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Nutrition

By:

Vade 

Engichy

Booklet


What Are Carbohydrates?

There are two major types of carbohydrates (or carbs) in foods: simple and complex.

Simple carbohydrates: These are also called simple sugars. They're found in refined sugars, like the white sugar you see in a sugar bowl. If you have a lollipop, you're eating simple carbs. But you'll also find simple sugars in more nutritious foods, such as fruit and milk. It's healthier to get your simple sugars from foods like these. Why? Because sugar isn't added to them and they also contain vitamins, fiber, and important nutrients like calcium. A lollipop has lots of added sugar and doesn't contain important nutrients.

Complex carbohydrates: These are also called starches. Starches include grain products, such as bread, crackers, pasta, and rice. As with simple sugars, some complex carbohydrate foods are better choices than others. Refined (say: ree-FIND) grains, such as white flour and white rice, have been processed, which removes nutrients and fiber. But unrefined grains still contain these vitamins and minerals. They're also rich in fiber, which helps your digestive system work well. Fiber helps you feel full, so you're less likely to overeat. A bowl of oatmeal fills you up better than sugary candy with the same amount of calories.

So which type of carbs should you eat? Both can be part of a healthy diet.

Carbohydrates


When you eat carbs, your body breaks them down into simple sugars, which are absorbed into the bloodstream. As the sugar level rises in your body, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Insulin is needed to move sugar from the blood into the cells, where the sugar can be used as an energy source.

When this process goes fast — as with simple sugars — you're more likely to feel hungry again soon. When it goes more slowly, as with a whole-grain food, you'll be satisfied longer. These types of complex carbs give you energy over a longer period of time.

The carbs in some foods (mostly those with a lot of simple sugars) make the blood sugar level rise more quickly than others. Scientists have been studying whether eating foods that cause big jumps in blood sugar may be related to health problems like diabetes and heart disease.

You're probably already on the right track if you're limiting simple sugars (such as candy) and eating more complex carbs (like vegetables, oatmeal, and whole-grain wheat bread).

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that carbohydrates make up 45 to 65 percent of your total daily calories. So, if you get 2,000 calories a day, between 900 and 1,300 calories should be from carbohydrates. That translates to between 225 and 325 grams of carbohydrates a day.Carbohydrates can be found in fruits, vegetables, grains, breads, and sugar-foods. Foods that are high in simple carbohydrates are generally not as healthy as those with complex carbohydrates. Interesting Carbohydrates Facts: A carbohydrate has 4 calories per gram.

Protein is a macronutrient that is essential to building muscle mass. It is commonly found in animal products, though is also present in other sources, such as nuts and legumes. 

There are three macronutrients: protein, fats and carbohydrates. Macronutrients provide calories, or energy. The body requires large amounts of macronutrients to sustain life, hence the term “macro,” according to the University of Illinois McKinley Health Center. Each gram of protein contains 4 calories. Protein makes up about 15 percent of a person’s body weight.

Chemically, protein is composed of amino acids, which are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and proteins are the building blocks of muscle mass, according to the National Institutes of Health(NIH).

Hair and nails are mostly made of protein. Your body uses protein to build and repair tissues. You also use protein to make enzymes, hormones, and other bodychemicals. Protein is an important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood.

Proteins


The Institute of Medicine recommends that 10 to 35 percent of daily calories come from protein. How that equates to grams of protein depends on the caloric needs of the individual. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the amount of protein foods a person should eat depends on age, sex, and level of physical activity. Most Americans eat enough food from this group, but need to make leaner and more varied selections of these foods. 

“A safe level of protein ranges from 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight [2.2 lbs.], up to 2 grams of protein per kilogram for very active athletes,” said Crandall. “But most Americans truly need to be eating about 1 to 1.2 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight.”

Most people need 20 to 30 grams of protein per meal, said Crandall. “For example, that’s 2.5 egg whites at breakfast or 3 to 4 ounces of meat at dinner.” She said that most American women are not getting anywhere close to adequate protein at breakfast. “That could be hindering their muscle mass, their metabolism and their hormone levels.”

It’s hard to overdose on vitamins and minerals from foods alone. However, there’s been a surge in heavily fortified foods, from orange juice boosted with calcium and vitamin D, to nutritional bars loaded with a variety of nutrients. If you eat a nutritional bar, plus a bowl each of fortified cereal and pasta in one day, you could get well more than the recommended amounts of several vitamins and minerals. Reading labels and avoiding heavily fortified foods can help prevent an overdose.

a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence.

