seeds.

The word protein is derived from the Greek word 'proteios' which means "primary" or "in the lead". After water, protein is the most plentiful substance in the body. 


There are 20 different kinds of amino acids. Our body can produce some of those, but there are 9 amino acids that our body can not make itself. These are called essential amino acids and we obtain these by eating certain foods that contain proteins. 

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Carbohydrates 

Carbohydrates are important for the brain, they provide fuel to the central nervous and energy for working muscles. They also prevent the body to use protein as an energy source and enable fat metabolism. We need to consume between 225 to 325 grams of carbohydrates per day.

Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches, and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products. Carbohydrates are one of the basic food groups, therefore are important to a healthy life. They are the main source of energy for the body.

These are foods with simple carbs. Bad carbs rarely have any nutritional value. Our body breaks down all the carbohydrates into sugar. Simple carbs, known as bad carbs, are digested quicker than complex carbs, therefore those could cause diseases as heart problems, diabetes or obesity of they are consumed often. Some bad carbs include pastries, sodas, highly processed foods, white rice, white bread and other white-flour foods.

Carbs usually considered good are complex carbs, such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, beans, and legumes.

"Approximately two to three percent of a human's body mass is made up of carbohydrates."

They are called carbohydrates because contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Fat is an essential part of our diet and nutrition, and we cannot live without it. Our bodies require small amounts of good fat to function and help prevent disease, since it is a concentrated form of energy. 

Benefits: 

  • Fats help to protect our vital organs, without it our organs would be more prone to damage. 

  • Fat helps us maintain the correct body temperature. it helps our body to process vitamins A, D, E and K, which are all fat soluble and vital to good health. 

  • Fat contains essential fatty acids (EFA’s) that our body can not make by itself, and which are essential to have a good health and to help the heart and immune system.  

  • Some fatty acids, like omega 3,  may provide other health benefits such as the process of knowing and perception of the brain. 



Fats

Saturated fats and trans fats are considered less healthy types of fats. Both of them contains high levels of LDL, Cholesterol. If those are consumed in large quantities, it could increase the level of Cholesterol in the blood, causing risks to have heart diseases and stroke, or obesity,

It is recommendable to not eat more than 20 to 35 grams of fat per day.  

1 gram of fat contains 9 kcal – more than twice the calories of 1 gram of carbohydrate or protein.

Many Europeans exceed the recommended total fat intake, with maximum intakes ranging from 37% of total in the West, to 46% in the South. This makes Europeans having high levels of obesity.  

Experts recommend people to take a multivitamin supplement since people normally don't have a good diet. 

Too much vitamin A as pre-formed retinol prevents vitamin D from being produced in your body, greatly reducing the immuno enhancing benefits of vitamin D.

The best sources of vitamins are fresh, ripe fruits and vegetables.


Vitamins are organic compounds that are needed in small quantities to sustain life. Even they do not have energy, they help to regulate chemical reactions in the body, helping to convert fat and carbohydrates into energy. There are 13 vitamins, including vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E, and K.  Because most vitamins cannot be made in the body, we must obtain them from food.

Vitamins

Although vitamins are good for maintaining a healthy diet, consuming a lot of them could cause overdose and therefore other diseases. It depends if the vitamin consumed because each one of them has a different function in the body. For example, too much vitamin C or zinc could nausea, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. Too much selenium could lead to hair loss, gastrointestinal upset, fatigue, and nerve damage.

Vitamins are important for our body, but as everything, we have to consume them in certain amounts. Some vitamins, such as B and C, are water-soluble, it means that if you take too much of them, your body flushes out the extra. Other vitamins, like A, D, E, and K, are fat-soluble. They aren’t good to consume in high doses because your body holds onto the excess. Minerals can be problematic in large doses, too. Too much iron can be toxic, causing symptoms like fatigue, joint pain, and depression. High-dose calcium supplements have been linked to an increased risk for heart disease.

Minerals

Scientists have stated that there are over 3,000 different types of minerals.

When two or more minerals combine together, they form a rock.

