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Annotated Time Line Events

Battle of Lexington/ Concord: (April 19, 1775) The Battle of Lexington and Concord were the 
first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. Massachusetts rebels, The
Patriots, began to form militias and collected guns and ammo in towns across the stash. They
had one large stash that was in Concord. On April 18, 1775, 800 British Troops leave Boston to
seize the supplies. Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Dr. Samuel Prescott ride to warm the
countryside about the British coming. When the British showed up, there was 80 militiamen.
British troops started to state commands and while marching towards the militia, a shot went off
and was known as the “shot heard ‘round the world”. The Patriots soon fled, and the British 
continued to Concord.




Battle of Bunker Hill: (June 17, 1775) The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought during the Siege of 
Boston during the beginning of the Revolutionary War on June 17, 1775. The battle was fought
in Charlestown, Boston, Ma. This battle was referred as the Battle of Bunker Hill but most of the
fighting was on Breed’s hill. 1600 colonists defended against 2500 British. After 3 attacks, The
British take the hill and defeat the colonists 1100 soldiers KIA,MIA,WIA and only 400 colonial
casualties.




British evacuate Boston: (March 17, 1776) The British evacuation was Washington's first
victory of the war. Following the Battle of Lexington and Concord, the Patriots blocked off in
Boston. Henry Knox, helping Washington and his troop, bought artillery from Fort Ticonderoga
to fortify their position around Boston. Knox gave Washington 50 cannons and on March 4, the
cannons were positioned on top of Dorchester Heights. The cannons were aimed at the British
ships in the Boston Harbor. British General Howe saw the cannons the next morning and
ordered his men
to pack up and
leave Boston
and headed for
Canada.
Declaration of Independence: (July 4, 1776) The Declaration of Independence was written by
Thomas Jefferson and is one of the most important documents in American history that explains
why the colonists wanted to be independent and tells the major ideas that the Founders had
about government. Jefferson divided The Declaration into 4 parts. The first part was the
Preamble which states the purpose of the document and it is “the letter to the world” about why
they are breaking away from Britain. The next part is the Declaration of rights which has the
political ideas upon which the document is based. The third part is the complaints against The
King and how they addressed the complaints and lastly, the final part is the resolution. On July 4
1776, the Declaration of Independence was signed by the members of the Continental
Congress.
Battle of Fort Washington: (November 16, 1776) The Battle of Fort Washington took place on
Saturday, November 16, 1776 at Washington Heights, Manhattan, New York. Fort Washington
was the principal fortification within the American lines, and was commanded by Colonel Robert
Mcgaw. Three British ships sailed up the Hudson and the remaining troops opened fired on the
fort, Washington fort where the Americans were. The Continental Army suffered 3000 casualties
and lost thousands of military supplies. The Americans were forced to retreat towards the
Delaware River and the British had their victory.
Battle of Saratoga: (September 19, 1777) The Battle of Saratoga was a turning point of the
Revolutionary War. There was 2 battles that were fought 18 years apart. On September 19,
British General John Burgoyne achieved victory over the Americans forces led by Horatio Gates
and Benedict Arnold. Burgoyne then attacked the Americans again at Bemis Height on October
7 but was defeated and forced to retreat and surrendered 10 days later. The American victory
convinced the French government to recognize the colonist’s cause and enter the war as their
ally. This London Chronicle from 1777 explains what happened in the battle from London’s
perspective and what occurred on the that day.
Articles of Confederation Adopted: (November 15, 1777) The Continental Congress adopted
the Articles of Confederation on November 15, 1777, but did not occur until March 1, 1781. The
Articles of Confederation is the first constitution of the United States. The Articles created a
loose organization and a weak central government, leaving the state governments with most of
the power. The Articles led to the Constitutional Convention which was the framing of the
federal Constitution and then was replaced on March 4, 1789 by the present United States
Constitution. The document shows the original writing from the first constitution,
Benedict Arnold: (September 21, 1780) Benedict Arnold was a member of The Sons of Liberty
