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CHAPTER 1 The Science of Psychology
1
CHAPTER 2 The Brain and Behavior
42
CHAPTER 3 Sensation and Perception
84
CHAPTER 4 States of Consciousness
125
CHAPTER 5 Learning
166
CHAPTER 6 Memory
201
CHAPTER 7 Thinking, Intelligence, and Language
242
CHAPTER 8 Human Development
278
CHAPTER 9 Motivation and Emotion
324
CHAPTER 10 Personality
361
CHAPTER 11 Social Psychology
400
CHAPTER 12 Psychological Disorders
440
CHAPTER 13 Therapies
482
CHAPTER 14 Health Psychology
513
Answers to Self-Quizzes and Self-Tests
A-1
Glossary
G-1
References
R-1
Credits
C-1
Name Index
NI-1
Subject Index
SI-1
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Contents // vii
The Science of
Psychology
1
1 Defi ning Psychology and Exploring Its Roots 2
The Psychological Frame of Mind 3
Psychology as the Science of All Human Behavior 4
Psychology in Historical Perspective 6
2 Contemporary Approaches to Psychology 8
The Biological Approach 8
The Behavioral Approach 9
The Psychodynamic Approach 9
The Humanistic Approach 10
The Cognitive Approach 10
The Evolutionary Approach 10
The Sociocultural Approach 11
Summing up the Seven Contemporary Approaches 11
3 Psychology’s Scientifi c Method 13
4 Types of Psychological Research 17
Descriptive Research 17
Correlational Research 20
Experimental Research 23
Applications of the Three Types of Research 27
INTERSECTION: Social Psychology and Cross-Cultural
Psychology: How Does Culture Infl uence the Meaning
of Success?
28
5 Research Samples and Settings 29
The Research Sample 29
The Research Setting 30
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: The Global Science
of Happiness 31
6 Conducting Ethical Research 33
Ethics Guidelines 33
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Is It Ethical to Use Deception
in Research? 34
The Ethics of Research with Animals 36
The Place of Values in Psychological Research 36
7 Learning About Psychology Means Learning About You 37
Encountering Psychology in Everyday Life 37
Appreciating Psychology as the Science of You 39
SUMMARY 40
KEY TERMS 40
SELF-TEST 41
The Brain and
Behavior
42
1 The Nervous System 43
Characteristics of the Nervous System 43
Pathways in the Nervous System 44
Divisions of the Nervous System 45
2 Neurons 47
Specialized Cell Structure 47
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Do Mirror Neurons Hold the
Key to Social Understanding? 48
The Neural Impulse 50
Synapses and Neurotransmitters 51
Neural Networks 55
3 Structures of the Brain and Their Functions 56
How Researchers Study the Brain and Nervous System 56
INTERSECTION: Neuroscience and Personality:
Are Some Brains Nicer Than Others? 58
How the Brain Is Organized 59
The Cerebral Cortex 64
The Cerebral Hemispheres and Split-Brain Research 67
Integration of Function in the Brain 70
TOURING THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE BRAIN
4 The Endocrine System 71
5 Brain Damage, Plasticity, and Repair 73
The Brain’s Plasticity and Capacity for Repair 73
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Protecting the Athlete’s
Brain 74
Brain Tissue Implants 75
6 Genetics and Behavior 76
Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA 76
The Study of Genetics 77
Genes and the Environment 79
SUMMARY 81
KEY TERMS 82
SELF-TEST 83
PREFACE xiii
1
2
contents
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viii // Contents
Sensation and
Perception 84
1 How We Sense and Perceive the World 85
The Processes and Purposes of Sensation and Perception 85
Sensory Receptors and the Brain 87
Thresholds 89
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Can We Feel the Future? 90
Perceiving Sensory Stimuli 93
Sensory Adaptation 95
2 The Visual System 96
The Visual Stimulus and the Eye 96
Visual Processing in the Brain 100
Color Vision 102
Perceiving Shape, Depth, Motion, and Constancy 103
3 The Auditory System 109
The Nature of Sound and How We Experience It 109
Structures and Functions of the Ear 109
Theories of Hearing 112
Auditory Processing in the Brain 113
Localizing Sound 113
4 Other Senses 114
The Skin Senses 114
INTERSECTION: Social Psychology and Perception:
The Social Glow of Feeling Warm 116
The Chemical Senses 117
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Why Salt Is the
Salt of the Earth 119
The Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses 120
SUMMARY 122
KEY TERMS 123
SELF-TEST 124
States of