Just like vitamins, minerals help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The body uses minerals to perform many different functions — from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Some minerals are even used to make hormones or maintain a normal heartbeat.

Scientists have stated that there are over 3,000 different types of minerals.
When two or more minerals combine together, they form a rock.
The most common mineral found on Earth is called quartz.
All minerals are inorganic because they are made of nonliving particles.
Minerals are always solid and have a distinctive geometric shape called a crystalline structure.
Each kind of mineral has the same set of chemicals in its make-up.
The mineral quartz always contains two oxygen atoms for every silicon atom.
Mineral crystals are so small that they can only be viewed under a microscope.
The cooling process of magma determines the size of the crystals that form in a mineral.

The amount of minerals we need is actually very small – much smaller than the amounts of carbohydrates, protein, and fats required for a healthy diet. Most adults need about 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day, but only about 10 to 15 milligrams of iron and zinc per day (4).

Minerals

A vitamin is one of a group of organic substances that is present in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs. Vitamins are essential to normal metabolism. If we do not take enough of any kind of vitamin, certain medical conditions can result.

Vitamins and minerals are considered essential nutrients—because acting in concert, they perform hundreds of roles in the body. They help shore up bones, heal wounds, and bolster your immune system. They also convert food into energy, and repair cellular damage.

Unlike vitamin A, vitamin C is water soluble, which means that if you take more than your body can use, the excess is usually excreted without causing harm. However, Sandquist says, adverse reactions like diarrhea, stomach cramps, and nausea can occur.

1. You get it through diet and sunlight

2. it boosts immune system

3. It may help protect chronic diseases

4. It is essential for strong bones and teeth

5. It might help you lose weight

Vitamins

Trace minerals and vitamins are expressed in micrograms (mcg). There are 1,000 mcg in one milligram (no fancy math here). All of Greatist's recommendations for daily intake (“What You Need”) and limits (What's Too Much”) follow the RDA, AI, and UL guidelines.

Over acidity, which can become a dangerous condition that weakens all body systems, is very common today. It gives rise to an internal environment conducive to disease, as opposed to a pH-balanced environment which allows normal body function necessary for the body to resist disease. A healthy body maintains adequate alkaline reserves to meet emergency demands. When excess acids must be neutralized, our alkaline reserves are depleted leaving the body in a weakened condition.

Water
Chemical compound
Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms
In addition, H2O provides fluid balance by helping transport nutrients in the body, regulate body temperature, digest food, and much more. The body loses water through breathing, sweating, and digestion, so it's vital to rehydrate.
“It depends on your size and weight, and also on your activity level and where you live,” Nessler says. “In general, you should try to drink between half an ounce and an ounce of water for each pound you weigh, every day.” For example, if you weigh 150 pounds, that would be 75 to 150 ounces of water a day.

H2O



Water is a chemical - its formula is "H2O"

No known life forms can survive without water.

Water is the most abundant molecule on Earth.

Approximately 70% of the Earth's  surface is water.

Water is the most solvent of all liquids.

Pure water is neither acidic nor basic on the pH scale.

Water is the only substance on Earth which occurs naturally in


all three forms of matter (solid, liquid, gas).

Without gravity, rain drops would be perfect spheres.

The Celsius temperature scale is based on the freezing point


(0 degrees) and boiling point (100 degrees) of water.

It's estimated that 1.1 billion people don't have easy access to


drinking water, and 2.6 billion people don't have water that's 
clean enough.

The water you drink is the same water that's been around since


before dinosaurs existed. A water molecule can spend 3,200 
years in the ocean before going through the water cycle and 
up to 10,000 years in deep-underground caves.

Depending on age and body size, the human body is usually


58% - 78% water.

In many religions, water symbolizes purity.

In traditional Chinese philosophy, water is considered to be


one of five elements (the others being metal, wood, fire and 
earth).

A healthy person is capable of drinking up to 48 cups of water


per day. It's recommended that you drink 7-8 cups per day (see 
image on right), but keep in mind that almost all forms of food 
and drink can provide some form of water to your body.

There are about 326 million cubic miles of water on Earth.

In the United States, about 346,000 million gallons (about 1.3


trillion litres) of freshwater are used every day.

The weight a person may lose after intense physical activity is


due to a loss of water, not fat.

Fats