simplebooklet thumbnail

of 0


Vocabulary terms

LYMPH 
a clear yellowish, slightly alkaline, coagulable fluid, containing white blood cells in
a liquid resembling blood plasma, that is derived from the tissues of the body and
conveyed to the bloodstream by the lymphatic vessels 
SPLEEN

an abdominal organ involved in the production and removal of blood cells in most
vertebrates and forming part of the immune system. 
LYMPHOCYTES

a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring,
especially in the lymphatic system. 
LYMPH NODES  
each of a number of small swellings in the lymphatic system where lymph is filtered
and lymphocytes are formed. 
INTERCELLULAR  
located or occurring between cells 
INTERSTITIAL SPACE  
an intermediate space located between regular-use floors, commonly located in
hospitals and laboratory-type buildings to allow space for the mechanical systems of
the building. 
ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

a type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic
vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and
the rest of the vessel wall. 
BLOOD CAPILLARIES

One of the minute blood vessels that connect arterioles and venules and are a part of
an intricate network throughout the body for the interchange of oxygen, carbon
dioxide, and other substances between blood and tissue cells. 
MONOCYTE 
a large, circulating white blood cell, formed in bone marrow and in the spleen, that
ingests large foreign particles and cell debris. 
LYMPH CAPILLARY 
are tiny, thin-walled vessels located in the spaces between cells (except in the 
central nervous system and non-vascular tissues) which serve to drain and process
extracellular fluid
LYMPHATICS
a veinlike vessel conveying lymph in the body
ADENITIS
is a general term for an inflammation of a gland. Often it is used to refer to
lymphadenitis which is the inflammation of a lymph node