Minerals are components of foods that are involved in many body functions. They are important for building strong bones and teeth, blood, skin, hair, nerve function, muscle and for metabolic processes such as those that turn the food we eat into energy. Minerals are not a source of energy, therefore our body has to obtain them through the diet.

Minerals are found in the food, therefore the best way to have them is through a balanced diet.

Water is a vital nutrient for good health. About 70% to 80%  is made up of water. Water is important because it helps to control our body temperature, carries nutrients and waste products from our cells, and is needed for our cells to function. It is recommended that adults drink 8 glasses of water daily.

Water

  • Water is composed of two elements,  2 Hydrogen and 1 Oxygen = H2O.

  • Nearly 97% of the world's water is salty or otherwise undrinkable.

  • Water regulates the Earth's temperature.

Drinking too much can cause what is known as water intoxication. Even when this happens in rare cases, drinking extreme amounts of water in a short period of time could be dangerous. The levels of salt/sodium in the blood decrease abnormally and it also could causes disturbance in the brain functions.

28 grams contains:

  • - 125 calories
  • - 15 grams of carbohydrate (including 0 grams of sugar and 5 grams of fiber)
  • - 5 grams of protein
  • - 5 percent of your daily iron needs

10 Healthy Snacks 

They have a variety of nutrients, including magnesium, protein, and zinc. They have 7 grams of protein per serving and contain omega-3 facts. Studies suggest that pumpkin seeds help to improve the insulin regulations, which make them work as an anti-diabetic food. Besides, they are cheap and easy to find, they could cost between $2-20$ depending on the amount of pounds you are getting.

Pumpkin seeds 

Total Fat 0g           Vitamin A  4%

Cholesterol )mg    Vitamin C  2% 

Sodium 32mg        Potassium 104mg

Calcium  2%          Sugar 1g

Celery is 95 percent water, making it a low-carb snack. 

It’s a good source of vitamin K, which can strengthen bones.

Celery’s fiber could help to have lower cholesterol levels because it picks up excess cholesterol compounds in your gut and pushes them out in the elimination process. 

It costs between $1-5$

Celery

Even though it has a lot of calories, string cheese is an easy way to get more protein and calcium. Therefore, you could eat it as a snack over the day and you would have covered part your protein and calcium in your diet. 

Reduced-fat versions have fewer calories.

Full-fat string cheese is better for gaining muscle mass.

Calories 310    Total Carbs 59g 

Total Fat  1g    Sugars  22g

Sodium 0mg    Protein 13g

String Cheese

Eggs are rich in proteins are other nutrients such as vitamins and Potassium. Eggs contain high levels of vitamin D which is important for the bones, and vitamin B-12, that helps keep the body's nerve and blood cells healthy. 

They also have only 78 calories per each one and low levels of fat (5g). 

Additionally to their rich levels of nutrients, buying eggs is economic, one packet of 24 units could cost $2.50. 


Total Fats  5g           Vitamin A  5%

Sodium  62mg         Calcium 2%    

Potassium 63mg     Vitamind D 11%

Protein  6g              Vitamin B-12 10%


Boiled Eggs

Apricots are a low-sugar fruit. There are about 4 grams of sugar in each fruit, and they are rich in beta-carotene, an antioxidant that’s good for your brain. 

Apricots contain high levels of Vitamin A which is important for maintaining healthy vision, neurological function, healthy skin. It also has Vitamin C that is a powerful antioxidant, it helps the body form and maintains connective tissue, including bones, blood vessels, and skin.

The average of cost for apricots is $3.04 per pound.

Amount per 1 cup (165g) 

Total Fat  0.6g     Vitamin C  27%

Protein  2.3g        Iron 3%

Vitamin A  63%    Vitamin B-6  5% 

Magnesium 4%    Calcium  2%


Apricots

Amount per 12g 

Total Fat  0g            Protein 0.1g 

Potassium 18 mg    Vitamin C 11%

Sugar 0.6g              Dietary Fiber 0.2g  


Strawberries taste sweet but they have the least sugar of all berries. They’re also a great source of vitamin C, which helps keep you healthy. Strawberries have fiber, antioxidants, and good amounts of potassium, which helps to maintain a balance of fluids in the body.