Consciousness
125
1 The Nature of Consciousness 126
Defi ning Consciousness 126
Consciousness and the Brain 127
Theory of Mind 127
Levels of Awareness 128
INTERSECTION: Consciousness and Cross-Cultural and
Developmental Psychology: How Does Culture Shape
Theory of Mind Development? 129
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Why Do We Have Conscious
Awareness? 132
2 Sleep and Dreams 133
Biological Rhythms and Sleep 133
Why Do We Need Sleep? 135
Stages of Wakefulness and Sleep 136
Sleep Throughout the Life Span 139
Sleep and Disease 141
Sleep Disorders 141
Dreams 143
3 Psychoactive Drugs 146
Uses of Psychoactive Drugs 146
Types of Psychoactive Drugs 147
4 Hypnosis 157
The Nature of Hypnosis 157
Explaining Hypnosis 158
Uses of Hypnosis 159
5 Meditation 160
Mindfulness Meditation 160
The Meditative State of Mind 161
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Meditation at Work 162
Getting Started with Meditation 162
SUMMARY 163
KEY TERMS 164
SELF-TEST 164
Learning 166
1 Types of Learning 167
2 Classical Conditioning 169
Pavlov’s Studies 169
Classical Conditioning in Humans 173
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Marketing Between
theLines 176
3 Operant Conditioning 177
Defi ning Operant Conditioning 178
Thorndike’s Law of Effect 178
Skinner’s Approach to Operant Conditioning 179
Shaping 180
Principles of Reinforcement 180
Applied Behavior Analysis 187
4 Observational Learning 188
5 Cognitive Factors in Learning 190
Purposive Behavior 190
Insight Learning 191
INTERSECTION: Educational and Cross-Cultural Psychology:
How Does Cultural Diversity Affect Learning? 193
6 Biological, Cultural, and Psychological Factors
in Learning 194
Biological Constraints 194
Cultural Infl uences 196
Psychological Constraints 196
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Do Learning Styles Matter
to Learning? 197
SUMMARY 199
KEY TERMS 200
SELF-TEST 200
3
4
5
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Contents // ix
Memory 201
1 The Nature of Memory 202
2 Memory Encoding 203
Attention 203
Levels of Processing 204
Elaboration 204
Imagery 205
3 Memory Storage 207
Sensory Memory 207
Short-Term Memory 208
Long-Term Memory 211
INTERSECTION: Cognitive and Cultural Psychology:
How Does Culture Infl uence Episodic Memory? 214
4 Memory Retrieval 220
Serial Position Effect 220
Retrieval Cues and the Retrieval Task 221
Special Cases of Retrieval 223
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Can Children Be Reliable
Eyewitnesses to Their Own Abuse? 226
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Using Psychological
Research to Improve Police Lineups 229
5 Forgetting 230
Encoding Failure 231
Retrieval Failure 232
6 Tips from the Science of Memory—for Studying
and for Life 235
Organizing, Encoding, Rehearsing, and Retrieving
Course Content 235
Autobiographical Memory and the Life Story 237
Keeping Memory Sharp 237
SUMMARY 239
KEY TERMS 240
SELF-TEST 240
Thinking, Intelligence,
and Language
242
1 The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology 243
2 Thinking 245
Concepts 245
Problem Solving 246
Reasoning and Decision Making 249
Thinking Critically and Creatively 253
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Help Wanted: Critical and
Creative Thinkers 255
3 Intelligence 255
Measuring Intelligence 256
Genetic and Environmental Infl uences on Intelligence 259
Extremes of Intelligence 261
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Is Intelligence Related to
Prejudice and Political Beliefs? 262
Theories of Multiple Intelligences 264
4 Language 266
The Basic Properties of Language 266
Language and Cognition 267
INTERSECTION: Language, Culture, and Cognition: How Does
Language Shape Answers to the Question “Where”? 269
Biological and Environmental Infl uences on Language 270
Language Development over the Life Span 272
SUMMARY 275
KEY TERMS 276
SELF-TEST 277
Human
Development
278
1 Exploring Human Development 279
Research Methods in Developmental Psychology 279
Do Early Experiences Rule Us for Life? 280
How Do Nature and Nurture Infl uence Development? 280
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Genes or Superparents:
Which Matters More to Kids? 281
Nature, Nurture, and You 282
Three Domains of Development 282
2 Physical Development 284
Prenatal Physical Development 284
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood 286
Physical Development in Adolescence 289