PHAGOCYTES
a type of cell within the body capable of engulfing and absorbing bacteria and other
small cells and particles
NEUTROPHIL
any cell, structure, or histologic element readily stainable with neutral dyes.
A&P page: The Lymphatic System: Lymphedema
The lymphatic system is the most important system in your body because without you’d
get sick way more often. Til this day people get sick but even like something like a common cold
they recover from it in a few days. The lymphatic system is the production, maintenance, and
distribution of lymphocytes that provide defense against infections (pathogens), abnormal body
cells, and foreign proteins. It helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body
against germs like viruses, bacteria, and fungi that can cause illnesses. Those germs are filtered
out in the lymph nodes, which are small masses of tissues located along the network of lymph
vessels. The nodes house lymphocytes makes antibodies, special proteins that fight off germs
and top infections from spreading by trapping disease-causing germs and destroying them. These
protective cells are found throughout the bloodstream, in lymphatic organs, and they can also
migrate into tissues. The lymphatic system is also known as the “lymphoid system” or “immune
system”. The function of the lymphatic system is to return fluid to the bloodstream, absorbs fat
and fat soluble vitamins from the intestines, and defends the body against diseases. It is a
circulatory system for lymph fluid and the site of many key immune system functions. Lymphoid
tissues contain lymphocytes (a type of highly differentiated white blood cell), but they also
contain other types of cells for structural and functional support, such as the dendritic cells,
which play a key role in the “immune system”. The lymphatic system is made up of a network of
lymphatic vessels. These vessels carry lymph (a clear watery fluid containing protein molecules,
salt, glucose,urea, and other substances) through the body. The spleen is located in the upper left
part of the body above the kidney. It works as part of the lymphatic system to protect the body,
clearing worn-out red blood cells and other foreign bodies from the bloodstream to help fight off
infection. One of the lymphatic system’s major job is to collect extra lymph fluid from the body
tissues and return it to the blood. This process is important because water, proteins, and other
capillaries into the surrounding body tissues. If the lymphatic system didn’t drain the excess
fluid, it would build up in the body’s tissues and they would swell.
Disease page: The Lymphatic System: Lymphedema
Lymphedema is swelling in the tissues of the body caused by an accumulation of lymphatic
fluid. Lymphedema is most commonly caused by the removal of or damage to your lymph
nodes, as a part of cancer treatment. It results from a blockage prevents lymph fluid from
draining well, and the fluid buildup leads to swelling. Lymphedema can develop in any part of
the body, and it typically occurs in the part of the body that is “drained” by lymph nodes for that
specific area. For example, if you had lymph nodes removed under your arm, you could develop
lymphedema in the chest, back, or arm on that same side. Primary lymphedema is present at birth
or develop during puberty or adulthood; secondary lymphedema develops as a result of damage
to or dysfunction of the lymphatic system. Signs or symptoms of lymphedema include a full or
heavy sensation in the limb(s), tightness of the skin or tissue, decreased flexibility in the
hand/wrist/foot/ankle, difficulty fitting into clothing in one specific area, or
ring/wristwatch/bracelet tightness. There are four stages of lymphedema. The pre-stage is the
Latency Stage. This stage is readily reversible and easily treatable. The first stage is the Pitting
Edema. Symptoms resolve with elevation, but usually worsen during the day. By morning the
limb should return to normal size. Spontaneously Irreversible Lymphedema stage is when the
skin hardens and no longer resolves upon waking. The Lymphostatic Elephantiasis stage is when
the disease has progressed to the point where permanent skin changes appear very hard. It is
difficult to grasp the skin of the affected area with two fingers. The most important factors in
diagnosing lymphedema are patient presentation at the time of visit, medical history, and
physical examination. If the cause of your lymphedema isn’t obvious, your doctor may order
imaging tests to look at your lymphatic system. Test include: MRI scan, CT scan, Doppler
ultrasound, and Radionuclide imaging your lymphatic system. Although there is no cure for
lymphedema, patients are encouraged to seek treatment at the first signs, because early diagnosis
and treatment improves both the prognosis and the condition. Patients are usually referred to a
physical therapist and/or nurse by the diagnosing health care professional, which might be a
general physician, internist, family physician, oncologist, or radiation oncologist.
Citations
www.cdc.gov/
www.mayoclinic.com/health-information/
www.lymphnotes.com/article.php/id/208/
www.lymphnet.org/le-faqs/what-is-lymphedema/signs-and-symptom
Case Study: Endocrine: A
A mother brings her 5 year old son to the pediatrician with complaints that her son has
been “wetting the bed” consistently. The child has a good appetite, drinks a lot of water,
and has a “high metabolism” according to the mother. On examination, the doctor notes
that the child has lost 10 pounds since his last physical 6 months ago. What disease does he
have?
Diabetes type 1 is consistent with age of onset, high urine production, and weight loss when the
boy should be growing. It is possible that the weight loss could be due to hypertension. You pee
more when there’s extra sugar in your blood. That’s your body’s way of getting rid of it. Water
goes out with the urine causing your body to dry out. The glucose that goes out when you pee
takes calories with it as well. That’s why many people with high blood sugar lose weight.
Dehydration also plays a part. The patient will have to be checked by his blood sugar levels and
test his urine for glucose or chemicals his body makes when he does not have enough insulin. In
order to have good health, the blood sugar level within the range the doctor gives him. You’ll
need to check them often and adjust insulin, food, and activities to make that happen. There is no
cure for diabetes but there are treatments to live a long, healthy life. It’s recommended for all
people with type 1 diabetes to use insulin injections to control their blood sugar.“Onset” is the
length of time before it reaches your bloodstream and begins lowering blood sugar. “Peak time”
is the time when insulin is doing the most work in terms of lowering blood sugar. “Duration” is
how long it keeps working after onset. Treatment for type 1 diabetes include taking insulin,
carbohydrate counting, frequent blood sugar monitoring, eating healthy foods, and exercising
regularly and maintaining a healthy weight. The child will be prescribed high blood pressure
medication known as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). This medication is recommended
for people that have blood pressure above 140/80 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Blood sugar
monitoring is very important. You would have to check and record your blood sugar level at
least 4 times a day, and more often. We will recommend you to check your blood sugar levels