and rose to the rank of general in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. Arnold
due to the lack of recognition, switched sides to the British and plotted the surrender of West
Point. Arnold received a commission with the British army and served in several minor
engagements against the Americans. He died in London on June 14, 1801, at age 60. And The
British regarded him with ambivalence, while his former countrymen despised him. Benedict
Arnold was then known as the “traitor”. To this day Benedict Arnold is the most infamous traitor
of all time. The Youtube link shows Benedict's story and how his decisions were made.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FaRELLaTQBY
Battle of Cowpens: (January 17, 1781) The Battle of Cowpens was fought in South Carolina
on January 17, 1781 during the Revolutionary War. The Americans inflicted heavy casualties on
the British, and the battle was a turning point in the war’s Southern campaign. Major General
Nathanael Greene was the commander of the Continental army’s Southern campaign and
General Charles Cornwallis was the leader of the British contingent. Brigadier General Daniel
Morgan had 300 Continental riflemen and 700 militiamen to attack the British backcountry fort.
More than 800 British troops were killed, wounded or captured and the Americans suffered less
than 100 casualties. The colonists won and later that year the Americans defeated the British at
Yorktown, Virginia.
Battle of Guilford Courthouse: (September 5, 1781) The Battle of Guilford Courthouse
provided the Americans a victory in the American Revolutionary War. Lieutenant General
Charles Cornwallis and his men had a victory at the Guilford Courthouse over American forces
under Major General Nathanael Greene but got defeated in battle. Cornwallis recently secured
victories against the british in New York, Brandywine and Camden. Cornwallis then took his
campaign for the Carolinas and instead took his army into Virginia. Cornwallis ended up losing
in the Battle of Yorktown on October 19, 1781. Then in the same month Cornwallis surrendered
to General Washington. The win in the Battle of Guilford Courthouse gave America momentum
going into the next battle
Battle of Yorktown: (September 28, 1781) A combined American force of Colonial and French
troops went to Yorktown, Virginia to attack the British Army. The final attack was on October 14,
and captured 2 British defenses and then days later British General Lord Cornwallis and 9000
troops surrendered. The win by America in this battle was a huge win due to the fact that it
ended the war. The allied American and French troops were too much for the British and
caused Cornwallis and his army to surrender. Yorktown proved to be the final battle of the
American Revolution and after the American victory, the British began peace negotiations.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c1Es5fpRBAw
Treaty of Alliance: (1788) During the American War for Independence, representatives from
the United States(Ben Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee) and France sign the Treaty of
Amity and Commerce and the Treaty of Alliance in Paris. The treaty created a military alliance
between the United States and France against Great Britain. It required that neither France nor
the United States agree to a separate peace with Great Britain, and that American
independence be a condition of any future peace agreement. The alliance was signed in order
to have no future problems. The treaty is supposed to stand forever without any issues.
Works Cited
“Battle of Fort Washington.” Battle of Fort Washington ***, www.landofthebrave.info/battle-
of-fort-washington.htm.
“Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence Was Written by the
Founders of Our Nation. It Is a Special Statement That Explains Why the Colonists
Wanted to Be Independent.The Declaration of Independence,
score.rims.k12.ca.us/score_lessons/symbols_freedom/pages/doi.html.
Thomas Paine Society, www.thomaspainesociety.org/common-sense.
History.com Staff. “Battle of Bunker Hill.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009,
www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/battle-of-bunker-hill.
History.com Staff. “Battle of Saratoga.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009,
www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/battle-of-saratoga.
“Primary Documents in American History.” The Articles of Confederation: Primary
Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress),
www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/articles.html.
“What Was the Significance of the Battles of Lexington and Concord? | Socratic.” Socratic.org,
socratic.org/questions/what-was-the-significance-of-the-battles-of-lexington-and-concord.