Physical Development in Adulthood 290
3 Cognitive Development 294
Cognitive Development from Childhood into Adulthood 294
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: The Joy of the Toy 298
Cognitive Processes in Adulthood 300
4 Socioemotional Development 302
Socioemotional Development in Infancy 302
Erikson’s Theory of Socioemotional Development 305
5 Gender Development 312
Biology and Gender Development 312
Cognitive Aspects of Gender Development 313
Socioemotional Experience and Gender Development 313
Nature and Nurture Revisited: The John/Joan Case 314
6 Moral Development 315
Kohlberg’s Theory 315
Critics of Kohlberg 316
Moral Development in a Socioemotional Context 316
INTERSECTION: Developmental and Social Psychology:
Attachment and Honesty 317
6
8
7
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x // Contents
7 Death, Dying, and Grieving 318
Terror Management Theory: A Cultural Shield Against
Mortality 318
Kübler-Ross’s Stages of Dying 319
Bonanno’s Theory of Grieving 320
Carving Meaning Out of the Reality of Death 320
8 Active Development as a Lifelong Process 321
SUMMARY 322
KEY TERMS 323
SELF-TEST 323
Motivation and
Emotion 324
1 Theories of Motivation 325
The Evolutionary Approach 325
Drive Reduction Theory 326
Optimum Arousal Theory 326
2 Hunger and Sex 327
The Biology of Hunger 328
Obesity 329
The Biology of Sex 330
Cognitive and Sensory/Perceptual Factors in Sexuality 332
Cultural Factors in Sexuality 332
Sexual Behavior and Orientation 333
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: How Different Are Men and
Women When It Comes to Sex? 337
3 Beyond Hunger and Sex: Motivation
in Everyday Life 340
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs 340
INTERSECTION: Motivation and Social Psychology: What
Motivates Suicide Bombers? 341
Self-Determination Theory 342
Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation 343
Self-Regulation: The Successful Pursuit of Goals 344
4 Emotion 345
Biological Factors in Emotion 345
Cognitive Factors in Emotion 349
Behavioral Factors in Emotion 350
Sociocultural Factors in Emotion 351
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Expressing Ourselves Online:
The Psychology of Emoticons 353
Classifying Emotions 354
Adaptive Functions of Emotions 355
5 Motivation and Emotion: The Pursuit
of Happiness 356
Biological Factors in Happiness 356
Obstacles in the Pursuit of Happiness 357
Happiness Activities and Goal Striving 357
SUMMARY 358
KEY TERMS 359
SELF-TEST 360
Personality 361
1 Psychodynamic Perspectives 362
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory 362
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Defense Mechanisms and the
Psychology of Hypocrisy 365
Psychodynamic Critics and Revisionists 367
Evaluating the Psychodynamic Perspectives 369
2 Humanistic Perspectives 370
Maslow’s Approach 370
Rogers’s Approach 371
Evaluating the Humanistic Perspectives 372
3 Trait Perspectives 373
Trait Theories 373
The Five-Factor Model of Personality 374
Evaluating the Trait Perspectives 378
INTERSECTION: Personality Psychology and Health Psychology:
Are Traits Linked to Obesity? 379
4 Personological and Life Story Perspectives 380
Murray’s Personological Approach 380
The Life Story Approach to Identity 381
Evaluating the Life Story Approach and Similar Perspectives 382
5 Social Cognitive Perspectives 383
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory 383
Mischel’s Contributions 384
Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspectives 387
6 Biological Perspectives 387
Personality and the Brain 388
Personality and Behavioral Genetics 390
Evaluating the Biological Perspectives 391
7 Personality Assessment 391
Self-Report Tests 392
Projective Tests 393
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Are Personality Judgments
Accurate? 394
Other Assessment Methods 397
SUMMARY 397
KEY TERMS 399
SELF-TEST 399
9
10
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Contents // xi
Social Psychology 400
1 Social Cognition 401
Person Perception 401
Attribution 403
The Self as a Social Object 404
Attitudes 406
2 Social Behavior 409
Altruism 410
Aggression 412
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Do Video Games Infl uence
Social Behavior? 417
3 Social Infl uence 418
Conformity and Obedience 418
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Conformity and the American
Strip Mall 420
