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The Terrestrial Biomes

by: Sarah Fernando

Tundra

human interactions

Recently, more people have been moving to the tundra to work in mines and the oil industry, creating towns and more roads to support the increased population

 

Because of this human behavior, there has been interruptions in the animal's migration and feeding pattern and caused damage to the permafrost. The pollution from the mines and oil industries can also ruin the Tundra's ecosystem

locations

Almost all tundras are located in the Northern Hemisphere, found along the coastal regions of the arctic.

tundra

Some of the dominant animals that live in the Tundra include:

Polar Bear

Snowy Owl

Arctic Fox

 

Average yearly precipitation: 15 - 25 cm. (6 - 10 in.)

Temperatures don't get any warmer than  45 or 50° F

   Average summer temperature: 3-12° C (37-54° F)

   Average winter temperature: -34° C (-30° F)

Primary soil type: permafrost 

biotic factors

abiotic factors

Plants in the Tundra adapt to the weather and low temperatures by being short and grouped together to resist and protect themselves from cold winds. These plants get their energy from the sun by photosynthesis. Some plants include:

Pasque Flower

Caribou Moss

Climatogram:

taiga

Human interactions

Other than large cities such as Moscow and Toronto and a few native communities, most of the Taiga is unpopulated.

 

Major human behaviors include logging, mining and hydroelectric development, all having negative effects on the Taiga. Mining results in pollution. Logging is done by clear-cutting. Hydroelectric development changes stream habitats and flow patterns, flooding areas and changing the landscape.

 

Locations

The Taiga is located near the top of the world, below the Tundra biome, stretching over Eurasia and North America.

taiga

abiotic factors

Average yearly precipitation: 40 inches

   Summer: 10 - 20 inches

   Winter: 20 - 40 inches

Average yearly temperatures: 32°F (0°C)

   Range: -65° F to 70°F (-54 to 21° C)

Primary Soil Type: permafrost, spodosol, histosol and inceptisol

 

 

 

biotic factors

Many of the animals in the Taiga have thick coats of fur to resist the cold and some include:

Grizzly Bear

Bald Eagle

Wolverine 

climatogram:

The Taiga has less diversity in plant life but the most common tree is the Conifer, which includes pines, spruces and firs such as:

Black Spruce

Jack Pine

White Fir

human interactions

grassland

locations

People do live in Grassland areas

 

A main environmental concern in the Grasslands is the conversion of grassland to farmland. Because of agricultural development, there has been a great loss of our natural grasslands. Grasslands are now supplying corn and wheat and grazing areas for sheep and cattle.

In North America, Grasslands are called prairies and some are the Great Plains and the Palouse Prairie. In Eurasia, Grasslands are known as steppes and found between Ukraine and Russia. In South America, they are called pampas, located in Argentina and Uruguay. In South Africa, they are known as veldts.

Average yearly precipitation: 10 - 30 inches

Temperature range: 20° F, and 70° F

Primary soil type: 

     Grasslands have some of the darkest, richest soils in        the world: Black, Clay, Lateritic, and Loess

 

grassland

biotic factors

abiotic factors 

All grasslands have a lack of shelter from predators and an abundance of grass for food. The dominant vertebrates in grasslands are herbivorous or plant-eating grazers and they include:

Bobcats

Coyotes

Prairie Dogs

Climatogram:

Grasses dominate Grasslands with many different species of grasses in this biome. Many animals munch on the different grasses, surviving due to the growth point on the grasses, which is very close to the ground. Some include:

Buffalo Grass

Fleabane

June Grass

deciduous forest

Deciduous Forests are important to people because they provide enjoyment as farms and towns are being built. But because of this, there are major threats to this biome. Trees are being cut for timber and land cleared for agriculture. Although people are trying to protest the forests, the animals are getting killed and losing their home because of people building their own homes.

human interactions

locations

Deciduous Forests can be found in the eastern United States and Canada, the middle of Europe, Russia, China and Japan. There are two large areas in southern Chile and the coast of Paraguay and can also be found in New Zealand and southeastern Australia.

deciduous forest

Average yearly precipitation: 30 - 60 inches

Average yearly temperature: 50°F (10°C)

   Summer avg. temp:  70°F (21°C)

   Winter: often below freezing

Primary Soil Type: alfisol

biotic factors

Animals in deciduous forests have to adapt to changing seasons, some include:

White Tailed Deer

American Black Bear

European Red Squirrel

abiotic factors

Climatogram:

Trees and plants in deciduous forests have special adaptations to survive in this biome, some include:

Lady Fern

Common Lime

White Oak

chaparral

human interactions

With people living in the Chaparral, one of the main concerns is fire. Fires can occur naturally since this biome is so dry, but it can also be caused by human activity and this can put species living in the Chaparral in danger.

locations

The Chaparral is located in little areas of the continents. The west coast of America and South America, the Cape Town area of South America, the western tip of Australia and the coast of the Mediterranean.