Strawberries could cost $2.22 per pound, or if they are organic, $3.22 per pound.

Strawberry

It is one of the best sources of antioxidants on the planet. It has nutrients as Iron and Magnesium. Studies show that dark chocolate can improve health and lower the risk of heart disease if it's consumed the proper amounts. 

It is recommendable to eat about 6 grams of dark chocolate per day. The prices depend on the brand and it could vary from $2 to $15 or even more.

Iron: 11.9 mg (per 100 g)        
Magnesium: 228 mg (per 100 g)
Caffeine: 80 mg
Sugars: 23.99 g
Vitamin E: (4%) 0.59 mg

Dark Chocolate

Bananas contain high levels of Potassium, which is important to several body functions: Muscles need potassium to contract. The heart muscle needs potassium to beat properly and regulate blood pressure. Consuming Potassium makes us having 27% lower risk of heart disease. Furthermore, bananas contain a decent amount of magnesium, which is also important for heart health 


Amount per 1

Total fat  0.4g          Vitamin C  17% 

Potassium 422mg   Vitamin B-6  20%

Protein 1.3g            Magnesium  8%

Sugar 14g               Vitamin A  1%


Banana

It contains half of the sugar that the amount that contains orange juice. Tomato juice is high in antioxidants. It can help you recover from exercise better. It also has a lot of potassium, vitamin C, which is necessary for the growth, development, and repair of all body tissues, and vitamin A that helps the immune system health. 

Tomato juice already prepared could cost $3.43. You can make at home too and it would be cheaper because you buy the tomatoes per pound. 

Fat  0.1g                 Protein 1.8g 

Sodium 24mg         Vitamin A 21% 

Potassium 556mg   Vitamin C 74% 

Sugar 9g                 Vitamin B-6 15%

Tomato Juice

Although they contain high levels of calories, protein bars contain greats amount of good nutrients as vitamins D, C and A. They are a great source of protein and energy, therefore eating them sometimes could be a good option for our diet, but you have to look at the labels before buying them because some ingredients may vary.  

The prices are different depending on the brand and kind, they are protein bars of chocolate, caramel, strawberry... but the average price could be around $5.50 to $15. 

Protein Bar

Amount per 1 bar (80g)

Calories 331                       Calcium 50% 

Total Fats 10g                    Vitamin D 30% 

Cholesterol 5mg                 Vitamin B-12 100% 

Sodium 190mg                   Vitamin C 100% 

Potassium 150mg               Iron 45 % 

Total Carbohydrates 40g    Vitamin B-6 100% 

Vitamin A 35%                    Magnesium 35%

Total Fat 0.7 g                   Vitamin A 0%

Sodium 359mg                  Vitamin C 0% 

Potassium 39mg              Iron 0% 

Total Carbohydrate 23g   Magnesium 2% 

Protein 2.9 g                     Vitamin D 0%

Even when they don't have big amounts of fat, they barely offer any nutritional benefits and contains high levels of sodium(salt) which could your risk for high blood pressure, stroke, and heart failure, stomach cancer, kidney disease, kidney stones, an enlarged heart muscle and headaches.

10 Unhealthy Snacks

Pretzels 

Chips flavored with cheese or other dairy products contain high levels of calories, fats and sodium. Those can lead to several negative health problems, including high blood pressure and kidney disease.

Chips flavored with cheese or other dairy products contain high levels of calories, fats and sodium. Those can lead to several negative health problems, including high blood pressure and kidney disease.

Ruffles Cheddar and Sour Cream (Serving size: 1 ounce, about 11 chips or 28 grams)

Fat: 10 g                Vitamin A 0% 

Calories: 160         Calcium 0%

Sodium: 180 mg    Magnesium 4% 

Vitamin C 14%       Vitamin D 0% 





Potatoes Chips 

Starbust Gummibursts 

Those gummy candies don't contain a lot of fats but they contain high levels of sugar that could increase the levels of insulin in the blood and risk the body to suffer diabetes or heart diseases. We should consume between 25 to 37 grams of sugar per day, and eating these bars is already 22 grams in just a small snack. 