before meals and snacks, before bed, before exercising or driving, and if you suspect you blood
sugar to be low. Eating healthy and monitoring carbohydrates cen help you create a meal plan
that fits your health goals, food preferences and lifestyle. Signs of trouble is when your blood
sugar drops below the range needed to be at. Blood sugar levels may drop because of skipping a
meal, getting more physical activity than normal or injecting too much insulin. When this
happens, you would have to take a fast-acting carbohydrate such as fruit juice, glucose tablets,
hard candy, ice cream, chocolate, or some soda. Another sign of trouble is when blood sugar is
too high. This may happen because of eating too much, eating wrong type of foods, not taking
enough insulin or illness. If you have high blood sugar you need to check your blood sugar. You
also might need to adjust the way you eat or medications.
Citations
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/in-depth/diabetes-symptoms/art-
20044248
http://www.medicinenet.com/urine_tests_for_diabetes/article.htm
Disease page: The Lymphatic System: Lymphedema
Lymphedema is swelling in the tissues of the body caused by an accumulation of lymphatic
fluid. Lymphedema is most commonly caused by the removal of or damage to your lymph
nodes, as a part of cancer treatment. It results from a blockage prevents lymph fluid from
draining well, and the fluid buildup leads to swelling. Lymphedema can develop in any part of
the body, and it typically occurs in the part of the body that is “drained” by lymph nodes for that
specific area. For example, if you had lymph nodes removed under your arm, you could develop
lymphedema in the chest, back, or arm on that same side. Primary lymphedema is present at birth
or develop during puberty or adulthood; secondary lymphedema develops as a result of damage
to or dysfunction of the lymphatic system. Signs or symptoms of lymphedema include a full or
heavy sensation in the limb(s), tightness of the skin or tissue, decreased flexibility in the
hand/wrist/foot/ankle, difficulty fitting into clothing in one specific area, or
ring/wristwatch/bracelet tightness. There are four stages of lymphedema. The pre-stage is the
Latency Stage. This stage is readily reversible and easily treatable. The first stage is the Pitting
Edema. Symptoms resolve with elevation, but usually worsen during the day. By morning the
limb should return to normal size. Spontaneously Irreversible Lymphedema stage is when the
skin hardens and no longer resolves upon waking. The Lymphostatic Elephantiasis stage is when
the disease has progressed to the point where permanent skin changes appear very hard. It is
difficult to grasp the skin of the affected area with two fingers. The most important factors in
diagnosing lymphedema are patient presentation at the time of visit, medical history, and
physical examination. If the cause of your lymphedema isn’t obvious, your doctor may order
imaging tests to look at your lymphatic system. Test include: MRI scan, CT scan, Doppler
ultrasound, and Radionuclide imaging your lymphatic system. Although there is no cure for
lymphedema, patients are encouraged to seek treatment at the first signs, because early diagnosis
and treatment improves both the prognosis and the condition. Patients are usually referred to a
physical therapist and/or nurse by the diagnosing health care professional, which might be a
general physician, internist, family physician, oncologist, or radiation oncologist.
Citations
www.cdc.gov/
www.mayoclinic.com/health-information/
www.lymphnotes.com/article.php/id/208/
www.lymphnet.org/le-faqs/what-is-lymphedema/signs-and-symptoms
lymphedema
Lymphedema is a chronic
condition that impacts a
number of cancer patients,
especially those who have
that results from excess
buildup of fluid under the
skin, most often in the arms
and/or legs.
The swelling is most
commonly caused by the
Pain, heat,
and/or redness in
the affected area
Persistent
depressions in the
skin when pressed
A feeling of
tightness or
stiffness in the
skin
preventions
treatments
Exercises
Compression
garments
Complete
decongestive therapy
Lymph drainage
therapy
Sentinel lymph node
biopsy
Gentle range-of-
motion exercises
Keep your arm or
leg clean
Avoid tight clothing
Rest your arm or leg
while recovering
www.lymphnet.org/le-faqs/what-is-lymphedema/signs-and-symptoms
1. What is lymphedema? Lymphedema is an abnormal swelling of fluid in the skin leading
the tissue to swell up in the arm or leg
2. What causes lymphedema? Either people are born with abnormalities in the lymphatic
system or it can it occur on its own or it's caused by other diseases or conditions.
3. How many stages are there to lymphedema? There are stages from 0 to 3
4. What are the stages? Stage 0 (non-visible, latency), stage 1 (spontaneously reversible),
stage 2 (spontaneously irreversible), and stage 3 (lymphostatic elephantiasis)
5. What are the signs or symptoms of lymphedema? Signs and symptoms include: a full or
heavy sensation in the limb(s), tightness of the skin or tissue, decreased flexibility in the
hand/wrist/foot/ankle, difficult fitting into clothing in one specific area, or
ring/wristwatch,bracelet tightness.
http://www.lymphnotes.com/article.php/id/208/
1. Who diagnosis lymphedema? A physician or other qualified healthcare provider.
Lymphedema can not be diagnosed by non-physician practitioner using the title of a
certified lymphologist because they are not qualified for it.
2. Why is it important for early diagnosis and treatment? Early diagnosis and treatment
gives you the better chances of lymphedema very successful
3. How is lymphedema diagnosed? Family history, medical history, physical examination
4. What is the pitting edema test? Is a gentle pressure and does not leave an indentation
on the swollen area. It's a sign of stage 1 lymphedema. When the tissue is swollen but
still soft.
5. What is the stemmer sign test? Sign is a thickened fold of skin at the base of the second
toe that can be gently pinched and lifted.
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lymphedema/basics/definition/con-20025603
1. Where does lymphedema generally occur? Lymphedema generally occurs in the arm or
leg
2. What other system is the lymphatic system a part of? The lymphatic system is a part of
the immune system
3. What is the lymphatic system and what does it do? The lymphatic system keeps your
body healthy. It produces lymph to collect unwanted toxins in your body and gets rid of it.
4. Whats is the difference between primary and secondary lymphedema? Primary is when
it can occur on its own
5. What are some risk factors that might occur developing lymphedema? Secondary is
when it can be caused by another disease or condition
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lymphedema/basics/treatment/con-20025603
1. Is there a cure for lymphedema? There is no cure for lymphedema.
2. Is it treatable? Lymphedema can be treated. Treatment reduces swelling and controls
the pain.
3. What are some ways that lymphedema can be treated? Lymphedema can be treated by
exercising, wrapping your arm or leg, massage, pneumatic compression, compression
garments, and complete decongestive therapy
4. What happens if lymphedema is severe in a patient? The doctor may consider surgery to
remove excess tissue in affected area to reduce swelling
5. What does CDT stand for? And what is it? Complete decongestive therapy (CDT) is
therapy involving bandaging, compression garments, exercise, etc.