INTERSECTION: Social Psychology and Cross-Cultural
Psychology: Why Are Some Nations More Conforming
Than Others? 421
Group Infl uence 425
4 Intergroup Relations 428
Group Identity: Us Versus Them 428
Prejudice 430
Ways to Improve Intergroup Relations 432
5 Close Relationships 434
Attraction 434
Attachment 435
Love 436
Models of Close Relationships 436
SUMMARY 437
KEY TERMS 438
SELF-TEST 439
Psychological
Disorders
440
1 Defi ning and Explaining Abnormal Behavior 441
Three Criteria of Abnormal Behavior 441
Culture, Context, and the Meaning of Abnormal Behavior 442
Theoretical Approaches to Psychological Disorders 443
Classifying Abnormal Behavior 444
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Does Everyone
Have ADHD? 447
2 Anxiety Disorders 448
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 448
Panic Disorder 449
Phobic Disorder 450
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 451
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 452
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: The Psychological Wounds
of War 453
3 Mood Disorders 454
Depressive Disorders 454
Bipolar Disorder 457
INTERSECTION: Clinical and Developmental Psychology:
Can Kids “Catch” Depression and Anxiety? 458
Suicide 459
4 Eating Disorders 462
Anorexia Nervosa 462
Bulimia Nervosa 463
Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa: Causes and
Treatments 463
Binge Eating Disorder 464
Binge Eating Disorder: Causes and Treatments 464
5 Dissociative Disorders 465
Dissociative Amnesia and Dissociative Fugue 466
Dissociative Identity Disorder 466
6 Schizophrenia 468
Symptoms of Schizophrenia 468
Causes of Schizophrenia 470
7 Personality Disorders 473
Antisocial Personality Disorder 473
Borderline Personality Disorder 475
8 Combatting Stigma 476
Consequences of Stigma 477
Overcoming Stigma 478
SUMMARY 479
KEY TERMS 480
SELF-TEST 481
Therapies 482
1 Biological Therapy 483
Drug Therapy 483
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: Do Antidepressants Increase
Suicide Risk in Youth? 486
Electroconvulsive Therapy 487
Psychosurgery 488
2 Psychotherapy 490
Psychodynamic Therapies 491
Humanistic Therapies 493
Behavior Therapies 494
Cognitive Therapies 495
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Seeking Therapy? There Might
Be an App for That 497
Therapy Integrations 500
11
12
13
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3 Sociocultural Approaches and Issues in Treatment 501
Group Therapy 501
Family and Couples Therapy 502
Self-Help Support Groups 503
Community Mental Health 504
Cultural Perspectives 504
INTERSECTION: Clinical and Cultural Psychology:
How Can Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Work Across
Different Belief Systems? 505
4 The Effectiveness of Psychotherapy 506
Research on the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy 507
Health and Wellness Benefi ts of Psychotherapy 508
Common Themes in Effective Psychotherapy 509
SUMMARY 510
KEY TERMS 511
SELF-TEST 511
Health
Psychology 513
1 Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine 514
The Biopsychosocial Model 514
Connections Between Mind and Body 515
2 Making Positive Life Changes 515
Theoretical Models of Change 516
The Stages of Change Model 516
3 Resources for Effective Life Change 519
Motivation 520
Social Relationships 520
INTERSECTION: Health and Cross-Cultural Psychology: How
Does Culture Infl uence the Meaning of Social Support? 522
Religious Faith 523
Personality Characteristics 523
CHALLENGE YOUR THINKING: How Powerful Is the Power
of Positive Thinking? 524
4 Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body):
Controlling Stress 526
Stress and Its Stages 526
Stress and the Immune System 527
Stress and Cardiovascular Disease 529
Stress and Cancer 530
Cognitive Appraisal and Coping with Stress 530
Strategies for Successful Coping 531
Stress Management Programs 532
5 Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind):
Behaving as If Your Life Depends upon It 533
Becoming Physically Active 534
Eating Right 535
PSYCHOLOGY IN OUR WORLD: Environments That Support
Active Lifestyles 536
Quitting Smoking 538
Practicing Safe Sex 539
6 Psychology and Your Good Life 540
SUMMARY 541
KEY TERMS 542
SELF-TEST 543
Answers to Self-Quizzes and Self-Tests A-1
Glossary G-1
References R-1
Credits C-1
Name Index NI-1
Subject Index SI-1
xii // Contents
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