Fat: 0 grams

Calories: 130

Sodium: 40 milligrams

Sugars: 22 grams

It is often assumed to be a healthy part of the diet because it contains high levels of protein and calcium. But the cheese also contains sugar and carbohydrates which most cheeses do not have.

Cheez-it

Calories 150

Total Fat 8g 

Sodium 230 mg 

Total Carbohydrates 17g 

Protein 3g

Sugar 0g


Amount per 100 grams

Calories 312       Total Carbohydrate 41g   

Total Fat 15g           Protein 3.4g 

Sodium 210mg        Vitamin B-6 20% 

Potassium 579mg    Vitamin  0% 

Calcium 1%              Vitamin D 0%  

French Fries contain a lot of what is known as bad fats or saturated fats, which increase the risk of having diabetes, heart disease and cancer. They contain high levels of calories, sodium and potassium in just a small portion. Too much potassium could cause dehydration, diabetes or internal bleeding.  

French Fries

Froot Lops - 1 bowl 

Calories 150                   Sugar 18g 

Total Fat 2g                     Protein 2g 

Sodium 200mg               Vitamin A 15% 

Total Carbohydrates 37g  Iron 35%  

Calcium 0%                     Vitamin C 35%  

Sugary Cereals as Froot Loops do not have the nutritional value of a healthy cereal. They contain high levels of sugar that can increase of having heart diseases and diabetes. They also don't apport too many nutritional benefits and most of their sugars are added, which mean that are not natural sugars, bad for the health.  

Sugary Cereals

  •     Frozen Entrees 
  • (Macaroni & Cheese)

Frozen Entrees contain high levels of sodium, fats and calories. They contain a lot of preservatives to make them last longer. These could increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, elevated blood pressure and cancer, 

 

Calories 290           Protein 10g 

Total Fat 11g          Vitamin A 8% 

Cholesterol 20mg   Vitamin C 0% 

Sodium 610mg       Calcium 10% 

Total Carbs 38g      Iron 8% 


Just eating a small biscuit contain a lot of sodium, fats and carbohydrates that are bad for your health. If you eat them often, they could cause diseases. Carbohydrates and fats are the principal reason for overweight. In the United States around 13% of the children are obese and between 32-35% of adults suffer obesity.

Amount per 1 small (14 grams) 

Calories 49            Vitamin A 0% 

Total Fat 2.3g        Vitamin C 0% 

Sodium 81mg        Calcium 3% 

Potassium 17mg    Iron 2%

Protein 1g             Vitamin D 0% 

Sugar 0.3g            Total Carbs 6g 

Biscuits

Oreos contain high amounts of fat, sugar and sodium. It also contains hydrogenated oil which is considered to be bad for a person's health. Eating them could be addictive and could cause diabetes, obesity and other diseases related to insulin and fat problems.

Amount per 3 cookies (34g) 

Calories 160         Cholesterol 0mg 

Total Fat 7g          Potassium 60mg 

Sodium 160mg    Vitamin A 0% 

Total Carbs 25g   Vitamin C 0% 

Sugars 14g          Calcium 2% 

Protein 1g            Iron 10%


Oreos

Pizzas contain high levels of saturated fats and cholesterol in just a small portion, eating them too much could raise your cholesterol levels, which can lead to heart damage, Pizzas also contain a great amount of sodium. Having big amounts of sodium in our body could increase our blood pressure. This can lead to heart attacks, strokes, dementia and kidney disease.


Pizza

Amount per 1 slide (107 grams) 

Calories 285             Vitamin A 7% 

 Total 10g                 Calcium 20% 

Cholesterol 10g        Vitamin D 0%

Sodium 640mg         Iron 15% 

Potassium 184mg    Magnesium 6% 

Total Carbs 36g        Vitamin B-6 5% 

Protein 12g                Vitamin C 2%