chaparral

biotic factors

The animals are all mainly grassland and desert types adapted to hot, dry weather, some examples are:

Puma

Wild or Bezoar Goat

San Joachin Kit Fox

abiotic factors

Average yearly precipitation: 10-20 inches
Average yearly temperature: 59 ° F.
   Highest temperatures can reach 91°F,

   Lowest temperature 37°F

Primary soil type: Serpentine soil 

 

Climatogram:

Most Chaparral plants are designed to get as much water as possible, having large, hard leaves, holding moisture. These plants are well adapted to fires and some examples are:

Olive Tree

King Protea

Manzanita

  •  

desert

locations

human interactions

People visit the Desert for tourism and recreations. Human behaviors in the Desert include mining, grazing, road building and utility projects. But because this biome is so sensitive, people have to be careful and manage actions properly to protect the biome and wildlife.

Deserts covers a fifth of the earth’s surface. There are two types of deserts; hot and dry. Most Hot and Dry Deserts are near the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn. Cold Deserts are near the Arctic part of the world.

Average yearly precipitation: 3 - 5 inches (8 - 13 cm)

Average yearly temperature: all months have average temperatures over 64° F (18° C)

Primary soil type: Aridisols and Entisols

 

Some animals that live in the hot desert are cold-blooded such as:

Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope

Bobcat

Desert Tortoise

biotic factors

desert

biotic factors

Climatogram:

Deserts plants have adaptations to survive in such a dry environment and are good at storing water. Some examples are:

Saguaro cactus

Ocotillo

Chainfruit cholla

savanna

locations

human interactions

A major environmental concern with the Savannas include poaching and hunting. Because of this, many animals are endangered and threatened. People have started grazing their cattle and goats damaging the biome, with no vegetation, turning the Savanna into a desert. Huge areas of this biome are lost to the Sahara Desert because of overgrazing and farming.

The Savanna biome can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome and covers half the surface of Africa and large areas of Australia, South America and India.

savanna

biotic factors

Savanna animals include:

African elephant
Chacma baboon
Grant’s zebra
Lion
Koala bear

abiotic factors

Average yearly precipitation: 10 to 30 inches (100 to 150 cm)
Average yearly temperature:  68° to 86° F (20° - 30° C)
Primary soil type: lithosols, lateritic soils, cracking clays, red/yellow earths, deep sands, alluvial soils

Savanna plants include:

Elephant grass
Jackalberry tree
Manketti tree

Climatogram:

rainforest

locations

human interactions

Many people are moving from cities to rainforests where they can become small scale farmers because people rely on rainforests for food and resources. But while people are in the rainforests, they are also destroying this biome. People are logging and removing trees causing deforestation. Rainforests have been converted to pasture land for cattle ranching and mining can lead to the destruction of the rainforest.

Rainforests cover less than 6% of the world’s surface. Some rainforests are found in Central and South America, Western Africa and eastern Madagascar. There are rainforests also in Southeast Asia and Australia.

rainforest

biotic factors

Rainforests are home to half the animal species on Earth and are adapted to live in this biome, some include:

Orangutan
Bengal Tiger
Toco Toucan

 

Average yearly precipitation: The yearly rainfall      ranges from 80 to 400 inches (200 to 1000 cm)
Average yearly temperature: the average    temperature in tropical rainforests ranges from 70 to  85°F (21 to 30°C)
Primary soil type: Alfisols, Oxisols and Ultisols

 

 

abiotic factors

Climatogram:

Some examples of Rainforest plants are:

Bengal Bamboo
Kapok Tree

Tualang

alpine

locations

Sherpas are natural born mountaineers living in the Himalayas. They are physically adapted to live in the Alpine. The Indains of the Andes Mountins in South America are similar to Sherpas.

human interactions

Alpine biomes are found in mountain regions such as the Andes, Alpes, and Rocky Mountains. Other Alpines can be found along the coast of South Amrica and the middle of Russia and Asia.

Average yearly precipitation: 12 inches (30 cm)

Average yearly temperature: in the summer 40 to    60°F (4.5 to 15.5°C) and in the winter it's usually  below freezing

Primary Soil Type: Gelisols and Inceptisols

abiotic factors

alpine

Animals that live in the Alpine biome are warm blooded animals who have special adaptions to survive the cold. Some include:

Snow Leopard

Alpaca

Mountain Goat

biotic factors

Climatogram:

Most of the plants in the Alpine biome are small and grow and reproduce slowly. They protect themselves from the cold by hugging close to the ground. Examples are:

Bristlecone Pine

Pygmy Bitterroot

Alpine Phacelia

works cited

"Blue Planet Biomes - World Biomes." Blue Planet Biomes - World Biomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. Available from http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/world_biomes.htm

 

"KDE Santa Barbara." KDE Santa Barbara. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. Available from http://kids.nceas.ucsb.edu/biomes/index.html